Authority in Church教会 管理局

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This subject is made difficult not only by the rich diversity of the NT witness, but also by the diverse trajectories of ecclesiastical traditions from postapostolic times on.这个问题不仅难以制成由NT证人丰富的多样性,而且还来自于postapostolic倍教会传统的不同轨迹。

The Locus of Authority该管理局的轨迹

Arguably, the strongest authoritative human voices in the earliest churches were the apostles (in the narrow sense of that flexible term, ie, the Twelve (Matthias replacing Judas) plus Paul).可以说,最强的权威,在最早的教堂人声是使徒(在该期限灵活狭义的,即十二(马提亚代替犹大)加保)。Their authority extended beyond the local congregation, even beyond congregations they had been instrumental in founding (for how else could Peter's influence be felt in Corinth and Paul's in Colossae?), but it was not without limit.他们的权力延伸到当地众,甚至超越众,他们曾在建国工具(如何还能彼得的影响力在科林斯和保罗在Colossae感觉?),但它不是没有限制。 A Peter could prove inconsistent in practice (Gal. 2:11 - 14), and a Paul could be mistaken in judgment (Acts 15:37 - 40; cf. 2 Tim. 4:11).彼得可以证明一个在实践中不一致(加2点11分 - 14)和保罗可以判断错误(徒15点37 - 40;比照提摩太4:11)。The objective truth of the gospel, Paul insists, enjoys an antecedent authority; if even an apostle tampers with that, he is to be reckoned anathema (Gal. 1:8 - 9).福音的客观真理,保罗坚持认为,先前享有的权力,如果与该使徒甚至篡改,他是不可忽视的诅咒(加拉太书1:8 - 9)。

So an authoritative gospel must be passed on.因此,一个权威的福音必须被传递。That Paul in an early epistle can speak of the old covenant as being read (2 Cor. 3:14) not only presupposes that Christians enjoy a new covenant but anticipates a reading of the new covenant (and therefore a NT canon) with scriptural authority analogous to that of the OT (2 Pet. 3:15 - 16).这在早期的书信保罗可以说是旧约的读取(林后3:14),不仅享受前提是基督徒,但预计与新约圣经权威的新约阅读(因而新台币佳能)类似的OT的(2宠物3:15 - 16)。In such cases, however, whether the penman be an apostle or not, the authority rests in the resulting inspired Scriptures, not the human being who inscripturates them (2 Tim. 3:16).在这种情况下,但是,无论笔者是一个使徒与否,权力掌握在产生的灵感圣经,而不是人谁inscripturates他们(提摩太后书3:16)。

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Analogous things could be affirmed of OT prophets类似的事情可以肯定了旧约先知

Indeed, it can be argued rather compellingly that the true NT analogue of the OT prophet is not the NT prophet but the NT apostle (in the narrow sense).的确,可以说相当令人信服,真正的NT的旧约先知模拟不是先知,但新台币NT使徒(狭义的)。The apostles enjoy a self - conscious authority as God - chosen custodians of the gospel; and if they prefer to exercise their authority with meekness in an effort to win spiritually minded consensus (eg, 1 Cor. 5:1 - 10; 2 Cor. 10:6; 1 Pet. 5:1 - 4), they are also prepared, if need be, to impose their authority without seeking consensus, and even against the consensus (eg, Acts 5:1 - 11; 1 Cor. 4:18 - 21; 2 Cor. 10:11; 13:2 - 3; 3 John 10).使徒们享受自我 - 意识作为神的权威 - 选择托管人的福音,如果他们喜欢运动与温顺,努力赢得精神上志同道合的共识(例如,1肺心病5点01分他们的权威 - 10; 2肺心病。 10时06分;彼前5时01分 - 4),他们也准备,如果需要的话,不寻求共识,以实施他们的权力,甚至反对的共识(例如,行为5时01 - 11;林前4 :18 - 21;林后10时11分,13点02 - 3;约翰三10)。Their authority is especially prominent in their role as interpreters both of the OT Scriptures and of the teachings of Jesus, as well as of his ministry, death, resurrection, and ascension.他们的权力,尤其突出其作为双方的旧约圣经和耶稣的教导口译,以及他的部,死亡,复活,和升天的作用。The church devoted itself to the apostles' teaching (Acts 2:42).教会致力于使徒“教学(徒2:42)。

NT prophets likewise enjoyed wide authorityNT先知同样享有广泛的权力

Some of them may have been itinerant, not restricting their ministrations to one congregation.其中一些可能已被流动,而不是限制其ministrations一众。"Prophecy" in the NT ranges from Spirit - empowered preaching to direct propositional messages from God; but the degree or kind of inspiration and the corresponding authority status of the prophet are limited.“预言”,从精神的NT范围 - 有权直接从上帝的说教命题的消息,但程度或灵感和先知的权威地位相应的实物是有限的。 It is virtually impossible to conceive of 1 Cor.这几乎是不可能的设想1肺心病。14:29 being applied to OT prophets (once their credentials were accepted) or to NT apostles. 14点29分被应用到(一旦他们的凭据被接受)旧约先知或NT使徒。

Those who seem consistently to enjoy the greatest authority at the level of the local congregation are the elders, almost certainly the same as those also labeled bishops (or overseers) and pastors (Acts 20:17 - 28; cf. Eph. 4:11; 1 Tim. 3:1 - 7; Titus 1:5, 7; 1 Pet. 5:1 - 2).这些谁似乎一直在享受当地众水平的最大权威的长辈,几乎肯定是那些还标有主教(或监察员)和牧师(使徒20时17分相同的 - 28;比照弗4:11。 ;提前3:1 - 7;多1:5,7; 1宠物5点01分 - 2)。The first term stems from the synagogue and from village organization; the second reflects genuine oversight and authority; and the third betrays an agrarian background ("pastor" derives from a Latin root meaning "shepherd").第一项是源于犹太教堂和乡村组织,第二个反映真正的监督和权威性;第三背叛一个农业背景(“牧师”从拉丁文意为“牧羊人”根派生)。

In a typical list of qualifications for this office / function (eg, I Tim. 3:1 - 7) we discover that almost every entry is mandated elsewhere of all believers.在为这个办公室/功能(例如,我添3:1 - 7)资格典型的列表中,我们发现,几乎每一个项目的任务是在其他地方的所有信徒。What is distinctive about the elder reduces to two things: (1) He must not be a novice.是什么样的老鲜明简化为两点:(1)他一定不会是一个新手。Clearly this is a relative term, largely dictated by how recently the church in question came into being, since Paul appoints elders mere months after their conversion in some instances (eg, Acts 14:23).显然,这是相对而言的,主要是受最近在有关如何教会应运而生,因为保罗任命仅仅几个月后,在某些情况下(如,徒14:23)转换长老决定的。 (2) He must be able to teach, which presupposes a growing grasp of the gospel and of the Scriptures and an ability to communicate them well.(2)他必须能够教,这预示着一个福音和圣经成长把握和沟通能力好。The other qualifications mentioned (eg, an overseer must not be a woman, must be given to hospitality, etc.) suggest that he must excel in the graces and deportment expected of all believers.提到的其他资格(例如,一个监督员不得的女人,一定要给予热情好客等)表明,他必须在所有信徒的青睐,并预计仪态出类拔萃。 He who would lead the church must himself be a good reflection of it, not a mere professional.他谁,会导致自己的教会必须是它的一个很好的体现,不是一个单纯的专业。

In general, the sphere of responsibility and authority for these bishops - elders - pastors is the local church; there is little compelling evidence for the view that a bishop, for instance, unlike elders, exerted authority over several congregations.一般情况下,责任和权力范围,这些主教 - 长老 - 牧师是当地教堂;很少有令人信服的证据的观点,一个主教,例如,与长辈,施加了一些教会的权威。A plurality of elders, if not mandated, appears to have been common, and perhaps the norm.长老多元,如果没有规定,似乎已经屡见不鲜,也许是常态。On the other hand, only "churches"; one reads of churches in Galatia, but of the church in Antioch or Jerusalem or Ephesus.另一方面,只有“教会”,一曰在加拉太教会,但在安提阿或耶路撒冷或以弗所教会。Thus it is possible, though not certain, that a single elder may have exercised authority in relation to one house group, a house group that in some cases constituted part of the citywide church, so that the individual elder would nevertheless be one of many in that citywide "church" taken as a whole.因此,它是可能的,虽然不是肯定的,那一个长老会行使有关一间房屋组,房子组,在某些情况下构成了全市教堂的一部分,因此,个人长老会不过是一个在许多权威是全市“教会”作为一个整体。

The apparent anomalies to this limitation on the sphere of elders can be credibly explained.明显的异常对长辈领域此限制,可以令人信服地解释。The writer of 2 John and 3 John labels himself an "elder," even though he is seeking to influence the affairs of other churches; but most likely this particular elder is writing with apostolic prerogatives.在2约翰和约翰三书作家的标签自己是一个“老”,尽管他试图影响其他教会的事务,但最有可能是这个特殊的长辈与使徒的特权写作。 The same is true of Peter when he refers to himself as an elder (1 Pet. 5:1).同样是彼得是当他提到自己作为一个老(彼前5:1)。The position of James in Acts 15 is peculiar, but the evidence is being stretched when interpreters conclude that James chaired the proceedings.而詹姆斯在15位是奇特行为,但证据被拉伸时,口译员的结论是詹姆斯主持了诉讼。The case is laid before the apostles and elders (15:4); "the apostles and elders, with the whole church" (15:22), make the final decisions; and the apostles and elders write the letter (15:23).目前,此案奠定了之前的使徒和长老(15:4);“使徒和长老与整个教会”(15:22),作出最后决定;使徒和长老写的信(15:23) 。Peter speaks as an apostle, James as an elder; it is not obvious that either "chaired" the meeting.彼得说,作为一个使者,詹姆斯作为一个长辈,它并不明显,要么“主持”会议。But even if James did so, the crucial decisions were taken by the apostles, elders, and the church in concert.但即使詹姆斯这样做,关键决定是由使徒,长老,并在演唱会教堂。

Deacons may trace the origin of their office / function to the appointment of the seven (Acts 6), but this is uncertain.执事会追查他们的办公室/功能的七个(徒六)聘任的起源,但是这是不确定的。When lists of qualifications are presented elsewhere (eg, 1 Tim. 3:8 - 13), stress is laid (as in the case of elders) on features which signify spiritual maturity; but in this instance teaching is not required.当资格名单,提交其他地方(。如提前3:8 - 13),强调的是下岗(如长者的情况下)上的特点,意味着精神的成熟,但在这种情况下的教学是不是必需的。Deacons were responsible to serve the church in a variety of subsidiary roles, but enjoyed no church - recognized teaching authority akin to that of elders.执事负责,为在一个教会附属的各种角色,但没有得到教会 - 认可教学权威类似的长老。

Patterns of Authority管理局的模式

The more difficult question is how these two offices / functions, viz., elders / pastors / overseers and deacons, relate their authority to the authority of the local church or to some broader grouping of churches.更棘手的问题是如何将这些两个办事处/功能,即,长老/牧师/监督员和执事,与他们的权力,对当地教会当局或某些教会更广泛的分组。 Historically one of three avenues has been followed, with many variations.历史上的三个途径之一是其次,有许多变化。

Congregationalism公理

tends to place the ultimate choices in the hands of the entire congregation.往往发生在整个众手中的最终选择。In part this stance is a reaction against the interposition of a priestly class between God and man; the priesthood of all believers (1 Pet. 2:9) is central.这部分的立场,是对一个神与人之间祭司类干预反应;所有信徒(1宠物2:9)圣职是中央。Churches decide alongside the apostles and elders (Acts 15:22); churches are responsible to protect themselves against false teachers (Galatians; 2 Cor. 10 - 13; 2 John); churches become the final court of appeal (Matt. 18:17); and even when the apostle Paul wants some discipline to be exercised, he appeals to the entire local church in solemn assembly (1 Cor. 5:4).教会决定沿着使徒和长老(徒15:22),教会有责任保护自己的假教师(加拉太书;林后10 - 13; 2约翰);教会成为最终上诉法院(太18点17分),甚至当使徒保罗希望某些学科行使,他呼吁整个大会在庄严的(林前5:4)地方教会。

Episcopacy主教

labels its chief ministers bishops and lesser ones presbyters (or priests) and deacons.标签,其首席部长主教和较小的长老(或牧师)和执事。Some within this camp see the function of the bishops as heir to the apostles; others point to the intermediate roles of Timothy and Titus as portrayed in the Pastoral Epistles, men who had power themselves to appoint elders (Titus 1:5), as had the apostles in the churches they founded (Acts 14:23).在这个阵营一些人认为使徒的继承人主教的功能,其他点的提摩太和提多的中间角色的教牧书信中,男子谁自己有权力任命长老(多1:5)描绘,正如他们在教会创办的使徒(徒14:23)。 Certainly the threefold ministry was defended as early as Ignatius (c. 110 AD), without, apparently, a traumatic debate reflecting change.当然,三倍部是捍卫作为伊格(约110 AD)早期,没有,很明显,创伤性辩论反映变化。

Presbyterianism长老会制

points out that presbyters in the NT occupy the most important place after the apostles; and in any location the plurality of presbyters (or elders) seems to argue for a committee or college of presbyters who exercised general oversight over the congregation in the area (1 Thess. 5:12 - 13; Heb. 13:17).在新界的长老点后占据使徒的最重要的地方,在任何地方的长老多个(或长辈)似乎是争取一个委员会或学院的长老谁行使在该地区对众一般监督(1 。帖前5点12 - 13;希伯来书13:17)。

As most frequently practiced, all three of these prevailing patterns raise questions.作为最常见的做法,所有这些现行模式three提问。Presbyterianism has raised an inference from Scripture to the status of principle.长老会提出了一个推断,从圣经的原则的地位。 Episcopacy makes disjunctions between bishop and elder that cannot be defended from the NT, and therefore appeals to Timothy and Titus as paradigms are futile, not least because their functions are best explained on other lines (and in any case they are not called "bishops" over against some lesser clergy status).主教使得之间的主教和长老背离不能从NT辩护,因此呼吁提摩太和提多的范例是徒劳的,这不仅是因为它们的功能是最好的(在任何情况下,他们不叫“主教”其他行解释在对一些地位较低的神职人员)。 Congregationalism tends to read principles of democratic majority vote into NT churches.公理往往会读入NT教堂多数票的民主原则。Ironically, some forms of congregationalism elevate the pastor; once he has been voted in, to near papal authority, in practice if not in theory.讽刺的是,某些形式的公理提升牧师,一旦他已经投了,到附近的罗马教皇的权力在实践中,如果没有在理论上。

The problem may lie in the fact that we have too often envisaged church authority flowing in straight lines, whether up or down, instead of recognizing the somewhat more fluid reality of the NT.问题可能在于这样一个事实:我们经常设想教会权威流畅的直线,而不是承认的NT有些更流畅的现实,无论是向上或向下。The normal responsibility for and authority of leadership in the NT rests with the bishops - elders - pastors; but if they are interested in pursuing biblical patterns of leadership, they will be concerned to demonstrate observable growth not only in their gasp of truth but also in their lived discipline (1 Tim. 4:14 - 16).正常的责任,并在NT的领导权威在于主教 - 长老 - 牧师,但如果他们是在追求领导圣经模式感兴趣,他们将有关证明,不仅在自己的真理,而且在观察喘息增长他们的生活纪律(提前四点14分 - 16)。They will comprehend that spiritual leadership, far from lording it over others (Matt. 20:25 - 28), is a balanced combination of oversight (1 Tim. 4:11 - 13; 6:17 - 19; Titus 3:9 - 11) and example (1 Tim. 4:12; 6:6 - 11, 17 - 18; 1 Pet. 5:1 - 4) which, far from being antithetical, are mutually reinforcing.他们会理解远远超过其他lording(太20时25分 - 28)它是精神领袖,是一个监督平衡组合(提前4时11分 - 13; 6点17 - 19;提多书3点09 - 11)和榜样(提前4:12; 6点06分 - 11,17 - 18;。彼前5时01分 - 4),其中,远不是对立的,是相辅相成的。By the same token such leaders prefer not to dictate terms but to lead the church into spiritually minded consensus.同样这样的领导不喜欢支配方面,而且要带领志同道合的共识教会精神。

Whereas Christians are encouraged to support and submit to spiritual leadership (eg, Heb. 13:17), such encouragement must not be considered a blank check if churches are responsible for and have the authority to discipline false teachers and to recognize an antecedent commitment not to a pastor but to the truth of the gospel.而基督徒鼓励,支持和服从精神领袖(例如,希伯来书13:17),这样的鼓励不能算是一张空白支票,如果教会有责任和有权纪律假教师和识别一个先前的承诺,不一个牧师,而是福音的真理。 Modern models are not so much wrong as frequently lopsided, favoring a prejudicial selection of the NT data.现代模型没有那么多的频繁片面错误,有利于为新台币数据有损选择。Similarly, the Ignatian defense of a threefold ministry was not so much a rebellious aberration as an attempt to ground the rising monarchial episcopate in Scripture in order to use it to ward off traveling preachers who were frequently found spreading Gnostic heresy.同样,一个三重部依纳爵的防守与其说是叛逆的畸变是企图在地面圣经上升君主制主教,以便用它来抵挡谁是经常旅行的传教士发现蔓延诺斯底异端。

Spheres of Authority球的监督

The spheres in which ecclesistical authority (however such authority is to be manifested) operates are primarily three.该领域中ecclesistical机构(但是这种权力是要体现)经营主要是三个。First, the early Christian churches exercised discipline, which ranged all the way from private and thoughtful admonition (eg, Gal. 6:1) to excommunication (a severe social pressure when the entire church was cooperating) and even the handing over of a person to Satan (eg, 1 Cor. 5:5; cf. Matt. 16:19; 18:18).首先,早期的基督教教堂行使的学科,它介于私人和周到的警告(如半乳糖。6:1),以绝罚(一严重的社会压力时,整个教会合作)一路甚至派一个人过撒旦(如1林五点05分;。比照马特16时19分,18时18分)。 Calvin was not wrong to identify church discipline as the third distinguishing mark of the NT church.卡尔文是没有错,以确定为第三个显着标志NT教会教会纪律。Second, they enjoyed responsibility for and authority over a substantial range of questions affecting internal order, eg, arrangement for collection of monies for relief of the poor (2 Cor. 8 - 9) or the administration of the Lord's Supper (1 Cor. 11:20 - 26).其次,他们享受了一系列影响国内秩序,例如,对救灾款项的穷人的税收安排问题的实质范围的责任和权力(林8 - 9)或主的晚餐(1肺心病管理11 :20 - 26)。Third, churches had some responsibility and authority in the selection of deacons and elders and delegates (eg, Acts 6:3 - 6; 15:22; I Cor. 16:3).第三,教会曾在执事和长老和代表的选择(例如,行为6点03 - 6; 15时22分,我肺心病16时03分)一定的责任和权力。

In no case were decisions established by mere majority approval; nor were these spheres of authority the exclusive prerogatives of the entire congregation.在任何情况下,由单纯的多数批准设立的决定,也不是这些领域的权威,整个会众的特权。Apostles appointed elders, and Timothy had hands laid on him both by the apostle Paul and by the presbytery (2 Tim. 1:6; 1 Tim. 4:14).使徒任命长老,和提摩太奠定了他的手都被使徒保罗,由长老会(提1:6;。提前4:14)。 This need not mean such appointment was made without close consultation with the church; but if the authority granted Titus is significant (Titus 1:5), it appears that oversight, especially in the case of fledgling churches, was exercised first by the apostles and then by their appointees.这并不意味着没有这样的任命,是与教会的密切磋商,但如果赋予的权力是显着提多(多1:5),它出现,特别是在新兴教会的情况下,监督,是行使使徒先然后由他们任命。

In sum, there is dynamic tension among the constituent parts of the church as far as the authority of each is concerned.总之,有间教会的组成部分的动态张力尽可能的每个方面的权威。Two boundaries, to say the least, are fixed: (1) the church is not at liberty to ignore or countermand or contravene the authority of the gospel itself, now at last inscripturated, without sooner or later calling into question its own status as church.两个边界,至少可以说,是固定的:(1)教会是不能随意忽略或反对命令或违反了福音本身的权威,现在终于inscripturated,没有早晚质疑调用其作为教会自己的状态。 (2) The church of the NT does not expect its authority to be administered directly to the surrounding world, but to be felt through the transformed and redemptive lives of its members. (2)新台币教会不希望它的权力进行管理,直接向周围的世界,而是要通过其成员的转化和救赎的生活感受。

DA Carson DA卡森
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary)(Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 参考书目
W Bauer, Orthodoxy and Heresy in Earliest Christianity; G Bertram, TDNT, V, 596 - 625; J Calvin, Institutes 4.3ff.; RW Dale, Manual of Congregational Principles; EJ Forrester and GW Bromiley, ISBE (rev.), I, 696 - 98; J Gray, "The Nature and Function of Adult Christian Education in the Church," SJT 19:457 - 63; W Grudem, The Gift of Prophecy in 1 Corinthians; E Hatch, The Organization of the Early Christian Churches; C Hodge, Discussions in Church Polity; FJA Hort, The Christian Ecclesia; KE Kirk, ed., The Apostolic Ministry; TA Lacey, Authority in the Church; JB Lightfoot, "The Christian Ministry," Commentary on Philippians; TW Manson, The Church's Ministry; BH Streeter, The Primitive Church; HB Swete, ed., Essays on the Early History of the Church and Ministry; H von Campenhausen, Ecclesiastical Authority and Spiritual Power in the Church of the First Three Centuries; RR Williams, Authority in the Apostolic Age. W鲍尔,正统和异端邪说在最早的基督教,G伯特伦,TDNT,V,596 - 625;。J卡尔文学院4.3ff; RW戴尔,公理原则的手册; EJ Forrester和毛重罗米立,ISBE(修订版),我,696 - 98,J格雷说:“基督教的本质和成人教育中的作用,在教会,”SJT 19:457 - 63,W Grudem的预言在哥林多前书礼品,E孵化,早期基督教教会组织,C Hodge的,在教会政体的讨论; FJA园艺,基督教教会;,使徒部KE柯克,编辑; TA莱西,在教会的权威; JB娜莱,“基督教部”关于腓解说; TW曼森,教会事工; BH斯特里特,简陋的教堂; HB Swete,ED,对教会和部早期的历史散文,H冯Campenhausen,教会权威和第一三个世纪教会的精神动力; RR威廉姆斯,管理局在使徒时代。



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