Asceticism禁欲主义

General Information一般资料

Asceticism denotes a system of practices that aims at the development of virtue and strength of character through self-denial and mortification.禁欲主义的做法表示一个系统,在美德,并通过自我否定和羞辱人格力量的发展目标。It has been an aspect of most religious traditions and of many philosophies, such as Stoicism.这一直是大多数宗教传统和许多哲学,如淡泊,一个方面。Methods of asceticism generally include exercises such as celibacy, fasting, upright posture, periods of silence, performance of unpleasant tasks, and withdrawal from human companionship.禁欲主义的方法一般包括练习,如独身,禁食,直立的姿势,沉默的时期,不愉快的工作表现,并从人陪伴撤出。 It is thought that these practices gradually free a person's spiritual element from the body's demands.据认为,这些做法逐渐摆脱身体的要求一个人的精神元素。Once control has been achieved, a harmony of the whole person is experienced.一旦控制已经实现,是整个人的和谐是有经验的。 Forms of self-mutilation, flagellation, and castration have been used in extreme practices of asceticism.自残,自虐,和阉割形式已被用在禁欲主义的极端做法。Adherents of Jainism in India sometimes even starve themselves to death in striving for sainthood.耆那教信徒在印度,有时甚至挨饿自己死亡的圣徒而奋斗。In most religious traditions some persons, individually or in groups, follow an entirely ascetic way of life; they are called ascetics.在大多数宗教传统一些人,单独或成群,生活完全遵循苦行方式,他们被称为修道。

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Bibliography 参考书目
Chadwick, Owen, ed., Western Asceticism (1958; repr. 1979); Colliander, Tito, The Way of Ascetics (1976; repr. 1985); Sheils, WJ, ed., Monks, Hermits, and the Ascetic Tradition (1985). 。查德威克,欧文主编,西方禁欲主义(1958年;再版1979年);,对修道者之路(1976年;再版1985年); Colliander,铁托。Sheils,WJ,编,僧侣,隐士,和苦行的传统(1985年)。


Asceticism禁欲主义

Catholic Information天主教信息

The word asceticism comes from the Greek askesis which means practice, bodily exercise, and more especially, atheletic training.禁欲主义这个词来自希腊askesis这意味着实践,锻炼身体,更特别是,atheletic培训。The early Christians adopted it to signify the practice of the spiritual things, or spiritual exercises performed for the purpose of acquiring the habits of virtue.早期的基督徒通过它来象征的灵物,或为收购目的的美德的习惯做法进行精神演习。At present it is not infrequently employed in an opprobrious sense, to designate the religious practices of oriental fanatics as well as those of the Christian saint, both of whom are by some placed same category.目前它是不是经常在一个可耻就业意识,指定东方狂热的宗教习俗,以及那些基督教的圣徒,他们两人的一些放在同一类别。 It is not uncommonly confounded with austerity, even by Catholics, but incorrectly.这是不寻常混淆与紧缩,甚至天主教徒,但不正确。For although the flesh is continuously lusting against the spirit, and repression and self-denial are necessary to control the animal passions, it would be an error to measure a man's virtue by the extent and character of his bodily penances.对于虽然肉体是不断垂涎反对精神,镇压和自我否定是必要的控制动物的激情,这将是一个错误,以衡量的程度和他的身体penances性格男人的美德。 External penances even in the saints, are regarded with suspicion.即使在圣人外部penances,被认为与猜疑。St. Jerome, whose proneness to austerity makes him an especially valuable authority on this point, thus writes to Celantia:圣杰罗姆,其易受紧缩使他成为在这一点上,尤其是有价值的权威,从而写入Celantia:

Be on your guard when you begin to mortify your body by abstinence and fasting, lest you imagine yourself to be perfect and a saint; for perfection does not consist in this virtue.在您的后卫当你开始腐坏的禁欲和禁食你的身体,免得你想象自己是完美的,是圣人;完美不在于这种美德。It is only a help; a disposition; a means though a fitting one, for the attainment of true perfection.它只是一个帮助,一个处置;手段虽然装修一个真正完美的实现。

Thus asceticism according to the definition of St. Jerome, is an effort to attain true perfection, penance being only an auxiliary virtue thereto.因此禁欲主义根据圣杰罗姆的定义,是为了达到真正的完美,暂时只有苦修及其辅助美德。It should be noted also that the expression "fasting and abstinence" is commonly used in Scripture and by ascetic writers as a generic term for all sorts of penance.应该指出也认为,“禁食和禁欲”一般是在圣经及作为各种苦修苦行作家使​​用的通用术语。Neither should asceticism be identified with mysticism.也不应禁欲主义与神秘主义确定。For although genuine mysticism can not exist without asceticism, the reverse is not true.对于真正的神秘主义虽然没有禁欲主义不能存在,相反是不正确的。One can be an ascetic without being a mystic.其中一个可以是一个没有被一个神秘的禁欲主义者。Asceticism is ethical; mysticism, largely intellectual.禁欲主义是道德;神秘主义,主要是知识分子。Asceticism has to do with the moral virtues; mysticism is a state of unusual prayer or contemplation.禁欲主义,是因为有道德美德;神秘主义是一种不寻常的祈祷或沉思的状态。They are distinct from each other, though mutually co-operative.他们从彼此不同,但相互合作。Moreover although asceticism is generally associated with the objectionable features of religion, and is regarded by some as one of them, it may be and is practised by those who affect to be swayed by no religious motives whatever.此外,虽然禁欲主义通常与宗教的反感的特点,是由一些认为是其中之一,它可能是由那些影响到谁没有被任何宗教动机所左右实行。

Natural Asceticism自然禁欲主义

If for personal satisfaction, or self interest, or any other merely human reason, a man aims at the acquisition of the natural virtues, for instance, temperance, patience, chastity, meekness, etc., he is, by the very fact, exercising himself in a certain degree of asceticism.如果个人的满意度,或自身利益,或任何其他人的理由仅仅是,一个人的目的是在自然美德收购,例如,节制,忍耐,贞洁,温柔等等,他是由张女士,行使本人在一定程度上的禁欲主义。 For he has entered upon a struggle with his animal nature; and if he is to achieve any measure of success, his efforts must be continuous and protracted.因为他已进入后,与他的动物性的斗争,如果他是实现任何程度的成功,他的努力必须是连续的和长期的。Nor can he exclude the practice of penance.也不能排除他的苦修做法。Indeed he will frequently inflict upon himself both bodily and mental pain.事实上,他经常会在自己身上都造成身体和精神上的痛苦。 He will not even remain within the bounds of strict necessity.他甚至不会保持在必要的严格的界限。He will punish himself severely, either to atone for failures, or to harden his powers of endurance, or to strengthen himself against furure failures.他将自己的严厉惩罚,无论是将功补过的失败,或强化其权力的耐力,或加强对furure失败的自己。He will be commonly described as an ascetic, as in fact he is.他将普遍形容为苦行,因为事实上他是。For he is endeavouring to subject the material part of his nature to the spiritual, or in other words, he is striving for natural perfection.因为他正在努力受到了他的自然材料的一部分的精神,或者说,他正在努力为自然完美。 The defect of this kind of asceticism is that, besides being prone to error in the acts it performs and the means it adopts, its motive is imperfect, or bad.这种类型的禁欲主义的缺陷在于,除了是容易出现错误的行为和它执行它采用的手段,其动机是不完善的,还是坏。It may be prompted by selfish reasons of utility, pleasure, aetheticism, ostentation, or pride.它可能会出现提示实用,愉悦,aetheticism,排场,或骄傲自私的理由。It is not to be relied upon for serious efforts and may easily give way under the strain of weariness or temptation.它不是依靠认真努力,可能很容易厌学或受诱惑应变方式。Finally, it fails to recognize that perfection consists in the acquisition of something more than natural virtue.最后,没有认识到完美的东西比自然更凭借收购组成。

Christian Asceticism基督教禁欲主义

It is prompted by the desire to do the will of God, any personal element of self-satisfaction which enters the motive vitiating it more or less.它提示的愿望做上帝的意志,任何自我满足个人元素进入动机vitiating或多或少。Its object is the subordination of the lower appetites to the dictates of right reason and the law of God, with the continued and necessary cultivation of the virtues which the Creator intended man to possess.它的对象是较低的胃口的权利理性和上帝的法律的支配从属关系,与其中创建者的意图的人拥有的美德继续和必要的培养。 Absolutely speaking, the will of God in this matter is discoverable by human reason, but it is explicitly laid down for us in the Ten Commandments, or Decalogue, which furnishes a complete code of ethical conduct.绝对地说,上帝在这个问题将是人类理性的探索,但它明确规定了我们在十诫,或十诫,这furnishes道德行为的完整代码。 Some of these commandments are positive; others, negative.这些戒律有些是积极的,其他的,消极的。The negative precepts, "thou shalt not kill", "thou shalt not commit adultery", etc., imply the repression of the lower appetites, and consequently call for penance and mortification; but they intend also, and effect, the cultivation of the virtues which are opposed to the things forbidden.负戒律,“你不可杀人”,“不可奸淫”等,意味着较低的胃口镇压,因此呼吁忏悔和羞辱,但他们打算也和效果,培育这是反对的东西禁止美德。 They develop meekness, gentleness, self-control, patience, continence, chastity, justice, honesty, brotherly love, which are positive in their character, magnanimity, liberality, etc.; while the first three which are positive in their character, "thou shall adore thy God", etc., bring into vigorous and constant exercise the virtues of faith, hope, charity, religion, reverence and prayer.他们开发温柔,温柔,自我控制,耐心,节制,贞洁,公正,诚实,友爱,这是在他们的性格,大度,慷慨等阳性;而这在他们的性格积极的前三,“你应崇拜你的上帝“等,使其充满活力和不断运动的信念,希望,慈善,宗教,崇敬和祈祷的美德。 Finally the fourth insists on obedience, respect for authority, observance of law, filial piety, and the like.最后,第四坚持服从,权威,遵守法律,尊重孝,等等。Such were the virtues practised by the mass of the people of God under the Old Law, and this may be considered as the first step in true asceticism.这些是由旧法下的人民群众实行神的美德,这可能是因为在真正的禁欲主义的第一步考虑。For apart from the many instances of exalted holiness among the ancient Hebrews, the lives of the faithful followers of the Law, that is the main body of the ordinary people must have been such as the Law enjoined and although their moral elevation might not be designated as asceticism in the present restricted and distorted meaning of the term, yet it probably appeared to the pagan world of those times very much as exalted virtue does to the world today.因为除了崇高圣洁的古代希伯来人之间的许多情况下,对法律的忠实追随者,那就是老百姓的生活的主体必须是如责成法,虽然他们的道德海拔可能不会指定因为在目前的限制和扭曲的禁欲主义一词的含义,但它可能出现在那些时代异教的世界非常的崇高美德确实给当今世界。 Even the works of penance to which they were subjected in the many fasts and abstinences, as well as the requirements of their ceremonial observances were much more severe than those imposed up the Christians who succeeded them.即使是苦修哪个他们在许多斋戒和abstinences,以及他们的礼仪庆祝活动的要求,受到工程远远超过了规定的基督徒谁成功的人士的严重。

In the New Dispensation the binding force of the Commandments continued, but the practice of virtue took on another aspect, in as much as the dominant motive presented to man for the service of God was not fear, but love, though fear was no means eliminated.在新的豁免的戒律的约束力不断,但凭借在其他方面的实践了在尽可能的主导动机提出了为神服务的人不是害怕,而是爱,虽然没有办法消除恐惧。 God was to be the Lord indeed, but He was at the same time the Father and men were His children.上帝是上帝确实,但他是在同一时间,他的父亲和男性儿童。Again, because of this sonship the love of one's neighbour ascended to higher plane.同样,由于这sonship的一个人的邻居爱登上更高的飞机。The "neighbour" of the Jew was one of the chosen people, and even of him rigorous justice was to be exacted; it was an eye for an eye and tooth for a tooth.而“邻居”的犹太人是所选择的人之一,他甚至是要严格公正付出,这是一种以眼和眼以牙还牙。In the Christian dispensation the neighbour is not only one of the true faith, but the schismatic, the outcast, and the pagan.在基督教福音邻居不仅是真正的信仰之一,但分裂的弃儿,和异教徒。Love is extended even to one's enemies, and we are bidden to pray for, and to do good to them who revile and persecute us.爱是延长,甚至一个人的敌人,我们bidden祈祷,并做好他们谁咒骂和迫害我们。This supernatural love for even the vilest and most repellent representatives of humanity constitutes one of the distinctive marks of Christian asceticism.这即使是人类最卑鄙,最驱蚊代表超自然的爱构成了基督教禁欲主义的鲜明标志之一。Moreover, the more extended and luminous revelation of Divine things, coupled with the greater abundance of spiritual assistance conferred chiefly through the instrumentality of the sacraments, make practice of virtue easier and more attractive at the same time more elevated, generous, intense and enduring, while the universality of Christianity lifts the practice of asceticism out of the narrow limitations of being the exclusive privilege of a single race into a common possession of all nations of the earth.此外,神圣的东西更延伸和发光的启示,在加上丰富的精神赋予更大的援助主要是通过圣礼工具性,使美德的实践更容易,同时更升高,大方,强烈和持久的吸引力,而基督教普遍性升降机的被一个变成了​​地球上所有国家的共同占有单一种族的独家特权限制在狭窄的禁欲主义的做法。 The Acts of the Apostles show the transformation immediately effected among devout Jews who formed the first communities of Christians.在使徒行传中立即显示谁形成基督徒的虔诚的犹太人社区的第一个生效的改造。 That new and elevated form of virtue has remained in the Church ever since.凭借这一新的形式和高架一直在教会至今。

Wherever the Church has been allowed to exert her influence we find virtue of the highest order among her people.只要教会已被允许施加自己的影响,我们发现她的人当中最高阶的美德。Even among those whom the world regards as simple and ignorant there are most amazing perceptions of spiritual truths, intense love of God and of all that relates to Him, sometimes remarkable habits of prayer, purity of life both in individuals and in families, heroic patience in submitting to poverty, bodily suffering, and persecution, magnanimity in forgiving injury, tender solicitute for the poor and afflicted, though they themselves may be almost in the same condition; and what most characteristic of all, a complete absence of envy of the rich and powerful and a generally undisturbed contentment and happiness in their own lot; while similar results are achieved among the wealthy and great, though not to the same extent.即使是那些被世界视为简单和无知的看法有最惊人的精神真理,上帝和所有涉及到他强烈的爱,祈祷有时显着的习惯,无论是在个人生活的纯洁性和家庭中,英勇的耐心在提交给贫困,身体痛苦和迫害,在宽容的伤害,为穷人和受灾招标solicitute大度,虽然他们本身可能几乎在相同的条件下,什么最全的特点,一个令人羡慕的丰富完整的情况下强大和普遍原状知足和很多自己的幸福;而类似的结果都属于富裕和伟大的,虽然不是在同样程度上实现。 In a word, there is developed an attitude of soul so much at variance with the principles and methods generally obtaining in the pagan world that, from the beginning, and indeed throughout, under the Old Law, it was commonly described and denounced as folly.总之,在有发展差异的灵魂态度这么多的原则和一般在异教世界,从一开始,甚至贯穿始终,根据旧法,它是常见的描述和谴责取得愚蠢的方法。 It might be classified as very lofty asceticism if its practice were not so common, and if the conditions of poverty and suffering in which these virtues are most frequently practised were not the result of physical or social necessity.它可能被列为非常崇高的禁欲主义的做法,如果不是那么普遍,如果贫困和痛苦中,这些美德是最经常的条件不是物质或社会需要的结果。 But even if these conditions are not voluntary, the patient and uncomplaining acceptance of them constitutes a very noble kind of spirituality which easily develops into one of a higher kind and may be designated its third New Law we have not merely the reaffirmation of the precepts of the Old, but also the teachings and example of Christ Who, besides requiring obedience to the Commandments, continually appeals to His followers for proofs of personal affection and a closer imitation of His life than is possible by the mere fulfilment of the Law.但即使这些条件不自愿的,他们无怨病人接受构成了一种高尚的精神非常容易进入一个更高的其中一种可能是指定的开发和新税法第三,我们不只是重申的戒律旧的,但也和基督的教义例如谁,除了要求服从诫命,不断呼吁对个人感情的证据和他的生活更接近模仿可能比由法律仅仅履行他的追随者。 The motives and the manner of this imitation are laid down in the Gospel, which as the basis taken by ascetical writers for their instructions.的动机和这种模仿的方式规定了福音,这对他们的指示所采取的苦修作家的基础。This imitation of Christ generally proceeds along three main lines, viz.: mortification of the senses, unworldliness, and detachment from family ties.这种模仿基督一般所得沿三条主线,即:感官,unworldliness,从家庭关系支队屈辱。

It is here especially that asceticism comes in for censure on the part of its opponents.正是在这里尤其是禁欲主义来在对对手的一部分的责难。Mortification, unworldliness, and detachment are particularly obnoxious to them.屈辱,unworldliness和支队特别讨厌他们。But in answer to their objection it will be sufficient to note that condemnations of such practices or aspirations must fall on Holy Scripture also, for it gives a distinct warrant for all three.但在回答他们的反对将充分地注意到,这种做法的谴责或诉求必须在圣经也下降,因为它给出了三个不同的手令。Thus we have, as regards mortification, the words of St. Paul, who says: "I chastise my body and bring it into subjection: lest perhaps when I have preached to others I myself should be castaway" (1 Corinthians 9:27); while Our Lord Himself says: "He that taketh not up his cross, and followeth Me, is not worthy of Me" (Matthew 10:38).因此,我们有,至于屈辱,圣保罗,谁说的话:“我责备我的身体并把它纳入隶属:否则也许当我传福音给别人我自己应该是​​被抛弃的”(林前9:27) ;而我们的主自己说:“他是夺不起来他的十字架,和followeth我,是不是我值得”(马太福音10:38)。Commending unworldliness, we have: "My kingdom is not of this world" (John 18:36); approving detachment, there is the text, not to cite others: "if any man come to Me and hate not his father, and mother, and wife, and children, and brethren and sisters, yea, and his own life also, he cannot be My disciple" (Luke 14:26).赞扬unworldliness,我们有:“我的国不属这世界”(约翰福音18:36);审批支队,有文字,而不是举他人:“如果任何人到我这里来,恨不是他的父亲和母亲和妻子,孩子,兄弟姐妹,是啊,和他自己的性命,他不能作我的门徒“(路加福音14:26)。 It is scarcely necessary to note however, that the word "hate" is not to be taken in its strict sense, but only as indicating a greater love for God than for all things together.这是几乎要注意然而,这个词“恨”是不是要在严格意义上考虑,而只是为表明对神大于所有东西放在一起爱。Such is the general scheme of this higher order of asceticism.这就是这种禁欲主义高阶总体方案。

The character of this asceticism is determined by its motive.这种禁欲主义性质,是由它的动机。In the first place a man may serve God in such a way that he is willing to make any sacrifice rather than commit a grievous sin.首先一个人可以服务于这样一种方式,他愿意作出任何牺牲,而不是犯了严重罪神。This disposition of soul, which is the lowest in the spiritual life, is necessary for salvation.这种灵魂,这是最低的精神生活,处置是必要的救赎。Again, he may be willing to make such sacrifices rather than offend God by venial sin.同样,他可能愿意作出这种牺牲,而不是由venial单得罪神。Lastly he may, when this no question of sin at all, be eager to do whatever will make his life harmonize with that of Christ.最后他可能,当这种没有罪的问题可言,急于做任何会使他的生命与基督的协调。It is this last motive which the highest kind of asceticism adopts.正是这种最后的禁欲主义动机,采用最高的一种。These three stages are called by St. Ignatius "the three degrees of humility", for the reason that they are the three steps in the elimination of self, and consequently three great advances towards union with God, who enters the soul in proportion as self is expelled.这三个阶段是所谓的圣依纳爵“谦逊的三度”,理由是他们在自我淘汰的三个步骤,从而实现三大进步联盟与上帝,谁进入比例为自我的灵魂被驱逐出境。 It is the spiritual state of St. Paul speaks when he says: "And I live, now not I ; but Christ liveth in me" (Galatians 2:20).它是圣保罗精神状态说话时,他说:“和我住,现在不是我,而是基督在我里面活着”(加拉太书2:20)。 Other ascetic writers describe them as states or conditions of the beginners the proficient and the perfect.其他苦行作家形容为国家或初学者熟练和完善的条件。They are not, however, to be considered chronologically distinct; as if the perfect man had nothing to do with the methods of the beginner, or vice versa.他们都没有,但是,要考虑时间顺序不同,仿佛是完美的人与事不关己的初学者的方法,反之亦然。"The building of the spiritual edifice", says Scaramelli, "is simultaneous in all its parts. The roof is stretched while the foundations are being laid. "Hence the perfect man, even with his sublime motive of imitation, has always need of the fear of damnation, in order that, as St. Ignatius expresses it, if ever the love of God grows cold, the fear of Hell may rekindle it again.他说:“精神大厦的建设”,说Scaramelli“,是在其所有部件同时,屋顶被拉伸而被奠定了基础。”因此,完美的人,即使他的模仿崇高的动机,也总是需要的恐惧的诅咒,为了的是,它作为圣依纳爵表示,如果过了神的爱变寒,地狱的恐惧可能重燃一遍。 On the other hand, the beginner who has broken with mortal sin has already started in his growth to perfect charity.在另一方面,谁拥有的弥天大罪打破初学者已经开始在他的成长,完善慈善机构。These states are also described as the purgative, illuminative, and unitive ways.这些国家也称为泻下,启蒙和unitive方式。 It is evident that the practice of unworldliness, of detachment from family and other ties, must be or the greatest number not the actual performance of those things, but only the serious disposition or readiness to make such sacrifices, in case God should require them, which, as a matter of fact in their case, He does not.很明显,对unworldliness实践中,从家庭和其他关系脱离,必须或最大数量不是这些东西的实际表现,但只有严肃处置或愿意作出这种牺牲,如果上帝应该要求他们,其中,由于在他们的案件事实上,他没有。 They are merely affective, and not effective, but none the less they constitute a very sublime kind of spirituality.他们只是情感,而不是有效的,但没有少,他们构成了一种崇高的精神非常。Sublime as it is, there are many examples of it in the Church, nor is it the exclusive possession of those who have abandoned the world or are about to do so, but it is the possession also of many whom necessity compels to live in the world, married as well as single, of those who are in the enjoyment of honour and wealth and of responsibility as well as of those who are in opposite conditions.崇高,因为它是有它的许多例子在教会,也不是那些谁已经放弃了世界或即将做的独家占有,但它是藏也有不少人的必要性,迫使居住在世界,结婚以及单,这些谁在荣誉和财富和责任,以及谁在对面的那些条件都享受的。 They cannot effectively realize their desires or aspirations but their affections take that direction.他们无法有效地实现自己的愿望或诉求,但他们的情感需要的方向发展。Thus there are multitudes of men and women who though living in the world are not of it, who have no liking or taste for worldly display, though often compelled by their position, social or otherwise, to assume it, who avoid worldly advancement or honour not out of pusillanimity, but out of unconcern, or contempt, or knowledge of its danger; who, with opportunities for pleasure, practise penance, sometimes of the most rigorous character who would willingly, if it were possible, give up their lives to works of charity or devotion, who love the poor and dispense alms to the extent of, and even beyond, their means, who have strong attraction for prayer, and who withdraw from the world when it is possible for the meditation of divine things; who frequent the sacraments assiduously; who are the soul of every undertaking for the good of their fellow -men and the glory of God; and whose dominant preoccupation in the advancement of the interest of God and the Church.因此,有男性和女性谁虽然活在世上是不是芸芸众生,谁不喜欢或显示为世俗的味道,但往往被自己的立场,社会或其他方式,被迫承担它,谁避免世俗地位或荣誉不是出于pusillanimity,而是出于漠不关心,或蔑视,或它的危险性的认识;谁,与为乐,实践苦修有时最严格的字符谁就会心甘情愿,如果有可能,放弃自己生命的作品,机会慈善或奉献,谁爱施舍给穷人和分配的程度,甚至超越,他们的手段,谁祈祷强大​​的吸引力,谁退出世界时,是有可能的神圣事物沉思,谁频繁圣礼刻苦钻研,谁是每个为他们的同胞男性好事业,神的荣耀的灵魂,而其主要专注在上帝和教会的利益地位。 Bishops and priests especially enter into this category.主教和司铎,尤其是进入这一类。Even the poor and humble, who, having nothing to give, yet would give if they had any possessions, may be classed among such servants of Christ.即使是贫困和卑微,谁,有没有给,但会给,如果他们有任何财产,可能是其中的基督仆人归类等。

That this asceticism is not only attainable but attained by laymen serves to bring out the truth which is sometimes lost sight of, viz., that the practice of perfection is not restricted to the religious state.本禁欲主义不仅是可以实现的,而是由外行达到旨在带出真理,有时失去了,即视线,这对完美的做法是不局限于宗教的国家。 In fact, though one may live in the state of perfection, that is, be a member of a religious order, he may be surpassed in perfection by a layman in the world.事实上,尽管人们可以生活在完美的状态,也就是说,是一个宗教秩序的成员,他可能会超越完美的在世界上的门外汉。But to reduce these sublime dispositions to actual practice, to make them not only affective but effective to realize what Christ meant when, after having told the multitude on the Mount of the blessedness of poverty of spirit, He said to the Apostles, "Blessed are you who are poor", and to reproduce also the other virtues of Christ and the Apostles, the Church has established a life of actual poverty, chastity, and obedience.但是,为了减少这些崇高的处置,以实际的做法,使他们不仅情感而有效的实现基督的意思的时候,告诉后对幸福的精神贫困山千头万绪,他说,使徒,“有福你们谁是穷人“,并重现也是基督和使徒的其他美德,教会建立了实际的贫穷,贞洁和服从的生活。 For that purpose, it has founded religious orders, thus enabling those who are desirous and able to practise this higher order of asceticism, to do so with greater facility and in greater security.为此,它已成立宗教组织,从而使那些谁是渴望,并能实践中高阶的禁欲主义,做更大的设施和更高的安全性等。

Monastic or Religious Asceticism寺院或宗教禁欲主义

The establishment of religious orders was not the result of any sudden or mandatory legislation by the Church.对宗教命令的建立是不是任何由教会突然或强制性立法的结果。On the contrary, the germs of religious life were implanted in it by Christ Himself from the very beginning.相反,宗教生活的细菌被植入由基督自己从一开始就在其中。For in the Gospel we have repeated invitations to follow the evangelical counsels.对于在福音我们多次邀请跟随福音律师。 Hence in the first days of the Church, we find that particular kind of asceticism widely practised which later developed into the form adopted by the Religious Orders.因此,在教会的头几天,我们发现,禁欲主义特别是一种广泛实行,后来到由宗教命令采取的形式发展。In the "History of the Roman Breviary" by Batiffol (tr. Bayley), 15, we read: "In proportion as the Church in extending itself had grown colder, there had taken place within its bosom a drawing together of those souls which were possessed of the greatest zeal and fervour. These consisted of men and women, alike, living in the world without severing themselves from the ties and obligations of ordinary life, yet binding themselves by private vow or public profession to live in chastity all their life, to fast all the week, to spend their days in prayer. They were called in Syria Monazonites and Parthenae, ascetics and virgins. They formed, as it were, a third order, a confraternity. In the first half of the fourth century, we find these associations of ascetics and virgins established in all the great Churches of the East, at Alexandria, Jerusalem, Antioch, Edessa."在由Batiffol(编辑部贝利),15“的罗马祈祷书史”中,我们读到:在为教会的比例“在扩大本身已增长偏冷,有采取了在其胸前画在一起放置其中的灵魂最伟大的热情和激情拥有,这包括男人和女人,都生活在世界上从没有断绝关系和自己的平凡生活的义务,但具有约束力的私人或公共职业发誓自己住在贞节所有的生活,快速所有的一周,在祈祷中度过他们的日子,他们在叙利亚Monazonites和Parthenae,修道和处女叫他们形成的,因为它是,在第四世纪上半叶的第三秩序,帮会,我们找到所有的修道者和伟大的东方教会在亚历山大,耶路撒冷,安提阿,埃德萨,这些协会成立处女。“ Men like Athanasius, Clement of Alexandria, John Chrysostom, and others wrote and legislated for them.像亚他那修,亚历山大,约翰金口克莱门特和其他男人写了并且为他们立法。They had a special place in the church services and it is noteworthy also that at Antioch "the ascetics there formed the main body of the Nicene or orthodox party".他们在教会服务的特殊的地方,值得注意的是,在安提阿也“的修道者那里形成了尼西亚或正统党的主体”。But "dating from the reign of Theodosius and the time when Catholicism became the social religion of the world, comes the movement when a deep cleavage in religious society manifested itself. These ascetics and virgins, who, till now, have mingled with the common body of the faithful, abandon the world and go forth into the wilderness. The Church of the multitude is no longer a sufficiently holy city for these pure ones; they go forth to build in the desert the Jerusalem which they crave."但是,“从狄奥多西统治和天主教的时候成为了世界社会宗教约会,自带运动时,在宗教社会深深的乳沟显现,这些修道者和处女,谁,到目前为止,已与共同体内混到忠实,放弃世界,进入旷野中提出的许多教会的不再是单纯的为这些充分圣城;他们出去在沙漠建立的耶路撒冷,他们渴望“。 (Cf. Duchesne, Christian Worship.)(见杜申,基督教崇拜。)

The time when these foundations began is said by Batiffol to be "when Catholicism became the social religion".这些基础的时候开始是由Batiffol说是“当天主教成为社会的宗教”。Previous to that, with their pagan surroundings, such establishments would have been out of the question.在此之前,与他们的异教徒的环境,这些场所将是无从谈起。The instinct for monastic institutions was there, but its realization was delayed.对于寺院机构的本能在那里,但它的实现被推迟。 Those who enter a religious order take the three vows of poverty, chastity, and obedience, which are considered here only in as much as they differentiate a particular kind of asceticism from other forms.这些谁进入一个宗教秩序采取的三个誓言贫穷,贞洁,服从,这被认为只有在这里,因为他们尽可能多的区别于其他形式的禁欲主义的一种具体形式。 They are called substantial vows because they are the basis of a permanent and fixed condition or state of life, and affect, modify, determine, and direct the whole attitude of one who is bound by them in his relations to the world and to God.他们被称为实质性的誓言,因为他们是一个永久性的和固定的状况或生活状态的基础上,与影响,修改,确定和直接的一个谁必将在他的关系由他们向整个世界和上帝的态度。 They constitute a mode of existence which has no other purpose than that some of these penitents may have the attainment of the highest spiritual perfection.他们构成了生存模式,没有其他目的以外,这些悔罪一些可能具有的最高精神完美的实现。Being perpetual, they ensure permanence in practice of virtue and prevent it from being intermittent and sporadic; being an absolute, free, (irrevocable), and complete surrender of the most precious possessions of man, their fulfilment creates a spirituality, or a species of asceticism, of the most heroic character.作为永久的,他们保证在实践中永恒的美德和防止间歇性和零星它,作为一个绝对的自由,(不可撤销),和人类最宝贵的财富完全投降,他们的实现创建了一个灵性,或种禁欲主义,最英勇的性格。 Indeed it is inconceivable what more one can offer to God, or how these virtues of poverty, chastity, and obedience can be exercised in a higher degree.事实上,这是不可思议的还有什么可以提供给上帝,或如何贫穷,贞洁,服从这些美德,可以在更高的程度行使。That the observance of these vows is a reproduction of the manner of life of Christ and the Apostles, and has, as a consequence, given countless saints to the Church, is a sufficient answer to the accusation that the obligations they impose are degrading, inhuman, and cruel, a reproach often urged against them. ,这些遵守誓言是对基督和使徒的方式再现生活,并且已经作为一个后果,给无数圣徒教会,是一个足够的答案,指责他们的义务强加正在退化,不人道和残忍,一非议往往要求对他们。

While concurring in the practice of the same fundamental virtues, the religious bodies are differentiate from one another by the particular object which prompted their separate formation, namely, some need of the Church, some new movement which had to be combated, some spiritual or corporal aid that had to be brought to mankind, etc. From this there resulted that besides the observance of the three main virtues of poverty, chastity, and obedience some special virtue is cultivated by each.而在相同的基本美德practice赞同,宗教团体是彼此differentiate由特定的对象,促使他们分开的形成,即,一些教会的需要,一些新的运动从而不得不予以打击,一些精神或肉体援助了必须从这个给人类带来了,等有结果,除了三个贫穷,贞洁,服从主美德遵守一些特殊的优点是每个栽培。 Thus the beginning of Christianity, when labour was considered a badge of slavery, the great, the learned, the noble, as well as the humble, the ignorant, and the poor, filled the deserts of Egypt and suppoted themselves by manual labour, their withdrawal from the world being also a protest against the corruption of paganism.因此,基督教开始,当劳工被认为是一个奴隶制的徽章,伟大的,学到的,高贵的,以及谦逊,无知,可怜,填补了埃及的沙漠和suppoted由体力劳动自己,从世界正在撤离也反对异教腐败抗议。 After the destruction of the Roman Empire the Benedictines taught the barbarians agriculture, the arts, letters, architecture, etc., while inculcating the virtues of Christianity; the poverty of the Fransciscans was a condemation of the luxury and extravagance of the age in which they originated; the need of protecting the faithful from heresy gave rise to the Order of Preachers; rebellion against authority and defection from the Pope called for special emphasis on obedience and loyalty to Holy See by the Society of Jesus, the defence the Holy Land created the Military Orders; redemption of captives, the care of the sick and poor, education, missionary work, etc. all called into existence an immense variety of congregations, whose energies were directed along one special line of good works, with the consequent development to an unusual degree of the virtues which were needed to attain that special end.之后,罗马帝国毁灭本笃教野蛮人农业,艺术,信件,建筑等,同时灌输基督教的美德;的Fransciscans贫困是一个豪华和奢侈的年龄在他们condemation起源;保护从异端信徒需要给人们带来的传教士秩序;反对教皇权威,从上服从和忠诚,神圣特别强调所谓见耶稣会倒戈起义,辩护圣地创造了军令;赎回的俘虏,对病人和穷人,教育,宣教工作,护理等所有叫进了教会的存在千差万别,其正沿着一个良好的工作专线定向能量,与随之而来的发展到不寻常的程度有哪些需要特别月底达到的美德。 Meantime, the rules, covering every detail and every moment of their daily lives, called for the practice of all the other virtues.同时,规则,涵盖每一个细节,每一个日常生活的时刻,呼吁所有其他美德的做法。

In some of the orders the rules make no mention of corporal penance at all, leaving that to individual devotion; in others great austerity is prescribed but excess is provided against both by the fact the rules have been subjected to pontifical approval and because superiors can grant exceptions.在订单的规则使一些没有下士苦修只字不提,留下的个人奉献,在其他大的紧缩超出订明,但所提供的规则已经受到教皇批准的事实,一方面是因为对上级可以授予例外。 That such penitential practices produce morbid and gloomy characters is absurd to those who know the lightheartedness that prevails in strict religious communities; that they are injurious to health and abbreviate life cannot be seriously maintained in view the remarkable longevity noted among the members of very austere orders.这种悔罪行为产生病态的,阴郁的字符是荒谬的那些谁知道lightheartedness,在严格的宗教社区盛行;他们是有害健康和缩写生活不能认真查看了显着长寿之间的非常严峻的订单成员指出维护。 It is true the lives of the saints we meet with some very extraordinary and apparently extravagant mortifications; but in the first place, what is extraordinary, extravagant, and severe in one generation may not be so in another which is ruder and more inured to hardship.这是真正的圣人,我们有一些非常特殊,显然奢侈mortifications满足的生活,但摆在首位,什么是非凡的,奢华,并在一代人严重的可能无法在另一种是粗鲁,更习惯于这样的困难。 Again, they are not proposed for imitation, nor that the biographer was not exaggerating, or describing as continual what was only occasional; and on the other hand it is not forbidden to suppose that some of the penitents may have been prompted by the Spirit of God to make themselves atoning victims for the sins of others.再次,他们不建议模仿,也不是说没有夸张的传记作者,或描述为持续以前只是偶尔和另一方面是不禁止假设的悔罪者有些可能已经由圣灵提示神使自己赎罪为别人的罪的受害者。 Besides it must not be forgotten that these practices went hand to hand with the cultivation of the sublimest virtues, that they were for the most part performed in secret, and in no case for ostentation and display.除了绝不能忘记的是,这些做法又与sublimest美德的培养,他们在秘密进行的大部分是手的手,在没有排场和显示的情况。 But even if there was abuse, the Church is not responsible for the aberrations of individuals, nor does her teaching become wrong if misunderstood or misapplied, as might have been done inadvertently or unconsciously, even by the holiest of her children, in the exaggerated use of corporal penance.但即使有虐待,教会不是为了个人的像差负责,也没有她的教学成为错误的,如果误解或误用,因为不经意间可能已经完成或不自觉地,甚至由她的子女中最神圣的夸张使用,苦修的下士。 The virtue of prudence is a part of asceticism.谨慎的美德是一个禁欲主义的一部分。The reformation or abolition of certain orders because of corruption only emphasizes the truth that monastic asceticism means an organized effort to attain perfection.在改造或因腐败取消某些命令只强调真理寺院的禁欲主义是指一种有组织的努力,圆满。If that purpose is kept in view, the order continues to exist; if it ceases to be ascetic in its life, it is abolished.如果目的是在密切注视,秩序继续存在,如果它不再是在其生命禁欲主义,这是取消。

A common accusation against religious asceticism is that it is synonymous with idleness.一个反对宗教禁欲主义的共同指责是,它与闲置的代名词。Such a charge ignores all past and contemporary history.这样的收费忽略所有过去和当代的历史。It was the ascetic monks who virtually created our present civilizations by teaching the barbarian tribes the value and dignity of manual labour; by training them in the mechanical arts, in agriculture, in architecture, etc.; by reclaiming swamps and forests, and forming industrial centres from which great cities developed, not to speak of the institutions of learning which they everywhere established.实际上这是谁创造的教学野蛮部落的价值和尊严的体力劳动我们现在的文明苦修僧人,通过培训,他们的艺术在农业机械,建筑等;通过回收沼泽和森林,并形成产业中心从哪个伟大的城市发展,更遑论学习他们到处设立的机构。 Omitting the especially prominent instances now before the world, namely the vast amount of industry and toil implied in the establishment, organization, management, and support of tens of thousands of asylums, hospitals, refuges, and schools in civilized lands by men and women who are wearing themselves out in labouring for the good of humanity, there are hundreds of thousands of men and women bound by vows and practising religious asceticism who, without any compensation to themselves except the supernatural one of sacrificing themselves for others, are at the present moment labouring among savage tribes all over the world, teaching them to build houses, till their fields, work at trades, care for their families while at the same time imparting to them human learning in the drudgery of schools, and leading them in the way of salvation.省略现在世人面前,特别是突出的实例,即大量的行业和辛劳的建立暗示,组织,管理和数以万计的收容所,医院,避难所,以及男性和女性在文明学校支持谁的土地穿着的,为人类自己出良好的劳动,也有男人和约束誓言和实践宗教的禁欲主义妇女谁,但没有任何以牺牲自己为他人超自然之一,补偿自己在目前来说是几十万劳动在所有世界各地的野蛮部落,教他们盖房子,直到他们的领域,在各行各业工作,照顾家庭,而在同一时间向他们传授在学校苦差事人类学习,带领他们的方式得救。 Idleness and asceticism are absolutely incompatible with each other, and the monastic institution where idleness prevails has already lost its asceticism and, if not swept away by some special upheaval, will be abolished by ecclesiastical legislation.懒惰和禁欲主义是绝对互不兼容,以及寺院的机构里无所事事盛行禁欲主义已经失去了它,如果不通过一些特殊的动荡席卷而去,将被教会立法取消。 The precept which St. Paul laid down for ordinary Christians has always been a fundamental principle of genuine asceticism: "If any man will not work, neither let him eat" (2 Thessalonians 3:10).其中圣保罗的信条奠定了普通基督徒一直是真正的禁欲主义的基本原则:“如果任何人不会工作,既不让他吃”(帖后3:10)。 But, as a matter of fact, the Church has seldom had to resort to such a drastic measure as destruction.但是,作为一个事实上,教会已很少不得不求助于这样一个破坏釜底抽薪。She has easily reformed the religious orders which, while giving her many of her most learned men and illustrious saints, have been ever a source of pride because of the stupendous work they have achieved, not only for the honour of God and the advancement of the Church, but in uplifting; humanity leading it in the ways of virtue and holiness, and establishing institutions of benevolence and charity for every species of human suffering and sorrow.她轻松地改革了宗教命令,不仅为神的荣誉和进步的,同时也让她和她最杰出的圣人学问的人,很多已经过了惊人的工作,因为他们已经取得了骄傲,教会,但令人振奋;人类的美德领导和圣洁的方法是,建立了仁和对人类的痛苦和悲伤每一个物种的慈善机构。

In apparent contradiction with the assertion that the highest expression of asceticism is to be found in monastic life is the fact that monasticism not only exists in the pagan religions of India, but is associated with great moral depravity.在这样的断言的禁欲主义的最高表现是要在寺院生活中发现明显的矛盾是,修道不仅存在于印度的异教,但与伟大的道德堕落有关。 Attempts have been made to show that these Hindu institutions are merely travesties of Christian monasteries, probably those of the old Nestorians, or the result of primitive Christian traditions.尝试已表明,这些机构只是印度教,基督教修道院滑稽,也许是那些老景教,或原始基督教传统的结果。But neither of these suppositions can be accepted.但这些推测都不能接受。For, although, doubtless, Indian monasticism in the course of ages borrowed some of its practices from Nestorianism, the fact is that it existed before the Coming of Christ.因为,虽然,毫无疑问,在印度修道借来的年龄当然从景教的一些做法,实际上是它在基督即将存在。The explanation of it is that it is nothing else than the outcome of the natural religious instinct of man to withdraw from the world for meditation, prayer, and spiritual improvement instances of which might be cited among the ancient Greeks and Hebrews, and among ourselves in the Brook Farm and other American experiments.它的解释是,它无非是人的自然本能的结果别的宗教从世界撤回冥想,祈祷和精神的改善可能是其中的古希腊人和希伯来列举实例,在我们之间溪农场和其他美国实验。

But they were merely imitations or the promptings of a natural instinct, it only goes to show, in the first place, that monastic seclusion is not unnatural to man; and secondly, that some Divinely constituted authority is new to guide this natural propensity and to prevent it from falling into those extravagances to which religious enthusiasm is prone.但他们只是模仿或自然本能promptings,它只是表明,摆在首位,这是不自然的隐居修道到人;第二,一些受神组成的权力机构是新来引导这种自然倾向,并防止把那些奢侈哪个宗教的热情很容易掉落。 In other words, there must be an acknowledged and absolute spiritual power to legislate for it along the lines of truth and virtue, to censure and condemn and punish what is wrong in individuals and associations; a power able to determine infallibly what is morally right and wrong.换句话说,必须有一个公认的和绝对的精神动力,以立法为它沿真理和美德的线条,谴责并谴责和惩罚什么是错的个人和团体,一个权力能够决定什么是道德上是绝对无误的权利,错了。 The Catholic church alone claims that power.天主教会重叠索赔的权力。It has always recognized the ascetic instinct in man, has approved associations for the cultivation of religious perfection, has laid down minute rules for their guidance, has always exercised the strictest surveillance over them, and has never hesitated to abolish them when they were intended.它始终承认人的苦行的本能,已批准的宗教组织完善的培养,已经奠定了他们的指导分钟的规则,一直对他们实行严格的监督,也从未犹豫取消他们时,他们的目的。 Moreover, as genuine asceticism does not rest satisfied with natural, but aims at supernatural, perfection, and as the supernatural in the New Dispensation is in the guardianship of the Catholic Church, under its guidance alone is asceticism secure.此外,真正的禁欲主义不休息自然感到满意,但超自然的,完美的目标,并作为新的豁免超自然的天主教会监护权,在其指导下单是禁欲主义的安全。

Jewish Asceticism犹太禁欲主义

Besides the ordinary observers of the Old Law, we have the great Hebrew saints and prophets whose deeds are recorded in the Holy Bible.除了旧法的普通观察员,我们有伟大的圣人和先知的希伯来语在圣经记载事迹。They were ascetics who practised the loftiest virtue, who were adorned with remarkable spiritual gifts, and consecrated themselves to the service of God and their fellow-men.他们是修道者实行谁最崇高的美德,谁是显着的精神礼品装饰,并奉献自己的神和他们的同胞男性服务。As to the Schools of the Prophets, whatever they may have been, it is admitted that one of the objects intended was the practice of virtue, and in that respect they may be regarded as schools of asceticism.至于先知,不管他们可能已经在学校,这是承认,预期的对象之一是美德的实践,并在这方面他们可能会认为,作为学校的禁欲主义。 The Nazarites were men who consecrated themselves by a perpetual or temporary vow to abstain all the days of their Nazariteship, that is, during their separation from the rest of the people, from the use of wine and all other intoxicating drink, from vinegar formed from wine or strong drink, from any liquor of grapes, from grapes dried or fresh, and indeed from the use of anything produced from the vine.谁的Nazarites为男性奉献一个永久或临时发誓放弃所有的日子他们Nazariteship,那就是在他们从剩下的人分离的葡​​萄酒和其他所有醉人的饮料使用,从醋,形成了从自己葡萄酒或烈酒,任何从干酒的葡萄或新鲜的,而事实上从从藤葡萄生产的任何使用。 Other observances which were of obligation, such as letting the hair grow, avoiding defilement, etc., were ceremonial rather than ascetic.其他纪念活动的义务人,如让头发生长,避免污辱,等等,均不是苦行僧仪式。 The Nazarites were exclusively men, and there is said to be no instance in the Old Testamant of a female Nazarite.该Nazarites是专男性,有说是在一个女拿细耳旧Testamant没有实例。They were a class of persons "holy to the Lord" in a special sense, and made their vow of abstinence an example of self-denial and moderation and a protest against the indulgent habits of the Chanaanites which were invading the people of Israel.他们是一类人“归耶和华为圣”在一个特殊的意义,并提出了自己的禁欲誓言的自我否定和克制,并针对其中的Chanaanites入侵的以色列人民的放纵的习惯抗议的例子。 Samson and Samuel were consecrated by their mothers to this kind of life.参孙和萨穆埃尔都奉献了自己的母亲这样的生活。It is not certain that they lived apart in distinct communities; like the Sons of the Prophets, though there is an instance of three hundred of them being found together at the same time.这是不能肯定他们住在不同的社区外,像先知的儿子,尽管有一个被发现他们三人在同一时间一起百实例。

The Rechabites该Rechabites

The Rechabites, whom, however, Josephus does not mention, appear to have been a normal tribe, distinguished chiefly by their abstinence from wine, though it is not certain that other intoxicants were forbidden, or that such abstinence was prompted by motives of penance.该Rechabites,谁,但是,约瑟夫没有提及,似乎是一个正常的部落,他们的区别主要是从葡萄酒禁欲,虽然不能肯定它是被禁止的其他麻醉品,或这种禁欲苦修的动机是由提示。 It may have been merely to prevent the culture of the vine in order to keep them in their normadic state, the better to escape corruption from their Chanaanitish neighbours.它可能已被只是为了防止葡萄文化,以保持他们在normadic状态,更好地逃离他们的Chanaanitish邻居腐败。 There were also Essenes who lived a communal life, possessed no individual property, affected an extreme simplicity in diet and dress, and lived apart from great cities to preserve themselves from contamination.也有爱色尼谁过着群体生活,拥有任何个人财产,受影响的在饮食和穿着极其简单,过伟大的城市除了保留自己不受污染。 Some of them abjured marriage.他们有的发誓放弃婚姻。They devoted themselves to the sick, and for that purpose made a special study of the curative qualities of herbs and boasted of possessing medical recipes handed down from Solomon.他们潜心病人,并为此提出了草药的疗效素质具有特殊的研究和所罗门流传下来的医疗配方吹嘘。Hence their name, Essenes, or Healers.因此他们的名字,爱色尼,或治疗者。Finally come the Pharisees, who were the Puritans of the Old law, but whose virtues and austerities we know to have been often only pretence, although there were, doubtless, among them some who were in earnest in the practice of virtue.终于来了法利赛,谁是旧法的清教徒,但其优点和苦行,我们知道已经往往只是幌子,虽然有,毫无疑问,其中一些是在谁在认真实践的美德。 St. Paul describes himself as a Pharisee of the Pharisees.圣保罗描述作为法利法利赛人自己。Outside of Judea, there were said to be a certain number of Jews, men and women, living on the shores of Lake Mareotis, near Alexandria, who mingled their own religious observances with those of the Egyptians, and who lived a life of voluntary poverty, chastity, labour, solitude, and prayer.以外的朱迪亚,有说是一个犹太人,男人和女人一定数目,在湖Mareotis附近亚历山大,谁混到与埃及人的宗教庆祝自己的海岸生活,和谁住一个自愿贫困生活,贞节,劳工,孤独,祈祷。 They were called Therapeutae, which, like Essenes, means Healers.他们被称为Therapeutae,其中,像爱色尼,手段治疗者。Rappoport, in his "History of Egypt" (XI. 29), says that a certain class of the Egyptian priesthood led a similar kind of life.Rappoport,在他的“埃及史”(XI. 29)说,一个埃及祭司一定的阶级领导的一个类似的一种生活。 We know of the Therapeutae only from Philo.我们知道只有从斐洛Therapeutae。How true his descriptions are not be determined.如何真正他的描述无法确定。

Heretical Asceticism邪教禁欲主义

In the second century of the Church appear the Encratites, or The Austere.在教会的第二个世纪出现Encratites,或严峻。They were a section of the heretical Gnostics, chiefly Syrians, who, because of their erroneous views about matter, withdrew from all contact with the world, and denounced marriage as impure.他们是异端的诺斯替教派,主要是叙利亚人,谁,因为对此事的错误观点,从所有与世界的联系撤回部分,并谴责不纯的婚姻。 About the same period came the Montanists, who forbade second marriage, enjoined rigorous fasts, insisted on the perpetual exclusion from the Church of those who had ever committed grievous sin, stigmatized flight in time of persecution as reprehensible, protested that virgins should be always veiled, reprobated paintings, statuary, military service, theatres, and all worldly sciences.大约在同一时期传来Montanists,谁不准第二次婚姻,责成严格的斋戒,就从那些谁曾经犯下的令人发指的迫害时为严重犯罪,诬蔑飞行教会坚持永久排斥,抗议处女应始终含蓄,reprobated绘画,雕塑,兵役,剧院以及所有世俗的科学。 In the third century the Manichaeans held marriage to be unlawful and refrained from wine, meat, milk, and eggs; all of which did not deter them from the grossest immorality.在第三世纪摩尼教举行的婚姻是非法的和酒,肉,牛奶和鸡蛋克制,所有这一切都没有阻止他们的粗暴的不道德行为。 The Flagellants were a sect that began about 1260.该执鞭抽打是一个教派,约1260年开始的。They journeyed from place to place in Italy, Austria, Bohemia, Bavaria, and Poland, scourging themselves to blood, ostensibly to excite the populace to contrition for their sins, but they were soon prohibited by the ecclesiastical authorities.他们远航因地在意大利,奥地利,波西米亚,巴伐利亚州和波兰,鞭打自己的血液,表面上是为了激发民众对他们的罪孽忏悔,但他们很快就被教会当局禁止。 They appeared again in the fourteenth century, in Hungary, Germany, and England.他们再次出现在十四世纪,匈牙利,德国和英国。 Pope Clement VI issued a Bull against them in 1349, and the Inquisition pursued them with such vigour that they disappeared altogether.教皇克莱门特六世在1349年发出对他们的通报,和宗教裁判所奉行这样的活力,他们完全消失的。They were bitter enemies of the Church.他们是教会的仇敌。The Cathari of the twelfth century were, as their name implies, Puritans.第十二届世纪卡塔利者,顾名思义,清教徒。Though teaching the doctrines of the Manichæans, they affected to live a purer life than the rest of the Church.虽然教学的摩尼教的教义,他们生活的影响比其他地区的教会纯洁的生​​活。Chief among them were the Waldenses, or "Poor Men of Lyons", who accepted evangelical poverty and then defied the Pope, who suppressed them.其中最主要的是瓦勒度派,或“里昂穷人”,谁接受福音贫穷,然后无视教皇,谁压制他们。 Although Protestantism has been incessant in its denunciations of asceticism, it is amazing to note how many extreme instances of it the history of Protestantism furnishes.虽然基督教禁欲主义已经在其谴责不断,令人叹为观止要注意它有多少极端情况下,新教的历史furnishes。 The Puritans of England and New England, with their despotic and cruel laws which imposed all sorts of restrictions not only upon themselves, but upon others, are examples of misguided ascetics.英格兰和新英格兰清教徒,他们的专制和残酷的法律,规定不仅在自己的种种限制,但对别人,都是错误的修道者的例子。 The early Methodists, with their denunciations of all amusements, dancing, theatres, card-playing, Sunday enjoyments, etc., were ascetics.早期的卫理公会,与所有娱乐,舞蹈,剧院,卡打,周日享受等的谴责,是修道者。The numberless Socialistic colonies and settlements which have sprung up in all countries are illustrations of the same spirit.在无数的社会主义殖民地并如雨后春笋般涌现在所有国家建立定居点是同样的精神插图。

Pagan Asceticism蒲甘禁欲主义

Among the Greeks, we have the school, or quasi-community of Pythagoras, whose object was to extirpate the passions, but it was philosophic rather than religious in its character and may be places in the category of Natural Asceticism.在希腊,我们有学校,或毕达哥拉斯,其目的是要消灭的激情准社会,但它是哲学而不是宗教的性质,可能是在发生自然禁欲主义类的地方。

Brahminical AsceticismBrahminical禁欲主义

It is frequently contended that an asceticism exists among the Brahmins of India which in some respects is equal, if not superior, to that of Christianity.这是经常争论,一个禁欲主义之间的印度婆罗门在某些​​方面是平等的,如果不是上级,以基督教的存在。 It inculcates the virtues of truthfulness, honesty, self-control, obedience, temperance, alms-giving, care of the sick, meekness, forgiveness of injuries, returning good for evil, etc. It forbids suicide, abortion, perjury, slander, drunkenness, gluttony, usury, hypocrisy, slothfulness, and cruelty to animals.它灌输的真实性,诚实,自我控制,服从,节制,施舍,对病人,温柔,宽恕伤害返回以德报怨,照顾的美德,等它禁止自杀,堕胎,伪证罪,诽谤,醉酒,暴食,高利贷,虚伪,slothf​​ulness和虐待动物。 Ten vows bind the Brahmin to the practice of some ot these virtues.十大誓言约束婆罗门到OT这些美德的一些做法。Its practice of penance is extraordinary.其做法是不平凡的忏悔。Besides what is left to personal initiative, the Laws of Manu decree that: the Brahmin should roll himself on the ground or stand during the day tip-toe or alternately stand and sit.此外还剩下什么个人的主动性,马努法令的法律认为:婆罗门应该滚在地上或站在白天尖脚趾或交替站立和坐。In summer let him expose himself to the heat of five fires, during the rainy season, let him live under the open sky; and in winter be dressed in wet clothes, thus great increasing the rigour of his austerities." Protracted fasts of the most fantastic character are also enjoined. In all this, there is no asceticism. These suicidal penances, apart from their wickedness and absurdity, are based on a misconception of the purpose of mortification. They are not supposed to atone for sin or to acquire merit, but are prompt by the idea that the greater the austerity the greater the holiness, and that besides hastening absorption in the divinity they will help the penitent to obtain such a mastery over his body as to make it invisible at will, to float in the air, or pass with lighting speed from place to place. Being believers in metempsychosis, they regard these sufferings as a means of avoiding the punishment of new births under the form of other creatures. Their pantheism destroys the very essential idea of virtue, for there can be no virtue, as there can be no vice, where one is a part of the deity. Again, the belief that there is no reality outside of Brahma prevents the use or abuse of creatures from having any influence on the righteous or unrighteous condition of the soul. Finally, as the end of existence is absorption into Brahma, with its attendant loss of personality and its adoption of an unconscious existence for all future time, it holds out no inducement to the practice of virtue. The whole system is based on pride. The Brahmin is superior to all mankind, and contact with another caste than his own, especially the poor and humble, is pollution. It makes marriage obligatory, but compels the wife to adore the husband no matter how cruel he is, permitting him to reject her at will; it encourages poly- gamy, approves of the harem, and authorizes the burning of widows in the suttees which the Bntish Goverment has not yet succeeded in preventing. It abhors manual labour and compels the practice of mendicancy and idleness, and it has done nothing for the physical betterment of the human race, as the condition of India for many centuries clearly shows. Its spiritual results are no better. Its liturgy is made up of the most disgusting, childish, and cruel superstitions, and its contradictory combinations of pantheism, materialism, and idealism have developed a system of cruel divinities worse than those of pagan antiquity. It is consequently not real asceticism.在夏天让他暴露自己的五火热在雨季,让他生活在开放天空,并在冬季将穿着湿衣服,从而极大提高了他的苦行严格“最旷日持久的斋戒。梦幻般的性格也受命在所有这一切,,没有禁欲主义,这些自杀penances,除了他们的邪恶和荒谬,是一个屈辱的目的有误解所致,他们不应该赎罪赎罪或收购的优点,但是由理念迅速,更大的紧缩越大,圣洁,和,除了加紧在吸收他们的神将帮助忏悔获得了他的身体这样的掌握,以使它在将无形的,漂浮在空气中,或通过与照明的速度从一个地方来的地方。在轮回作为信徒,他们认为这是避免下的其他生物构成了新的生育处罚意味着这些苦难,他们的泛神论破坏的美德非常重要的想法,对于有可没有美德,因为不可能有副,其中一个是神的一部分,同样,相信没有现实之外的梵天防止有对正义或不义的条件的任何影响的生物使用或滥用灵魂最后,由于存在到底是到梵天吸收与它的个性和其未来的时间为所有随之而来的损失通过无意识的存在,​​它拥有了无以德治实践诱因,整个系统是基于骄傲的婆罗门是优于全人类,比他自己的联系与另一种姓,特别是穷人和谦虚,是污染,它使婚姻的义务,但迫使妻子崇拜的丈夫不管他是多么残酷,允许他在将她拒绝,它鼓励聚gamy,后宫的批准,并授权寡妇在其中Bntish政府尚未成功suttees防止燃烧它厌恶体力劳动和强迫行乞和无所事事的做法。它做了为人类身体没有改善作为印度许多世纪的条件,清楚地表明,其结果是没有更好的精神,其礼仪是由最恶心,幼稚,迷信和残忍起来,其泛神论,唯物主义和唯心主义的矛盾组合已经开发出一种残酷的异教神灵系统比古代差。因而它是不是真正的禁欲主义。

Buddhist Asceticism佛教禁欲主义

The ascetical practices of the Buddhists are monastic in their character, the devotees living in communities, whereas the Brahmins are mostly solitaries, though admitting pupils.在佛教徒的苦修做法是在他们的性格,奉献在社区居住寺院,而婆罗门大多solitaries,虽然承认学生。The moral codes of both sects resemble each other in some respects.两个教派的道德准则彼此相似,在某些方面。For the Buddhists, there are five great duties: not to kill any living creature, not to steal, not to act unchastely, not to lie, not to drink intoxicating liquor.对于佛教徒,有五大职责:不要杀死任何生物,不偷,不采取行动unchastely,不说谎,不饮烈酒。The eight-fold path of virtues is: right beliefs, right aspiration, right speech, right conduct, right means of livelihood, right endeavour, right memory, right meditation.的美德八倍路径是:正确的信念,正确的心愿,正语,权利的行为,谋生权是指,对事业,对记忆,对冥想。The cultivation of meekness, both internal and external, is expressedly inculcated.而温柔的培养,内部和外部的,是expressedly灌输。In the monasteries, confession of faults, but only of external ones, is practised, and great importance is attached to meditation.在寺院,故障表白,但外部的唯一,是实践,并受到重视,以冥想。Their penances are comparatively moderate.他们penances是相对温和的。Nevertheless, in spite of its glorification of virtue, this manner of life can not be regarded as asceticism.然而,在其美德,颂扬这种生活态度,尽管不能算是禁欲主义。While holding its indifferent to the pantheism and other errors of Brahmanism, it ignores God entirely, and is atheistic or agnostic, admitting no dependence on the Divinity and acknowledging no obligation of worship, obedience, love, gratitude, belief; consequently, eliminating all virtue.按住其淡泊的泛神论和婆罗门教其他错误,它完全忽略了神,是无神论或不可知论者,承认没有对神的依赖,并承认没有崇拜,服从,爱,感恩,信仰的义务,因此,消除所有的美德。 Its avoidance of sin is purely utilitarian viz., to escape its consequences.它的罪恶避免纯粹是功利即,逃避其后果。 Its ultimate end is extinction in Nirvana, thus having no inducement to virtue, while it accords the lower state of Swarga, with its sensual delights, to those who were helpful to the Buddhas.它的最终目的是在涅磐灭绝,因此无诱因美德,它虽然符合了Swarga较低状态,其感官愉悦,对那些谁是有帮助的佛像。 Like its predecessor, its idea of ultimate extinction is an extension of the Brahminist absorption and leads logically to suicide.像它的前身,其最终灭绝的想法是对Brahminist吸收导致逻辑上的延伸和自杀。 It holds marriage in abhorrence, and suppresses all legitimate desires forbidding all recreation, music, movie, scientific pursuits, etc. Industrial occupations are regarded with contempt, and the ideal state is beggary and idleness.它拥有在婚姻深恶痛绝,并抑制所有禁止所有娱乐合法愿望,音乐,电影,科学的追求,工业等行业被认为与蔑视,而理想的状态是乞讨和无所事事。 Although insisting upon celibacy as the proper state of man, it tolerates polygamy and divorce.虽然在作为男人坚持独身正确的状态,它容忍一夫多妻制和离婚。It speaks most complacently of Buddha's many hundred wives, before his conversion; lauds the extensive seraglio of Bimbissasa, its most distinguished royal convert, without hinting at its being any derogation from the standard of conduct of a Buddhist layman, while "the official head of Southern Buddhism at the present day, the King of Siam, exercises without scruple the privilege of maintaining a harem" (Aiken).这充分说明最得意的佛许多百的妻子在他的转换;赞扬了Bimbissasa广泛的闺房,其最杰出的皇家转换,而不在其被任何从一个佛教门外汉行为标准减损暗示,而“官方负责人南传佛教在目前日,暹罗国王,演习无所顾忌的特权维持后宫“(艾肯)。 It did not abolish the caste system except in the monasteries.它没有取消,除了在寺院的等级制度。Finally, "in the spread of this religion to other lands it adopted the idolatrous and obscene worship of Nepal; gave its sanction to the degrading shamanistic worship of Thibet, and is overlaid with the superstitions peculiar to China, Mongolia and Thibet."最后,“在这个宗教传播到其他土地它采用了尼泊尔和淫秽崇拜偶像崇拜;曾让制裁的Thibet有辱人格的萨满祭祀,并与迷信特有的中国,蒙古和Thibet覆盖。” It is an abuse of terms to describe the practices of such a creed as asceticism.这是一个滥用的术语来描述这样一个禁欲主义信条的做法。 In conclusion, it may be said the difference between false and true asceticism is this: false asceticism starts out with a wrong idea of the nature of man, of the world, of God; it proposes to follow human reason, but soon falls into folly and become fanatical, and sometimes insane in its methods and projects.总之,可以说是假的和真正的禁欲主义之间的区别是:假的禁欲主义开始了一个人的本质的错误的观念,世界,神,它建议按照人类理性的,但很快就下降到愚蠢并成为狂热的,有时它的方法和项目的疯狂。 With an exaggerated idea of the rights and powers of the individual, it rebels against all spiritual control and, usurping a greater authority than the Church has ever claimed, leads its dupes into the widest extravagances.随着的权利和个人权力夸张的想法,但叛军对所有精神控制,侵占更大的权力比教会曾经声称,导致奢侈到最广泛的愚弄。 Its history is one of disturbance, disorder and anarchy, and is barren of results in the acquisition of truth or the uplifting of the individual and it works of benevolence or intellectual progress; and in some instances it has been the instrument of the most deplorable moral degradation.它的历史是干扰,混乱和无政府状态之一,是在真理或个人抬升收购结果贫瘠,它的仁或智力工程的进度,以及在某些情况下,它一直是最可悲的道德工具退化。 True asceticism, on the contrary, is guided by right reason, assisted by the light of revelation; it comprehends clearly the true nature of man, his destiny, and his obligations.真正的禁欲主义,相反,是按照正确的理性的启示的光辅助;它领会清楚的人,他的命运,他的义务的本质。Knowing that he has not been created in a merely natural condition, but elevated to a supernatural state, it seeks to illumine his mind and strengthen his will by supernatural grace.得知他还没有建立在一个纯粹的自然条件,但提升到了一个超自然的状态,它的目的,是照亮他的头脑和加强超自然的恩典他的意志。 Aware that he has to control his lower passions and withstand the assaults of the evil spirit and seductions of the world, it not only permits, but enjoins, the practice of penance, while by the virtue of prudence which it inculcates, it prevents excess.他意识到必须控制自己的情绪和承受较低的邪恶的精神和世界诱惑,它不仅允许攻击,但责成,在忏悔的做法,而由它灌输审慎美德,它可以防止多余的。 Instead of withdrawing him from his fellow men and inducing moroseness and pride, it bestows on him joy and humility, inspires him with the greatest love for humanity, and cultivate that spirit of self-sacrifice which has, by its works of benevolence and charity, conferred countless benefits on the humance race.相反撤回他从他的同胞和诱导moroseness和自豪感,它赋予他的喜悦和谦卑,激励与人类最伟大的爱他,培养的自我牺牲精神,已通过仁和慈善方面的工作,赋予humance比赛无数的好处。 In a word, asceticism is nothing else than an enlightened method adopted in the observance of the law of God through all the various degrees of service, from the obedience of the ordinary believer to the absorbing devotion of the greatest saint, guiding each in accordance with the measure of grace imparted by the Spirit of Light and Truth.总之,禁欲主义无非是在上帝的法律通过所有的服务采取不同程度的遵守一个开明的方法一样,从普通的信徒服从最伟大的圣人吸收奉献,指导,按照每个恩典的措施传授的光与真理的精神。

Publication information Written by TJ Campbell.出版信息写TJ坎贝尔。Transcribed by Joseph P. Thomas.转录由约瑟夫体育托马斯。The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume I. Published 1907.天主教百科全书,体积一发布1907年。New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, March 1, 1907. Nihil Obstat,1907年3月1日。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰farley枢机主教,大主教纽约


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Ascetical Theologyascetical神学


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