Augustinians奥古斯丁

General Information一般资料

Augustinians are members of various Roman Catholic religious communities of men and women who follow the Rule of St. Augustine, a code of rules for the monastic life originally drawn up by St. Augustine of Hippo (354-430).奥古斯都是罗马天主教各种男性和女性谁遵循圣奥古斯丁,对原先制定的由圣奥古斯丁的河马(354-430)了寺院生活规则的代码规则宗教团体的成员。 The two main groups of Augustinians are the Augustinian (Austin) Canons--or Canons Regular of Saint Augustine--dating from the 11th century, and the Augustinian Hermits or Friars, established by Pope Alexander IV in 1256.奥古斯丁的两个主要群体是奥古斯丁(奥斯汀)大炮 - 大炮或定期的圣奥古斯丁 - 从11世纪约会,和奥古斯丁隐士或修士,由教皇亚历山大四成立于1256。The traditional garb of Augustinians is a black tunic, a short cape, and a cowl.而奥古斯丁传统装束是黑色中山装,短斗篷,以及罩。 Famous Augustinians include Martin Luther, in his early career, and the geneticist Gregor Mendel.著名的奥古斯丁包括马丁路德在他早期的职业生涯,并在遗传学家孟德尔。

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Bibliography 参考书目
Lawless, George, Augustine of Hippo and His Monastic Rule (1987).无法无天,乔治,河马和他的寺院规则(1987年)奥古斯丁。


Hermits of St. Augustine隐士的圣奥古斯丁

Catholic Information天主教信息

(Generally called Augustinians and not to be confounded with the Augustinian Canons). (一般称为奥古斯丁,而不是与奥古斯丁大炮混淆)。

A religious order which in the thirteenth century combined several monastic societies into one, under this name.一个宗教秩序,在十三世纪合并成一个几个寺院的社会,在这个名称。The order has done much to extend the influence of the Church, to propagate the Faith, and to advance learning.该订单已经做了很多扩展教会的影响力,宣传信心,推动学习。

FOUNDATION基金会

As is well known, St. Augustine of Hippo, first with some friends and afterwards, as bishop, with his clergy, led a monastic community life.众所周知,圣奥古斯丁的河马,先用一些朋友,后来,他作为主教与神职人员,率领一个寺院的社区生活。Vows were not obligatory, but the possession of private property was prohibited.誓言不是强制性的,但对私有财产的占有是被禁止的。Their manner of life led others to imitate them.他们的生活态度导致他人模仿他们。Instructions for their guidance were found in several writings of St. Augustine, especially in "De opere monachorum" (PL, XL, 527), mentioned in the ancient codices regularum of the eighth or ninth century as "The Rule of St. Augustine".他们的指导说明中发现的一些著作,特别是在圣奥古斯丁的“德opere monachorum”(PL,XL,527)在古抄本的第八或第九世纪regularum提到,“在圣奥古斯丁规则”, 。Epistola ccxi, otherwise cix (PL, XXXIII, 958), contains the early "Augustinian Rule for Nuns"; epistolae ccclv and ccclvi (PL, XXXIX, 1570) "De moribus clericorum".Epistola ccxi,否则CIX(PL,三十三,958),包含早期的“尼姑奥古斯丁规则”; epistolae ccclv和ccclvi(PL,XXXIX,1570年)“德moribus clericorum”。The instructions herein contained formed the basis of the rule which, in accordance with the decree of the Lateran Synod, in 1059, was adopted by canons desiring to practise a common apostolic life (Holstenius, "Codex regularum", II, Rome, 1661, 120).本文所包含的指令形成了其中,在与拉特兰议会法令的规定,在1059年,是由一个共同的渴望实践使徒生活(Holstenius,“法典regularum”,二,罗马,1661大炮通过了规则的基础上, 120)。Thence the title "Canons Regular of St. Augustine".那里的标题是“大炮的圣奥古斯丁经常”。Later, many monastic societies and brotherhoods, especially in Italy, adopted the Augustinian Rule, either voluntarily or by command of the pope, without, however, giving up certain peculiarities of life and dress introduced by the founder, or handed down by custom.后来,许多社团及兄弟会修道院,特别是在意大利,通过了奥古斯丁规则,无论是自愿或由教皇命令,但不放弃生活和穿着的创始人推出一定的特殊性,或移交下来的习俗。 These differences led to their being confounded with other orders (eg, the Friars Minor) and gave rise to quarrels.这些差异导致了他们被混淆的(例如,男修道士未成年人)等订单,引起了争吵。To remedy these evils and to ensure harmony and unity amongst the various religious congregations, Pope Alexander IV sought to unite them into one order.为了纠正这些弊端,确保和谐与各宗教团体之间的团结,教皇亚历山大四寻求团结成一个顺序。For this purpose he commanded that two delegates be sent to Rome from each of the hermit monasteries, to discuss, under the presidency of Cardinal Richard of Santi Angeli, the question of union.为此,他吩咐两名代表被送到修道院的隐士从每个罗马,讨论下,红衣主教的桑蒂安杰利,在工会主席理查德问题。The first meeting of the delegates took place on the first of March, 1256, and resulted in a union.代表们第一次会议于三月,1256第一名,并在工会的结果。Lanfranc Septala of Milan, Prior of the Bonites, was appointed the first prior-general of the new order.朗弗朗Septala米兰之前的Bonites,被任命为第一任新秩序的前秘书长。A uniform black habit was adopted, and the staves formerly carried by the Bonites to distinguish them from Friars Minor were dispensed with.一个习惯通过统一的黑色,而法杖以前由Bonites进行区分男修道士未成年他们中取消。 The Bull "Licet ecclesiae catholicae", issued on 4 May, 1256 (Bullarium Taurinense, 3rd ed., 635 sq.), ratified these proceedings and may be regaraded as the foundation-charter of the "Ordo Eremitarum S. Augustini"; and furthermore, the pope commanded that all hermit monasteries which had sent no delegates, should conform to the newly drawn up Constitutions.公牛“Licet,该书catholicae”,在1256年5月4日(。Bullarium Taurinense,第3版,635平方米)发行,批准这些程序,并可能被作为“奥Eremitarum S. Augustini”基金会章程regaraded;和此外,教宗吩咐所有的隐士没有派出代表寺院,应符合新制定的宪法。

EXTENSION OF THE ORDER延伸的订单

The Bull "Licet ecclesiae catholicae" mentions the hermit convents which had been invited to take part in the proceedings at Rome, in 1256, which led to the union.公牛“Licet,该书catholicae”提到了已被邀请参加在罗马的程序的一部分,在1256年,这导致了工会隐士修道院。 "Quaedam [domus] S. Guillelmi, quaedam S. Augustini ordinum, nonnullae autem fratris Joannis Boni, aliquae vero de Fabali, aliae vero de Britinis."“Quaedam [多莫斯] S. Guillelmi,quaedam S. Augustini ordinum,nonnullae autem fratris Joannis博尼,aliquae VERO DE Fabali,aliae VERO DE Britinis。”- According to this statement, the original branches of the hermits were: (1) The Williamites, founded by St. William of Maleval shortly before his death in 1157.- 根据这项声明,对隐士的原始分支是:(1)圣Maleval威廉Williamites,成立不久之前他在1157年去世。From this congregation sprang two others, the principal houses being at Stabulum Rodis, in the valley of Maleval, and at Fabali on Monte Fabali.从这个众窜出两个人,在Stabulum Rodis被主要的房屋,在Maleval山谷,并在Fabali基于Monte Fabali。The mode of life, originally very severe, was mitigated by Pope Gregory IX, under whom the majority of the Williamite monasteries adopted the Rule of St. Benedict.生命的方式,本来很严重的,由罗马教皇格雷戈里九缓解,在他们的Williamite寺院多数通过的圣本笃规则。 When these were required by the Bull "Licet ecclesiae catholicae" to join the new order, they raised objections and obtained a prohibition to exchange the Benedictine Rule for the milder one of the Augustinians.当这些被公牛“Licet,该书catholicae”要求加入新秩序,他们提出异议并获得了禁止换取较轻之一的奥古斯丁本笃规则。 (See Guil. De Waha, "Explanatio vitae S. Guillelmi Magni" etc., 1693; "Acta Sanct. Boll.", Feb., II, 450 sqq.; "Kirchenlex.", 2nd ed., XII, 1609 sqq.) (2) Several unspecified houses of the Order of St. Augustine, established chiefly in Italy, and forming separate congregations.(见Guil德瓦哈,“Explanatio简历S. Guillelmi马尼”等,1693;。“文献Sanct铃 ”,2月,第二,450 SQQ;。“Kirchenlex”,第二版,第十二章,1609 SQQ 。)(2)一些不明的圣奥古斯丁订购的房子,主要是在意大利成立,并形成独立的教会。To these belong the Hermits of the Holy Trinity in Tuscany, who had already been united into an Augustinian congregation by Pope Innocent IV, in 1243, with Cardinal Richard for a protector, and with indulgences granted to those who visited their churches (in 1244).对于这些属于在托斯卡纳的三位一体,谁已经团结成一个奥古斯丁众由教皇英诺森四,在1243年与枢机主教为保护理查德的隐士,和授予那些谁访问了他们的教堂(在1244)的宽容。 (3) The Bonites, so called from their founder, Blessed John Buoni, a member of the Buonuomini family, born about 1168 in Mantua. (3)Bonites,因此从他们的创始人叫,祝福约翰Buoni,本Buonuomini家庭成员,出生约1168年在曼图亚。He lived a hermit's life at Cesena, and died in his native city in 1249 (Lodi, "Vita e miracoli del b. Giov. Buoni", Mantua, 1591; "Acta SS. Boll.", Oct., IX, 693 sq.).他住在切塞纳隐士的生活,在他的故乡在1249年去世(洛迪,“维他发送miracoli德尔B. Giov Buoni ”,曼图亚,1591;“。鐗SS铃”,10月,IX,693平方米。)In the year 1256 the Bonites possessed eleven monasteries and gave the first general to the Augustinian Order (see above).在1256年Bonites拥有elev​​en寺院,给了第一个一般的奥古斯丁令(见上文)。(4) The Brittinians (Brictinians), so called from their oldest foundation, that of St. Blasius de Brittinis, near Fano, in the district of Ancona. (4)Brittinians(Brictinians),因此从他们最早的基金会叫,圣布拉乌斯德Brittinis的是,近法诺,在安科纳地区。 Many congregations, such as the Brothers of Penance of Christ (Saccati, or "Sack-bearers"), the foundations of Durandus of Huesca (Osca), and those of the "Catholic Poor", united with the Bonites.许多会众,如基督的忏悔兄弟(Saccati,或“炒鱿鱼承担者”),对韦斯卡(OSCA)Durandus的基础,和“天主教差”,与Bonites团结的人。

The Hermits of St. Augustine spread rapidly, partly because they did not radiate from a single parent monastery, and partly because, after violent conflicts in the previously existing congregations, the active life was finally adopted by the greater number of communities, following the example of the Friars Minor and the Dominicans.圣奥古斯丁的隐士迅速蔓延,部分原因是他们没有从一个单亲寺院辐射,部分是因为,后在以前存在的众暴力冲突,积极的生活终于通过了社区较多,下面的例子对未成年人的修士和多米尼加。 To the Brittinians alone, in 1260, was granted permission to continue following the contemplative life.对于Brittinians独自在1260年,被授予的许可才能继续下面的沉思生活。A few years after the reorganization of the Augustinian Order, Hermit monasteries sprang up in Germany, France, and Spain.几年后的奥古斯丁秩序重组,山人寺院兴起,在德国,法国和西班牙。Germany soon possessed forty, many of them large and important, such as those at Mainz, Würzburg, Worms, Nuremberg, Speyer, Strasburg, Ratisbon, all built between 1260 and 1270.德国很快拥有四十,其中不乏大型和重要的,如在美因茨,维尔茨堡,蠕虫,纽伦堡,斯派尔,斯特拉斯堡,拉蒂斯邦,1260和1270年之间建成所有。 As early as the year 1299, the German province was divided into four sub-provinces: the Rhenish-Swabian, the Cologne, the Bavarian, and the Saxon.早在1299年,德国省被分为四个子省份:莱茵 - 施瓦本,科隆,巴伐利亚,萨克森和。At the period of its greates prosperity the order possessed 42 provinces and 2 vicariates numbering 2000 monasteries and about 30,000 members.在其greates繁荣时期的顺序拥有42个省和2 vicariates编号2000的寺院,约3万会员。(Cf. Aug. Lubin, "Orbis Augustinianus sive conventuum O. Erem. SA chorographica et topographica descriptio", Paris, 1659, 1671, 1672.)(参见八月鲁宾,“奥比斯Augustinianus sive conventuum O. Erem。SA chorographica等topographica descriptio”,巴黎,1659年,1671年,1672年)。

PRESENT CONDITION OF THE ORDER现状的秩序

Since the sixteenth century the order, owing to many causes, particularly to the Reformation, lost numbers of monasteries.自十六世纪的秩序,由于多方面的原因,特别是对改革,失去了寺院的数字。During the French Revolution the greater part of the 157 monasteries were destroyed, as well as all the monasteries of the Discalced Augustinian Hermits.在法国大革命的157寺庙大部分被摧毁,以及所有的Discalced奥古斯丁隐士修道院。The secularization of the religious houses in Germany, Austria, and Italy brought about great losses.在德国的宗教世俗化的房屋,奥地利和意大利带来了巨大的损失。In 1835, out of a total of 153 in Spain, 105 were suppressed.1835年,走出了一条在西班牙共153,105受到打压。The Augustinian monasteries in Mexico were suppressed in 1860; in Russia, in 1864; in the Kingdom of Hanover, in 1875.在墨西哥的奥古斯丁修道院受到打压1860年,在俄罗斯,1864年,在汉诺威王国,于1875年。The Philippine Islands, however, suffered the heaviest losses, during the disturbances of 1896.菲律宾群岛,然而,遭受损失最重,在1896年的骚乱。Hence the Augustinian Order of today has only a tenth of the monasteries which it possessed at the time of its greatest prosperity.因此,今天的奥古斯丁秩序只有寺院它在其拥有最大的繁荣时期的十分之一。

Without counting the Discalced Augustinians, the order comprises 19 provinces, 2 commissariates, 2 congregations, and 60 large monasteries (with 6 or more fathers), in all, including residences and mission stations, 275 foundations, with 2050 members (priests, clerical novices, and lay brothers).如果不计算Discalced奥古斯丁,订单包括19个省,2 commissariates,2众和60大寺院(有6个或更多的父亲),在所有的,包括住宅和任务站,275基金会,与2050年成员(祭司,文书新手,奠定兄弟)。 These provinces, according to the "Catalogus Fratrum O. Erem. S. Augustini" (Rome, 1908) are:--这些省份,根据“Catalogus Fratrum O. Erem S. Augustini”(罗马,1908年)是: -

Provincia Romana (Rome), with 13 convents.省府协会(罗马),13修道院。

Provincia Picena (north-eastern Italy), with 16 convents.省府Picena(意大利东北部),16修道院。

Provincia Castellae (Spain), with 5 colleges and 2 residences (S. German and Cabo Rojo) in Porto Rico.省府Castellae(西班牙),5高校在波尔图2住宅波多黎各(S.德国和卡沃罗霍)。

Provincia Hollandica, with 6 convents.省府Hollandica,6修道院。

Provincia Belgica, with 3 convents.省府Belgica,3修道院。

Provincia Umbriae, with 9 convents.省府Umbriae,9修道院。

Provincia Bavarico-Germanica et Polonica, with 7 convents in Bavaria, 1 in Prussia, and 1 in Austrian Galicia.省府Bavarico - Polonica德国小等,7修道院在巴伐利亚,普鲁士1,在奥地利加利西亚1。

Provincia Bohemiae, with 7 convents in Bohemia.省府Bohemiae,与7波希米亚修道院。

Commissariatus Neapolitanus, with 2 convents.Commissariatus Neapolitanus,2修道院。

Commissariatus Siculus, with 8 convents in Sicily.Commissariatus Siculus,8在西西里修道院。

Provincia Etruriae, with 5 convents.省府Etruriae,5修道院。

Provincia Hiberniae, with 12 convents in Ireland (Dublin, Galway, Cork, Limerick, Drogheda, Callan, Dungarvan, New Ross, Fethard, Ballyhaunis, Clonmines, and Orlagh), 3 in England (Hoxton, West Kensington, and Hythe), 3 in Australia (Echuca, Rochester, and Kyabram), and 1 in Italy (St. Patrick's, Rome).省府Hiberniae,与12日在爱尔兰(都柏林,戈尔韦,科克,利默里克,德罗赫达,卡伦,邓加文,新罗斯,Fethard,Ballyhaunis,Clonmines和Orlagh),3英国(Hoxton,西肯辛顿和海斯),3修道院在澳大利亚(伊丘卡,罗切斯特和Kyabram),并在意大利1(圣帕特里克,罗马)。

Provincia Liguriae, with 5 convents.省府Liguriae,5修道院。

Provincia Michoacanensis (Mexico), with 10 convents, 16 vicariates or parishes, and 1 chaplaincy.省府Michoacanensis(墨西哥),10修道院,1​​6 vicariates或教区,1牧师。

Provincia SS.省府SS。Nominis Jesu Insularum Philippinarum.Nominis Jesu Insularum Philippinarum。 This comprises 2 residences at Madrid; the Real Colegio at Valladolid; 4 other residences and 7 convents in other parts of Spain; a procurator's house (domus procurationis) at Rome; 3 convents and 10 parish residences in the Philippines; a procurator's house and 6 mission stations in China; one college and five houses in the Republic of Colombia; 1 convent, 3 colleges, and 3 mission stations in Peru; a procurator's house and 16 other houses (including 1 diocesan seminary) in Brazil; 5 colleges, 1 school, and 4 other houses in Argentina.这包括2住宅在马德里,在巴拉多利德皇家Colegio; 4其他住宅和7日在西班牙的其他地区修道院,一个检察官的家(多莫斯procurationis)在罗马3修道院和10个教区在菲律宾的住宅,一个检察官的房子和6使命是设在中国,一个大学和五家在哥伦比亚共和国; 1修道院,3个学院和3秘鲁任务站,一个检察官的房子和16(包括1教区神学院)等房屋在巴西的5学院,1所学校,在阿根廷和其他4家。

Provincia S. Michaelis Quitensis (Ecuador), with 3 convents.省府S.米氏Quitensis(厄瓜多尔),3修道院。

Provincia Mexicana SS.省府墨西哥SS。Nominis Jesu (Mexico), with 6 convents and 7 vicariates.Nominis Jesu(墨西哥),6和7 vicariates修道院。

Provincia Chilensis (Chile), with 6 convents and 1 house.省府Chilensis(智利),6修道院和1家。

Provincia Melitensis (Malta), with 3 convents.省府杆菌(马耳他),3修道院。

Provincia S. Thomae a Villanova in Statibus Faederatis Americae Septentrionalis (United States of America) comprises, besides the college of Villanova, in Pennsylvania, and that of St. Augustine, at Havana, Cuba, 9 convents and 11 houses.省府S. Thomae在Statibus Faederatis Americae蜥维拉诺瓦(美利坚合众国)组成,除了在维拉诺瓦大学,宾夕法尼亚州和圣奥古斯丁,在哈瓦那,古巴,9和11家修道院的。

Provincia Matritensis SS.省府Matritensis SS。Cordis Jesu (Spain), with 2 chapels in Madrid, a convent and 2 colleges in the Escorial, 1 college each at Palma (Majorca), Guernica, and Ronda, and a school at Portugalete.科迪斯Jesu(西班牙),2在马德里教堂,修道院和2个院校在埃斯科里亚尔,各高校在1帕尔马(马略卡),格尔尼卡,和隆达,并在波图加莱特一所学校。

Congregatio S. Joannis ad Carbonariam (Naples), with 4 convents.Congregatio S. Joannis广告Carbonariam(那不勒斯),4修道院。

Congregatio S. Mariae de Nemore Siciliae (Sicily), with 2 convents.Congregatio S. Mariae DE Nemore Siciliae(西西里岛),2修道院。

The convents of St. Thomas, at Alt Brünn, Moravia, and of Our Lady of Good Counsel, Philadelphia, USA are immediately subject to the general of the Augustinian Order.圣托马斯在Alt键Brünn,摩拉维亚,和我们的好律师,费城,美国圣母修道院立即受到普遍的奥古斯丁秩序。

The chief house of the order is the International College of St. Monica at Rome, Via S. Uffizio No. 1.该命令的主要房子是在罗马的圣莫尼卡国际学院,通过S. Uffizio第1期。It is also the residence of the general of the order (prior generalis) and of the curia generalis.这也是该命令(事先generalis)一般及教廷generalis居住。Another monastery of the Augustinian Hermits in Rome is that of S. Augustinus de Urbe, established in 1483, near the church of St. Augustine, in which the remains of St. Monica, the mother if St. Augustine, were deposited when they were brought from Ostia in the year 1430.另一个在罗马奥古斯丁隐士修道院是,S.奥古斯丁DE Urbe成立于1483附近的圣奥古斯丁,其中圣莫妮卡,母亲的遗体,如果圣奥古斯丁,沉积时,他们的教堂,从奥斯蒂亚带来了每年1430。This, formerly the chief monastery of the order, is now occupied by the Italian Ministry of Marine, and the Augustinian Fathers who serve the church retain only a small portion of their former property.对此,原订单的总寺院,现在占领了意大利的海洋部,以及谁担任奥古斯丁教堂神父只保留了其原有财产的一小部分。 Another Augustinian convent in Rome is S. Maria de Populo de Urbe.另一种是在罗马奥古斯丁修道院S.玛丽亚德Populo DE Urbe。

In 1331 Pope John XXII had appointed the Augustinian Hermits guardians of the tomb of St. Augustine in the Church of S. Pietro in Ciel d'Oro at Pavia.在1331年教皇约翰XXII已任命了圣奥古斯丁的S.彼得在彩虹D' Oro酒店在帕维亚教堂墓奥古斯丁隐士监护人。 They were driven thence in 1700, and fled to Milan.从那里,他们被赶在1700年,逃往米兰。Their monastery being destroyed in 1799, and the church desecrated, the remains of St. Augustine were taken back to Pavia and placed in its cathedral.他们的寺院被摧毁1799年,和教会亵渎,圣奥古斯丁的遗体带回帕维亚,并在其教堂内。In recent times the church of S. Pietro was restored, and on 7 October, 1900, the body of the saint was removed from the cathedral and replaced in San Pietro--an event commemorated in a poem by Pope Leo XIII.在最近的S.彼得教堂恢复,并于1900年10月7日,在圣体被排除在圣彼得大教堂和替换 - 事件在一首诗纪念教皇利奥十三世。The Augustinians are again in possession of their old church of S. Pietro.在奥古斯丁又在他们的老彼得教堂S.占有。

REFORM MOVEMENTS改革运动

In the fourteenth century, owing to various causes, such as the mitigation of the rule, either by permission of the pope, or through a lessening of fervour, but chiefly in consequence of the Plague and the Great Western Schism, discipline became relaxed in the Augustinian monasteries; hence reformers appeared who were anxious to restore it.在十四世纪,由于种种原因,如规则的缓解,无论是由教皇批准,或通过热情减少,但主要是在瘟疫和西部大分裂的结果,纪律成为放松奥古斯丁修道院,因此改革者似乎谁急于恢复。 These reformers were themselves Augustinians and instituted several reformed congregations, each having its own vicar-general (vicarius-generalis), but all under the control of the general of the order.这些改革者本身奥古斯丁和制定一些改革教会,每个都有自己的副主教一般(vicarius - generalis),但下订单的一般控制的。The most important of these congregations of the "Regular Observants" were those of Illiceto, in the district of Siena, established in 1385, having 12, and subsequently 8, convents; of St. John ad Carbonariam (founded c. 1390), having 14 convents, of which 4 still exist; of Perugia (1491), having 11; the Lombardic Congregation (1430), 56; the Congregation of the Spanish Observance (1430), which since 1505 has comprised all the Castilian monasteries; of Monte Ortono near Padua (1436), having 6 convents; of the Blessed Virgin at Genoa, also called Our Lady of Consolation (c. 1470), 25; of Apulia (c. 1490), 11; the German, or Saxon, Congregation (1493) (see next paragraph); the Congregation of Zampani in Calabria (1507), 40; the Dalmatian Congregation (1510), 6; the Congregation of the Colorites, or of Monte Colorito, Calabria (1600), 11; of Centorbio in Sicily (1590), 18 (at present 2, which form the Congregation of S. Maria de Nemore Siciliae); of the "Little Augustinians" of Bourges, France (c. 1593), 20; of the Spanish, Italian, and French congregations of Discalced, or Barefooted, Augustinians (see below), and the Congregation del Bosco in Sicily established in the year 1818 and having 3 convents.其中最的“例行Observants”这些教会重要的是那些Illiceto,在锡耶纳区,1385年成立,拥有12,随后8,修道院;圣约翰广告Carbonariam(成立于C. 1390),有14修道院,其中4依然存在;佩鲁贾(1491),有11人;的Lombardic毕业典礼(1430),56;的西班牙遵守(1430),后者自1505年已包括所有的卡斯蒂利亚寺院众;的Monte Ortono附近的帕多瓦(1436),有6修道院;在热那亚的圣母,又称圣母安慰奖(约1470),25;的普利亚(约1490),11;德国,或撒克逊,会众(1493 )(见下段);在卡拉布里亚(1507),40毕业典礼的Zampani;的大麦町众(1510),6;的Colorites众,或蒙Colorito,卡拉布里亚(1600),11;在西西里岛的Centorbio (1590),18(目前2,它构成了S.玛丽亚德Nemore Siciliae众)的“小奥古斯丁”的布鲁日,法国(约1593),20;的西班牙,意大利和法国的毕业典礼对Discalced,或赤足,奥古斯丁(见下文),以及众德尔博斯克在西西里岛成立于1818年和今年有3修道院。

Among these reformed congregations, besides those of the Barefooted Augustinians, the most important was the German (Saxon) Congregation.在这些改革会众,除了赤脚奥古斯丁的人来说,最重要的是德国(萨克森)毕业典礼。As in Italy, Spain, and France, reforms were begun as early as the fifteenth century in the four German provinces existing since 1299.在意大利,西班牙和法国,改革开始只要在自1299年德国现有的四个省份十五世纪初。Johannes Zachariae, an Augustinian monk of Eschwege, Provincial of the Order from 1419-1427, and professor of theology at the University of Erfurt, began a reform in 1492.约翰内斯Zachariae,一个Eschwege奥古斯丁修士,该命令从1419年至1427年省,和神学教授在埃尔富特大学,1492年开始的改革。 Andreas Proles, prior of the Himmelpforten monastery, near Wernigerode, strove to introduce the reforms of Father Heinrich Zolter in as many Augustinian monasteries as possible.安德烈亚斯Proles事先的Himmelpforten修道院,近Wernigerode,争取引进尽可能多的奥古斯丁修道院的父亲海因里希Zolter的改革。 Proles, aided by Father Simon Lindner of Nuremberg and other zealous Augustinians, worked indefatigably till his death, in 1503, to reform the Saxon monasteries, even calling in the assistance of the secular ruler of the country. Proles,由父亲西蒙林德纳纽伦堡和其他热心奥古斯丁的帮助下,努力不懈,直到他去世,1503年,改革撒克逊寺院,即使在该国的世俗统治者的援助要求。 As the result of his efforts, the German, or Saxon, Reformed Congregation, recognized in 1493, comprised nearly all the important convents of the Augustinian Hermits in Germany.由于他的努力,德国,或撒克逊,改革会众,在1493年承认,包括几乎所有的德国奥古斯丁修道院隐士重要的结果。 Johann von Staupitz his successor, as vicar of the congregation, followed in his footsteps.约翰冯Staupitz他的继任者,作为众副主教,跟随他的脚步。Staupitz had been prior at Tübingen, then at Munich, and had taken a prominent part in founding the University of Wittenberg in 1502, where he became a professor of theology and the first dean of that faculty. Staupitz已事先在蒂宾根大学,然后在慕尼黑,并已采取了成立于1502年,他成为了神学教授和该学院首任院长的维滕贝格大学突出的部分。 He continued to reform the order with the zeal of Proles, as well as in his spirit and with his methods.他继续改革与Proles热情的顺序,以及在他的精神和他的方法。He collected the "Constitutiones fratrum eremitarum S. Aug. ad apostolicorum privilegiorum formam pro Reformatione Alemanniae", which were approved in a chapter held at Nuremberg in 1504.他收集的“Constitutiones fratrum eremitarum S.八月广告apostolicorum privilegiorum formam亲Reformatione Alemanniae”,这是在纽伦堡举行的1504一章批准。A printed copy of these is still to be seen in the university library of Jena.对这些印刷复制仍是在耶拿大学图书馆看到。Supported by the general of the order, Aegidius of Viterbo, he obtained a papal brief (15 March, 1506), granting independence under their own vicar-general to the reformed German congregations and furthermore, 15 December, 1507, a papal Bull commanding the union of the Saxon province with the German Congregation of the Regular Observants.通过该命令的一般支持,维泰博Aegidius,他获得了罗马教皇的简介(1506年3月15日),批准根据自己的副主教一般独立的教会和进一步改革德国12月15 1507年,教皇公牛指挥工会与德国的经常Observants众撒克逊省。All the Augustinian convents of Northern Germany were, in accordance with this decree, to become parts of the regular observance.所有的德国北部奥古斯丁修道院,在这项法令规定,要成为遵守规则的部分。But when, in 1510, Staupitz commanded all the hermits of the Saxon province to accept the regular observance on pain of being punished as rebels, and to obey him as well as the general of the order, and, on 30 September, published the papal Bull at Wittenberg, seven convents refused to obey, among them that of Erfurt, of which Martin Luther was a member.但是,当在1510 Staupitz指挥的萨克森省所有的隐士接受的处罚被视为反政府武装经常疼痛的遵守,并服从他,以及订单的一般,而且,9月30日,公布了教皇公牛在维滕贝格,七个修道院拒绝服从,他们之间的爱尔福特,其中马丁路德是一个成员。 In fact, Luther seems to have gone to Rome on this occasion as a representative of the rebellious monks.事实上,路德似乎已经走了这次到罗马作为反叛的僧侣代表。

In consequence of this appeal to Rome, the consolidation did not take place.在这罗马上诉的结果,巩固未能成行。Staupitz also continued to favour Luther even after this.Staupitz还继续看好,即使这个路德。They had become acquainted at Erfurt, during a visitation, and Staupitz was responsible for Luther's summons to Wittenberg in 1508; nay, even after 1517 he entertained friendly sentiments for Luther, looking upon his proceedings as being directed only against abuses.他们成为熟悉在埃尔富特,在一次探视,并Staupitz是在1508年为路德的传票维滕贝格负责;不仅如此,即使在1517年,他受理了路德友好情谊,在作为是唯一反对滥用直接找他的诉讼。 From 1519 on he gradually turned away from Luther.从1519上,他逐渐走出路德。Staupitz resigned his office of vicar-general of the German congregations in 1520. Staupitz辞去了他在1520年的德国教会副主教办公厅。Father Wenzel Link, preacher at Nuremberg, former professor and dean of the theological faculty at Wittenberg, who was elected his successor, cast his lot with Luther, whose views were endorsed at a chapter of the Saxon province held in January, 1522, at Wittenberg.父亲文策尔环线,传教士在纽伦堡,前教授和院长的神学系在维滕贝格,谁当选他的继任者,演员与路德,他都是在一月份,1522年举行的萨克森省章赞同他的意见很多,在维滕贝格。 In 1523 Link resigned his office, became a Lutheran preacher at Altenberg, where he introduced the Reformation and married, and went in 1528 as preacher to Nuremberg, where he died in 1547. 1523年辞去了他的办公室链接,成为在Altenberg,他介绍了改革和娶了路德牧师,并在1528年又作为传教士到纽伦堡,在那里他在1547年去世。 The example of Luther and Link was followed by many Augustinians of the Saxon province, so that their convents were more and more deserted, and that of Erfurt ceased to exist in 1525.路德和链接的例子其次是很多的萨克森省奥古斯丁,使他们的修道院被越来越多的冷清,而1525年的爱尔福特不再存在。The German houses that remained faithful united with the Lombardic Congregation.即保持与Lombardic众信徒团结德国房屋。There were, however, many Augustinians in Germany who by their writings and their sermons opposed the Reformation.有,然而,许多在德国奥古斯谁通过他们的著作和他们的布道反对改革。Among them Bartholomäus Arnoldi of Usingen (d. 1532 at Würzburg), for thirty years professor at Erfurt and one of Luther's teachers, Johannes Hoffmeister (d. 1547), Wolfgang Cappelmair (d. 1531), and Konrad Treger (d. 1542).其中Bartholomäus Arnoldi的Usingen(D.在维尔茨堡1532),三十年教授埃尔富特和路德的教师之一,约翰内斯霍夫麦斯特(卒于1547),沃尔夫冈Cappelmair(卒于1531年)和康拉德Treger(卒于1542年) 。

THE DISCALCED AUGUSTINIANS奥古斯丁的DISCALCED

(Sometimes called the Barefooted Augustinians, or Augustinian Recollects) More fortunate than that of the German (Saxon) province was the reform of the order begun in Spain in the sixteenth century, which extended thense to Italy and France. (有时被称为赤脚奥古斯丁,或奥古斯丁回忆),超过德国(萨克森)的省份,幸运的是在西班牙开始在十六世纪的秩序,扩大thense意大利和法国的改革。 The originator of this reform was Father Thomas of Andrada, afterwards called Thomas of Jesus.这项改革的发端是父亲托马斯安德拉达,后来所谓的耶稣托马斯。Born at Lisbon, in 1529, he entered the Augustinian Order in his fifteenth year.出生在里斯本,1529年,他进入了他的十五年的奥古斯丁秩序。Although aided in his efforts at reform by the Cardinal Infante Henry of Portugal, and his teacher, Louis of Montoya, his plans were impeded at first by the hesitation of his brethren, then by his captivity among the Moors (1578), on the occasion of the crusade of the youthful King Sebastian of Portugal, and lastly by his death in prison which took place on 17 April, 1582.虽然在他的努力在改革的枢机方特亨利葡萄牙,和他的老师,路易斯蒙托亚的帮助下,他的计划受到阻碍在由他的弟兄们犹豫,然后再由他的囚禁中的摩尔人(1578)之际对年轻的葡萄牙国王塞巴斯蒂安讨伐,最后由他在监狱中死亡而发生在1582年4月17日举行。 The celebrated poet and scholar Fray Luis Ponce de León (d. 1591), of the Augustinian monastery at Salamanca, took up the work of Thomas of Andrada.著名诗人,学者弗雷路易斯庞塞德莱昂(卒于1591)在萨拉曼卡的奥古斯丁修道院,拿起安德拉达托马斯的工作。Appointed professor of theology at the University of Salamanca in 1561, he undertook the revision of the constitutions of his order and in 1588 Father Díaz, with the support of Philip II, established at Talavera the first monastery of the Spanish Regular Observance.被任命为神学教授在1561年的萨拉曼卡大学,他答应了他的命令在1588年宪法的修改和迪亚斯神父,在菲利普二世的支持下,在塔​​拉韦拉的西班牙第一寺院建立经常遵守。 In a short time many new monasteries of Discalced Augustinians sprang up in Spain and were followed by others in the Spanish colonies.在很短的时间Discalced奥古斯丁许多新的寺院兴起,在西班牙和由他人在西班牙的殖民地之后。 In 1606 Philip III sent some Discalced Augustinians to the Philippine Islands where, as early as 1565, Fray Andrés de Urdaneta, the well-known navigator and cosmographer (cf. "La Ciudad de Dios", 1902; "Die katholischen Missionen", 1880, pp. 4 sqq.), had founded the first mission station on the island of Cebú.菲利普三世于1606年派出一些Discalced奥古斯丁到菲律宾群岛的地方,如1565年初,弗赖安德烈斯DE乌达内塔,著名航海家和宇宙学家(参见“拉城特德迪奥斯”,1902年,“模具katholischen Missionen”,1880 ,第4 SQQ),已建在宿务岛的第一个使命站。In a few years, many mission stations of the Discalced Augustinians sprang up in the principal places on the islands and developed a very successful missionary activity.在短短几年内,该Discalced奥古斯多任务站兴起,在这些岛屿上的主要场所,并制定了非常成功的传教活动。 In 1622 Pope Gregory XV permitted the erection of a separate congregation for the Discalced, with its own vicar-general.1622年罗马教皇格雷戈里十五允许一个单独的Discalced众勃起,拥有自己的副主教一般。 This congregation comprised four provinces: three in Spain and the Philippine province, to which was later added that of Peru.这众包括四个省:在西班牙和菲律宾省三,到后来加入秘鲁的。When the Discalced Augustinians in Spain were either put to death or obliged to flee, during the revolution of 1835, they continued to flourish in the Philippines and in South America.当西班牙Discalced奥古斯丁要么把死亡或被迫逃离在1835年革命,他们继续蓬勃发展,在菲律宾和南美。

In Italy, Father Andrés Díaz introduced the reformed congregations in 1592, the first house being that of Our Lady of the Olives, at Naples, which was soon followed by others at Rome and elsewhere.在意大利,父亲安德烈斯迪亚斯于1592年推出的改革教会,在那不勒斯的第一个房子是我们对橄榄夫人说,这很快就被在罗马和其他地方的人跟着。 As early as 1624 Pope Urban VIII permitted the division of the Italian congregations of Barefooted Augustinians into four provinces (later, nine).早在1624年教皇乌尔班八世获准进入四省(后来,九)对赤足奥古斯丁意大利众师。In 1626 a house of this congregation was founded at Prague and another at Vienna, in 1631, of which the celebrated Abraham a Sancta Clara was a member in the eighteenth century. 1626年此众家成立于布拉格和另一个在维也纳,1631年,其中著名的亚伯拉罕Sancta克拉拉是在十八世纪的一员。In France, Fathers François Amet and Matthew of St. Frances, of Villar-Benoit, completed the reform of the order in 1596.在法国,父亲弗朗索瓦阿梅特和圣弗朗西斯,对维拉 - 贝努瓦马修,在1596年完成对秩序的改革。The French Congregation of Discalced Augustinians comprised three provinces, of which all the houses were destroyed during the French Revolution.法国的Discalced奥古斯丁众组成的三个省份,其中所有的房子都在法国大革命期间被摧毁。As the only convent of Calced Augustinian Hermits, St. Monica, at Nantes, is at present untenanted, there is now not a single Augustinian convent in France.作为Calced奥古斯丁修道院隐士只,圣莫尼卡,在南特,目前untenanted是,现在有没有一个在法国的奥古斯丁修道院。 The Italian Congregation of Discalced Augustinians in Italy possess seven houses, six in Italy and one in Austria (Schlusselburg, with a parish in the Diocese of Budweiss).在奥古斯丁的Discalced意大利意大利众拥有7所房屋,在意大利六年在奥地利一(Schlusselburg,用在Budweiss教区教区)。 The chief house of this congregation is that of St. Nicholas of Tolentino in Rome (Via del Corso 45).这个房子是众长在罗马的圣尼古拉(Via del Corso大街45)托伦蒂诺的。Including the scattered members of the Spanish congregation in the Philippine Islands and South America, the Discalced Augustinians still number about 600 members.包括在菲律宾群岛和南美,Discalced奥古斯丁仍有约600成员人数西班牙众分散的成员。They are independent of the Augustinian general and are divided into two congregations, under two vicars-general.他们是奥古斯丁一般分为两个独立的教会在两个教区牧师总,分。

Organization of the Order组织订单

The Augustinian Hermits, while following the rule known as that of St. Augustine, are also subject to the Constitutions drawn up by Bl.奥古斯丁隐士,而下面的圣奥古斯丁,已知的规则,也受到了基本法起草的宪法。Augustinus Novellus (d. 1309), prior general of the order from 1298 to 1300, and by Bl.奥古斯丁诺(卒于1309年)之前,一般的1298至1300年的顺序,和BL。Clement of Osimo.克莱门特的Osimo。The Rule and Constitutions were approved at the general chapter held at Florence in 1287 and at Ratisbon in 1290.该规则和宪法被批准在1287年举行,并于1290年在佛罗伦萨拉蒂斯邦一般的篇章。A revision was made at Rome in 1895.一个版本是在1895年提出在罗马。The Constitutions have frequently been printed: at Rome, in 1581, and, with the commentary of Girolamo Seripando, at Venice, in 1549, and at Rome, in 1553.该宪法经常被打印:在罗马,于1581年,而且,随着吉罗拉莫Seripando评论,在威尼斯,在1549年,并在罗马,在1553年。 The newly revised Constitutions were published at Rome in 1895, with additions in 1901 and 1907.新修订的宪法公布于1895年在罗马,与1901年和1907年补充。

The government of the order is as follows: At the head is the prior general (at present, Tomás Rodríguez, a Spaniards), elected every six years by the general chapter.在政府的命令如下:在头前一般(目前,托马斯罗德里格斯,一个西班牙人),选出由总章每六年。The prior general is aided by four assistants and a secretary, also elected by the general chapter.之前一般是由四个助理和辅助秘书,也由一般章当选。These form the Curia Generalitia.这些构成了教廷Generalitia。Each province is governed by a provincial, each commissariate by a commissary general, each of the two congregations by a vicar-general, and every monastery by a prior (though the monastery of Alt-Brunn, in Moravia, is under an abbot) and every college by a rector.每个省是由一个省,每commissariate由小卖部一般,由一个牧师,一般每两众,每一个前修道院(虽然按住Alt Brunn寺院在摩拉维亚,是根据一项住持)和每一个大学校长。The members of the order are divided into priests and lay brothers.该命令的成员分为教士,奠定兄弟。The Augustinians, like most religious orders, have a cardinal protector (at present, Mariano Rampolla del Tindaro).在奥古斯丁,最喜​​欢的宗教命令,有一个大是大非保护器(目前,马里亚诺Rampolla DEL Tindaro)。 The choir and outdoor dress of the monks is of black woollen material, with long, wide sleeves, a black leather girdle, and a long pointed cowl reaching to the girdle.合唱团和僧人的户外服装是黑色的毛呢材质,长,宽袖子,黑色皮腰带,和一个长指出罩延伸到腰部。The indoor dress consists of a black habit with scapular.室内穿着由一个与肩胛黑色的习惯。In many monasteries white was formerly the colour of the house garment, also worn in public, in places where there were no Dominicans.在许多寺院白以前房子的服装颜色,也是在公众磨损,在地方有没有道明。Shoes and (out of doors) a black hat complete the costume.鞋和(走出门)黑帽完成的服装。

The Discalced Augustinians have their own constitutions, differing from those of the other Augustinians.该Discalced奥古斯丁有自己的宪法,从其他奥古斯丁的不同。Their fasts are more rigid, and their other ascetic exercises stricter.他们是更严格的斋戒,禁欲主义者和他们的其他演习严格。They wear sandals, not shoes (and are therefore not strictly discalced).他们穿的凉鞋,而不是鞋(因此没有严格discalced)。 They never sing a high Mass. As an apparent survival of the hermit life, the Discalced Augustinians practise strict silence and have in every province a house of recollection situated in some retired place, to which monks striving after greater perfection can retire in order to practise severe penance, living only on water, bread, fruits, olive oil, and wine.他们从不唱歌作为一个明显的隐士生活生存的高马萨诸塞州,在实践中严格Discalced奥古斯丁沉默和在每个省有一个回忆的房子坐落在一些退休的地方,哪个更追求完美和尚后可以退休,以实践严重的苦修,只喝水,面包,水果,橄榄油,葡萄酒生活。

PRIVILEGES OF THE ORDER特权的秩序

Privileges were granted to the order almost from its beginning.被授予特权的顺序几乎从一开始。 Alexander IV freed the order from the jurisdiction of the bishops; Innocent VIII, in 1490, granted to the churches of the order indulgences such as can only be gained by making the Stations at Rome; Pius V placed the Augustinians among the mendicant orders and ranked them next to the Carmelites.亚历山大第四摆脱了主教管辖秩序;于1490无辜八,授予,如只能通过使在罗马站获得的订单宽容教会;庇护V跻身乞讨订单奥古斯丁和排名他们旁边的加尔默罗。 Since the end of the thirteenth century the sacristan of the papal palace has always been an Augustinian.自十三世纪末罗马教皇的宫殿sacristan一直是奥古斯丁。This privilege was ratified by Pope Alexander VI and granted to the order forever by a Bull issued in 1497.此权限是由教皇亚历山大六世批准和授予的顺序由1497年发出的公牛永远。The present holder of the office is Guglielmo Pifferi, titular Bishop of Porphyra, rector of the Vatican parish (of which the chapel of St. Paul is the parish church).该办公室目前的持有人Guglielmo Pifferi,紫菜,梵蒂冈的教区神父(其中圣保罗教堂的教区教堂)名义的主教。To his office also belongs the duty of preserving in his oratory a consecrated Host which must be renewed weekly and kept in readiness in case of the pope's illness, when it is the privilege of the papal sacristan to administer the last sacraments to His Holiness.他的办公室也属于在他的演讲维持一个神圣的主机必须每周更新和准备存放在教宗的病情的情况下的责任,当它是罗马教皇sacristan权限管理的最后圣礼,以他的圣洁。 The sacristan must always accompany the pope when he travels, and during a conclave it is he who celebrates Mass and administers the sacraments.该sacristan必须始终陪伴教宗时,他的旅行,并在一次秘密会议它是谁,他庆祝质量和管理圣礼。He lives in the Vatican with a sub-sacristan and three lay brothers of the order (cf. Rocca, "Chronhistoria de Apostolico Sacrario", Rome, 1605).他在梵蒂冈的生活与子sacristan和三名非的顺序(参见罗卡“Chronhistoria DE Apostolico Sacrario”,罗马,1605年)兄弟。The Augustinian Hermits always fill one of the chairs of the Sapienza University, and one of the consultorships in the Congregation of Rites.奥古斯丁隐士永远填补之一的Sapienza大学的椅子,并在礼记众的consultorships之一。

The work of the Augustinians includes teaching, scientific study, the cure of souls, and missions.该奥古斯丁的工作包括教学,科研研究,治愈的灵魂,和任务。The history of education makes frequent mention of Augustinians who distinguished themselves particularly as professors of philosophy and theology at the great universities of Salamanca, Coimbra, Alcalá, Padua, Pisa, Naples, Oxford, Paris, Vienna, Prague, Würzburg, Erfurt, Heidelberg, Wittenberg, etc. Others taught successfully in the schools of the order.教育的历史使得奥古斯丁经常提到谁尊敬作为自己的哲学和神学教授,特别是在萨拉曼卡,科英布拉,阿尔卡拉,帕多瓦,比萨,那不勒斯,牛津,巴黎​​,维也纳,布拉格,维尔茨堡,埃尔福特,海德堡大学的伟大,维滕贝格等其他教授成功地在该命令的学校。 The order also controlled a number of secondary schools, colleges, etc. In 1685 the Bishop of Würzburg, Johann Gottfried II, of Guttenberg, confided to the care of the Augustinians the parish and the gymnasium of Munnerstadt in Lower Franconia (Bavaria), a charge which they still retain.该命令还控制了中学,大学等在1685年人数的维尔茨堡,戈特弗里德约翰二世,加滕伯格主教私下对护理的奥古斯丁教区和Munnerstadt在下弗兰肯(巴伐利亚),健身房费,他们仍然保留。 Connected with the monastery of St. Michael in that place is a monastic school, while the seminary directed by the Augustinians forms another convent, that of St. Joseph.与圣迈克尔修道院在那个地方是一个修道院学校连接,而直接由奥古斯丁修道院形式的圣若瑟修道院另一个。From 1698 to 1805 there existed an Augustinian gymnasium at Bedburg in the district of Cologne.从1698年至1805年存在着一个在科隆地区在Bedburg奥古斯丁健身房。The order also possesses altogether fifteen colleges, academies, and seminaries in Italy, Spain, and America.该命令还拥有完全fifteen院校,院校,在意大利,西班牙,美国和神学院。The chief institutions of this kind in Spain are that at Valladolid and that in the Escorial.这在西班牙样的行政机构,在巴拉多利德和,在埃斯科里亚尔。As a pedagogical writer, we may mention the general of the order Aegidius of Colonna, also called Aegidius Romanus, who died Archbishop of Bourges in 1316.作为教学的作家,我们可能会提到的科隆纳秩序Aegidius一般,也称为Aegidius罗马努斯,谁死在1316年的布尔日大主教。 Aegidius was the preceptor of the French king, Philip IV, the Fair, at whose request he wrote the work "De regimine Principum".Aegidius是法国国王辅导员,菲利普四,公平,应其要求,他写的作品“德regimine Principum”。(An extract from this book "on the care of parents for the education of their children" will be found in the "Bibliothek der katholischen Padagogik", Freiburg, 1904.) Jacques Barthélemy de Buillon, a French Augustinian exiled by the Revolution, fled to Munich and began the education of deaf and dumb children. (从该“关于父母子女的教育照顾”一书摘录会发现在“Bibliothek DER katholischen教育学”,弗赖堡,1904年)。雅克缪德Buillon,法国奥古斯丁的革命流亡,逃离慕尼黑,开始对聋哑儿童的教育。 Aegidius of Colonna was a disciple of St. Thomas Aquinas, and founded the school of theology known as the Augustinian, which was divided into an earlier and a later.科隆纳Aegidius的是圣托马斯阿奎那的弟子,并成立了神学院的奥古斯丁,这是为早期和以后的划分闻名。Among the representatives of the earlier Augustinian school (or Aegidians), we may mention besides Aegidius himself (Doctor fundatissimus) Thomas of Strasburg (d. 1357), and Gregory of Rimini (d. 1358), both generals of the order, and Augustine Gibbon, professor at Würzburg (d. 1676).在较早的奥古斯丁学校(或Aegidians)的代表,我们可能会提到除了Aegidius自己(博士fundatissimus)托马斯的斯特拉斯堡(四1357),格雷戈里的里米尼(草1358),订单都将领,和奥古斯丁长臂猿,在维尔茨堡教授(D. 1676)。The later Augustinian school of theology is represented by Cardinal Henry Noris (d. 1704), Fred.后来奥古斯丁的神学学校为代表的枢机主教亨利诺里斯(卒于1704年),弗雷德。Nicholas Gavardi (d. 1715), Fulgentius Bellelli (d. 1742), Petrus Manso (d. after 1729), Joannes Laurentius Berti (d. 1766), and Michelangelo Marcelli (d. 1804).尼古拉Gavardi(四1715),Fulgentius Bellelli(四1742),佩特鲁斯Manso(后1729 D.),Joannes Laurentius贝尔蒂(草1766),和米开朗基罗Marcelli(草1804)。The following were notable theologians: James of Viterbo (Giacomo di Capoccio), Archbishop of Benevento and Naples (d. 1308), called Doctor speculativus; Alexander a S. Elpideo (also called Fassitelli or A. de Marchina) (d. 1326), Bioshop of Melfi; Augustinus Triumphus (d. 1328); Bartholomew of Urbino (also called de Carusis) (d. 1350), Bishop of Urbino; Henry of Friemar (d. 1354); Blessed Herman of Schildesche (Schildis, near Bielefeld) (d. 1357), called Doctor Germanus and Magnus legista; Giacomo Caraccioli (d. 1357); Simon Baringuedus (d. after 1373); Johann Klenkok (Klenke) (d. 1374), author of the "Decadicon", an attack upon the "Sachsenspiegel"; Johannes Zachariae (d. 1428), known for his controversy with John Hus at the Council of Constance and for his "Oratio de necessitate reformationis"; Paulus (Nicolettus) de Venetiis (d. 1429); Giovanni Dati (d. 1471); Ambrose of Cora (Corianus, Coriolanus) (d. 1485), general of the order after 1476; Thomas Pencket (d. 1487); Aegidius of Viterbo (d. 1532); Cosmas Damian Hortulanus (Hortola) (d. 1568); Caspar Casal (d. 1587), Bishop of Coimbra; Pedro Aragon (d. 1595); Giovanni Battista Arrighi (d. 1607); Gregorio Nuñez Coronel (d. 1620); Aegidius a Praesentatione Fonseca (d. 1626); Luigi Alberti (d. 1628); Basilius Pontius (d. 1629); Ludovicus Angelicus Aprosius (d. 1681); Nikolaus Gircken (d. 1717).以下是显着的神学家:詹姆斯维泰博(贾科莫迪Capoccio),贝内文托和那不勒斯大主教(草1308),被称为博士speculativus;亚历山大A S. Elpideo(也称为Fassitelli或A DE Marchina)(卒于1326) ,Bioshop的梅尔菲;奥古斯丁Triumphus(卒于1328);缪乌尔比诺(也称为去Carusis)(卒于1350),乌尔比诺主教;的Friemar亨利(卒于1354);有福赫尔曼的Schildesche(Schildis,近比勒费尔德)(卒于1357年),被称为博士Germanus和Magnus legista;贾科莫Caraccioli(卒于1357),西蒙Baringuedus(在1373年D.);约翰Klenkok(Klenke)(卒于1374),其中的“Decadicon”的作者,一个攻击的“Sachsenspiegel”;约翰内斯Zachariae(草1428),他与约翰胡斯争议在安理会的康斯坦茨和他的“Oratio DE必要reformationis”之称,保卢斯(Nicolettus)DE Venetiis(卒于1429);乔瓦尼大梯(四1471),刘汉铨的科拉(Corianus,科利奥兰纳斯)(卒于1485),1476后的顺序一般;托马斯Pencket(卒于1487);的维泰博Aegidius(卒于1532年);科斯马斯达米安Hortulanus(Hortola )(卒于1568);卡斯帕Casal(卒于1587),科英布拉主教;佩德罗阿拉贡(卒于1595);乔瓦尼巴蒂斯塔阿瑞吉(卒于1607年);格雷戈里奥努涅斯科罗内尔(卒于1620年); Aegidius a Praesentatione丰塞卡( D. 1626);路易吉阿尔贝蒂(卒于1628年);圣殿丢(卒于1629年); Ludovicus Angelicus Aprosius(卒于1681年);尼古劳斯Gircken(卒于1717年)。Giovanni Michele Cavalieri (d. 1757) was a rubricist of note.乔瓦尼米歇尔卡瓦列利(卒于1757年)是一个值得注意的rubricist。 Father Angelo Rocca, papal sacristan and titular Bishop of Tagaste (d. 1620), known for his luturgical and archaeological researches, was the founder of the Angelica Library (Bibliotheca Angelica), which was called after him and is now the public library of the Augustinians in Rome.父亲安杰洛罗卡,教皇sacristan和名誉主教Tagaste(草1620),他和考古研究luturgical称,是该图书馆的创始人当归(当归书目),它被称为后,他和现在的公共图书馆奥古斯丁在罗马举行。 Many Augustinians have written ascetic works and sermons.许多奥古斯丁写了禁欲主义者的作品和说教。In the department of historical research the following are worthy of mention: Onofrio Panvini (d. 1568); Joachim Brulius (d. after 1652), who wrote a history of the colonization and Christianizing of Peru (Antwerp, 1615), also a history of China; Enrique Florez (d. 1773), called "the first historian of Spain", author of "Espana Sagrada"; and, lastly, Manuel Risco (d. 1801), author of a history of printing in Spain.在历史研究部,以下是值得一提的:Onofrio Panvini(卒于1568);约阿希姆Brulius(在1652年D.),谁写的殖民历史和秘鲁(安特卫普,1615年)基督教化,也是一个历史在中国,恩里克FLOREZ(卒于1773年),被称为“西班牙的第一个历史学家”,着有“西班牙Sagrada”的作者,以及,最后,曼努埃尔里斯科(卒于1801年),一个在西班牙印刷史的作者。

To the missionaries of the order we owe many valuable contributions in linguistics.为了该命令的传教士,我们欠语言学许多有价值的贡献。Father Melchor de Vargas composed, in 1576, a cathechism in the Mexican Otomi language; Father Diego Basalenque (d. 1651) and Miguel de Guevara compiled works in the languages of the savage Matlaltzinkas of Mexico; Father Manuel Perez translated the Roman Cathechism into Aztec in 1723.父亲梅尔乔DE巴尔加斯组成,在1576年,在墨西哥乙巳语言cathechism;父亲圣地亚哥Basalenque(卒于1651年)和米格尔编译格瓦拉在墨西哥的野蛮Matlaltzinkas的语言作品;父亲曼努埃尔佩雷斯翻译成阿兹特克罗马Cathechism于1723年。 Others have made researches in the languages of the Philippine Islands, such as Father Diego Bergano and, in more recent times, José Sequi (d. 1844), a prominent missionary of the order, who baptized 30,000 persons.其他已经在菲律宾群岛,如父亲迭戈Bergano,并在最近时期,何塞奎(卒于1844年),该命令的突出传教士,谁洗礼30000人,语言研究。 Many wrote grammars and compiled dictionaries.很多写的语法和编译字典。Father Herrera wrote a poetical life of Jesus in the Tagalog language in 1639.埃雷拉说父亲在1639年菲律宾语语言的耶稣的诗意生活。 Fathers Martin de Hereda and Hieronymus penetrated into the interior of China in 1577, to study Chinese literature with the intention of bringing it into Europe.父亲马丁DE Hereda和海欧纳莫斯渗透到中国内地于1577年,研究与带入欧洲,它的意图中国文学。Father Antonius Aug. Georgius (d. 1797) composed the "Alphabetum Tibetanum" for the use of missionaries.父亲安东尼八月Georgius(草1797)组成的传教士使用“Alphabetum Tibetanum”。 Father Agostino Ciasca (d. 1902), titular Archbishop of Larissa and cardinal, a prominent member of the order in recent times, established a special faculty for Oriental languages at the Roman Seminary, published an Arabic translation of Tatian's "Diatessaron" and wrote "Bibliorum Fragmenta Copto-Sahidica".父亲阿戈斯蒂诺Ciasca(卒于1902年),拉里萨和基数的,该命令在近代著名成员名义的大主教,建立了在罗马学院东方语言的特殊教师,出版了塔蒂安的“Diatessaron”阿拉伯语翻译和撰写了“ Bibliorum Fragmenta Copto - Sahidica“。Father Dionysius of Borgo San Sepolcro (d. 1342), Bishop of Monopoli in Lower Italy, is the author of a commentary on the "Factorum et dictorum memorabilium libri IX" of Valerius Maximus, and was also much esteemed for his talents as poet, philosopher, and orator.父博尔戈三Sepolcro(四1342),在意大利Monopoli的主教下,狄奥尼修斯是一个关于“Factorum等dictorum memorabilium libri IX”的Valerius Maximus的评论作者,也远作为诗人他的才华推崇,哲学家和演说家。The missionaries of the order have also given us valuable descriptive works on foreign countries and peoples.该命令的传教士们也给了我们对外国的国家和人民的宝贵描述性的作品。In this class of writing Cipriano Navarro's important work on "The Inhabitants of the Philippines" and a monumental work in six volumes entitled "La Flora de Filipinas" (Madrid, 1877--), are valuable contributions to literature and learning.在这个写作西普里亚诺纳瓦罗的重要工作,“菲律宾的居民”,并在题为“拉弗洛拉去菲律宾人”(马德里,1877 - )六册巨著类,是文学和学习的宝贵贡献。Manuel Blanco, Ignacio Mercado, Antonio Llanos, Andrés Naves, and Celestino Fernandez are also worthy of mention.曼纽尔布兰科,伊格纳西奥梅尔卡多,安东尼奥利亚诺斯,安德烈斯殿,和塞莱斯蒂诺费尔南德斯也值得一提。Fathers Angelo Perez and Cecilio Guemes published in 1905 a work in four volumes entitled "La Imprenta de Manila".父亲安杰洛佩雷斯和塞西Guemes发表于1905年在题为“拉Imprenta马尼拉”四卷工作。

A number of mathematicians, astronomers, and musicians are also found among the members of the order, but it was the great scientist Johann Gregor Mendel, abbot of the monastery of St. Thomas at Alt-Brunn in Moravia (d. 1884) who shed glory on the Augustinian Order in recent times.一个数学家,天文学家和音乐家的数量也发现之间的秩序的成员,但它是伟大的科学家约翰孟德尔,对寺院住持圣托马斯在按住Alt Brunn在摩拉维亚(卒于1884年)谁棚荣耀就在最近奥古斯丁订购。He was the discoverer of the Mendelian laws of heredity and hybridization (see under EVOLUTION; and GREGOR MENDEL).他是遗传和杂交(见演变;和孟德尔)孟德尔规律的发现者。The value set upon learning and science by the Augustinian monks is proved by the care given to their libraries and by the establishment of their own printing-press in their convent at Nuremberg, in 1479, as well as by the numerous learned men produced by the order and still contributing valuable additions to knowledge.在学习,由奥古斯丁修士一套科学的价值证明给他们的图书馆的关怀和自己在纽伦堡修道院印刷压的建立,在1479年,以及由无数教训的产生男子秩序,还造成宝贵的补充知识。 Father Tomás Cámaro y Castro (d. 1904), Bishop of Salamanca, founded a scientific periodical, "La Ciudad de Dios", formerly entitled "Revista Agustiniana", and published by the Augustinians at Madrid since 1881.父亲托马斯卡玛洛Ÿ卡斯特罗(卒于1904年),萨拉曼卡主教,创立了科学期刊,“拉城特德迪奥斯”,原题为“Revista Agustiniana”,并在马德里自1881年以来出版的奥古斯丁。In Spain the order possesses besides several meteorological stations, the observatory of the Escorial.在西班牙,为了拥有除了几个气象站,对埃斯科里亚尔天文台。Among the Augustinian writers of the present time should be mentioned: Zacarías Martínez Nuñez, a celebrated Spanish orator and master of natural science; Honorato del Val, author of a great work on dogma; Aurelio Palmieri, one of the best authorities on the Russian language, literature, and church history.在本时间奥古斯丁作家应该提到:扎卡里亚斯马丁内斯,西班牙著名的演说家和自然科学的主努涅斯; Honorato DEL VAL,对教条的伟大作品的作者;奥雷利奥帕尔米耶里,最好的机构之一的俄语,文学,和教会的历史。

The Augustinian Order has devoted itself from its beginning, with great zeal to the cure of souls.奥古斯丁令一直致力于从一开始本身,以极大的热情的灵魂治愈。Only those engaged in teaching and inmates of the houses of recollection, among the Discalced, are exempt from the obligation to this duty, to follow which the order, though retaining its name Hermits, exchanged the contemplative life for the active.只有在教学和记忆中的犯人从事房屋,跻身Discalced,这些被免除这一义务的义务,遵守该命令,但保留其名称隐士,为活动交换了沉思的生活。 Seeing the good done by the Friars Minor and the Dominicans, they wished to share in the harvest, undertaking to preach and instruct the people.眼看小的男修道士和多米尼加做的好,他们希望分享收获,进行宣讲和指导的人。Augustinians became the confessors and advisers of popes, princes, and rulers.奥古斯丁成为忏悔和教皇,王子,和统治者顾问。 Many became bishops, several cardinals, exercising these offices for the good of the Church and the honour of their order.许多人成为主教,几个枢机主教,行使对教会和对他们的订单履行好这些办事处。At present the order has a cardinal, Sebastiano Martinelli (formerly Apostolic delegate for the United States), several bishops--Guglielmo Pifferi (see above); Stephen Reville, Bishop of Sandhurst in Australia; Arsenio Campo y Monasterio, Bishop of Nueva Cáceres in the Philippine Islands; Giovanni Camilleri, Bishop of Gozzo; José López de Mendoza y Garcia, Bishop of Pampeluna, Spain; Giuseppe Capecci, Bishop of Alessandria in Italy; Francisco Xavier Valdés y Noriega, Bishop of Salamanca; William A. Jones, Bishop of Porto Rico; the Vicars Luis Perez of Northern Hu-nan (China) and Dominic Murray, Cooktown, Australia; the Prefect Apostolic (Paulino Díaz Alonso) of San León de Amazonas--and, finally, two mitred abbots.目前,为了有一个大是大非,塞巴斯蒂亚马蒂内利(前身为美国宗座代表),几位主教 - Guglielmo Pifferi(见上文);斯蒂芬Reville主教桑赫斯特在澳大利亚;阿塞尼奥坎普Ÿ修道院,主教在卡塞雷斯的NUEVA菲律宾群岛;乔瓦尼金瑞利的Gozzo主教;何塞洛佩斯德门多萨Ÿ加西亚,主教Pampeluna,西班牙,朱塞佩Capecci,主教亚历山德里亚在意大利;弗朗西斯泽维尔巴尔德斯Ÿ诺列加,萨拉曼卡主教;威廉A.琼斯主教波尔图波多黎各;的教区牧师路易斯佩雷斯北胡楠(中国)和Dominic穆雷,库克敦,澳洲,省长使徒(保利诺迪亚斯阿隆索)的新莱昂去亚马孙 - ,最后,两个斜接方丈。

The order has produced many saints, for example, Sts.该订单已经生产了许多圣人,例如,STS。Nicholas of Tolentino (d. 1305), John of Sahagún (a Sancto Facundo) (d. 1479), and Thomas of Villanova (d. 1555).尼古拉的托伦蒂诺(四1305),约翰萨阿贡(一Sancto法昆多)(四1479),和维拉诺瓦托马斯(四1555)。 Stefano Bellesini (d. 1840), the Augustinian parish priest of Genazzano, in the Roman province, was beatified by Pius X, 27 December, 1904.斯特凡诺Bellesini(卒于1840年),在Genazzano奥古斯丁教区神父在罗马省,是享福的庇护X,1904年12月27日。 The process for the beatification of seven Augustinians, among them the papal sacristan Bartolommeo Menochio (d. 1827), is under consideration.为七个奥古斯丁赐福的过程中,它们之间的教皇sacristan Ba​​rtolommeo Menochio(四1827),正在审议之中。

As to the devotional practices specially connected with the Augustinian Order, and which it has striven to propagate, we may mention the veneration of the Blessed Virgin under the title of "Mother of Good Counsel", whose miraculous picture is to be seen in the Augustinian church at Genazzano in the Roman province.至于虔诚的专门连接的奥古斯丁订单,它一直努力传播实践,我们可以提下,“善导之母”,其神奇的画面是在奥古斯丁看到标题中的圣母崇拜在Genazzano教会在罗马省。 This devotion has spread to other churches and countries, and confraternities have been formed to cultivate it.这种奉献已经蔓延到其他教会和国家,confraternities已形成培育它。Several periodicals dedicated to the honour of Our Lady of Good Counsel are published in Italy, Spain, and Germany by the Augustinians (cf. Meschler on the history of the miraculous picture of Genazzano in "Stimmen aus Maria-Laach", LXVII, 482 sqq.).献给我们的好几个律师夫人荣誉期刊发表在意大利,西班牙和德国的奥古斯丁(参见上的奇迹般的历史画卷Meschler Genazzano在“Stimmen AUS玛丽亚 - Laach”,LXVII,482 SQQ 。)Besides this devotion the order fosters the Archconfraternity of Our Lady of Consolation, a so-called girdle confraternity, the members of which wear a blessed girdle of black leather in honour of Sts.除此之外奉献的秩序促进圣母安慰,所谓的带帮会,其成员穿在STS荣誉的黑色皮腰带Archconfraternity祝福。 Augustine, Monica, and Nicholas of Tolentino, recite daily thirteen Our Fathers and Hail Marys and the Salve Regina, fast strictly on the eve of the feast of St. Augustine, and receive Holy Communion on the feasts of the three above-named saints.奥古斯丁,莫妮卡和尼古拉托伦蒂诺,背诵每日thirteen我们的父亲和冰雹玛利亚和药膏里贾纳,快速严格的圣奥古斯丁盛宴前夕,接受了上述任命三位圣人的节日圣餐。 This confraternity was founded by Pope Eugene IV at S. Giacomo, Bologna, in 1439, made an archconfraternity by Gregory XIII, in 1575, aggregated to the Augustinian Order, and favoured with indulgences.这个帮会是由罗马教皇尤金四,在S.贾科莫,博洛尼亚,成立于1439年,由格雷戈里十三an archconfraternity,于1575年,汇总到奥古斯丁订单,并与放纵的青睐。The Augustinians, with the approbation of Pope Leo XIII, also encourage the devotion of the Scapular of Our Lady of Good Counsel and the propagation of the Third Order of St. Augustine for the laity, as well as the veneration of St. Augustine and his mother St. Monica, in order to instil the Augustinian spirit of prayer and self-sacrifice into their parishioners.与教皇利奥十三认可奥古斯丁,也鼓励了我们的好律师夫人肩胛骨奉献和圣奥古斯丁的俗人三阶传播,以及崇拜的圣奥古斯丁和他的母亲圣莫尼卡,以灌输的祈祷和自我牺牲精神,把他们的教区居民奥古斯丁。

The Augustinians hold an honourable place in the history of foreign missions.在奥古斯丁持有的外国使团光荣历史的地方。Before the middle of the fourteenth century, Father Nikolaus Teschel (d. 1371), auxiliary Bishop of Ratisbon, where he died, with some brethren preached the Gospel in Africa.之前的14世纪中叶,父亲尼古拉Teschel(卒于1371年),辅助的拉蒂斯邦,他去世的主教,与一些在非洲的弟兄宣扬福音。 In 1533, after the subjugation of Mexico by Cortez, some Augustinians, sent by St. Thomas of Villanova, accomplished great missionary work in that country.在1533年,后由科尔特斯征服墨西哥,一些奥古斯丁,圣托马斯发出的维拉诺瓦,在该国实现伟大的传教工作。Monasteries sprang up in the principal places and became the centers of Christianity, art, and civilization.寺院兴起的主要场所,成为基督教,艺术和文明的中心。The Patio (Cloister) of the former monastery of St. Augustine, now the post office, at Querétaro, is one of the most beautiful examples of stone-carving in America.而在圣奥古斯丁修道院前,现在的邮局在克雷塔罗,天井(回廊)是在美国石雕最美丽的一个例子。The Augustinian monasteries in Mexico are today either deserted or occupied by a few fathers only; some even only by one.在墨西哥的奥古斯丁修道院今天要么遗弃或由一个只有少数父亲住,有的甚至只有一个。The Provincia Michoacanensis (see above, Present Condition) at present has about 55 members, while the Provincia Mexicana has 31, most of whom are priests.目前的省府Michoacanensis(见上文现状)有大约55名成员,而省府墨西哥有31个,其中大部分是祭司。 Augustinian missionaries extended their labours to South America (Colombia, Venezuela, Peru) with great success.奥古斯丁的传教士延长他们的劳动南美洲(哥伦比亚,委内瑞拉,秘鲁)大获成功。Political events in these countries prevented the order from prospering and hindered the success of its undertakings, so that in course of time the monasteries became deserted.在这些国家的政治事件阻止繁荣的秩序和阻碍了其事业的成功,使之在日久寺院成了冷清。Late events in the Philippine Islands, however, have permitted the Augustinians to return to their former churches and monasteries and even to found new ones.在菲律宾群岛的晚期事件,但是,已批准的奥古斯丁回到自己以前的教堂和修道院,甚至找到了新的。In the Republic of Colombia, 26 members of the Philippine province are employed, including 6 at the residence of Santa Fe de Bogota, 8 in the college at Facatativa, and 12 at other stations.在哥伦比亚共和国,菲律宾26省的成员有工作,其中包括6日在圣菲 - 波哥大住所,在大学8日Facatativa,并在其他车站12。In Peru 49 members of the same province are employed: 14 priests and 2 lay brothers belonging to the convent at Lima; 12 priests to the college in the same city; 6 in each of the two seminaries at Cuzco and Ayacucho.在秘鲁的49成员受雇于同一省份:14牧师和2奠定兄弟属于在利马修道院,在在库斯科和阿亚库乔两个神学院每6; 12祭司在同一个城市上大学。In the Prefecture Apostolic of San León de Amazonas, at the mission stations of Peba, Río Tigre, and Leticia in the territory of the Iquito Indians there are 9 priests.在县使徒圣莱昂德亚马孙在PEBA,蒂格雷河,和莱蒂西亚在印度境内的Iquito任务站,有9个牧师。In June, 1904, Father Bernardo Calle, the lay brother, Miguel Vilajoli, and more than 70 Christians, were murdered at the recently erected mission station, Huabico, in Upper Maranon and the station itself was destroyed.今年六月,1904年,父亲贝尔纳多卡莱,业外的兄弟米格尔Vilajoli,超过70基督徒被杀害在最近竖立任务站,Huabico,在上马拉尼翁和车站本身被摧毁。 The Augustinian settlements in Brazil also belong to the Philippine province.在巴西的奥古斯丁定居点也属于菲省。In the procuration house at S. Paulo (Rua Apeninos 6) and in the college at Brotas there are 4 Augustinians each; in the diocesan seminary at S. José de Manaos, 6; and in the other settlements, 27 priests--in all, 42 members of the order, including one lay brother.在S.在圣保罗(街Apeninos 6)拉客房子,在布罗塔斯大学有4个每个奥古斯丁,在何塞在S. DE Manaos,6教区神学院,并在其他定居点,27牧师 - 在所有42岁的顺序,其中一个成员奠定兄弟。In Argentina, there are 25 priests and two lay brothers in the six colleges and schools of the order.在阿根廷,有25个祭司和6个学院和学校的命令两名业外人士兄弟。In Ecuador, which forms a province by itself, there are 21 members of the order; 9 priests and 7 lay brothers in the monastery at Quito; 3 priests in the convent at Latagun and 2 in that at Guayaquil.在厄瓜多尔,形成了自己的一个省,有21个成员的命令,9祭司和7躺在寺院在基多兄弟,3个和2个在Latagun在瓜亚基尔的修道院教士。 The province of Chile has 56 members, including 18 lay brothers; 11 at Santiago, 4 at La Serena, 5 at Concepción, 22 at Talca, 8 at San Fernando, 4 at Melipilla, and 2 in the residence at Picazo.智利全省有56个,包括18奠定兄弟成员;在AT Picazo居住​​在圣地亚哥11日,在拉塞雷纳4,5日在康塞普西翁,在塔尔卡22日,在圣费尔南多8日,在Melipilla 4和2。The province of the United States of America is very large, as the Augustinians driven out of many European countries in 1848 sought refuge in that republic.在美利坚合众国省是非常大的,因为奥古斯丁驱动的许多欧洲国家在1848年该共和国避难。This province now numbers 200 members.现在这个省的数字200名成员。The largest convent is at Villanova, Pa.; it is also the novitiate for North America, and among the 117 religious occupying the convent 21 are priests (see above, Present Condition).最大的修道院是维拉诺瓦,宾夕法尼亚州,它也是北美见习期,并跻身117宗教占领修道院21顷祭司(见上文现状)。 The other convents contain 60 members, of whom 5 are lay brothers.其他修道院包含60名成员,其中5顷奠定兄弟。To the province of the United States belongs also St. Augustine's College at Havana, Cuba, where there are 5 priests and 3 lay brothers.到了美国也属于省圣奥古斯丁在哈瓦那,古巴,其中有5个牧师和3奠定兄弟学院。

The greatest missionary activity of the Augustinian Order has been displayed in the Philippine Islands, and the first missionaries to visit these islands were Augustinians.最伟大的奥古斯丁令传教活动已经显示在菲律宾群岛,并首次​​传教士访问这些岛屿被奥古斯丁。When Magalhaes discovered the Philippines (16 March, 1521) and took possession of them in the name of the King of Spain, he was accompanied by the chaplain of the fleet, who preached the Gospel to the inhabitants, baptizing Kings Colambu and Siagu and 800 natives of Mindanao and Cebú, on Low Sunday, 7 April, 1521.当Magalhaes发现菲律​​宾(1521年3月16日),并注意到他们拥有在西班牙国王的名字,他是伴随着舰队的牧师,谁宣扬福音的居民,奉国王Colambu和Siagu和800棉兰老岛和宿务,当地人就低星期天,1521年4月7日。 The good seed, however, was soon almost destroyed; Magalhaes was killed in a fight with natives on the little island of Mactan on 27 April and the seed sown by the first Spanish missionaries all but perished; nor were those missionaries brought from Mexico in 1543 by Ruy López Villalobos more successful, for they were obliged to return to Europe by way of Goa, having gained very little hold on the islanders.好种子,然而,很快就几乎摧毁; Magalhaes是在一个当地人对马丹4月27日,由第一个消灭了所有,但播下的种子西班牙传教士的小岛打被杀,也不是从墨西哥带来了1543年的传教士由西班牙开局亚洛沃斯比较成功的,因为他们被迫返回了果阿的方式到欧洲,很少有获得岛民举行。 Under the Adelantado Legaspi who in 1565 established the sovereignty of Spain in the Philippines and selected Manila as the capital in 1571, Father Andrés de Urdaneta and 4 other Augustinians landed at Cebú in 1565, and at once began a very successful apostolate.根据Adelantado黎牙实比成立于1565年谁在菲律宾的西班牙主权和选定为1571年首都马尼拉,父亲安德烈斯DE乌达内塔和其他4奥古斯丁降落在宿务于1565年,并在一旦开始了非常成功的使徒。 The first houses of the Augustinians were established at Cebú, in 1565, and at Manila, in 1571.在奥古斯都建立了第一家在宿务,于1565年,并在马尼拉,1571年。In 1575, under the leadership of Father Alfonso Gutierez, twenty-four Spanish Augustinians landed in the islands and, with the provincials Diego de Herrera and Martin de Rado, worked very successfully, at first as wandering preachers.在1575年,受父亲阿方Gutierez的领导下,24西班牙奥古斯丁降落在海岛和,与外省人迭戈埃雷拉和马丁DE DE雷达,工作很顺利,起初为流浪传教士。The Franciscans first appeared in the Philippines in 1577 and were warmly welcomed by the Augustinians.方济会首先出现在菲律宾,并于1577年由奥古斯都热烈欢迎。Soon they were joined by Dominicans and Jesuits.很快,他们也加入了多米尼加和耶稣会士。Sent by Philip III, the first Barefooted Augustinians landed in 1606.发送由菲利普三世,第一次赤足奥古斯丁在1606年登陆。 All these orders shared in the labours and difficulties of the missions.所有这些订单分享了劳动的任务和困难。Protected by Spain, they prospered, and their missionary efforts became more and more successful.西班牙的保护,他们的繁荣,他们的传教努力变得越来越成功。In 1773 the Jesuits, however, were obliged to give up their missions in consequence of the suppression of the Society.1773年耶稣会士,但是,不得不放弃了对社会压制的后果他们的任务。The religious orders have suffered much persecution in the Philippines in recent times, especially the Augustinians.订单遭受的宗教在近代,特别是奥古斯丁在菲律宾多的迫害。In 1897 the Calced Augustinians, numbering 319 out of 644 religious then in the Philippine province, had charge of 225 parishes, with 2,377,743 souls; the Discalced (Recollects), numbering about 220, with 233 parishes and 1,175,156 souls; the Augustinians of the Philippine province numbered in all 522, counting those in the convents at Manila, Cavite, San Sebastian, and Cebú, those at the large model farm at Imus, and those in Spain at the colleges of Monteagudo, Marcilla, and San Millan de la Cogulla.在1897 Calced奥古斯丁,编号319出644宗教在菲律宾省的话,有225个教区负责,并2377743灵魂;的Discalced(回忆),编号220与233个教区和1175156的灵魂;了菲律宾奥古斯丁全省所有522编号,计数在马尼拉,甲米地,圣塞巴斯蒂安和宿务,那些在IMU产品在大型示范农场,并在蒙特阿古,Marcilla和圣文澜德拉Cogulla高校在西班牙那些在修道院的。 Besides the numerous parishes served by the Calced Augustinians, they possessed several educational institutions: a superior and intermediate school at Vigan (Villa Fernandina) with 209 students, an orphanage and trade school at Tambohn near Manila, with 145 orphans, etc. In consequence of the disturbances, the schools and missions were deserted; six fathers were killed and about 200 imprisoned and sometimes harshly treated.除了由Calced奥古斯丁担任众多的教区,他们拥有一些教育机构:在维甘(别墅费尔南迪纳)高级,中级和209的学生,一所孤儿院和学校附近的马尼拉Tambohn贸易学校,与145孤儿,在后果等。骚乱,学校和使命被遗弃,六个父亲死亡,约200囚禁,有时严厉的对待。 Those who escaped unmolested fled to the principal house at Manila, to Macao, to Han-kou, to South America, or to Mexico.这些谁逃脱不受干扰逃到了校长家在马尼拉,澳门,韩扣,南美,或墨西哥。Up to the beginning of 1900, 46 Calced and 120 Discalced Augustinians had been imprisoned.截至1900年开始,46 Calced和120 Discalced奥古斯丁被监禁。Upon their release, they returned to the few monasteries still left them in the islands or set out for Spain, Colombia, Peru, Brazil, Argentina and China.在他们释放,他们回到了几个寺院仍留在海岛,或为西班牙,哥伦比亚,秘鲁,巴西,阿根廷和中国。The province of the United States sent some members to supply the vacancies in the Philippines.而美国省派出一些成员在菲律宾提供的空缺。The monastery of St. Paul, at Manila, now has 24 priests and 6 lay brothers; that at Cebú, 5 members of the order, that at Iloilo, on the island of Panay, 11 priests and 2 lay brothers, while in the 10 residences there are 20 fathers; so that at the present time there are only 68 Calced Augustinians in the islands.而圣保罗修道院,在马尼拉,目前有24祭司和6奠定兄弟;,在宿务,5秩序的成员,即在伊洛伊洛,在班乃,11牧师和2奠定兄弟岛,而在10住宅有20个父亲,因此,在目前只有68 Calced在海岛奥古斯丁。In all, the Provincia Ss.总之,省府SS。Nominis Jesu Insularum Philippinarum, including theological students and the comparatively small number of lay brothers, has 600 members: 359 in Spain, 185 of whom are priests; 68 in the Philippines; 29 in China; 26 in Colombia; 49 in Peru; 42 in Brazil; 27 in Argentina.Nominis Jesu Insularum Philippinarum,包括神学学生和非专业的兄弟比较少,有600个成员:在西班牙的359,185人是牧师,68在菲律宾,在中国29;在哥伦比亚26;在秘鲁49; 42巴西,阿根廷27。

The Augustinian missions in the Philippines have provided missionaries for the East since their first establishment.在菲律宾的奥古斯丁特派团提供成立以来首次为东传教士。In 1603 some of them penetrated into Japan, where several were martyred, and in 1653 others entered China, where, in 1701, the order had six missionary stations. 1603年他们中的一些渗透到日本,几个人殉难,并在1653年进入中国人,其中,在1701年,该命令有六个传教站。At present the order possesses the mission of Northern Hu-nan, China, where there are 24 members, 2 of whom are natives; 6 in the district of Yo-chou; 6 in the district of Ch'ang-te; 9 in the district of Li-chu; three other religious are also labouring in other districts-all under the vicar Apostolic, Mgr.目前以拥有北胡南,中国,那里有24名成员,其中2名是本地人的使命;在育宙区6;在长安特区6;在9区李柱;其他三个宗教也劳苦在其他地区,都在副主教使徒,经理。 Perez.佩雷斯。The mission comprises about 3000 baptized Christians and 3500 catechumens in a population of 11 millions of heathens.访问团成员包括在11个百万人口的异教徒受洗的基督徒约3000和3500慕道。In 1891 there were only 219 Christians and 11 catechumens, as well as 29 schools, with 420 children and 750 orphans.1891年只有219基督徒和慕道11,以及29所学校与420儿童和750孤儿。There are, moreover, two priests at the mission house at Han-kou and two at the procuration house at Shang-hai (Yang-tsze-poo Road, 10).有,而且,两个牧师在位于汉口使命的房子,并在在商海(阳tsze -便便路,10)拉客容纳两个。The missionary history of Persia also mentions the Augustinians.历史的波斯传教士还提到奥古斯丁。 Towards the close of the sixteenth century, Alexio de Menezes, Count of Cantanheda (d. 1617), a member of the order, appointed Archbishop of Goa in 1595, and of Braga in 1612, Primate of the East Indies, and several times Viceroy of India, sent several Augustinians as missionaries to Persia while he himself laboured for the reunion of the Thomas Christians, especially at the Synod of Diamper, in 1599, and for the conversion of the Mohammedans and the heathens of Malabar.在接近十六世纪末,Alexio梅内塞斯,计数Cantanheda(草1617),该命令的成员,任命大主教在1595年的果阿和布拉加在1612年,东印度群岛的灵长类动物,和总督几次印度派出的传教士几个奥古斯丁到波斯,而他自己辛劳为托马斯基督徒团聚,特别是在1599年的Diamper主教,并为伊斯兰教徒和异教徒的马拉巴转换。 (Govea, "Jornada do Arcebispo de Goa Dom Alexio de Menezes", Coimbra, 1606; also, "Histoire Orient. de grans progres de l'eglise Romaine en la reduction des anciens chrestiens dit de St. Thomas" translated from the Spanish of Franc. Munoz by JB de Glen, Brussels, 1609; Joa. a S. Facundo Raulin, "Historia ecclesiae malabaricae", Rome, 1745.) (Govea“Jornada做Arcebispo去果阿大教堂Alexio梅内塞斯”,科英布拉,1606;也“。Histoire东方德grans进步党DE L' eglise莴苣EN LA减少DES anciens chrestiens DIT去圣托马斯”从西班牙翻译丽珠由JB DE幽谷,布鲁塞尔,1609穆尼奥斯;。JOA A S.法昆多Raulin,“Historia,该书malabaricae”,罗马,1745年)

The Augustinians also established missions in Oceanica and Australia.在奥古斯丁还建立了Oceanica和澳大利亚任务。Here the Spanish Discalced Augustinians took over the missions founded by Spanish and German Jesuits in the Ladrones, which now number 7 stations, with about 10,000 souls, on Guam and about 2500 on each of the German islands of Saipan, Rota, and Tinian.这里的西班牙Discalced奥古斯丁接手由西班牙和德国耶稣会创立于Ladrones的任务,现在7号站,约万亡灵的关岛,约2500对的塞班岛,罗塔岛每个德国,和天宁岛。 The mission on the German islands was separated from the Diocese of Cebú on 1 October, 1906, and made a prefecture Apostolic on 18 June, 1907, with Saipan as its seat of administration, and the mission is now in charge of the German Capuchins.德国岛屿上的任务是分开的宿务于1906年10月1日教区,并与一个地使徒塞班岛6月18日,1907年,作为其行政所在地,现在的任务是在德国的卷尾猴费。 In Australia the Calced Augustinians are established in the ecclesiastical Province of Melbourne and in the Vicariate Apostolic of Cooktown, Queensland, where there are at present twelve priests of the Irish province under Monsignor James D. Murray.在澳大利亚,Calced奥古斯都建立在墨尔本教会省和代牧区的库克敦,昆士兰,那里有十二个,目前根据爱尔兰主教詹姆斯D.穆雷省牧师使徒。 Three monasteries, each with two priests, in other parts of Australia also belong to this province.三寺院,有两个道士在澳大利亚其他地方,每个也属于这个省。The order has furnished some prominent bishops to Australia, among them, James Alipius Gould.订单已提供了一些突出的主教到澳大利亚,其中,詹姆斯Alipius古尔德。The Irish Augustinian college of St. Patrick at Rome, built in 1884 by Father Patrick Glynn, OSA, is the training college for the Augustinian missions.爱尔兰圣帕特里克于1884年在罗马建造的父亲帕特里克格林,OSA,奥古斯丁学院是培训学院的奥古斯丁任务。 The present rector is Reginald Maurice McGrath.目前的校长是雷金纳德莫里斯麦格拉思。

AUGUSTINIAN NUNS奥古斯丁修女

These regard as their first foundation the monastery of nuns for which St. Augustine wrote the rules of life in his Epistola ccxi (alias cix) in 423.这些作为他们的第一个基础的修女为其中圣奥古斯丁写在他的Epistola ccxi(化名CIX)在423修道院生活的规则方面。 It is certain that this epistle was called the Rule of St. Augustine for nuns at an early date, and has been followed as the rule of life in many female monasteries since the eleventh century.可以肯定的是这封信被称为圣奥古斯丁为早日修女规则,并已作为生活在十一世纪以来,许多女修道院的规则之后。These monasteries were not consolidated in 1256, like the religious communities of Augustinian monks.这些寺院是不巩固在1256年,像奥古斯丁修士的宗教社区。Each convent was independent and was not subject to the general of the order.每个修道院是独立的,并没有受到普遍的秩序。 This led to differences in rule, dress, and mode of life.这导致了规则的差异,服饰和生活模式。Only since the fifteenth century have certain Augustinian Hermits reformed a number of Augustinian nunneries, become their spiritual directors, and induced them to adopt the Constitution of their order.十五世纪才开始有一定的奥古斯丁隐士改革的奥古斯丁庵堂数量,成为他们的精神董事,并诱导他们采取了他们的宪法秩序。 Henceforth, therefore, we meet with female members of the Order of Hermits of St. Augustine in Italy, France, Spain, Belgium, and later in Germany, where, however, many were suppressed during the Reformation, or by the secularizing law of 1803.今后,因此,我们同在的圣奥古斯丁在意大利,法国,西班牙,比利时隐士令女性成员见面,后来在德国,在那里,但是,许多人压抑在宗教改革,或由1803年世俗化法。 In the other countries many nunneries were closed in consequence of the Revolution.在其他国家的许多庵堂被关闭在革命的后果。 The still existing houses, except Cascia, Renteria (Diocese of Vittoria), Eibar (Diocese of Vittoria), and Cracow, are now under the jurisdiction of the bishop of the diocese.除现有住房的仍Cascia,伦特里亚(对维多利亚教区),Eibar(对维多利亚教区)和克拉科夫,现在下的教区主教管辖。 Many convents are celebrated for the saints whom they produced, such as Montefalco in Central Italy, the home of Blessed Clara of the Cross (Clara of Montefalco, d. 1308), and Cascia, near Perugia, where St. Rita died in 1457.许多修道院是著名的圣徒他们所生产的,如蒙特法尔科在意大利中部,是有福的十字架克拉拉(克拉拉的蒙特法尔科,D. 1308)的家,Cascia佩鲁贾附近,其中圣丽塔于1457年去世。In the suppressed convent of Agnetenberg near Dulmen, in Westphalia, lived Anne Catherine Emmerich celebrated for her visions.在附近的Agnetenberg抑制Dulmen修道院,在威斯特伐利亚州,住安妮凯瑟琳艾默里奇为庆祝她的梦想。

Mention should also be made of the monastery of the Augustinians called delle Vergini, at Venice, founded in 1177 by Alexander III after his reconciliation with Frederick Barbarossa, whose daughter Julia, with twelve girls of noble birth, entered the monastery and became first abbess.还应提及的是奥古斯丁修道院做所谓阿尔Vergini,在亚历山大三世创办于1177年后,他与腓特烈一世,他的女儿朱莉娅和解威尼斯,与十二个贵族出身的女孩,进入了修道院,成为第一个女修道院院长。 Doge Sebastiano Zani, who had endowed the institution, was appointed patron, with the privilege of approving the election of the abbess before the granting of the papal confirmation.公爵塞巴斯蒂亚Zani,谁赋予了机构,被任命为靠山,在批准前的罗马教皇的确认授予的女修道院院长的选举特权。 On the French occupation in the eighteenth century the religious went to America, where they devoted themselves to the work of teaching and the care of the sick.在十八世纪法国占领的宗教去美国,在那里他们潜心教学和照顾病人的工作。Later they established monasteries in Italy and in 1817 in Paris.后来他们成立于1817年在意大利和巴黎寺院。Towards the end of the sixteenth century communities of female Discalced Augustinians appeared in Spain.在接近的女性Discalced奥古斯丁十六世纪社区年底出现在西班牙。The first convent, that of the Visitation, was founded at Madrid, in 1589, by Prudencia Grillo, a lady of noble birth, and received its Constitution from Father Alfonso of Orozco.第一个女修道院,在探视的,成立于马德里,在1589年,由Prudencia格里洛,贵族出身的小姐,并获得父亲的奥罗斯科阿方宪法。 Juan de Ribera, Archbishop of Valencia (d. 1611), founded a second Discalced Augustinian congregation at Alcoy, in 1597.胡安德里贝拉格兰德,瓦伦西亚大主教(四1611),成立于阿尔科伊第二Discalced奥古斯丁众,1597年。It soon had houses in different parts of Spain, and in 1663 was established at Lisbon by Queen Louise of Portugal.它很快就在西班牙不同地区的房屋,并于1663年在里斯本成立了由葡萄牙女王路易丝。In addition to the Rule of St. Augustine these religious observed the exercises of the Reformed Carmelites of St. Teresa.除了这些规则的圣奥古斯丁的宗教观察,圣德肋撒改革加尔默罗演习。In the convent at Cybar, Mariana Manzanedo of St. Joseph instituted a reform which led to the establishment of a third, that of the female Augustinian Recollects.在Cybar在修道院,马里亚纳圣若瑟Manzanedo制定了改革,导致了第三个成立,该女奥古斯丁回忆。 The statutes, drawn up by Father Antinólez, and later confirmed by Paul V, bound the sisters to the strictest interpretation of the rules of poverty and obedience, and a rigorous penitential discipline.该法规,制定的父亲Antinólez起来,后来证实保罗V约束姐妹的贫困和服从规则的严格解释,并有一套严格的悔罪纪律。 All three reforms spread in Spain and Portugal, but not in other countries.所有三项改革蔓延在西班牙和葡萄牙,但在其他国家没有。 A congregation of Augustinian nuns under the title "Sisters of St. Ignatius" was introduced into the Philippines and South America by the Discalced Augustinian Hermits.一,题目是“圣依纳爵姐妹”奥古斯丁众僧尼被引入到菲律宾和南美的Discalced奥古斯丁隐士。They worked zealously in aid of the missions, schools, and orphanages in the island, and founded the colleges of Our Lady of Consolation and of St. Anne at Manila, and houses at Neuva Segovia, Cebú, and Mandaloya on the Pasig, where they have done much for the education of girls.他们在工作热忱的任务,学校,并在岛上孤儿院援助,成立于Neuva塞戈维亚,宿务,并Mandaloya在帕西格对我们的安慰和圣安妮夫人在马尼拉学院,和房子,在那里他们已经做了很多的女童教育。

Publication information Written by Max Heimbucher.公开信息的最大Heimbucher写。Transcribed by Rosa Maria Wiemann.转录由罗莎玛丽亚Wiemann。Dedicated to St. Augustine and to all Augustinians The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume VII.专用于圣奥古斯丁和所有奥古斯丁的天主教百科全书,体积七。Published 1910.发布1910年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, June 1, 1910. Nihil Obstat,1910年6月1日。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰farley枢机主教,大主教纽约

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On Augustinian Writers.-- Elsius, Encomiasticon Augustinianum (Brussels, 1654); Curtius, Virorum illustrium 在奥古斯丁作家.-- Elsius,Encomiasticon Augustinianum(布鲁塞尔,1654);库尔提乌斯,Virorum illustrium elogia (Antwerp, 1636, 1658); Gratianus, Anastasis Augustiniana (Antwerp, 1613), continued by Loy (Antwerp, 1636); Arpe, Pantheon Augustinianum (Genoa, 1709); Ossinger, Bibliotheca Augustiniana historica, critica et chronologica (Ingolstadt and Munich, 1776); Moral, Catalogo de escritores Agustinos Espanoles, Portugueses y Americanos in La Ciudad de Dios, XXXIV sqq.elogia(安特卫普,1636年,1658年); Gratianus,Anastasis Augustiniana(安特卫普,1613),由洛伊(安特卫普,1636年)继续; ARPE,万神殿Augustinianum(热那亚,1709); Ossinger,书目Augustiniana史馆,critica等chronologica(英戈尔斯塔特和慕尼黑,1776),道德,Catalogo DE escritores Agustinos Espanoles,葡萄牙人Ÿ Americanos在La城特德迪奥斯,XXXIV SQQ。

On Augustinian Missions.-- Calancha, Cronica moralizada de la orden de San Agustin en el Peru (Barcelona, 1638); Baldani, Vita del fra Diego Ortiz, protomartire nel regno di Peru, martirizzato l'a.在奥古斯丁代表团.-- Calancha,纪事moralizada德拉勋章de圣奥古斯丁EN EL秘鲁(巴塞罗那,1638年); Baldani,VITA DEL FRA迭戈奥尔蒂斯,protomartire NEL regno迪秘鲁,martirizzato L'一个。1571 (Genoa, 1645); Brulius, Historiae Peruanae O. Erem.1571(热那亚,1645); Brulius,十年史料Peruanae O. Erem。 S. Aug. (Antwerp, 1651--); The Philippine Islands 1493-1898 (Cleveland, 1903--); Gaspar de S. Agustin, Conquista de las islas Filipinas (Madrid, 1698), continued by Díaz (Valladolid, 1890); Mozo, Noticia de los triumphos S.八月(安特卫普,1651 - );菲律宾群岛1493年至1898年(克利夫兰,1903 - );加斯帕DE S.奥古斯丁,孔基斯塔DE LAS马尔菲律宾人(马德里,1698),由迪亚斯续(巴拉多利德,1890 ); Mozo,Noticia德洛斯triumphos de la Orden de San Ag.德拉de圣银勋章。en las misiones en las islas Filipinas y en imperio de la China (Madrid, 1763); Memoria acerca de las Misiones de los PP.EN LAS米西奥内斯EN LAS马尔菲律宾人Ÿ EN imperio德拉中国(马德里,1763); Memoria acerca DE LAS米西奥内斯德洛斯PP。Agustinos Calzados (Madrid, 1892); Los Frailes Filipinos (Madrid, 1898); Documentos Interesantes acerca de la secularizacion y amovilidad de los Curas Regulares de Filipinas (Madrid, 1897); Francisco del Carmen, Catalogo de los religiosos Agustinos Recoletos de la Provincia de San Nicolas de Tolentino de Filipinas desde 1606 hasta nuestros dias (Madrid, 1906).Agustinos Calzados(马德里,1892年);洛杉矶弗赖莱斯菲律宾人(马德里,1898年); Documentos Interesantes acerca德拉secularizacion Ÿ amovilidad德洛斯Curas Regulares去菲律宾人(马德里,1897年);旧金山卡门,Catalogo德洛斯religiosos Agustinos Recoletos酒店德省报德圣尼古拉DE DE托伦蒂诺菲律宾人desde 1606 hasta nuestros迪亚斯(马德里,1906年)。


Rule of Saint Augustine圣奥古斯丁规则

Catholic Information天主教信息

The title, Rule of Saint Augustine, has been applied to each of the following documents:标题,圣奥古斯丁规则,已经应用到下列文件各:

Letter 211 addressed to a community of women;211信给社区的妇女;

Sermons 355 and 356 entitled "De vitâ et moribus clericorum suorum";布道355和356,题为“者维等moribus clericorum suorum”;

a portion of the Rule drawn up for clerks or Consortia monachorum;文员的制定或财团monachorum了规则的一部分;

a Rule known as Regula secunda; and作为雷古拉塞康达称为规则;和

another Rule called: "De vitâ eremiticâ ad sororem liber."另一种规则叫:“者维eremiticâ广告sororem LIBER。”

The last is a treatise on eremitical life by Blessed Ælred, Abbot of Rievaulx, England, who died in 1166 and as the two preceding rules are of unknown authorship, it follows that none but Letter 211 and Sermons 355 and 356 were written by St. Augustine.最后是一个eremitical生活的祝福Ælred,住持Rievaulx,英国,谁死在1166年和前两个规则不明的作者是,它遵循的信没有,但211和355和356人讲道圣写论文奥古斯丁。 Letter 211 is addressed to nuns in a monastery that had been governed by the sister of St. Augustine, and in which his cousin and niece lived. 211信是写给修女在一个已经由圣奥古斯丁修道院的姐妹管辖,并在其中他的堂兄和外甥女住。His object in writing it was merely to quiet troubles, incident to the nomination of a new superior, and meanwhile he took occasion to expatiate upon some of the virtues and practices essential to the religious life.他在书面对象只是安静的烦恼,入射到一个新的优越的提名,同时他乘机expatiate后的美德和做法的宗教生活不可或缺的部分。 He dwells upon charity, poverty, obedience, detachment from the world, the apportionment of labour, the mutual duties of superiors and inferiors, fraternal charity, prayer in common, fasting and abstinence proportionate to the strength of the individual, care of the sick, silence, reading during meals, etc. In his two sermons "De vitâ et moribus clericorum suorum" Augustine seeks to dispel the suspicions harboured by the faithful of Hippo against the clergy leading a monastic life with him in his episcopal residence.他dwells在慈善,贫穷,服从,支队从世界,劳动分配,上级和下级的相互职责,兄弟般的慈善事业,共同的,禁食和禁欲相称的个人的力量祈祷,照顾病人,沉默,在吃饭,等读他的两个布道“者维等moribus clericorum suorum”奥古斯丁旨在消除由河马对领导与他在他的主教官邸寺院僧侣生活的忠实怀有的疑虑。The perusal of these sermons discloses the fact that the bishop and his priests observed strict poverty and conformed to the example of the Apostles and early Christians by using their money in common.这些说教审阅披露的事实,主教和他的牧师严格遵守贫困,符合的使徒和使用共同的货币早期基督徒的例子。This was called the Apostolic Rule.这被称为使徒规则。St. Augustine, however, dilated upon the religious life and its obligations on other occasions.圣奥古斯丁,然而,扩张后的宗教​​生活和在其他场合的义务。

Aurelius, Bishop of Carthage, was greatly disturbed by the conduct of monks who indulged in idleness under pretext of contemplation, and at his request St. Augustine published a treatise entitled "De opere monarchorum" wherein he proves by the authority of the Bible the example of the Apostles, and even the exigencies of life, that the monk is obliged to devote himself to serious labour.奥勒留主教的迦太基,大大感到不安的僧侣进行谁在纵容懒惰的借口下的沉思,并在他的要求圣奥古斯丁发表了题为“德opere monarchorum”的论文,他在其中的圣经权威的例子证明的使徒,甚至生命的紧急情况,该和尚是有责任投身到严重的劳动力。In several of his letters and sermons is found a useful complement to his teaching on the monastic life and duties it imposes.在他的信件和说教是发现了一些有益的补充,他的教学上的寺院生活,它规定的职责。These are easy of access to Benedictine edition, where the accompanying table may be consulted under the words: monachi, monachae, monasterism, monastica vita, sanctimoniales.这是进入本笃版,其中所附表格可根据咨询的话很简单:monachi,monachae,monasterism,monastica VITA,sanctimoniales。

The letter written by St. Augustine to the nuns at Hippo (423), for the purpose of restoring harmony in their community, deals with the reform of certain phases of monasticism as it is understood by him.写的圣奥古斯丁的尼姑在河马(423)为恢复其社会和谐的目的,信,随着改革的某些阶段修道交易,因为它是理解他。This document, to be sure, contains no such clear, minute prescriptions as are found in the Benedictine Rule, because no complete rule was ever written prior to the time of St. Benedict; nevertheless, the Bishop of Hippo is a law-giver and his letter if to be read weekly, that the nuns may guard against or repent any infringement of it.这份文件,可以肯定的,不包含这样明确,如在本笃规则发现分钟处方,因为没有完整的规则之前写过的圣本笃的时间,但是,主教的河马是法治送礼者和他信如果要读取每周的修女可能防止或悔改它的任何侵犯。 He considers poverty the foundation of the religious life, but attaches no less importance to fraternal charity, which consists in living in peace and concord.他认为贫穷的宗教生活的基础,但同样重要的高度,以兄弟般的慈善机构,这在和平与和谐的生活组成。The superior, in particular, is recommended to practise this virtue although not, of course, to the extreme of omitting to chastise the guilty.优越的,特别是推荐的做法虽然没有这种美德,当然,对漏极端严惩罪犯。 However, St. Augustine leaves her free to determine the nature and duration of the punishment imposed, in some cases it being her privilege even to expel nuns that have become incorrigible.不过,圣奥古斯丁留下她自由确定的性质和持续时间的规定处罚,在某些情况下,它是她的特权,甚至开除已成为不可救药的​​修女。

The superior shares the duties of her office with certain members of her community, one of whom has charge of the sick, another of the cellar, another of the wardrobe, while still another is the guardian of the books which she is authorized to distribute among the sisters.优越的股份与她的社会的某些成员,其中有病人负责之一,另一个酒窖,另一个的衣柜,她的办公室的职责,同时还有一个是她有权分发给书籍监护人姐妹们。 The nuns make their habits which consist of a dress, a cincture and a veil.修女们使他们的生活习惯哪一件衣服,一环绕和面纱组成。Prayer, in common, occupies an important place in their life, being said in the chapel at stated hours and according to the prescribed forms, and comprising hymns, psalms and readings.祷告,是共同的,他们的生活中占有重要地位,是在规定时间在教堂说,按照规定的形式,包括赞美诗,圣歌和读数。 Certain prayers are simply recited while others, especially indicated, are chanted, but as St. Augustine enters into no minute details, it is to be supposed that each monastery conformed to the liturgy of the diocese in which it is situated.某些祈祷只是背诵,而其他人,尤其是表示,被歌颂,但圣奥古斯丁到微小的细节没有进入,它是要假定每个寺院顺应教区礼仪中,它位于。 Those sisters desiring to lead a more contemplative life are allowed to follow special devotions in private.这些姐妹们渴望过上更加沉思的生活被允许按照私人特殊奉献。The section of the rule that applies to eating, although severe in some respects, is by no means observance and the Bishop of Hippo tempers it most discreetly.该规则适用于食用部分,虽然在某些方面严重,绝不是遵守和脾气的河马是最谨慎的主教。Fasting and abstinence are recommended only in proportion to the physical strength of the individual, and when the saint speaks of obligatory fasting he specifies such as are unable to wait the evening or ninth hour meal may eat at noon.禁食和禁欲建议只按比例个人的体力,而当圣人强制性空腹谈到他指定如不能等待晚上九小时或饭后可以吃中午。The nuns partake of very frugal fare and, in all probability, abstain from meat.修女们分享非常节俭的票价,并在所有的可能性,放弃肉类。However, the sick and infirm are objects of the most tender care and solicitude, and certain concessions are made in favour of those who, before entering religion, leds life of luxury.然而,病人和体弱者是最温柔的关怀和慰问对象,并在一定的优惠作出有利于那些在进入宗教灯奢华的生活谁。During meals some instructive matter to be read aloud to the nuns.吃饭时要了一些有益的事情朗​​读的修女。Although the Rule of St. Augustine contains but few precepts, it dwells at great length upon religious virtues and the ascetic life, this being characteristic of all primitive rules.虽然圣奥古斯丁规则包含但很少戒律,它在大篇幅对宗教禁欲主义的美德和生活dwells,这是基本规则的所有特征。In his sermons 355 and 356 the saint discourses on the monastic observance of the vow of poverty. 355和356在他的布道就贫困的誓言遵守寺院圣话语。Before making their profession the nuns divest themselves of all their goods, their monasteries being resposible for supplying their wants, and whatever they may earn or receive is turned over to a commom fund, the monasteries having right of possession.在作出他们的职业尼姑放弃所有的货物本身,正在为他们的寺庙负责提供他们的希望,不管他们可能赚取或收到的上缴commom基金,寺院拥有权的占有。

In his treatise, "De opere monarchorum", he inculcates the necessity of labour, without, however, sujecting it to any rule, the gaining of one's livelihood rendering it indispensable.在他的论文,“德opere monarchorum”,他灌输了劳动的必要性,但不,sujecting到任何规则,一个人的生活越来越呈现它不可缺少的。Monks of couse, devoted to the ecclesiastical ministry observe, ipso facto, the precept of labour, from which observance the infirm are legitimately dispensed.对职高僧侣,致力于教会部观察,事实本身,劳动言教,从中遵守体弱者是合法免除。These, then, are the most important monastic prescriptions found in the rule of and writings of St. Augustine.这些话,是最重要的寺院中的规则和圣奥古斯丁的著作中找到处方。

MONASTIC LIFE OF ST.寺院生活ST。AUGUSTINE奥古斯丁

Augustine was a monk; this fact stands out unmistakably in the reading of his life and works.奥古斯丁是一个和尚,这其实代表在他的生活和作品阅读无误。Although a priest and bishop, he knew how to combine the practices of the religious life with the duties of his office, and his episcopal house in Hippo was for himself and some of his clergy, a veritable monastery.虽然牧师和主教,他知道如何结合其职位的职责的宗教生活的做法,以及他在河马主教为自己的房子和他的一些神职人员,名副其实的寺院。 Several of his friends and disciples elevated to the episcopacy imitated his example, among them Alypius at Tagaste, Possidius at Calama, Profuturus and Fortunatus at Cirta Evodius at Uzalis, and Boniface at Carthage.他的朋友和提升到了主教的几个弟子模仿他的例子,其中在Tagaste,Possidius Alypius在卡拉马,Profuturus和Fortunatus在西尔塔在Uzalis Evodius,并在迦太基博尼。There were still other monks who were priests and who exercised the ministry outside of the episcopal cities.仍然有谁是谁行使祭司和主教以外的其他城市的部僧侣。All monks did not live in these episcopal monasteries; the majority were laymen whose communities, although under the authority of the bishops, were entirety distinct from those of the clergy.所有的僧侣没有生活在这些主教寺庙,大部分都是外行的社区,虽然下的主教的权威,是完全从神职人员的不同。There were religious who lived in complete isolation, belonging to no community and having no legitimate superiors; indeed, some wandered aimlessly about, at the risk of giving disedification by their vagabondage.有宗教谁住在完全隔离,​​不属于任何社区,但没有合法的上级,事实上,有些漫无目的的游荡约在给予他们的流浪disedification风险。 The fanatics known as Circumcelliones were recruited from the ranks of these wandering monks, St. Augustine often censured their way of living.作为著名的痴迷者Circumcelliones是从这些流浪僧侣队伍招募,圣奥古斯丁经常指责他们的生活方式。

The religious life of the Bishop of Hippo was, for a long time, a matter of dispute between the Canons Regular and the Hermits of St. Augustine, each of these two families claiming him exclusiely as its own.该主教的宗教生活的河马是,很长一段时间,一间普通的大炮和圣奥古斯丁的隐士,这两个家庭都宣称他exclusiely作为自己的争议事项。 It was not so much the establishing of an historical fact as the settling of a claim of precedence that caused the trouble, and as both sides could not in the right, the quarrel would have continued indefinitely had not the Pope Sixtus IV put an end by his Bull "Summum Silentium" (1484).它与其说是一个作为一个优先声称造成的麻烦解决历史事实成立,并作为双方不能在正确的争吵会继续下去没有教皇Sixtus IV杜绝通过他的公牛“Summum Silentium”(1484)。The silence was imposed, however, was not perpetual, and the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries were resumed between the Canons and the Hermits but all to no avail.沉默是强加的,然而,是不是永久的,和十七,十八世纪的人之间的大炮和隐士,但一切都是徒劳恢复。Pierre de Saint-Trond, Prior of the Canons Regular of St. Martin of Louvain, tells the story of these quarrels in the Preface to his "Examen Testamenti S. Augustini" (Louvain, 1564).皮埃尔德圣特龙,圣的大炮鲁汶马丁经常在此之前,讲述在他的“Examen Testamenti S. Augustini”(鲁汶,1564)前言这些争吵的故事。Gabriel Pennot, Nicolas Desnos and Le Large uphold the thesis of the Canons; Gandolfo, Lupus, Giles of the Presentation, and Noris sustain that of the Hermits.加布里埃尔Pennot,萨科Desnos和乐大坚持的大炮论文; Gandolfo,红斑狼疮,贾尔斯的演示,维持和诺里斯的隐士的。The Bollandists withhold their opinion.该Bollandists保留自己的意见。St. Augustine followed the monastic or religious life as it was known to his contemporaries and neither he nor they even thought of establishing among those who had embraced it any distinction whatever as to congregations or orders.圣奥古斯丁修道院或遵循的宗教生活,因为它是众所周知的他同时代的,不论是他还是他们甚至在那些谁曾接受它无论以任何区别教会或订单建立思想。 This idea was conceived in a subsequent epoch, hence St. Augustine cannot be said to have belonged to any particular order.这个想法在随后的划时代的构想,因此圣奥古斯丁不能说已经属于任何特定的顺序。He made laws for the monks and nuns of Roman Africa, it is true, and he helped to increase their numbers, while they, in turn, revered him as their father, but they cannot be classed as members of any special monastic family.他做的僧侣和尼姑非洲的罗马法律,它是真实的,他帮助提高他们的人数,而他们,反过来,他尊为他们的父亲,但它们不能作为任何特殊寺院家庭成员归类。

ST. ST。AUGUSTINE'S INFLUENCE ON MONACHISM奥古斯丁的影响MONACHISM

When we consider Augustine's great prestige, it is easy to understand why his writings should have so influenced the development of Western monachism.当我们考虑奥古斯丁的巨大威望,很容易理解为什么他的作品应该有这样影响了西方monachism发展。His Letter 211 was read and re-read by St. Benedict, who borrowed several important texts from it for insertion in his own rule.他的信211读取和圣本笃,谁借了他自己的规则,从它的几个重要文本的插入重读。St. Benedict's chapter on the labour of monks is manifestly inspired by the treatise "De opere monachorum", that has done so much towards furnishing an accurate statement of the doctrine commonly accepted in religious orders.圣本笃的对僧侣劳动章显然是灵感的论文“德opere monachorum”,即对家具做了这么多的订单普遍接受的宗教教义的准确表述。The teaching concerning religious poverty is clearly formulated in the sermons "De vitâ et moribus clericoreun suorum" and the authorship of these two works is sufficient to earn for the Bishop of Hippo the title of Patriarch of monks and religious.教学有关宗教贫困显然是在布道制定了“者维等moribus clericoreun suorum”与这两部作品的作者是足以赚取的河马的僧侣和宗教祖师称号主教。The influence of Augustine, however, was nowhere stronger than in southern Gaul in the fifth and sixth centuries.奥古斯丁的影响,然而,远不及南部在第五和第六世纪高卢强。Lérins and the monks of that school were familiar with Augustine's monastic writings, which, together with those of Cassianus, were the mine from which the principal elements of their rules were drawn. Lérins和该学校的僧侣与奥古斯丁修道院的著作,其中,连同Cassianus的,是从哪个其规则的主要内容是吸引我的熟悉。St. Caesarius, Archbishop of Arles, the great organizer of religious life in that section chose a some of the most interesting articles of his rule for monks from St. Augustine, and in his rule for nuns quoted at length from Letter 211.圣Caesarius,大主教阿尔勒,宗教生活在该节的组织者选择了一些伟大的,他从圣奥古斯丁修士规则中最有趣的文章,并在他的长度从211信报修女规则。 Sts.STS。Augustine and Caesarius were animated by the same spirit which passed from the Archbishop of Arles to St. Aurelian, one of his successors, and, like him, a monastic Iawgiver.奥古斯丁和Caesarius分别动画由同​​一精神,通过从阿尔勒大主教圣Aurelian,他的继任者之一,和他一样,一个寺院Iawgiver。 Augustine's influence also extended to women's monasteries in Gaul, where the Rule of Caesarius was adopted either wholly or in part, as, for example, at Sainte-Croix of Poitiers, Juxamontier of Besançon, and Chamalières near Clermont.奥古斯丁的影响还扩展到妇女在高卢寺庙,那里的Caesarius规则是通过全部或部分,因为,例如,在圣克鲁瓦的普瓦捷,贝桑松Juxamontier,靠近克莱蒙Chamalières。

But it was not always enough merely to adopt the teachings of Augustine and to quote him; the author of the regula Tarnatensis (an unknown monastery in the Rhone valley) introduced into his work the entire text of the letter addressed to the nuns, having previously adapted it to a community of men by making slight modifications.但它并不总是足够的仅仅采用奥古斯丁的教义,并引述他,该稳压Tarnatensis(罗纳河谷中的一个未知的寺院)作者介绍到他工作的给修女的信的全文,在此之前它适应社会的男人通过使轻微的修改。 This adaptation was surely made in other monasteries in the sixth or seventh centuries, and in his "Codex regularum" St. Benedict of Aniane published a text similarly modified.这种适应肯定是在其他寺庙在第六或第七世纪,并在他的“法典regularum”圣本笃的Aniane发表同样修改文本。

For want of exact information we cannot say in which monasteries this was done, and whether they were numerous.对于想确切信息,我们不能说这是在这寺院做的,不管他们是数不胜数。Letter 211, which has thus become the Rule of St. Augustine, certainly constituted a part of the collections known under the general name of "Rules of the Fathers" and used by the founders of monasteries as a basis for the practices of the religious life.信211,它也因此成为了圣奥古斯丁规则,肯定构成了根据“规则的父亲”一般的名称称为集合的一部分,由寺庙的创始人作为对宗教生活的实践基础。 It does not seem to have been adopted by the regular communities of canons or of clerks which began to be organized in the eighth and ninth centuries.它似乎并没有被通过大炮或书记的这开始在第八和第九世纪定期举办社区采用。 The rule given them by St. Chrodegang, Bishop of Metz (742-766), is almost entirely drawn from that of St. Benedict, and no more decided traces of Augustinian influence are to be found in it than in the decisions of the Council of Aachen (817), which may be considered the real constitutions of the canons Regular.给予圣Chrodegang,梅斯(742-766)的主教,他们的规则几乎完全来自圣本笃说,和奥古斯丁的影响没有更多的决定要在跟踪它找到比在安理会的决定亚琛(817),这可能被视为真正的大炮经常宪法。 For this influence we must await the foundation of the clerical or canonical communities established in the eleventh century for the effective counteracting of simony and clerical concubinage.对于这种影响,我们必须等待在十一世纪建立的买卖圣职及文书纳妾有效抵消文书或规范的社区基础。

The Council of Lateran (1059) and another council held at Rome four years later approved for the members of the clergy the strict community life of the Apostolic Age, such as the Bishop of Hippo had caused to be practised in his episcopal house and had taught in his two sermons heretofore cited.的拉特兰会议(1059)和理事会在罗马举行另一个四年后批准的使徒时代的社会生活,如严格的河马主教,造成了要在家里练习他的主教神职人员的成员,并教在此之前他的两个布道引。 The first communities of canons adopted these sermons as their basis of organization.社区的门炮,第一个通过了他们的这些说教的组织基础。This reform movement spread rapidly throughout Latin Europe and brought about the foundation of the regular chapters so numerous and prosperous during the Middle Ages.这一改革运动迅速蔓延整个欧洲和拉丁美洲对如此众多的中世纪期间定期章节的基础带来了繁荣。Monasteries of women or of canonesses were formed on the same plan, but not according to the rules laid down in the sermons "De vitâ et moribus clericorum."妇女或canonesses寺院形成了同样的计划,但不按规则规定下来的布道“者维等moribus clericorum。”The letter to virgins was adopted almost immediately and became the rule of the canons and canonesses; hence it was the religious code of the Premonstratensians, of the houses of Canons Regular, and of canonesses either gathered into congregations or isolated, of the Friars Preachers, of the Trinitarians and of the Order of Mercy, both for the redemption of captives, of hospitaller communities, both men and women, dedicated to the care of the sick in the hospitals of the Middle Ages, and of some military orders.对处女信通过几乎立即成为了大炮和canonesses规则,因此它是宗教的Premonstratensians代码的大炮经常的房屋,并任聚集成众或隔离canonesses的男修道士传教士,的三位一体及观音订购既为俘虏赎回hospitaller社区,男性和女性专用的中世纪医院的病人护理,以及一些军事订单,。

Publication information Written by JM Besse.出版信息JM贝斯写。Transcribed by Joseph P. Thomas.转录由约瑟夫体育托马斯。The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume II.天主教百科全书,第二卷。Published 1907.1907年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, 1907.Nihil Obstat,1907年。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰米farley,大主教纽约



Also, see:此外,见:
Saint Augustine圣奥古斯丁

Religious Orders宗教命令
Franciscans
Jesuits 耶稣会士
Benedictines benedictines
Trappists trappists
Cistercians 熙笃会
Dominicans 多米尼加
Carmelites carmelites
Discalced Carmelitesdiscalced carmelites
Christian Brothers基督教兄弟
Marist Brothersmarist兄弟

Monasticism 修道
Nuns 修女
Friars friars
Convent 修道院
Ministry
Major Orders主要的订单
Holy Orders神圣的订单

Also, see links to 600+ Augustine full Manuscripts:此外,见链接到600 +奥古斯丁充分的手稿:
/txv/earlyche.htm /txv/earlyche.htm
/txv/earlychf.htm /txv/earlychf.htm
/txv/earlychg.htm /txv/earlychg.htm
/txv/earlychh.htm /txv/earlychh.htm
/txv/earlychi.htm /txv/earlychi.htm
/txv/earlychj.htm /txv/earlychj.htm
/txv/earlychk.htm /txv/earlychk.htm
/txv/earlychl.htm /txv/earlychl.htm
/txv/earlychm.htm /txv/earlychm.htm
/txv/earlychn.htm /txv/earlychn.htm


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