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The word atonement, constructed from at and one, means "to set at one" or "to reconcile."这个词赎罪,从在一建,意味着“定于一”或“调和”。In Christian theology, atonement denotes the doctrine of the reconciliation of God and man accomplished by the crucifixion and death of Jesus Christ.在基督教神学,赎罪表示神,由耶稣受难和死亡的人完成和解的教义。There have been three major theories of atonement: the ransom theory, the Anselmian theory, and the Abelardian theory.已经有三个重大理论赎罪:赎金理论,Anselmian理论和Abelardian理论。The ransom theory, first propounded by Origen (c.185-254), was developed from Mark 10:45 and explained the atonement as a price paid by God in Christ to the devil.赎金理论,最早由奥利(c.185 - 254)propounded,是发达国家从马可福音10:45和解释为支付在基督上帝的魔鬼价格赎罪。Saint Anselm (c.1033-1109) explained the atonement as an act of satisfaction paid by Christ as man to God, who demanded from man perfect obedience to the law, which he could not fulfill because of his sinfulness.圣安瑟伦(c.1033 - 1109)解释作为支付人的满意度由基督神,谁从人的完美服从要求的法律,他不能满足,因为他的罪恶行为赎罪。The exemplarist theory of Peter Abelard (1079-1142) viewed Christ's death as an inspiring appeal of love evoking in the sinner a response of love, thus removing his sin.而彼得阿贝拉尔(1179至42年)exemplarist理论看作是在罪人的爱唤起爱的鼓舞人心的呼吁的回应基督的死亡,从而消除他的罪。

Martin Luther, John Calvin, and other Reformers developed the Anselmian theory in the direction of penal substitution.马丁路德,约翰卡尔文和其他改革者开发了在刑罚替代方向Anselmian理论。Liberal theologians have reverted to an Abelardian type of explanation.自由神学家已经恢复到一个解释Abelardian类型。Gustav Aulen and other Swedish theologians have recently advocated a return to the ransom theory conceived in terms of victory over the powers of evil.古斯塔夫Aulen和其他瑞典神学家最近主张的赎金理论方面设想过胜利的邪恶力量的回报。

In Jewish theology, stress is placed on personal acts of atonement; vicarious atonement is given little importance (see also Yom Kippur).在犹太神学,看重的是个人的赎罪行为;替代赎罪给出一点的重要性(见赎罪日)。

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Bibliography 参考书目
Dillistone, Frederick W., The Christian Understanding of Atonement (1968); Feenstra, R., and Plantinga, C., Trinity, Incarnation, and Atonement (1990); Hengel, Martin, The Atonement, trans. Dillistone,弗雷德里克W.,在赎罪(1968)基督教的理解;芬斯特拉,R.,和普兰廷卡,C.,三位一体,化身,和赎罪(1990);亨格尔,马丁,赎罪,跨。 by John Bowden (1981); White, Vernon, Atonement and Incarnation (1991).由约翰鲍登(1981);白色,弗农,赎罪和化身(1991)。

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Atonement 赎罪

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