Assumption of Mary圣母升天

General Information一般资料

In Roman Catholic doctrine, the Assumption means that Mary, the mother of Jesus, was taken (assumed) bodily into heavenly glory when she died. In the Orthodox church, the koimesis, or dormition ("falling asleep"), of the Virgin began to be commemorated on August 15 in the 6th century. 在罗马天主教的教义,假设意味着玛利亚,耶稣的母亲,被送往(假设)到天上荣耀的身体时,她死了,在东正教教堂,koimesis,或dormition(“入睡”)的维京,开始为纪念8月15日在第6个世纪。 The observance gradually spread to the West, where it became known as the feast of the Assumption.纪念活动逐渐蔓延到西方,它出名作为著名的圣母升天节。By the 13th century, the belief was accepted by most Catholic theologians, and it was a popular subject with Renaissance and baroque painters.到了13世纪,相信大多数接受了天主教神学家,它是一个具有文艺复兴时期和巴洛克式的画家热门话题。The Assumption was declared a dogma of the Roman Catholic faith by Pope Pius XII in 1950.该假设被宣布为罗马天主教教宗比约十二世于1950年的教条。

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Assumption of the Virgin假设的处女

General Information一般资料

Assumption of the Virgin (Latin assumere,"to take up") in the Roman Catholic church and the Orthodox church is the doctrine that after her death the body of Mary, the mother of Christ, was taken into heaven and reunited with her soul.对在罗马天主教和东正教教堂圣母(拉丁语assumere,“占用”)假设是,在她死后的玛丽,基督的母亲,身体被带到天上团聚与她的灵魂学说。 Defined as an article of faith by Pope Pius XII in 1950, the assumption was first commemorated as the Feast of the Dormition (falling asleep) of Mary in the 6th century.作为一个信仰由教皇庇护十二世在1950年定义的文章,假设首次纪念作为玛丽Dormition在公元6世纪(入睡)盛宴。 This feast later developed into the Feast of the Assumption, now celebrated in the Roman Catholic church on August 15 every year.这个节日后来发展成现在庆祝圣母升天节8月15日在罗马天主教会每年。


Assumption of Mary圣母升天

Advanced Information先进的信息

In principle this doctrine was a part of the Roman Catholic and Byzantine thinking in the Middle Ages.原则上,这理论是一个罗马天主教和中世纪拜占庭式的思维的一部分。The apostolic constitution Munificentissimus Deus, promulgated by Pius XII on November 1, 1950, made it a doctrine necessary for salvation, stating, "The Immaculate Mother of God, the ever-Virgin Mary, having completed the course of her earthly life, was assumed body and soul into heavenly glory."使徒宪法Munificentissimus杀出,由比约十二11月1日颁布,1950年,使之成为必要的救赎教义,指出,“上帝圣母的母亲,不断圣母玛利亚,完成了她的现世生活的过程中,假设身体和灵魂进入天堂般的荣耀。“

No basis, biblical, apostolic, or postapostolic, exists in support of the doctrine.没有依据,圣经,使徒,或postapostolic,存在于学说的支持。Apocryphal documents of the fourth century, Gnostic in character, such as the Passing of Mary hint at it.猜测文件的第四个世纪,诺斯底性质,如玛丽暗示它传递。Gregory of Tours in his De gloria martyrum of the sixth century quotes an unfounded legend about Mary's assumption.在他的德凯莱martyrum六世纪旅游格雷戈里引号一个关于玛丽的假设没有根据的传说。As the story became popular in both East and West it took two forms.由于故事成为东,西方流行它有两种形式。The Coptic version describes Jesus appearing to Mary to foretell her death and bodily elevation into heaven, while the Greek, Latin, and Syriac versions picture Mary calling for the apostles, who are transported to her miraculously from their places of service.科普特版本的描述耶稣出现对玛丽预见到天堂她的死亡和身体抬高,而希腊文,拉丁文,叙利亚文版本的图片和玛丽的使徒,谁是她从运到他们的服务地方奇迹般地呼吁。 Then Jesus, after her death, conveys her remains to heaven.耶稣,在她死后,她的遗体传达到天堂。The doctrine was first treated in deductive theology about 800.该学说最早收治约800演绎神学。Benedict XIV (d. 1758) proposed it as a probable doctrine.本笃十四(卒于1758)提出一个可能的学说了。

Feasts celebrating the death of Mary date from the fifth century.节日庆祝从第五世纪的玛丽日死亡。In the East the late seventh century feasts included the assumption.在东七世纪后期节日包含的假设。After the eighth century the West followed suit.在第8世纪西方效仿。Nicholas I by edict (863) placed the Feast of the Assumption on the same level as Easter and Christmas.尼古拉的法令I(863)放置在复活节和圣诞节作为同级的圣母升天节。Cranmer omitted it from the Book of Common Prayer and it has not since been included.克兰默省略共同祈祷书它,它并没有因为被列入。

The 1950 action regarding the assumption of Mary is built upon the declaration of "The Immaculate Conception" (Dec. 8, 1854), which declared Mary free from original sin.1950年行动关于玛丽的假设是建立在对他说:“圣母无原罪”(1854年12月8日),宣布从原罪玛丽自由宣言。Both issue from the concept of Mary as the "Mother of God."这两个问题从玛丽的概念“上帝之母。”Her special state, Pius XII felt, demanded special treatment.她的特殊状态,庇护十二世认为,要求特殊待遇。If Mary is indeed "full of grace" (cf. Luke 1:28, 44) the assumption is a logical concomitant.如果玛丽确实是“充满恩宠”(见路加福音1:28,44)的假设是一个逻辑相伴。Like Jesus, she is sinless, preserved from corruption, resurrected, received into heaven, and a recipient of corporeal glory.像耶稣,她是无罪的,从腐败的复活,升天收到的肉体和荣耀收件人保存。Thus Mary is crowned Queen of Heaven and assumes the roles of intercessor and mediator.因此,玛丽女王加冕的天堂并承担代祷和调解人的角色。

The argument in Munificentissimus Deus develops along several lines.在Munificentissimus杀出论证开发沿几条线。It emphasizes Mary's unity with her divine Son, for she is "always sharing His lot."它强调与她的圣子玛丽的团结,因为她是“永远分享他的很多东西。”Since she shared in the past in his incarnation, death, and resurrection, now, as his mother, she is the mother of his church, his body.由于她在过去分享他的化身,死亡和复活,现在,作为他的母亲,她是他的教会的母亲,他的身体。 Rev. 12:1 is applied to Mary; she is the prototype of the church, for she has experienced anticipatorially corporeal glorification in her assumption.牧师12时零一适用于玛丽,她是教会的原型,因为她经历了anticipatorially肉体的颂扬她的假设。 Three times Mary is referred to as the "New Eve," working again the parallel of Christ as the new Adam and presenting the glorified Christ as one with the new Eve.三次玛丽被称为“新夏娃,”工作再作为新的亚当基督的平行,并提出与新的夏娃之一的荣耀基督。

The assumption of Mary continues to be a fruitful field for Roman Catholic theologians even as biblical renewal, charismatic interest, and liberal theology also make their impact.而玛丽的假设仍然是一个罗马天主教神学家卓有成效领域甚至圣经重建,魅力的兴趣,也使他们的自由神学的影响。

WN Kerr WN克尔
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary)(Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 参考书目
MR James, The Apocryphal NT; EL Mascall and HS Box, eds., The Blessed Virgin Mary; NCE; L.-J.涂谨申议员,在未经证实的NT; EL Mascall和HS盒,EDS,圣母玛利亚; NCE; L.-J.Suenens, Mary the Mother of God. Suenens,玛利亚天主之母。


The Feast of the Assumption在圣母升天节

Catholic Information天主教信息

The Feast of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary, 15 August; also called in old liturgical books Pausatio, Nativitas (for heaven), Mors, Depositio, Dormitio S. Mariae.还旧礼仪书籍Pausatio,Nativitas(为天堂),MORS,Depositio,Dormitio S. Mariae调用;的圣母玛利亚的8月15日圣母升天节。

This feast has a double object: (1) the happy departure of Mary from this life; (2) the assumption of her body into heaven.这个节日有双重目标:(1)玛丽高兴地离开这个生活(2)进入天堂,她的身体的假设。It is the principal feast of the Blessed Virgin.它是圣母的主要盛宴。

THE FACT OF THE ASSUMPTION事实的假设

Regarding the day, year, and manner of Our Lady's death, nothing certain is known.关于一天,一年,我们的夫人的死亡方式,没有什么一定是已知的。The earliest known literary reference to the Assumption is found in the Greek work De Obitu S. Dominae.已知最早的文学参考假设被发现在希腊工作的德Obitu S. Dominae。Catholic faith, however, has always derived our knowledge of the mystery from Apostolic Tradition.信仰天主教,但是,一直得到我们从使徒传统神秘的知识。Epiphanius (d. 403) acknowledged that he knew nothing definite about it (Haer., lxxix, 11).埃皮法尼乌斯(卒于403)承认,他一无所知它明确(Haer.,LXXIX,11)。The dates assigned for it vary between three and fifteen years after Christ's Ascension.它指定的日期各不相同三至十五年后,基督升天。Two cities claim to be the place of her departure: Jerusalem and Ephesus.两市声称自己是她的出发地点:耶路撒冷和以弗所。Common consent favours Jerusalem, where her tomb is shown; but some argue in favour of Ephesus.主张耶路撒冷共同同意,她的墓是显示,但一些在以弗所青睐争论。The first six centuries did not know of the tomb of Mary at Jerusalem.前六世纪不知道墓的玛丽在耶路撒冷。

The belief in the corporeal assumption of Mary is founded on the apocryphal treatise De Obitu S. Dominae, bearing the name of St. John, which belongs however to the fourth or fifth century.在有形的玛丽假设信念是建立在未经证实的论文德Obitu S. Dominae,轴承的圣约翰,名字,但是属于第四或第五世纪。It is also found in the book De Transitu Virginis, falsely ascribed to St. Melito of Sardis, and in a spurious letter attributed to St. Denis the Areopagite.还发现在书德途中室女座,错误地归因于圣撒狄梅利托,并在虚假信归因于圣丹尼斯的Areopagite。If we consult genuine writings in the East, it is mentioned in the sermons of St. Andrew of Crete, St. John Damascene, St. Modestus of Jerusalem and others.如果我们真正的咨询东著作,它是在圣安德鲁的克里特岛,圣约翰大马士革的讲道中提到,圣Modestus耶路撒冷等。 In the West, St. Gregory of Tours (De gloria mart., I, iv) mentions it first.在西方,圣格雷戈里的旅行团(者凯莱集市 ,我,四)提到它。The sermons of St. Jerome and St. Augustine for this feast, however, are spurious.圣杰罗姆和圣奥古斯丁为这场盛宴的说教,却是虚假的。St. John of Damascus (PG, I, 96) thus formulates the tradition of the Church of Jerusalem:圣大马士革的约翰(PG,我96),因此制定了耶路撒冷教会的传统:

St. Juvenal, Bishop of Jerusalem, at the Council of Chalcedon (451), made known to the Emperor Marcian and Pulcheria, who wished to possess the body of the Mother of God, that Mary died in the presence of all the Apostles, but that her tomb, when opened, upon the request of St. Thomas, was found empty; wherefrom the Apostles concluded that the body was taken up to heaven.圣尤维纳利斯主教在耶路撒冷的迦克墩(451)理事会,使已知的皇帝马尔奇安和Pulcheria,谁希望拥有神的母亲,玛丽在所有的使徒的存在死亡的身体,但她的墓,当打开后,圣托马斯的要求,被发现空;从那使徒的结论是,身体被带到了天堂。

Today, the belief in the corporeal assumption of Mary is universal in the East and in the West; according to Benedict XIV (De Festis BVM, I, viii, 18) it is a probable opinion, which to deny were impious and blasphemous.今天,在玛丽有形假设的信念是在东方和西方的普遍,据本笃十四(德Festis BVM,我,八,18)这是一个可能的意见,这在否认了不虔诚和亵渎。

THE FEAST OF THE ASSUMPTION的圣母升天节

Regarding the origin of the feast we are also uncertain.关于原产地的盛宴,我们也确定。It is more probably the anniversary of the dedication of some church than the actual anniversary of Our Lady's death.它更可能是一些教堂比我们的夫人逝世周年奉献的实际周年。That it originated at the time of the Council of Ephesus, or that St. Damasus introduced it in Rome is only a hypothesis.它起源于对安理会的以弗所时间,或者说,在罗马圣达玛斯推出它只是一种假设。

According to the life of St. Theodosius (d. 529) it was celebrated in Palestine before the year 500, probably in August (Baeumer, Brevier, 185).据圣狄奥多西(四529)生活在巴勒斯坦是庆祝500年之前,可能在八月(Baeumer,Brevier,185)。 In Egypt and Arabia, however, it was kept in January, and since the monks of Gaul adopted many usages from the Egyptian monks (Baeumer, Brevier, 163), we find this feast in Gaul in the sixth century, in January [mediante mense undecimo (Greg. Turon., De gloria mart., I, ix)].在埃及和沙特阿拉伯,但是,它被关在一月,而由于采用高卢僧侣从(Baeumer,Brevier,163)埃及僧侣很多用途,我们发现在高卢这场盛宴在第六世纪一月[MEDIANTE mense, undecimo(Greg.特伦。,德凯莱集市 ,我,九)]。The Gallican Liturgy has it on the 18th of January, under the title: Depositio, Assumptio, or Festivitas S. Mariae (cf. the notes of Mabillon on the Gallican Liturgy, PL, LXXII, 180).该gallican礼仪已经在1月18日是,根据标题:Depositio,Assumptio,或Festivitas S. Mariae(参见上高卢礼仪,PL,LXXII,180马毕伦笔记)。This custom was kept up in the Gallican Church to the time of the introduction of the Roman rite.这种习俗被保留在该gallican教会直至罗马礼介绍时间。In the Greek Church, it seems, some kept this feast in January, with the monks of Egypt; others in August, with those of Palestine; wherefore the Emperor Maurice (d. 602), if the account of the "Liber Pontificalis" (II, 508) be correct, set the feast for the Greek Empire on 15 August.在希腊教会,现在看来,有些保存在今年一月盛宴与埃及的僧侣;八月他人,与巴勒斯坦人;何故皇帝莫里斯(四602),如果“LIBER Pontificalis”帐户(二,508)是正确的,设置15对希腊帝国盛宴八月。

In Rome (Batiffol, Brev. Rom., 134) the oldest and only feast of Our Lady was 1 January, the octave of Christ's birth.在罗马(Batiffol,Brev,罗,134)最古老的圣母,只有节日是1月1日,基督的诞生八度。It was celebrated first at Santa Maria Maggiore, later at Santa Maria ad Martyres.这是首次在庆祝的Santa Maria Maggiore,后来在圣玛丽亚广告Martyres。The other feasts are of Byzantine origin.其他节日是拜占庭的起源。Duchesne thinks (Origines du culte chr., 262) that before the seventh century no other feast was kept at Rome, and that consequently the feast of the Assumption, found in the sacramentaries of Gelasius and Gregory, is a spurious addition made in the eighth or seventh century.杜申认为(Origines杜culte CHR。,262)前七世纪没有其他节日是保持在罗马,并因此在对格拉西和格雷戈里sacramentaries发现的假设,是一种虚假的盛宴除了在第八作出或第七世纪。 Probst, however (Sacramentarien, 264 sqq.), brings forth good arguments to prove that the Mass of the Blessed Virgin Mary, found on the 15th of August in the Gelasianum, is genuine, since it does not mention the corporeal assumption of Mary; that, consequently, the feast was celebrated in the church of Santa Maria Maggiore at Rome at least in the sixth century.普罗伯斯特,不过(。Sacramentarien,264 SQQ),带出良好的论据,证明了圣母玛利亚在八月十五日在Gelasianum发现,质量是真诚的,因为它没有提到玛丽有形的假设;即,因此,这个节日的庆祝活动在罗马至少在六世纪的Santa Maria Maggiore大教堂。He proves, furthermore, that the Mass of the Gregorian Sacramentary, such as we have it, is of Gallican origin (since the belief in the bodily assumption of Mary, under the influence of the apocryphal writings, is older in Gaul than in Rome), and that it supplanted the old Gelasian Mass. At the time of Sergius I (700) this feast was one of the principal festivities in Rome; the procession started from the church of St. Hadrian.他证明,此外,即公历Sacramentary的质量,比如我们有它,高卢起源(因为在玛丽身体假设的信念,在未经著作的影响力,是在高卢年纪比在罗马) ,而且它取代在我的谢尔盖(700)时的老Gelasian马萨诸塞州这个节日是在罗马的主要庆祝活动之一,游行从圣哈德良教堂开始。It was always a double of the first class and a Holy Day of obligation.它一直是第一类和义务圣日翻番。

The octave was added in 847 by Leo IV; in Germany this octave was not observed in several dioceses up to the time of the Reformation.八度是增加了847利奥四,在德国这八度未观察到几个教区到时间的改革。The Church of Milan has not accepted it up to this day (Ordo Ambros., 1906).米兰的教会不接受它到今天(奥Ambros。,1906)。 The octave is privileged in the dioceses of the provinces of Sienna, Fermo, Michoacan, etc. The Greek Church continues this feast to 23 August, inclusive, and in some monasteries of Mount Athos it is protracted to 29 August (Menaea Graeca, Venice, 1880), or was, at least, formerly.八度是在对锡耶纳,费尔莫,米却肯,等省的教区特权希腊教会继续这场盛宴至23日,包容性,以及在某些圣山修道院是旷日持久的8月29日(Menaea Graeca,威尼斯, 1880年),或者是,至少以前。In the dioceses of Bavaria a thirtieth day (a species of month's mind) of the Assumption was celebrated during the Middle Ages, 13 Sept., with the Office of the Assumption (double); today, only the Diocese of Augsburg has retained this old custom.在巴伐利亚三十分之一天的假设(月份的心中种)教区庆祝在中世纪,9月13日与该假设(双)办公室;今天,只有奥格斯堡教区保留老自定义。

Some of the Bavarian dioceses and those of Brandenburg, Mainz, Frankfort, etc., on 23 Sept. kept the feast of the "Second Assumption", or the "Fortieth Day of the Assumption" (double) believing, according to the revelations of St. Elizabeth of Schönau (d. 1165) and of St. Bertrand, OC (d. 1170), that the BV Mary was taken up to heaven on the fortieth day after her death (Grotefend, Calendaria 2, 136).一些巴伐利亚教区和9月23日在勃兰登堡州,美因茨,法兰克福等,这些不断的“第二个假设”,或“升天40天”相信(双)的盛宴,根据启示圣伊丽莎白舍瑙(卒于1165年)和圣贝特朗,OC(卒于1170),即BV玛丽被带到了天堂后,她的死亡在40天(Grotefend,Calendaria 2,136)。The Brigittines kept the feast of the "Glorification of Mary" (double) 30 Aug., since St. Brigitta of Sweden says (Revel., VI, l) that Mary was taken into heaven fifteen days after her departure (Colvenerius, Cal. Mar., 30 Aug.).该Brigittines保持了“玛丽颂扬”(双)8月30日盛宴,因为圣瑞典布里吉塔说(Revel.,六,L),玛丽被送到她的离开后十五日内到天堂(Colvenerius,卡尔。 3月,8月30日)。In Central America a special feast of the Coronation of Mary in heaven (double major) is celebrated 18 August.在中美洲的在天上的玛丽加冕(双专业)的特殊节日庆祝8月18日。The city of Gerace in Calabria keeps three successive days with the rite of a double first class, commemorating: 15th of August, the death of Mary; 16th of August, her Coronation.在卡拉布里亚Gerace城市保持连续三次天同双一流的仪式,纪念:八,15日死亡的玛丽;的8月16日,她的加冕。

At Piazza, in Sicily, there is a commemoration of the Assumption of Mary (double second class) the 20th of February, the anniversary of the earthquake of 1743.在广场,在西西里岛,有圣母升天(双第二类)二,对1743年大地震20周年纪念。A similar feast (double major with octave) is kept at Martano, Diocese of Otranto, in Apulia, 19th of November.类似的盛宴(双倍频与专业)保持在Martano,教区的奥特朗托,在普利亚,在11月19日。

[Note: By promulgating the Bull Munificentissimus Deus, 1 November, 1950, Pope Pius XII declared infallibly that the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary was a dogma of the Catholic Faith. [注:通过颁布公牛Munificentissimus杀出11月1日,1950年,教皇庇护十二世宣布绝对无误的是,圣母升天是一个天主教信仰的教条。 Likewise, the Second Vatican Council taught in the Dogmatic Constitution Lumen Gentium that "the Immaculate Virgin, preserved free from all stain of original sin, was taken up body and soul into heavenly glory, when her earthly life was over, and exalted by the Lord as Queen over all things (n. 59)."]同样,第二次梵蒂冈会议的教条式的讲授宪法流明Gentium说,“圣母童贞,保留所有的原罪无污点,被送往成天上荣耀的身体和灵魂,当她的尘世生活结束后,由主捧得作为女王的所有东西(N. 59)。“]

Publication information Written by Frederick G. Holweck.出版信息由Frederick G. Holweck书面。Transcribed by Janet Grayson.转录由珍妮特格雷森。The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume II.天主教百科全书,第二卷。Published 1907.1907年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, 1907.Nihil Obstat,1907年。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰米farley,大主教纽约



Also, see:此外,见:
Mariology mariology
Virgin Mary圣母玛利亚
Immaculate Conception圣母无染原罪
Virgin Birth美属维尔京诞生

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