Biblical Theology Movement圣经神学运动

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The standard definition for the "biblical theology movement" has been provided by OT scholar Brevard S Childs.为“圣经神学运动”标准的定义已经提供了OT学者布里瓦德S蔡尔兹。He perceptively describes the background, rise, flowering, and demise of the American aspect of the movement from the middle of the 1940s to the early part of the 1960s.他敏锐地介绍了背景,兴起,开花,以及从20世纪40年代中叶到20世纪60年代初美国方面运动的消亡。In a more general sense the biblical theology movement was made up of biblical scholars in North America and Europe who shared liberal, critical assumptions and methods in an attempt to do theology in relation to biblical studies.在更一般意义上的圣经神学运动是由在北美和欧洲的圣经学者谁共享,企图做有关圣经研究神学自由主义,关键假设和方法。 This new way of doing theology was most fundamentally concerned to do justice to the theological dimension of the Bible, which previous generations of liberal scholars had almost completely neglected.这种新的方式做神学是最根本的问题做正义的圣经,其中前几代学者的自由几乎完全忽略神学维度。Accordingly the movement reflected an interest of European neo - orthodox theologians of the 1920s and beyond.因此运动反映了欧洲新的兴趣 - 对20世纪20年代及以后的正统神学家。

Neo - orthodoxy and the biblical theology movement shared the common concern to understand the Bible as a fully human book to be investigated with the fully immanent historical - critical method and yet to see the Bible as a vehicle or witness of the divine Word.新 - 正统和圣经神学运动之间的共同关注,理解为一个完整的人的书要与内在的历史充分调查的圣经 - 关键的方法,但要看到车辆或圣言见证圣经。This meant a meshing of the modern naturalistic - evolutionary world view as developed by natural science, modern philosophy, and critical history with the biblical view of a God who gives meaning and coherence to this world in his personal acts in history.这意味着啮合的现代自然主义的一个 - 进化的世界观由自然科学,现代哲学,历史发展的关键与一个圣经的看法上帝在历史上谁给他的个人行为的意义和连贯性,这个世界。

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It has been shown by James Barr and James D Smart that the biblical theology movement is not a uniquely American phenomenon (so Childs).它已被证明詹姆斯巴尔和詹姆斯ð智能​​的圣经神学运动不是一个独特的美国现象(所以蔡尔兹)。In Great Britian and on the European continent the same tendencies inherent in the American aspect of the movement were present, although the setting in Europe was different.在英国和欧洲大陆,在美国方面的运动内在同一倾向人出席,虽然在欧洲设置是不同的。In any case, the biblical theology movement, international in scope, was broader than the scene in North America, and Barr claims it "can well be seen in the organized study programs of the international ecumenical movement."在任何情况下,圣经神学运动,在国际范围内,比在北美的场景范围更广,而且巴尔声称“能很好地在国际基督教运动的组织学习程序见到。” Even though there was no formal organization of the movement nationally or internationally, and although there existed varieties of emphases among its proponents, there were nevertheless overriding characteristics that were so typical of the movement that they gave a fairly well defined coherence.即使没有运动的国家或国际的正式组织,虽然存在着在其支持者的重点品种,但有凌驾性的特点,是如此的运动,他们给了一个比较明确的连贯性的典型。

Characteristics特性

Without attempting to be exhaustive, it will be useful to enumerate typical features that are common to the movement in America and Europe.没有试图详尽无遗,这将是有益的列举的是常见的运动在美国和欧洲的典型特征。Among those that characterize both its relative coherence and its distinctiveness are the following:在那些既特征的相对连贯性和其独特性有以下几种:

Reaction to Liberalism反应自由主义

The biblical theology movement was a reaction against the study of the Bible in previous liberal theology where the source criticism of the historical - critical method atomized the biblical text into separate sources, frequently consisting of small isolated entities or fragments of documents.圣经神学运动是对圣经的前自由派神学那里的历史源批评研究的反应 - 关键的方法雾化成不同来源的经文,经常孤立的实体或小的文档的片段组成。These reconstructed sources were placed in new sociological, political, and cultural contexts in the ancient world and interpreted from this newly reconstructed context.这些重建的来源是摆在新的社会,政治,文化在古代世界,从这个新的背景和重建方面的解释。A part of this scholarly reconstruction by means of the presuppositions and procedures of the historical - critical method, which reached its total victory over conservative approaches in Europe by the end of the 1900s and in America by the middle of the 1930s, consisted of a redating and reordering of the biblical materials along the lines of naturalistic - evolutionary developmentalism.一本由前提和历史程序是指学术重建的一部分 - 关键的方法,从而达到由1900年底在美国由20世纪30年代中期其对欧洲的全面胜利保守的方法,包括一个redating和重新排序,沿自然线条的圣经材料 - 进化发展主义。

Joined to this was the axiom that Israel borrowed extensively from the surrounding pagan cultures and religions and that Israelite and NT faith is best understood from the point of view of natural theology.加入到这是公理,以色列借来的广泛,从周围的异教文化,宗教和信仰的以色列人和NT最好从自然神学的角度理解。 All of this meant a lack of concern regarding the theological interests of the Bible for church, community, and individual.所有这一切都意味着一个关于圣经的教会,社区和个人的神学利益漠不关心。This sterile liberal theology, devoid of meaning for church and life, remained incompatible to significant segments of Christianity, particularly American Protestantism, which had only reluctantly given in to the historical - critical method in the long and devastating fundamentalist - modernist controversy.这不育自由派神学,教会与生活毫无意义,很大一部分仍然是不相容的基督教,新教,特别是美国,它只是不情愿地给到历史 - 现代主义的争论 - 在长期和毁灭性的原教旨主义的关键方法。The biblical theology movement directed its efforts against the extremes of the historical - critical approach to the Bible, while itself remaining faithful to the historical - critical method, its presuppositions, and its procedures.圣经神学运动的指示其努力对历史极端 - 批评的态度圣经,而剩下的忠实于自己的历史 - 关键的方法,其前提,它的​​程序。The attempt of the movement was to move beyond the older liberal position within the liberal framework of the study of the Bible.该运动试图超越旧内的自由派的圣经研究框架自由派立场。

Alliance with Neo - orthodoxy联盟与新 - 正统

The biblical theology movement was fostered by the neo - orthodox reaction to theological liberalism that developed under the influence of Karl Barth and Emil Brunner in Europe and H Richard Niebuhr and Reinhold Niebuhr in America.圣经神学运动培育的新 - 正统神学自由主义的反应,在以卡尔巴特和埃米尔在欧洲和H理查德尼布尔和莱因霍尔德尼布尔布伦纳在美国的影响力发展。The neo - orthodox reaction against Protestant liberalism's reduction of the Christian faith to universal human and religious truths and moral values became a powerful impetus for the biblical theology movement.在新 - 对新教自由主义的基督教信仰普遍人权和宗教真理和道德价值减少反应变成了正统的圣经神学运动的强大动力。

It must be noted, however, that neo - orthodoxy was not a return to older Protestant orthodoxy, which held that all Scripture was divinely inspired.必须指出,然而,新 - 正统是不是对旧新教正统的回报,认为所有的圣经是神的启发。By and large the biblical theology movement joined the neo - orthodox view of revelation and inspiration.总的来说圣经神学运动加入新 - 正统的启示和灵感的看法。Revelation is essentially God revealing himself in Christ, and Scripture may become a witness to this revelation.启示基本上是神在基督揭示自己,圣经可能成为本启示的见证。The Bible is not the word of God but may become the word of God in its witness to Christ.圣经是不是神的话,但可能成为神的见证基督字。Particularly useful to the movement was Brunner's view on revelation in which he attacked classical Protestant and American fundamentalists on the one hand and classical liberals on the other.特别有用的运动是布伦纳的观点上的启示,他的攻击,一方面,另一方面古典古典自由派和美国新教原教旨主义者。The biblical theology movement could join ranks with the neo - orthodox theology to wage a common battle against both liberalism in theology and fundamentalism among conservative segments in America.圣经神学运动可以加入队伍的新 - 正统神学工资在神学和美国之间的保守部分原教旨主义既反对自由主义的共同战斗。

Greek Versus Hebrew Thought希腊对战希伯来语思想

The biblical theology movement constantly opposed the influence of modern philosophy and its constructs as modes to understand biblical thought.圣经神学运动一贯反对现代哲学及其结构的影响作为模式来理解圣经的思想。It also tended strongly to reject an understanding of the Bible on the basis of Greek thought and its categories.它也往往强烈反对对希腊思想及其分类的基础上对圣经的理解。In its rejection of the domineering effect of modern philosophy it shared once again a concern of neo - orthodoxy.在其现代哲学的霸气效果排斥它同意再次成为关注的新 - 正统。The attempt was to understand the Bible outside certain modern or ancient philosophical norms and patterns of thought.企图是了解外界某些现代或古代哲学的规范和思维模式的圣经。It was argued that the Bible must be understood "in its own categories" (James Muilenburg) and the scholar must put himself "within the world of the Bible" (BW Anderson).有人认为,圣经必须理解“在其自己的类别”(詹姆斯Muilenburg)和学者必须把自己“在圣经的世界”(BW安德森)。

The contrast between Greek and Hebrew thought (T Boman and others) became rather important.在希腊和希伯来思想(T波曼和其他人)的对比变得相当重要。Although the NT was written in Greek, the Hebrew mentality was common to both testaments.虽然新台币写于希腊,希伯来文的心态是双方共同的见证。The idea of the Hebrew mentality led to significant studies of words in both testaments.在希伯来文心态的想法导致了重要的研究在这两个词见证。The outlines of the Hebraic thought patterns were reflected in the words of the Hebrew language, and this Hebraic thought content was also communicated through the vehicle of language (Greek) of the NT.在希伯来思维模式的概括是反映在希伯来文的话,这希伯来思想内容也是通过语言传达车辆的NT(希腊)。

The Bible Within Its Culture而在其文化的圣经

Another characteristic of the biblical theology movement was an emphasis on the distinctiveness of the Bible in its environment.另一个圣经神学运动的特点是对圣经在其环境的独特性的重视。GE Wright's book The OT Against Its Environment (1950) is typical, reflecting in part the concern of the Albright school.GE赖特的书针对其环境OT(1950)是典型的,部分反映了奥尔布赖特学校的关注。The consensus emerged that when there is borrowing or even syncretism, or when there are plain similarities, the differences between the literature of Israel and that of the surrounding nations are far more remarkable than its points of contact.的共识出现,当有借贷,甚至合一,或当有平原相似之处,以色列之间的文学和周边国家的分歧远远超过其联络点显着。 The movement claimed that the most significant things in Israel were not the things it held in common with its neighbors but the things where it differed from them.该运动宣称,以色列最重要的事情并不常见的东西是在同其邻国,但它的东西从他们不同。When the Bible was compared with other contemporary cultures and religions, its uniqueness became apparent.当圣经与其他当代文化和宗教相比,它的独特性便显现出​​来。Further, this distinctiveness is not a matter of faith but a matter of scientific historical study.此外,这种独特性是不是信仰问题,而是一种科学的历史研究的问题。The uniqueness of the biblical faith was determined by historical study and subject to its norms.圣经信仰的独特性是由历史的研究,并受其规范。

Biblical Unity圣经的统一

A concomitant aspect of the distinctiveness of the Bible is its unity, particularly the unity of both testaments.一个圣经的独特性随之而来的方面是它的团结,特别是双方见证团结。"The attempt to deal with both testaments in a unified way came as a protest against the tendency of increased specialization which had characterized American and British scholarship in the preceding generation" (Childs, p. 36).他说:“试图在一个统一的处理方式都见证来作为反对提高专业化的特点在前面已经代美国和英国的学术倾向抗议”(蔡尔兹,第36页)。 The biblical theology movement rejected allegory, typology, and Christology as modes of unity between the testaments.圣经神学运动拒绝了统一模式之间的圣经寓言,类型,和基督。The unity of the Bible was unity in diversity, such as "unity of Divine revelation given in the context of history and through the medium of human personality" (HH Rowley), unity of purpose, covenant relation, and divine revelation (Muilenburg), or simply a "higher unity" (RC Dentan) or a "kerygmatic unity" (JS Glenn).圣经的团结统一,多样性,如“团结在历史背景,通过对人的个性中给神的启示”(HH罗利),目的,契约关系,神圣的启示(Muilenburg)团结,或只是一个“更高的统一”(RC Dentan)或“kerygmatic统一”(JS​​格伦)。There were others who suggested a fundamental unity in history.有其他人谁提出了一个在历史上基本统一。

Revelation in History历史启示

One of the major tenets of the biblical theology movement was the concept of divine revelation in history.对圣经神学运动的主要原则之一是,在历史上神的启示的概念。"It provided the key to unlock the Bible for a modern generation and at the same time to understand it theologically" (Childs,).“它提供的钥匙打开了现代的一代,并在同一时间去了解它神学的圣经”(蔡尔兹)。 The emphasis on revelation in history was used to attack both the conservative position, which holds that the Bible contains eternal truths and serves as a deposit of right doctrine, and the liberal position, which claims that the Bible contains a process of evolving religious discovery or simply progressive revelation.在历史上的启示重点用于攻击既保守立场,认为圣经包含永恒的真理,作为一个正确的教义存款服务,自由的立场,声称圣经包含了不断发展的过程中发现或宗教只是渐进的启示。 The emphasis on revelation stressed the divine self - disclosure and shifted the content away from propositional revelation and doctrine to the neo - orthodox concept of encounter without propositional content.对重点强调了神圣的启示自我 - 披露和转移​​从命题的启示和理论的新内容远 - 正统的观念没有遇到命题内容。

The corresponding emphasis on history meant that the revelational encounter in history provided the bridge of the gap between past and present in that Israel's history became the church's history and subsequently our modern history.历史上的相应的重视意味着在历史revelational遇到提供了过去和现在之间的鸿沟的桥梁,以色列的历史成为教会的历史,后来我们现代的历史。 In the church's liturgy the believer and the community of faith participate in the same redemptive event by means of recital.在教会的礼仪和信仰的信徒参与社会在同一救赎事件所演奏的手段。

Decline and Evaluation衰落和评价

The biblical theology movement flourished for about a generation, from c.圣经神学运动的蓬勃发展有关的一代,从C 1945 to 1965. 1945年至1965年。Childs sees its demise as a major force in American theology in the early 1960s.蔡尔兹认为神学作为美国在60年代初的主要力量的消亡。He is supported by Barr.他是支持巴尔。Against this position it is held that "biblical theology is not a movement or a brand of theology but simply an enlargement of the dimensions of biblical science" (Smart, 11) which is continuing to function on an international scale.在这个位置上是认为“圣经神学不是一个神学运动或品牌,但只是对圣经科学的尺寸放大”(智能,11),这是继续在国际范围内的功能。 Childs appears to have overstated the case in claiming the death of the American biblical theology movement in 1963, but has been correct in his description of the characteristics of the movement as a coherent force within twentieth century liberal theology.蔡尔兹似乎夸大声称在1963年的美国圣经神学运动的死亡案例,但一直在他作为一个连贯的力量运动的特点的描述正确的二十世纪内的自由派神学。 By 1969 such a prominent member of the movement as GE Wright appears to have moved from his earlier position supporting a God who acts in history.到1969年这样一个与GE赖特运动的重要成员似乎已经从他的早期支持上帝谁在历史行为的位置移动。

There is no easy way of evaluating and assessing the biblical theology movement because it is part of a trend in modern liberal theology and in part an overlapping with the neo - orthodox movement in our century.有没有评估和评估的圣经神学运动简单的方法,因为它是在现代自由神学和部分与重叠的新趋势的一部分 - 在本世纪的正统的运动。The following features may serve as major points of issue that are called for in an assessment of the movement:以下功能可作为主要的问题是在运动的评估称为几点:

The Problem of Hermeneutics解释学问题

The issue of the adequacy of biblical interpretation within the framework of the historical - critical method remained unresolved.该解释的圣经内的历史框架是否充足的问题 - 关键的方法仍未解决。The theologians of the biblical theology movement remained with both feet planted in the historical - critical method.在圣经神学运动的神学家仍然在历史种植双脚 - 关键的方法。They affirmed the modern world view with its secular understanding of the spatiotemporal world process, ie, the world of history and of nature.他们肯定了与它的时空世界的过程,也就是说,历史和自然世界的世俗理解现代世界的看法。

While the movement was critical of its forefathers in the liberal tradition of theology on a number of points as noted above, in a major sense the members of the biblical theology movement continued the liberal tradition.虽然运动是在神学上的自由主义传统的点的数量,其祖先关键如上所述,在一个重大意义的圣经神学运动的成员不断的自由主义传统。 The secular - scientific (and liberal) understanding of the origin and development of the world along the evolutionary Darwinian model was accepted as axiomatic, and the liberal understanding of the movement of history along general historicist lines was not radically questioned.世俗 - 科学(和自由主义)的起源和进化的达尔文沿世界发展模式的理解被接纳为公理,以及沿行一般历史主义历史运动自由主义的理解是不从根本上质疑。Onto the contemporary scientific understanding of the movement of history along general historicist lines was not radically questioned.到当代的历史主义线沿线一般历史运动的科学认识不从根本上质疑。Onto the contemporary scientific understanding of both nature and history theologians of the biblical theology movement attempted to graft the biblical understanding of God as Creator and Lord who is dynamically active in the process of history (GE Wright).到当代的自然和历史的科学认识的圣经神学运动的神学家试图嫁接的创造者和主谁是动态活跃在历史(GE赖特)过程中的神圣经的理解。

This meshing of a "secular" or "atheistic" (A Schlatter) historical - critical method and a naturalistic - evolutionary world view with the God of the Bible who gives meaning and coherence to this world in his personal acts in history was "at best only an uneasy dualism" (Gilkey, 91).这啮合的“世俗”或“无神论”(A施拉特)的历史 - 是与圣经的神在历史谁给他的个人行为的意义和连贯性,这个世界进化的世界观“,充其量 - 关键的方法和自然只有不安的二元论“(Gilkey,91)。 Childs notes incisively that "the historical - critical method is an inadequate method of studying the Bible as the Scriptures of the church," setting up "an iron curtain between the past and the present" (Chils, 141 - 42).蔡尔兹指出精辟地说,“历史 - 关键的方法是学习,作为教会的圣经圣经不足法”,设立“之间的过去和现在的铁帘”(Chils,141 - 42)。

The Issue of "What It Meant" and "What It Means." The biblical theology movement attempted to put aside the dichotomy between the past and the present, the historical - critical and theological study of the Bible, or the descriptive and the normative approach to the Bible. 对“是什么意思”的问题“。意味着什么”圣经神学运动试图抛开之间的过去和现在的两分法,历史-关键的圣经和神学研究,或描述性和规范性的方法圣经。 The interest in the theological dimension of the Bible was of major concern.在圣经的神学方面的利益是主要关注的问题。 Nevertheless, the distinction of "what it meant" as that which is descriptive, objective, and scientific as compared to "what it means" as that which is theological and normative (see K Stendahl) put a wedge between what the movement attempted to overcome.然而,区分“是什么意思”因为这是描述性的,客观的,科学的比较,“这是什么意思”因为这是神学和规范(见K斯滕达尔)之间放置一个什么运动试图克服楔。 While Stendahl's distinction of "what it meant" and "what it means" remains highly debated (see Hasel, OT Theology, 35 - 75), it struck a blow at the heart of the movement.虽然斯滕达尔的区别“什么意思”和“意味着什么”仍然高度辩论(见哈塞尔,OT神学,35 - 75),忽然在运动的核心是一个打击。

The Problem of the Bible圣经的问题

Among the unresolved problems of the biblical theology movement is that of the Bible as a "fully human book and yet as the vehicle for the Divine Word" (Childs, 51).其中的圣经神学运动的尚未解决的问题是圣经,作为一个“完整的人的书,但作为圣言车辆”(蔡尔兹,51)。No consensus ever emerged whether the element of revelation claimed for the Bible lay in the text, behind the text, in text and event, or in some other mode.没有共识,不断涌现的启示元素是否宣称对圣经躺在文字,在文字背后的文字和事件,或在其他一些模式。Likewise, the modes of unity within the testaments and between the testaments as expounded by such leaders as GE Wright, HH Rowley, O Cullmann, RC Dentan, FV Filson, and others (see Hasel, NT Theology, 140 - 203) did not lead to a consensus.同样,在圣经和圣经之间的统一模式,如通用电气赖特,HH罗利,O Cullmann,RC Dentan,FV菲尔森,以及其他等领导人阐述(见哈塞尔,新台币神学,140 - 203)并没有导致达成共识。

The Concept of Revelation in History在历史观念的启示

The issue of history as the locus of divine revelation turned out to be ill - defined and drew heavy attack from several scholars (among them L Gilkey, W King, and J Barr).历史的作为神的启示位点的问题竟然是病 - 定义,并提请由(其中L Gilkey,W国王和J巴尔)几位学者重磅出击。 Among the ambiguities of the concept of revelation in history are those related to the nature of the revelatory events, the sense of history, the relation between revelation and history as well as history and interpretation.其中的启示在历史概念的含糊之处是那些涉及到的启示事件,历史感,两者的启示和历史,以及历史和解释的关系性质。 Over against these ambiguities from the perspective of the modern historical - critical school of thought, conservative scholars have tended to base their case on the formal statements in Scripture about Scripture itself.在对从现代历史的角度看这些不明确之处 - 批判学派的思想,保守的学者往往立足于约圣经经文本身的正式声明他们的情况。In the last analysis history cannot be the authenticating factor of revelation, but the biblical revelation itself is self - authenticating.在最后的分析历史是不能验证的启示因素,但圣经的启示本身就是自我 - 验证。

The concept of revelation in history as an alternative to propositional revelation on the one hand or general revelation on the other did not prove successful.在历史的启示作为一个概念,一方面或其他一般启示替代命题的启示并没有取得成功。The more recent attempt to replace revelation in history with the view that the OT is "story rather than history" (Barr) does not overcome the ambiguities of history but merely replaces them with those connected with story.较近期的尝试,以取代历史的观点,即OT是“的故事,而不是历史”(巴尔)启示不克服历史的含糊之处,而只是取代那些与它们相连的故事。 Biblical revelation carries within itself its own validation by enabling the recipient of revelation to grasp the content of revelation and to be grasped by the truth of revelation.圣经启示孕育本身的通过使收件人的启示把握的启示内容,并受到启示的真理掌握自己的验证。Due to the fact that biblical revelation is self - authenticating, there can be no external proofs that stand as judges over the revelation of the Bible.由于这样的事实:圣经的启示是不言而喻 - 验证,就不可能有作为对圣经的启示法官站在外部证据。

In short, the biblical theology movement was a major attempt for a full generation in the twentieth century to correct liberal theology from within itself.总之,圣经神学运动是一个完整的一代在二十世纪的重大尝试,以正确的从自身内部自由派神学。It did not succeed because it ultimately remained a captive of the basic modes, thought patterns, presuppositions, and methods of liberal theology itself.它没有成功,因为它最终仍是基本模式的俘虏,思维模式,前提和自由派神学本身的方法。It provided, therefore, an additional impetus to more recent attempts that show the basic method of liberalism, ie, the historical - critical method, as bankrupt (W Wink) or announce its end (G Maier) and seek for new methods of the study of the Bible and its theology whether it be a theological - historical method (GF Hasel) or structuralism (D Patte).它提供的,因此,一个额外的动力,最近的尝试,展示了自由主义的基本方法,即历史 - 关键的方法,如破产(W眨眼),或宣布其结束(G麦尔),寻求新方法的研究对圣经和神学无论是神学 - 历史方法(GF哈塞尔)或结构主义(D Patte)。

GF Hasel GF哈塞尔
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary)(Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 参考书目
DL Baker, Two Testaments: One Bible; J Barr, IDB Supplement; BS Childs, Biblical Theology in Crisis; L Gilkey, Naming the Whirlwind and "Cosmology, Ontology, and the Travail of Biblical Language," Jr. 41; GF Hasel, NT Theology: Basic Issues in the Current Debate and OT Theology: Basic Issues in the Current Debate; G Maier, The End of the Historical - Critical Method; JD Smart, The Past, Present, and Future of Biblical Theology; D Patte, What Is Structuralism? DL贝克,两圣经:一是圣经〔J巴尔,美洲开发银行补充; BS蔡尔兹,危机中的圣经神学,L Gilkey,命名旋风和“宇宙论,本体论,以及圣经语言阵痛”,小41; GF哈塞尔,新台币神学:基本问题,在目前的辩论和OT神学:基本问题,在当前的辩论,G,的历史结束迈尔 - 关键的方法; JD聪明,圣经神学的过去,现在和未来,D Patte,什么是结构主义?K Stendahl, IDB, I; W Wink, The Bible in Human Transformation: Toward a New Paradigm for Bible Study.K斯滕达尔,美洲开发银行,我,W眨眼,在人类改造圣经:圣经研究走向一个新的范例。



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