General Information一般资料

Humanism, an educational and philosophical outlook that emphasizes the personal worth of the individual and the central importance of human values as opposed to religious belief, developed in Europe during the Renaissance, influenced by the study of ancient Greek and Latin literature and philosophy.人文,教育和哲学观,强调个人价值和个人的,而不是宗教信仰,在欧洲文艺复兴时期发展,由古希腊和拉丁文学和哲学研究人的价值的影响至关重要。 Humanism thus began as an educational program called the humanities, which inculcated those ancient secular values which were consistent with Christian teachings.人文主义从而开始了作为一个教育计划称为人文,那些古老的灌输一些与基督教教义一致的世俗价值观。The Renaissance humanists were often devout Christians, but they promoted secular values and a love of pagan antiquity.文艺复兴时期的人文主义者往往虔诚的基督徒,但他们提倡世俗的价值观和异教徒古代爱情。

Renaissance Humanism文艺复兴时期的人文主义

The founder of Renaissance humanism was Petrarch (1304-74), an Italian poet and man of letters who attempted to apply the values and lessons of antiquity to questions of Christian faith and morals in his own day.文艺复兴时期的人文主义的创始人是彼特拉克(1304至1374年),意大利诗人,文学家谁试图运用价值和文物教训,基督教的信仰和道德问题,他自己的一天。 By the late 14th century, the term studia humanitatis ("humanistic studies") had come to mean a well-defined cycle of education, including the study of grammar, rhetoric, history, poetry, and moral philosophy, based on Latin authors and classical texts.到14世纪后期,术语studia humanitatis(“人文研究”)已经到了平均的教育定义良好的循环,包括语法,修辞,历史,诗歌和道德哲学研究的基础上,作者和古典拉丁语文本。 Key in ensuring the permanence of humanism after Petrarch's initial success was the Florentine chancellor Coluccio Salutati (1331-1406), who wrote many learned treatises and kept up a massive correspondence with his literary contemporaries.在确保人道主义永久性彼特拉克后的最初成功是佛罗伦萨校长Coluccio Salutati(1331年至1406年),谁写了许多论文和学习保持了与他同时代的大量书信文学重点。Salutati, together with his younger follower Leonardo Bruni (1369-1444), used the studia humanitatis as the basis for a life of active service to state and society. Salutati,连同他的年轻追随者莱昂纳多布鲁尼(1369年至1444年),用来作为一种主动服务国家和社会生活的基础studia humanitatis。Bruni in particular created a new definition of Florence's republican traditions, and defended the city in panegyrics and letters.布鲁尼特别是建立在佛罗伦萨的共和传统的新定义,并捍卫panegyrics和信件的城市。

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The 14th-century humanists had relied mainly on Latin.在14世纪的人文主义者不得不主要依靠拉丁语。In the early 15th century, however, classical Greek became a major study, providing scholars with a fuller, more accurate knowledge of ancient civilization.在15世纪初,然而,古典希腊成为一个主要的研究,提供了一个古老文明的更充分,更准确的知识的学者。 Included were many of the works of Plato, the Homeric epics, the Greek tragedies, and the narratives of Plutarch and Xenophon.包括人的柏拉图,荷马史诗,希腊悲剧和普鲁塔克的叙述和色诺芬的作品。Poggio Bracciolini (1380-1459), a chancellor of Florence and papal secretary, discovered important classical texts, studied Roman ruins and inscriptions, and created the study of classical archaeology.波焦Bracciolini(1380年至1459年),佛罗伦萨和罗马教皇的书记校长,发现重要的经典文本,研究罗马遗迹及碑文,创造了古典考古学的研究。 Poggio also criticized the corruption and hypocrisy of his age in biting satire and well-argued dialogues.波焦也批评了他的年龄腐败和辛辣的讽刺和论据充分对话的虚伪。Lorenzo Valla (c. 1407-57), one of the greatest classical scholars and text editors of his age, proved that the Donation of Constantine, a medieval document that supported papal claims to temporal authority, was a forgery.洛伦佐瓦拉(约1407年至1457年),最伟大的古典学者和他的年龄的文本编辑器之一,证明了君士坦丁,中世纪的文档支持,以颞教皇的权威说法,捐赠是伪造的。

The founding (c. 1450) of the Platonic Academy in Florence by Cosimo de'Medici signaled a shift in humanist values from political and social concerns to speculation about the nature of humankind and the cosmos.而在佛罗伦萨柏拉图学院成立由科西莫de'Medici(约1450)标志着一个以人为本的价值观,从政治和社会问题,以对人类和宇宙的本质投机转变。 Scholars such as Marsilio Ficino and Giovanni Pico della Mirandola used their knowledge of Greek and Hebrew to reconcile Platonic teachings with Jewish mysticism, the Hermetic tradition, and Christian orthodoxy in the search for a philosophia perennia (a philosophy that would be always true).如Marsilio菲奇诺和Giovanni微微德拉米兰多拉学者用他们的希腊和希伯来文知识,调和与犹太神秘主义,在全封闭的传统,并在一个philosophia perennia(一理念,将永远为真)搜索柏拉图基督教正统教义。

The work of Italian humanists soon spread north of the Alps, finding a receptive audience among English thinkers such as John Colet (c. 1467-1519), who applied the critical methods developed in Italy to the study of the Bible.意大利人文主义者的工作很快波及北部的阿尔卑斯山,寻找之中,如约翰Colet(公元前1467年至1519年),谁适用于意大利发展到圣经研究的重要方法英国思想家接受观众。 Desiderius Erasmuy of the Netherlands was the most influential of the Christian humanists. In his Colloquies and Praise of Folly (1509), Erasmus satirized the corruptions of his contemporaries, especially the clergy, in comparison with the teachings of the Bible, early Christianity, and the best of pagan thinkers. Desiderius荷兰Erasmuy是最有影响力的基督教人文主义者,在他Colloquies和愚蠢(1509)赞美,伊拉斯谟讽刺与圣经的教导,早期基督教的比较他同时代的,尤其是神职人员,损坏,并最好的异教思想家。 In his Adages (1500 and later editions), he showed the consistency of Christian teachings with ancient pagan wisdom.在他的格言(1500和更高版本),他表现出的智慧与古老异教的基督教教义的一致性。Erasmus devoted most of his energy and learning, however, to establishing sound editions of the sources of the Christian tradition, such as his Greek New Testament (1516) and translations of the Greek and Latin Fathers of the Church.伊拉斯谟致力了他的大部分精力和学习,然而,在基督教的传统来源,如他的希腊文新约(1516)和教会的希腊和拉丁教父的翻译,建立健全版本。 Erasmus' friend Thomas More wrote yet another humanist critique of society--Utopia (1516), which attacked the corruptions of power, wealth, and social status.伊拉斯谟“托马斯更多的朋友写的又一社会人文主义批判 - 乌托邦(1516),其中攻击的权力,财富和社会地位的损坏。By the middle of the 16th century humanism had won wide acceptance as an educational system.到了16世纪人文主义中间赢得了作为教育系统广泛接受。

Later Types of Humanism人文后来类型

By the 18th century the word humanism had come to be identified with a purely secular attitude--one that often rejected Christianity altogether.到了18世纪人文主义这个词已经到了与纯粹世俗的态度确定 - 一个常常被拒绝基督教完全。In the 20th century the term has taken on a number of different, often conflicting, meanings.在20世纪这个词已经采取了不同的,往往相互冲突的,意义的数量。In the works of the pragmatist philosopher Ferdinand Schiller (1864-1937) humanism is seen as that philosophical understanding which stems from human activity.在费迪南德的实用主义哲学家席勒(1864年至1937年)的作品主义哲学被看作是了解哪些人类活动造成的。Irving Babbitt used the word to describe a program of reaction against romanticism and naturalism in literature.欧文巴比特用这个词来描述一个对浪漫主义和自然主义文学的反应程序。Jean Paul Sartre developed a scientific humanism preaching human worth based on Marxist theory, and the Roman Catholic Jacques Maritain tried to formulate a new Christian humanism based on the philosophy of Thomas Aquinas.萨特制定了科学的人文精神宣讲马克思主义人的价值理论为基础,与罗马天主教雅克马里坦试图制定一个新的基督教人文主义对托马斯阿奎那的哲学基础。 The American Humanist Association, which grew out of the Unitarian movement, holds that human beings can satisfy religious needs from within, discarding the concept of God as inconsistent with advanced thought and human freedom.美国人道主义协会的前身是一神论运动了,认为人类能够满足从内部丢弃的神的观念,与先进的思想和人的自由不一致的宗教需要。 In recent years, fundamentalist Christian groups in the United States have declared their opposition to "secular humanism," an antireligious ideology that they believe pervades American society, including the major churches, and that they blame for its moral failings.近年来,在美国的基督教原教旨主义团体宣称他们反对“世俗人文主义”的反宗教思想,他们认为美国社会的渗透,包括主要的教会,并为他们的道德缺失难辞其咎。

Benjamin G. Kohl本杰明G.科尔

Bibliography: Bullock, Alan, The Humanist Tradition in the West (1985); Garin, Eugenio, Italian Humanism (1966); Kohl, Benjamin G., and Witt, Ronald G., eds., The Earthly Republic: Italian Humanists on Government and Society (1978); Kristeller, Paul O., Renaissance Thought and Its Sources (1979); Nash, Paul, Models of Man (1968); Trinkaus, Charles, The Scope of Renaissance Humanism (1983).参考书目:布洛克,在西方(1985)人文主义传统艾伦;加林,意大利人文主义(1966)欧金尼奥;科尔,本杰明G.,与威特,罗纳德G.合编,地上的共和国:在政府的意大利人文主义者。与社会(1978年); Kristeller,保罗澳,文艺复兴时期的思想及其来源(1979年);纳什,保罗,民(1968)模型; Trinkaus,查尔斯,在文艺复兴时期人文主义的范围(1983年)。

Christian Humanism基督教人文精神

General Information一般资料

The Roman Catholic Jacques Maritain tried to formulate a new Christian humanism based on the philosophy of Thomas Aquinas.罗马天主教雅克马里坦试图制定一个新的基督教人文主义对托马斯阿奎那的哲学基础。The American Humanist Association, which grew out of the Unitarian movement, holds that human beings can satisfy religious needs from within, discarding the concept of God as inconsistent with advanced thought and human freedom. In recent years, fundamentalist Christian groups in the United States have declared their opposition to "secular humanism," an antireligious ideology that they believe pervades American society, including the major churches, and that they blame for its moral failings.美国人道主义协会的前身是一神论运动了, 认为人类能够满足从内部丢弃的神的观念,与先进的思想和人的自由不一致的宗教需要,近年来,在美国的基督教原教旨主义团体宣布他们反对“世俗人文主义”一反宗教思想,他们认为美国社会的渗透,包括主要的教会,并为他们的道德缺失难辞其咎。

Christian Humanism基督教人文精神

Advanced Information先进的信息

The view that individuals and their culture have value in the Christian life.认为个人和他们的文化在基督教的人生价值。Justin Martyr appears to have been the first to offer a formulation of Christianity that included an acceptance of classical achievements as he stated in the Apology (1.46) that Christ the Word had put culture under his control.贾斯汀烈士似乎已经率先制定提供了基督教,其中包括一个经典的成就,他在接受道歉(1.46)表示,基督的Word已经把他的控制之下的文化。 Such an approach, he believed, would restrain believers from leading vulgar lives while at the same time keeping them from attaching more importance to human culture than to the truths of the faith.这种做法,他认为,将制止领导庸俗生活的信徒,而在同一时间保持连接,而不是从信仰的真理,更重要的人类文化的。

During the Middle Ages little attention was paid to humanism, but with the beginning of the Renaissance there was a revival of that perspective.在中世纪的小注意了人文主义,但随着文艺复兴时期开始出现了复苏的这一观点。Renaissance humanism was both an outlook and a method.文艺复兴时期的人文主义是既是世界观和方法。It has been described as "man's discovery of himself and the world."它被形容为“人的发现自己和世界。”The worth of earthly existence for its own sake was accepted, and the otherworldliness of medieval Christianity was disparaged.而为了自身利益现世存在的价值被接受,而中世纪基督教的来世是贬。Humanists believed that the pursuit of secular life was not only proper but even meritorious.人文主义者认为,世俗生活的追求不仅是正确的,但即使功勋。

Closely allied to the new view of worldly life was a devotion to nature and its beauty as part of a broadened religious outlook.关系密切的世俗生活的新观点是对的性质和它的美丽作为扩大宗教观的一部分奉献。Yet Renaissance humanism must be viewed from another vantage point.然而,文艺复兴时期的人文主义必须从另一个制高点。Those involved in the movement were devoted to the studia humanitatis, or the liberal arts, including history, literary criticism, grammar, poetry, philology, and rhetoric.在运动中所涉及的有专门studia humanitatis,或文科,包括历史,文学批评,文法,诗歌,语言学和修辞。 These subjects were taught from classical texts of the Greco - Roman period and were intended to help students understand and deal with other people.这些科目被教导从经典文本的希腊 - 罗马时期,其目的是帮助学生认识和对待其他人。In addition, the humanists valued ancient artifacts and manuscripts and tried to revive classical life styles.此外,人文主义重视古代文物和手稿,并试图恢复传统的生活方式。

Many Christians, including Savonarola and Zwingli, reacted against the more secular approach of humanism; but others such as John Colet, Thomas More, and Erasmus felt that great benefits would come from the revival of classicism and the development of historical criticism.许多基督徒,包括萨沃纳罗拉和茨温利,对人文主义的反应更世俗的做法,但如约翰Colet,托马斯更多,伊拉斯谟人认为,巨大的利益将来自古典主义的复兴和发展的历史批评。 It has been pointed out that even John Calvin reveals the influence of humanism.有人指出,即使约翰卡尔文揭示了人文主义的影响。 The new Renaissance philological tools were helpful in studying the Bible, and the ancient view of man held the promise for better government and greater social justice.新文艺复兴语言学工具,在研究圣经有帮助的,和人的古人看来召开了更好的政府和更大的社会正义的承诺。A wedding of the ethical and social concern of the Renaissance with the introspective force of Christianity held the possibility for church renewal in the minds of many sixteenth century scholars.一对与基督教的内省力量文艺复兴时期的伦理和社会关注的婚礼举行的教堂重建于十六世纪的许多学者心中的可能性。 Christian humanist teaching was kept alive by many Anglicans, by the moderates in the Church of Scotland, by certain German pietists, and through the philosophy of Kant.基督教人文主义教学,是维持生命的许多教徒,在苏格兰的教会的温和派,某些德国虔诚​​主义者,并通过对康德哲学。It continues in the twentieth century among such writers as Jacques Maritain and Hans Kung.它继续作为中雅克马里坦和汉斯昆等作家在二十世纪。

Those who believe that the Christian revelation has a humanistic emphasis point to the fact that man was made in the image of God, that Jesus Christ became man through the incarnation, and that the worth of the individual is a consistent theme in the teaching of Jesus.那些谁相信基督教的启示具有人文重点指向那人是在神的形象造的事实,即通过耶稣基督成为人的化身,而​​个人的价值是在耶稣的教学一致的主题。 Indeed, when asked to give a summary of the life that pleases God, Christ advised his listeners to "love the Lord your God with all your heart, and with all your soul, and with all your mind" and to "love your neighbor as yourself" (Matt. 22:37, 39).事实上,当问及给予的生活,取悦上帝的总结,基督劝他的听众“爱你的心与所有主你的上帝,并与所有你的灵魂,并与所有你的头脑”和“爱你的邻居的你自己“(太22点37分,39)。

Christian humanists acknowledge the contributions of other forms of humanism, such as the classical variety that discovered the value of human liberty, and the Marxists, who realize that man has been estranged from the good life because he is dispossessed of property and subordinated to material and economic forces.基督教人文主义者承认人文主义,如经典的品种,发现了人类自由的价值,马克思主义者,谁知道那人已经从美好生活的疏远,因为他是剥夺财产和其他形式服从于物质的贡献,经济力量。 However, they caution that these other forms can degenerate into excessive individualism or savage collectivism because they operate without God.然而,他们警告说,这些其他形式可以为过度的个人主义或集体主义野蛮的堕落,因为他们没有上帝操作。The Christian humanist values culture but confesses that man is fully developed only as he comes into a right relationship with Christ.基督教文化以人为本的价值观,但交代,人是唯一的充分发展,他将与基督正确的关系来。 When this happens, a person can begin to experience growth in all areas of life as the new creation of revelation (2 Cor. 5:17; Gal. 6:15).当发生这种情况,一个人就可以开始体验新的创造的启示在生活的所有领域的增长(林5时17分;半乳糖6点15分)。

RG Clouse RG Clouse
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary)(Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 参考书目
L Bouyer, Christian Humanism; Q Breen, John Calvin: A Study in French Humanism; H Kung, On Being a Christian; J Maritain, True Humanism; JI Packer, Knowing Man; G Toffanin, History of Humanism; C Trinkaus, In Our Image and Likeness; W Bouwsma, The Interpretation of Renaissance Humanism.L Bouyer,基督教人文精神,Q布林,约翰卡尔文:在法国人文研究,H区,在作为一个基督教〔J旦,真正的人道主义,姬封隔器,了解人,G Toffanin,人文历史,C Trinkaus,在我们的肖像,W Bouwsma,文艺复兴时期的人文主义的解释。


Catholic Information天主教信息

Humanism is the name given to the intellectual, literary, and scientific movement of the fourteenth to the sixteenth centuries, a movement which aimed at basing every branch of learning on the literature and culture of classical antiquity.人文精神是考虑到第十四知识,文学和科学的运动至十六世纪,一个运动,在基础上的每一个文学和古代文化的学习目的分支的名称。

Believing that a classical training alone could form a perfect man, the Humanists so called themselves in opposition to the Scholastics, and adopted the term humaniora (the humanities) as signifying the scholarship of the ancients.相信,一个古典音乐的培训能够单独形成一个完美的人,所谓的人文主义者在反对自己的scholastics,并通过了标志着古人奖学金期限humaniora(人文)。 Though the interval between the classical period and their own days was regarded by the Humanists as barbarous and destructive alike of art and science, Humanism (like every other historical phenomenon) was connected with the past.虽然古典时期之间的间隔天数和自己被作为野蛮和破坏性的艺术和科学,人文(如每隔历史现象)一样的人文主义者认为是连接过去。 The use of Latin in the Liturgy of the Church had already prepared Europe for the humanistic movement.在拉丁美洲,在教会的礼仪中使用已经准备了人文运动的欧洲。In the Middle Ages, however, classical literature was regarded merely as a means of education; it was known through secondary sources only, and the Church saw in the worldly conception of life that had prevailed among the ancients an allurement to sin.在中世纪,然而,古典文学被视为仅仅作为一种教育手段,它是通过二手资料只知道,和教会的世俗观念,生活中有古人对罪的诱惑占了上风看到。 On the rise of secularism these views underwent a change, especially in Italy.在世俗主义的兴起这些意见进行了修改,特别是在意大利。 In that country the body politic had grown powerful, the cities had amassed great wealth, and civic liberty was widespread.在该国的政治体已增长有力,城市已积累了大量财富,和公民自由是普遍的。Worldly pleasure became a strong factor in life and freer play was given to sensory impulse.世间快乐成为一个强大的因素在生命和自由发挥给予了感官冲动。The transcendental, unworldly concept of life, which had till then been dominant, now came into conflict with a mundane, human, and naturalistic view, which centred on nature and man.先验,unworldly概念的生活,这已至此一直占据主导地位,现在进入了冲突与世俗,人力和自然观点,这对自然和人为中心的。 These new ideas found their prototypes in antiquity, whose writers cherished and extolled the enjoyment of life, the claims of individuality, literary art and fame, the beauty of nature.这些新的思想发现在古代,它的珍惜和赞美的生活享受作家他们的原型,个性的主张,文学艺术和名气,自然之美。Not only ancient Roman culture but also the hitherto neglected Greek culture was taken up by the movement.不仅古代罗马文化也是迄今为止被忽略的希腊文化,就由运动。The new spirit broke away from theology and Church.新的精神脱离神学和教会。The principle of free, scientific inquiry gained ground.自由,科学探究的原则深入人心。It was quite natural that the value of the new ideal should be exaggerated while the medieval national culture was undervalued.这是很自然的是,新的理想值应该被夸大,而中世纪的民族文化被低估。

It is customary to begin the history of Humanism with Dante (1265-1321), and Petrarch (1304-74).这是习惯,开始与但丁(1265至1321年)和彼特拉克(1304至1374年)的人文历史。Of the two Dante, by reason of his poetic sublimity, was undoubtedly the greater; but, as regards Humanism Dante was merely its precursor while Petrarch initiated the movement and led it on to success.在这两个但丁,通过他的诗歌崇高的理由,无疑是更大的,但是,至于人文但丁只是它的前体,而彼得拉克发起的运动,并导致它的成功。 Dante certainly shows traces of the coming change; in his great epic classical and Christian materials are found side by side, while poetic renown, an aim so characteristic of the pagan writers yet so foreign to the Christian ideal, is what he seeks.但丁当然显示了未来的变化痕迹,在他的伟大史诗古典和基督教的材料被发现并排,而诗意的名声,因此,目的是对却又如此陌生的基督教理想的异教作家的特点,就是他的目的。 In matters of real importance, however, he takes the Scholastics as his guides.在真正重要的事情,然而,他以他的指导院哲学家。 Petrarch, on the other hand, is the first Humanist; he is interested only in the ancients and in poetry.彼特拉克,另一方面,是第一个人文主义者,他只在古人和诗歌感兴趣。He unearths long-lost manuscripts of the classics, and collects ancient medals and coins.他unearths的经典久违的手稿,并收集古代奖牌和硬币。If Dante ignored the monuments of Rome and regarded its ancient statues as idolatrous images, Petrarch views the Eternal City with the enthusiasm of a Humanist, not with that of a pious Christian.如果但丁忽视了罗马古迹并把它作为偶像崇拜的图像古老的雕像,彼特拉克意见,一个以人为本的积极性永恒之城,而不是与一个虔诚的基督徒的。 The ancient classics -- especially his lodestars, Virgil and Cicero -- serve not merely to instruct and to charm him; they also incite him to imitation.古老的经典 - 尤其是他的lodestars,维吉尔和西塞罗 - 服务不仅指导和他的魅力,他们还煽动他的模仿。With the philosophers of old he declared virtue and truth to be the highest goal of human endeavour, although in practice he was not always fastidious in cultivating them.随着旧的哲学家,他宣称的美德和真理,是人类努力的最高目标,但实际上他并不总是在培养他们讲究。However, it was only in his third aim, eloquence, that he rivalled the ancients.然而,这只是在他的第三个目的,口才,他媲美古人。 His ascent of Mont Ventoux marks an epoch in the history of literature.他对山Ventoux上升标志着在文学史上划时代。His joy in the beauty of nature, his susceptibility to the influence of landscape, his deep sympathy with, and glorious portrayal of, the charms of the world around him were a break with the traditions of the past.他的喜悦,在大自然的美,他的易感性景观的影响,他深深同情,并光荣写照,在他周围的世界的魅力是一个与以往的传统打破。 In 1341 he gained at Rome the much coveted crown of the poet laureate.在1341年他获得了在罗马的桂冠诗人多觊觎桂冠。His Latin writings were most highly prized by his contemporaries, who ranked his "Africa" with the "Æneid" of Virgil, but posterity prefers his sweet, melodious sonnets and canzoni.他的拉丁文著作中最珍贵的是他的同时代人,谁排他的“非洲”与“埃涅阿斯记”的维吉尔,但后人更喜欢他那甜美的,悠扬的十四行诗和canzoni。 His chief merit was the impulse he gave to the search for the lost treasures of classical antiquity.他的主要优点是冲动,他送给了失去的古代宝藏的搜索。His chief disciple and friend, Boccaccio (1313-75), was honoured in his lifetime not for his erotic and lewd, though elegant and clever, "Decameron" (by which, however, posterity remembers him), but for his Latin works which helped to spread Humanism.他的主要弟子和朋友,薄伽丘(1313至1375年),被评为在生前没有为他的色情和猥亵,虽然优雅和聪明,“十日谈”(其中,然而,后人记住他),但对于他的拉美工程,帮助传播人文主义。 The classical studies of Petrarch and Boccaccio were shared by Coluccio Salutato (d. 1406), the Florentine chancellor.彼得拉克和薄伽丘的经典研究,共享Coluccio Salutato(草1406),佛罗伦萨校长。By introducing the epistolary style of the ancients he brought classical wisdom into the service of the State, and by his tastes and his prominence greatly promoted the cause of literature.通过引入古人的书信体风格带进了他的国家服务的古典智慧,和他的口味和他的突出极大地推动了文学事业。

The men of the revival were soon followed by a generation of itinerant teachers and their scholars.在复兴的男子很快随之而来的巡回教师和他们的一代学者。Grammarians and rhetoricians journeyed from city to city, and spread the enthusiasm for antiquity to ever-widening circles; students travelled from place to place to become acquainted with the niceties of an author's style and his interpretation.文法和修辞学家远航从城市到城市,并波及到了古代不断扩大各界的积极性,学生从一个地方到地方,成为一个作者的风格和他的解释细微熟悉旅行。 Petrarch lived to see Giovanni di Conversino set out on his journey as itinerant professor.彼特拉克活着看到乔瓦尼迪Conversino集教授在他的江湖旅程。From Ravenna came Giovanni Malpaghini, gifted with a marvellous memory and a burning zeal for the new studies, though more skilled in imparting inherited and acquired knowledge than in the elaboration of original thought.从拉文纳来到乔瓦尼Malpaghini,具有奇妙的内存和一个新的研究燃烧的热情天赋,但更在继承和传授获得比在原以为制定知识技能。 In another way the soul of literary research was Poggio (1380-1459), a papal secretary and later Florentine chancellor.以另一种方式的文学研究的灵魂被波焦(1380年至1459年),教皇的秘书,后来佛罗伦萨校长。During the sessions of the Council of Constance (1414-18) he ransacked the monasteries and institutions of the neighbourhood, made valuable discoveries, and "saved many works" from the "cells" (ergastula).在对安理会的康斯坦茨(1414年至1418年)的会议,他洗劫了附近的寺庙和机构,提出了宝贵的发现,而“拯救了许多作品”,从“细胞”(ergastula)。 He found and transcribed Quintilian with his own hand, had the first copies made of Lucretius, Silius Italicus, and Ammianus Marcellinus, and, probably, he discovered the first books of the "Annals" of Tacitus.他发现和转录与他自己的手昆体良,曾在卢克莱修,Silius Italicus和Ammianus Marcellinus提出的第一个副本,而且,很可能,他发现了“通志”的塔西第一书。About 1430 practically all the Latin works now known had been collected, and scholars could devote themselves to the revision of the text.关于1430年几乎所有的拉美工程目前已知已收集,学者能潜心文本的修订。But the real source of classic beauty was Greek literature.但是,古典美的真正源头是希腊文学。Italians had already gone to Greece to study the language, and since 1396 Manuel Chrysoloras, the first teacher of Greek in the West, was busily engaged at Florence and elsewhere.意大利已到希腊来研究语言,并自1396年曼努埃尔Chrysoloras,在西方希腊的第一位老师,正忙于在佛罗伦萨和其他地方从事。 His example was followed by others.他的例子其次是其他人。In Greece also, a zealous search was instituted for literary remains, and in 1423 Aurispa brought two hundred and thirty-eight volumes to Italy.在希腊也,一个热心的搜索被设立为文学仍然存在,并在1423 Aurispa带来238卷到意大利。The most diligent collector of inscriptions, coins, gems, and medals was the merchant Ciriaco of Ancona.的铭文,钱币,宝石,和奖牌最勤奋的收藏家是安科纳商人Ciriaco。Among those present from Greece at the Council of Florence were Archbishop (afterwards Cardinal) Bessarion, who presented to Venice his valuable collection of nine hundred volumes, also Gemistos Plethon, the celebrated teacher of Platonic philosophy, who subsequently relapsed into paganism.在这些来自希腊在佛罗伦萨出席会议大主教(事后红衣主教)Bessarion,谁提出了宝贵的收集到威尼斯的900卷,也Gemistos Plethon,对柏拉图哲学,谁其后复发到异教庆祝教师。The capture of Constantinople by the Turks (1453) drove the learned Greeks, George of Trebizond, Theodorus Gaza, Constantine Lascaris, etc., into Italy.在君士坦丁堡由土耳其人(1453)捕捉开着了解到希腊人,乔治Trebizond,Theodorus加沙,君士坦丁Lascaris等,到意大利。 One of the most successful critics and editors of the classics was Lorenzo Valla (1407-57).最成功的评论家和编辑们的经典之一,是洛伦佐瓦拉(1407年至1457年)。He pointed out the defects in the Vulgate, and declared the Donation of Constantine a fable.他指出,在武加大的缺陷,并宣布捐赠君士坦丁一则寓言。Despite his vehement attacks on the papacy, Nicholas V brought him to Rome.尽管在他的强烈攻击教皇尼古拉斯V带他到罗马。 Within a short period, the new studies claimed a still wider circle of votaries.在很短的时期,新的研究声称,votaries仍然广泛圈。

The princely houses were generous in their support of the movement.在王侯的房子是在他们对运动的支持大方。Under the Medici, Cosimo (1429-64) and Lorenzo the Magnificent (1469-92), Florence was pre-eminently the seat of the new learning.根据奇,科西莫(1429年至1464年)和洛伦佐的瑰丽(1469年至1492年),佛罗伦萨是前突出的新的学习位子。 Its worthy statesman Mannetti, a man of great culture, piety, and purity, was an excellent Greek and Latin scholar, and a brilliant orator.其值得政治家Mannetti,一个伟大的文化,虔诚和纯洁的人,是一个优秀的希腊语和拉丁语的学者,和灿烂的演说家。 The Camaldolese monk Ambrogio Traversari was also a profound scholar, especially versed in Greek; he possessed a magnificent collection of the Greek authors, and was one of the first monks of modern times to learn Hebrew.该Camaldolese和尚Ambrogio Traversari也是一个深刻的学者,特别是在希腊的精通,他拥有一个宏伟的希腊作家收集,是近代第一个僧人学习希伯来语之一。Marsuppini (Carlo Aretino), renowned and beloved as professor and municipal chancellor, quoted from the Latin and Greek authors with such facility that his readiness was a source of wonder, even to an age sated with constant citation. Marsuppini(卡罗Aretino),著名教授和校长,市心爱,转引自等设施的拉丁文和希腊文的作者,他的准备是一个奇迹的来源,甚至与不断引用吃饱的时代。 Although in matters of religion Marsuppini was a notorious heathen, Nicholas V sought to attract him to Rome to translate Homer.虽然在宗教问题是一个臭名昭著的Marsuppini异教徒,尼古拉斯V设法吸引他到罗马翻译荷马。 Among his contemporaries, Leonardo Bruni, a pupil of Chrysoloras, enjoyed great fame as a Greek scholar and a unique reputation for his political and literary activity.在他的同时代人,莱昂纳多布鲁尼,一个Chrysoloras学生,享有与希腊学者,为他的政治和文学活动的唯一的声誉大出风头。 He was, moreover, the author of a history of Florence.他是,而且,一个佛罗伦萨历史的作者。Niccolo Niccoli was also a citizen of Florence; a patron of learning, he assisted and instructed young men, dispatched agents to collect ancient manuscripts and remains, and amassed a collection of eight hundred codices (valued at six thousand gold gulden), which on his death were, through the mediation of Cosimo, donated to the monastery of San Marco, to form a public library, and are today one of the most valued possessions of the Laurentiana Library at Florence.Niccolo Niccoli也是佛罗伦萨的公民,一个学习的靠山,他协助和指导青年男子,派出人员搜集古代手稿和保持,并积累了800抄本收集(在6000黄金荷兰货币价值),这对他的死亡者,通过调解科西莫捐赠给圣马可修道院,以形成一个公共图书馆,是今天的Laurentiana图书馆在佛罗伦萨最看重的财产之一。 The aforesaid Poggio, a versatile and influential writer, also resided for a long time at Florence, published a history of that city, and ridiculed the clergy and nobility in his witty, libellous "Facetiæ".上述波焦,灵活的和有影响力的作家,也为长期居住在佛罗伦萨,公布了该城市的历史,并嘲笑神职人员和他的机智,中伤“滑稽”的贵族。 He was distinguished for his extensive classical learning, translated some of the Greek authors (eg Lucian, Diodorus Siculus, Xenophon), appended scholarly and clever notes, collected inscriptions, busts, and medals, and wrote a valuable description of the ruins of Rome.他是杰出的,他广泛学习翻译一些古典的希腊作家(如卢西安,狄奥多罗斯S​​iculus,色诺芬),附加学术和巧妙的笔记,收集碑刻,萧条,和奖牌,并写了罗马的废墟宝贵的描述。 His success in seeking and unearthing manuscripts has already been mentioned.他在寻找和发掘手稿的成功已经提到。Plethon, also mentioned above, taught Platonic philosophy at Florence.Plethon,上面也提到,任教于佛罗伦萨柏拉图哲学。

Bessarion was another panegyrist of Plato, who now began to displace Aristotle; this, together with the influx of Greek scholars, led to the foundation of the Platonic academy which included among its members all the more prominent citizens. Bessarion是另一种柏拉图,谁现在就开始取代亚里士多德panegyrist;这一点,再加上希腊学者涌入导致了柏拉图学院的基础,在其所有成员都比较突出的公民包括。 Marsilio Ficino (d. 1499), a Platonic philosopher in the full sense of the term, was one of its members, and by his works and letters exerted an extraordinary influence on his contemporaries. Marsilio菲奇诺(卒于1499),在完整意义上的术语哲学家柏拉图,是其成员之一,并通过他的作品和信件对他同时代产生非凡的影响力。Along with his other literary labours he undertook the gigantic task of translating the writings of Plato into elegant Latin, and accomplished it successfully.随着他的其他文学劳作,他承担了翻译成优雅的拉丁柏拉图的著作巨大的任务,并成功地完成它。Cristoforo Landino, a pupil of Marsuppini, without sharing his religious ideas, taught rhetoric and poetry at Florence and was also a statesman.克里斯托弗兰迪诺,没有一个Marsuppini学生分享他的宗教思想,任教于佛罗伦萨修辞和诗歌,也是一个政治家。 His commentary on Dante, in which he gives the most detailed explanation of the allegorical meaning of the great poet, is of lasting value.他对但丁的评论,其中他给了伟大的诗人讽喻意义最详尽的解释,持久的价值。 Under Lorenzo de' Medici, the most important man of letters in Florence was Angelo Poliziano (d. 1494), first the tutor of the Medici princes and subsequently a professor and a versatile writer.在洛伦佐德美第奇,在佛罗伦萨最重要的男子字母安杰洛Poliziano(草1494),首先是美第奇王子导师,随后教授和一个多功能的作家。 He was pre-eminently a philologist, and gave scholarly translations and commentaries on the classical authors, devoting special attention to Homer and Horace.他是前突出的a语言学家,并给学术翻译和对古典作家的评论,特别重视对荷马和贺拉斯。He was, however, surpassed by the youthful and celebrated Count Pico della Mirandola (1462-94), who, to use Poliziano's phrase, "was eloquent and virtuous, a hero rather than a man".他,然而,超越了青春和庆祝计数微微德拉米兰多拉(1462年至1494年),谁,用Poliziano的话说,“是雄辩和良性,而不是一个人的英雄”。 He noticed the relations between Hellenism and Judaism, studied the Cabbala, combated astrology, and composed an immortal work on the dignity of man.他注意到希腊和犹太教之间的关系,研究了Cabbala,打击占星术,并组成了人的尊严上一个不朽的作品。

An active literary movement was also fostered by the Visconti and the Sforza in Milan, where the vain and unprincipled Filelfo (1398-1481) resided; by the Gonzaga in Mantua, where the noble Vittorino da Feltre (d. 1446) conducted his excellent school; by the kings of Naples; by the Este in Ferrara, who enjoyed the services of Guarino, after Vittorino the most celebrated educationist of Italian Humanism; by Duke Federigo of Urbino, and even by the profligate Malatesta in Rimini.活跃​​的文学运动也促进了维斯康蒂和斯福尔扎在米兰,那里的徒劳和无原则的Filelfo(1398年至1481年)居住,由冈萨加在曼图亚,这里的高贵Vittorino达Feltre(卒于1446)进行了出色的学校;由那不勒斯国王,通过在费拉拉,谁享有的瓜里诺的服务后,Vittorino的意大利人文主义教育家最著名的埃斯特;乌尔比诺公爵Federigo,甚至被挥霍在里米尼马拉泰斯塔。 Humanism was also favoured by the popes.人文精神是也赞成由教皇。Nicholas V (1447-55) sought by the erection of buildings and the collection of books to restore the glory of Rome.尼古拉斯V(1447年至1455年)所追求的建筑安装和图书的恢复罗马的荣耀的集合。The ablest intellects of Italy were attracted to the city; to Nicholas mankind and learning are indebted for the foundation of the Vatican Library, which in the number and value of its manuscripts (particularly Greek) surpassed all others.意大利的最能干的知识分子被吸引到城市;尼古拉人类和学习是为梵蒂冈图书馆,这在数量和其手稿(特别是希腊)值超过了所有其他的基础负债。 The pope encouraged, especially, translations from the Greek, and with important results, although no one won the prize of ten thousand gulden offered for a complete translation of Homer.教宗鼓励,特别是从希腊翻译,并与重要成果,虽然没有人赢得了一个完整的翻译荷马提供10000荷兰货币奖金。

Pius II (1458-64) was a Humanist himself and had won fame as poet, orator, interpreter of antiquity, jurist, and statesman; after his election, however, he did not fulfil all the expectations of his earlier associates, although he showed himself in various ways a patron of literature and art.皮乌斯II(1458年至1464年)是一个以人为本,并赢得了自己作为诗人,演说家,古代,法学家和政治家解释成名,他当选后,然而,他没有履行他先前所有的联营公司的预期,尽管他表现他自己在文学和艺术赞助人的各种方式。 Sixtus IV (1471-84) re-established the Vatican Library, neglected by his predecessors, and appointed Platina librarian.Sixtus IV(1471年至1484年)重新确立了梵蒂冈图书馆,由他的前任忽视,并任命粗铂馆员。 "Here reigns an incredible freedom of thought", was Filelfo's description of the Roman Academy of Pomponio Leto (d. 1498), an institute which was the boldest champion of antiquity in the capital of Christendom. “这里普遍存在一个令人难以置信的思想自由”,是Filelfo的描述的Pomponio莱托罗马学院(草1498),一个研究所这是古代最大胆的基督教资本冠军。 Under Leo X (1513-21) Humanism and art enjoyed a second golden age.在狮子座X(1513年至1521年),人文和艺术享受第二个黄金时代。 Of the illustrious circle of literati which surrounded him may be mentioned Pietro Bembo (d. 1547) -- famous as a writer of prose and poetry, as a Latin and Italian author, as philologist and historian, and yet, in spite of his high ecclesiastical rank, a true worldling.对文人的包围了他可能会提到彼得本博(草1547)杰出圈 - 作为一个著名作家的散文和诗歌,作为拉美和意大利作者,语言学家和历史学家,然而在他的高尽管如此,教会的排名,真正的俗人。To the same group belonged Jacopo Sadoleto, also versed in the various branches of Latin and Italian culture.同一组属于雅格布Sadoleto,也对拉美和意大利文化的各个分支精通。The chief merit of Italian Humanism, as indeed of Humanism in general, was that it opened up the real sources of ancient culture and drew from these, as a subject of study for its own sake, the classic literature which till then had been used in a merely fragmentary way.而意大利人为本,作为一般Humanism确实,主要优点是,它开辟了古代文化的真正来源,从这些drew作为一个为了自身利益的研究课题,其中的经典文献,直到然后被用在一个仅仅零碎的方式。 Philological and scientific criticism was inaugurated, and historical research advanced.语言学和科学的批评上台,和历史研究先进。The uncouth Latin of the Scholastics and the monastic writers was replaced by classic elegance.该寺院的经院哲学家和作家粗俗拉丁语取代了经典的优雅。More influential still, but not to good effect, were the religious and moral views of pagan antiquity.较有影响的是,但不能很好的效果,是古代异教的宗教和道德的看法。Christianity and its ethical system suffered a serious shock.基督教及其道德体系遭受了严重的冲击。Moral relations, especially marriage, became the subject of ribald jest.道德关系,尤其是婚姻,成了下流笑话的主题。In their private lives many Humanists were deficient in moral sense, while the morals of the upper classes degenerated into a pitiable excess of unrestrained individualism.在他们的私人生活的许多人文主义是在道德意识缺乏,而上层阶级的道德变成了无节制的个人主义可怜过剩堕落。 A political expression of the humanistic spirit is "The Prince" (Il Principe) of Niccolo Machiavelli (d. 1527), the gospel of brute force, of contempt for all morality, and of cynical selfishness.一个人文精神的政治言论是“王子”(IL普林西比)的Niccolo马基雅弗利(卒于1527),对暴力的福音,为一切道德的蔑视,自私和愤世嫉俗。

The pillaging of Rome in 1527 gave the death-blow to Italian Humanism, the serious political and ecclesiastical complications that ensued prevented its recovery.罗马在1527年的掠夺给死亡的打击,意大利人文主义,严重的政治和宗教的并发症随后阻止其恢复。"Barbarian Germany" had long since become its heir, but here Humanism never penetrated so deeply. “野蛮人德国”早已成为其继承人,但这里的人文从来没有渗透如此之深。The religious and moral earnestness of the Germans kept them from going too far in their devotion to antiquity, beauty, and the pleasures of sense, and gave the humanistic movement in Germany a practical and educational character.德国人的宗教和道德语重心长地保存在他们的奉献精神,从去太远古老,美丽,他们的快乐感,并且给了在德国的实际和教育性质的人文运动。 The real directors of the German movement were upright scholars and professors.德国运动真正的董事正直的学者和教授。 Only Celtes and a few others are reminiscent of Italian Humanism.只有Celtes和其他几个人是意大利人文主义的影子。School and university reform was the chief aim and the chief service of German Humanism.学校和大学改革的主要目标和德国人文主义的主要服务。Although German interest in ancient literature began under Charles IV (1347-78), the spread of Humanism in German countries dates from the fifteenth century.虽然在古代文学的兴趣在德国查理四世(1347年至1378年),在德国国家主义的传播开始的日期从十五世纪。Æneas Sylvius Piccolomini, afterwards Pius II, was the apostle of the new movement at the court of Frederick III (1440-93).埃涅阿斯Sylvius Piccolomini,事后皮乌斯二是新的运动在弗雷德里克三世(1440年至1493年)法院使徒。The renowned scholar Nicholas of Cusa (d. 1464) was versed in the classics, while his friend Georg Peuerbach studied in Italy and subsequently lectured on the ancient poets at Vienna.著名学者尼古拉斯的库萨(卒于1464)是精通经典,而他的朋友乔治Peuerbach研究在意大利,随后在维也纳古代诗人的演讲。 Johann Müller of Königsberg (Regiomontanus), a pupil of Peuerbach's, was familiar with Greek, but was chiefly renowned as an astronomer and mathematician.约翰米勒的康尼斯堡(雷格蒙塔努斯),一个Peuerbach的学生,是与希腊熟悉的,但主要是作为一个著名的天文学家和数学家。 Though Germany could not boast of as many powerful patrons of learning as Italy, the new movement did not lack supporters.虽然德国不能拥有尽可能多的为意大利学习强大的顾客,新的运动并不缺乏支持者。The Emperor Maximilian I, Elector Philip of the Palatinate, and his chancellor, Johann von Dalberg (later Bishop of Worms), Duke Eberhard of Würtemberg, Elector Frederick the Wise, Duke George of Saxony, Elector Joachim I of Brandenburg, and Archbishop Albrecht of Mainz were all supporters of Humanism.皇帝马克西米连一世,选民的普法尔茨菲利普和他的校长,约翰冯达尔贝格(后来的蠕虫主教),符腾堡公爵埃伯哈德,选民弗雷德里克智者,萨克森公爵乔治,选民约阿希姆我勃兰登堡和大主教阿尔布雷希特的美因茨人本主义的支持者。

Among the citizens, too, the movement met with favour and encouragement.公民之间也一样,运动会见了赞成和鼓励。In Nuremberg it was supported by the above-mentioned Regiomontanus, the historians, Hartmann Schedel and Sigmund Meisterlein, and also by Willibald Pirkheimer (1470-1528), who had been educated in Italy, and was an indefatigable worker in the antiquarian and historical field.在纽伦堡它得到了上述雷格蒙塔努斯,历史学家,哈特曼Schedel和西格蒙德Meisterlein,也可以由Willibald Pirkheimer(1470年至1528年),谁曾在意大利接受教育,并在古籍和历史领域是诲人不倦的工人。His sister, Charitas, the gentle nun, united with true piety a cultivated intellect.他的姐姐,Charitas,温柔的尼姑,与真正的孝道a智力培养团结。Konrad Peutinger (1465-1547), town clerk of Augsburg, devoted his leisure to the service of the arts and sciences, by collecting inscriptions and ancient remains and publishing, or having published by others, the sources of German history.康拉德Peutinger(1465年至1547年),奥格斯堡镇书记,献出了自己休闲的艺术和科学服务,通过收集铭文和古遗迹和出版,或有其他人,德国历史来源出版。 The map of Ancient Rome, named after him "Tabula Peutingeriana", was bequeathed to him by its discoverer, Conrad Celtes, but was not published until after his death.古代罗马地图,在他之后“Tabula Peutingeriana”命名,是由它留给他的发现者,康拉德Celtes,但直​​到他去世后出版。Strasburg was the earliest German stronghold of humanistic ideas.斯特拉斯堡是德国最早的人文思想的堡垒。Jacob Wimpheling (d. 1528), a champion of German sentiment and nationality, and Sebastian Brant were the chief representatives of the movement, and attained a wide reputation owing to their quarrel with Murner, who had published a paper in opposition to Wimpheling's "Germania", and owing to the controversy concerning the Immaculate Conception.雅各Wimpheling(草1528),德国的民族情绪和冠军,塞巴斯蒂安勃兰特是运动的主要代表,并取得与Murner,谁曾发表反对Wimpheling的“日耳曼尼亚一纸宽的声誉由于他们的争吵“,并由于争议有关圣母无原罪。 As in Italy so in Germany learned societies sprang up, such as the "Donaugesellschaft" (Danubiana) in Vienna -- the most prominent member of which, Johann Spiessheimer (Cuspinian, 1473-1529), distinguished himself as an editor and an historian -- and the "Rheinische Gesellschaft" (Rhenana), under the above-mentioned Johann von Dalberg.正如意大利的教训在德国社会兴起,如“Donaugesellschaft”(Danubiana)在维也纳, - 最突出的成员,其中,约翰Spiessheimer(Cuspinian,1473年至1529年),作为一个杰出的编辑器和一个历史学家自己 - - 和“莱茵GESELLSCHAFT”(Rhenana),在上述约翰冯达尔贝格。Closely associated with the latter was Abbot Johannes Trithemius (1462-1516), a man of universal attainments.与后者密切相关的是方丈约翰内斯Trithemius(1462年至1516年),一个普遍的造诣的人。 The life of these two chief societies was Conrad Celtes, the fearless and unwearying apostle and itinerant preacher of Humanism, a man of the most varied talents -- a philosopher, mathematician, historian, publisher of classical and medieval writings, and a clever Latin poet, who celebrated in ardent verse his ever changing lady-loves and led a life of worldly indulgence.这两个主要的社会生活是康拉德Celtes,无畏和unwearying使徒和人文巡回布道者,一个最多样的人才人 - 一个哲学家,数学家,历史学家,古典和中世纪的著作出版商,一个聪明的拉丁诗人,谁在热烈庆祝他的诗不断变化的淑女喜欢过着放纵的世俗生活。Into the universities, too, the representatives of the "languages and belles-lettres" soon found their way.进入大学,也对“语言和纯文学”的代表很快就发现他们的方式。In Basle, which, in 1474, had appointed a professor of the liberal arts and poetry, the movement was represented chiefly by Heinrich Glareanus (1488-1563), celebrated as geographer and musician.在巴塞尔,其中,于1474年,已任命了文​​科和诗歌教授,运动代表主要由海因里希Glareanus(1488年至1563年)的著名地理学家和音乐家。 The best known Humanist of Tübingen was the poet Heinrich Bebel (1472-1518), an ardent patriot and an enthusiastic admirer of style and eloquence.最著名的人文主义的蒂宾根大学是诗人海因里希倍倍尔(1472年至1518年),一个热烈的爱国者和口才的风格和热情崇拜者。 His most widely-known work is the obscene "Facetiæ".他最广为人知的作品是淫秽的“滑稽”。Agricola (d. 1485), in the opinion of Erasmus a perfect stylist and Latinist, taught at Heidelberg.阿格里科拉(卒于1485年)在伊拉斯谟一个完美的设计师和Latinist意见,任教于海德堡。The inaugurator of Humanism in Mainz was the prolific author, Dietrich Gresemund (1477-1512).在美因茨主义开创者是多产的作者,迪特里希Gresemund(1477年至1512年)。The movement secured official recognition at the university in 1502 under Elector Berthold, and found in Joannes Rhagius Æsticampianus its most influential supporter.该运动于1502年获得的选举人下贝特霍尔德大学正式承认,并在Joannes Rhagius Æsticampianus发现其最有影响力的支持者。In the itinerant poet Peter Luder, Erfurt had in 1460 one of the earliest representatives of Humanism, and in Jodokus Trutfetter (1460-1519), the teacher of Luther, a diligent writer and conscientious professor of theology and philosophy.在江湖诗人彼得Luder,埃尔富特曾在1460人文最早的代表之一,并在Jodokus Trutfetter(1460至1519年),在路德,勤奋的作家和神学和哲学教授认真的老师。The real guide of the youth of Erfurt was, however, Konrad Mutianus Rufus (1471-1526), a canon at Gotha, educated in Italy.而真正的爱尔福特青年指导是,然而,康拉德Mutianus鲁弗斯(1471年至1526年),在哥达佳能,在意大利接受教育。 A zeal for teaching coupled with a pugnacious temperament, a delight in books but not in their making, religious latitudinarianism, and enthusiasm for the antique were his chief characteristics.一个教学热忱与好斗的气质,在书本上而不是在他们的决策的喜悦,宗教latitudinarianism,并为古董的热情再加上是他的主要特征。 The satirist Crotus Rubianus Euricius Cordus, the witty epigrammatist, and the elegant poet and merry companion, Eobanus Hessus, belonged also to the Erfurt circle.该讽刺作家Crotus Rubianus Euricius Cordus,诙谐的epigrammatist,和优雅的诗人和快乐的同伴,Eobanus Hessus,属于还向爱尔福特循环。

In Leipzig also, the first traces of humanistic activity date back to the middle of the fifteenth century.在莱比锡也,人文活动的日期可以追溯到第一次到十五世纪中叶。In 1503, when the Westphalian Hermann von dem Busche settled in the city, Humanism had there a notable representation.1503年,当威斯特伐利亚赫尔曼冯DEM Busche在城市落户,人文主义已经有一个显着的代表性。 From 1507 to 1511 Æsticampianus also laboured in Leipzig, but in the former year von dem Busche removed to Cologne.从1507至1511年在莱比锡Æsticampianus也吃力,但在今年前冯DEM Busche拆下来科隆。 From the beginning (1502) Wittenberg was under humanistic influence.从一开始(1502)维滕贝格是根据人文的影响。Many were the collisions between the champions of the old philosophy and theology and "the poets", who adopted a somewhat arrogant attitude.许多人之间的旧哲学和神学和“诗人”,谁通过了几分傲慢的态度冠军的碰撞。 About 1520 all the German universities had been modernized in the humanistic sense; attendance at the lectures on poetry and oratory was obligatory, Greek chairs were founded, and the scholastic commentaries on Aristotle were replaced by new translations.关于1520年所有的德国大学已经在现代化的人文意识;在诗歌和演讲的讲座参加了义务,希腊椅子的成立,并在亚里士多德的学术评论是由新译本所取代。 The most influential of the humanistic schools were, that of Schlettstadt under the Westphalian Ludwig Dringenberg (d. 1477), the teacher of Wimpheling, that of Deventer under Alexander Hegius (1433-98), the teacher of Erasmus of Rotterdam, Hermann von dem Busche, and Murmellius, and that of Münster, which underwent humanistic reformation in 1500 under the provost Rudolf von Langen (1438-1519), and which under the co-rector, Joannes Murmellius (1480-1517), the author of numerous and widely-adopted textbooks, attracted pupils from such distant parts as Pomerania and Silesia.其中最有影响的是学校的人文,即根据威斯特伐利亚路德维希Dringenberg(卒于1477年),在Wimpheling老师,Schlettstadt认为芬特尔下亚历山大Hegius(1433年至1498年),鹿特丹的伊拉斯谟对教师,赫尔曼冯DEM Busche和Murmellius和明斯特,其中经历了1500年的人文改造下教务长鲁道夫冯兰根(1438年至1519年),并根据联合校长,Joannes Murmellius(1480年至1517年),作者无数,广采用的教科书,从波美拉尼亚和西里西亚作为这样遥远的地方吸引学生。Good academic institutions also existed in Nuremberg, Augsburg, Strasburg, Basle, etc.良好的学术机构也存在于纽伦堡,奥格斯堡,斯特拉斯堡,巴塞尔等。

The humanistic movement reached its zenith during the first two decades of the sixteenth century in Reuchlin, Erasmus, and Hutten.人文运动期间达成的前两个十年,十六世纪Reuchlin,伊拉斯谟和Hutten其顶峰。Johann Reuchlin (1455-1522), the "phoenix of Germany", was skilled in all the branches of knowledge that were then cultivated.约翰Reuchlin(1455年至1522年)中,“德国凤凰”,在所有的知识,随后栽培技术分支。 Primarily a jurist, an expert in Greek, a first-rate authority on Roman authors, an historian, and a poet, he nevertheless attained his chief renown through his philosophical and Hebrew works -- especially through his "Rudimenta Hebraica" (grammar and lexicon) -- in the composition of which he secured the assistance of Jewish scholars.主要是一个法学家,在希腊,对罗马的作者,一个历史学家和诗人一流的权威专家,他还是获得通过他的哲学和希伯来文的作品他的主要声誉 - 尤其是通过他的“Rudimenta Hebraica”(语法和词汇) - 在组成,其中他获得了犹太学者的协助。His model was Pico della Mirandola, the "wise count, the most learned of our age".他的模型,微微德拉米兰多拉,“聪明的计数,最了解我们的时代”。He studied the esoteric doctrine of the Cabbala, but lost himself in the maze of its abstruse problems, and, after having become, in academic retirement, the pride and glory of his nation, was suddenly forced by a peculiar incident into European notoriety.他研究了Cabbala深奥的理论,但失去了它的深奥问题的迷宫自己,并成为后,在学术退休,他的民族自豪感和荣耀,突然被一个奇特的事件将迫使欧洲的恶名。 This occurrence has been not unjustly termed the culminating point of Humanism.这种情况的发生已不是不公正地被称为人文主义最高点。 Johann Pfefferkorn, a baptized Jew, had declared the Talmud a deliberate insult to Christianity, and had procured from the emperor a mandate suppressing Hebrew works.约翰Pfefferkorn,一个洗礼的犹太人,宣布犹太法典蓄意侮辱基督教,并从皇帝的任务镇压希伯来语工程采购。 Asked for his opinion, Reuchlin on scientific and legal grounds expressed his personal disapprobation of this action.问他的意见,Reuchlin表达了他的科学和法律依据这一行动的个人非难。Enraged at this opposition, Pfefferkorn, in his "Handspiegel", attacked Reuchlin, in reply to which the latter composed the "Augenspiegel".在这种对立触怒,Pfefferkorn,在他的“Handspiegel”,攻击Reuchlin在回答其中后者组成的“Augenspiegel”。 The theologians of Cologne, particularly Hochstraten, declared against Reuchlin, who then appealed to Rome.科隆,特别Hochstraten,宣布对Reuchlin的神学家,谁再呼吁罗马。The Bishop of Speier, entrusted with the settlement of the strife, declared himself in favour of Reuchlin.而Speier,随着纷争的解决委托,主教宣布自己的Reuchlin青睐。Hochstraten, however, now proceeded to Rome; in 1516 a papal mandate postponing the case was issued, but finally in 1520, under the pressure of the Lutheran movement, Reuchlin was condemned to preserve silence on the matter in future and to pay full costs. Hochstraten,然而,现在前往罗马,在1516年教皇的任务推迟的情况下发出,但终于在1520年,下路德运动的压力,Reuchlin被谴责对此事保持沉默,并在未来支付全部费用。

But more important than the lawsuit was the literary warfare that accompanied it.但更重要的是比官司文学战伴随它。This strife was a prelude to the Reformation.这种冲突是对宗教改革的序幕。All Germany was divided into two camps.所有德国被分为两大阵营。The Reuchlinists, the "fosterers of the arts and of the study of humanity", the "bright, renowned men" (clari viri), whose approving letters (Epistolæ clarorum virorum) Reuchlin had published in 1514, predominated in numbers and intellect; the Cologne party, styled by their opponents "the obscurantists" (viri obscuri), were more intent on defence than attack.该Reuchlinists,有“艺术与人类研究fosterers”,“亮,著名的男人”(clari viri),其批准书(Epistolæ clarorum virorum)Reuchlin已刊登在1514年,在数量上和智力为主;的科隆党,由他们的对手“的蒙昧主义”(viri obscuri)的风格,更在防守比进攻的意图。The most important document of this literary feud is the classical satire of the Humanists, "The Letters of the Obscurantists" (Epistolæ obscurorum virorum, 1515-17), of which the first part was composed by Crotus Rubianus, the second substantially by Hutten.这种文学仇隙最重要的文件是人文主义古典讽刺,(Epistolæ obscurorum virorum,1515年至1517年),其中第一部分是由Crotus Rubianus,由Hutten第二大幅组成“的蒙昧主义字母”。 Ostensibly these letters were written by various partisans of the Cologne University to Ortwin Gratius, their poet and master, and were couched in barbarous Latin.表面上这些信件是写在科隆大学的各种游击队向奥尔特温Gratius,他们的诗人和掌握,并于野蛮拉丁措辞。They purport to describe the life and doings of the obscurantists, their opinions and doubts, their debaucheries and love affairs.他们声称来形容生活和蒙昧主义,他们的意见和疑虑,他们debaucheries和恋爱行为。The lack of culture, the obsolete methods of instruction and study, the perverse expenditure of ingenuity, the pedantry of the obscurantists, are mercilessly ridiculed.文化的缺乏,教学和研究过时的方法,别出心裁的不正当开支,蒙昧主义的迂腐,是无情的嘲讽。Although the pamphlet was dictated by hatred and was full of reckless exaggeration, an inimitable originality and power of caricature secured its success.虽然这本小册子是由仇恨和被支配的鲁莽夸张,一个独特的创意和漫画获得成功充满力量。The Humanists regarded the dispute as decided, and sang the "Triumph of Reuchlin".人文主义者认为争议的决定,并演唱了“Reuchlin凯旋”。The latter, however, ever remained a true supporter of the Church and the pope.后者,然而,以往仍是教会和教皇的真正支持者。

Desiderius Erasmus of Rotterdam (1467-1536) was termed the "second eye of Germany". Desiderius鹿特丹(1467年至1536年)伊拉斯谟被称为“德国第二眼”。Vivacious, acute, and witty, he was the leader and literary oracle of the century, while his name, according to the testimony of a contemporary, had passed into proverb: "Whatever is ingenious, scholarly, and wisely written, is termed erasmic, that is, unerring and perfect."活泼的,尖锐性和机智,他是本世纪的领导者和文学甲骨文,而他的名字,根据当代的证词,已成为谚语通过:“无论是巧妙,学术,并明智地写,被称为erasmic,也就是说,无误和完善。“ His extraordinarily fruitful and versatile literary activity as profound Latinist and incomparable revivalist of Greek, as critic and commentator, as educator, satirist, theologian, and Biblical exegete, it is impossible to dwell upon here (see ERASMUS, DESIDERIUS).他非常富有成果的和通用的文学活动为深刻Latinist和希腊无比的复兴,作为批评家和评论家,作为教育工作者,讽刺作家,神学家和圣经注释家,就不可能在这里住(见ERASMUS,DESIDERIUS)。 Ulrich von Hutten (1488-1523), a Franconian knight, and enthusiastic champion of the liberal sciences, was still better known as politician and agitator.乌尔里希冯Hutten(1488年至1523年),一个法兰克骑士,以及人文科学热情的冠军,是更好地称为政治家和搅拌器。 The strengthening of the emperor's power and war against Rome were the chief items of his political programme, which he preached first in Latin and subsequently in German dialogues, poems, and pamphlets.皇帝的权力和加强对罗马的战争是他的政治纲领的主要项目,这是他在德国鼓吹对话,诗歌,首先在拉丁美洲和小册子,随后。 The jurists and the Roman Law, the immorality and illiteracy of the clergy, the fatuity of unpractical pedantry, were mercilessly scourged by him, his aim being of course to make himself conspicuous.罗马的法学家和法,不道德和神职人员文盲,不切实际的迂腐愚昧,被无情地鞭打他,他的目的当然是为了让自己突出。 Finally, he enlisted in the service of Luther and celebrated him in his last writings as a "hero of the Word", a prophet and a priest, though Luther always maintained towards him an attitude of reserve.最后,他在征了路德服务和为庆祝“字英雄”,先知和祭司他最后的著作他说,虽然路德始终对他保持了保留态度。Hutten's death may be regarded as the end of German Humanism properly speaking. Hutten的死亡可能会被视为结束的德国人文主义妥善发言。A still more serious movement, the Reformation, took its place.一个更加严重的运动,宗教改革,把它的位置。The majority of the Humanists set themselves in opposition to the new movement, though it cannot be denied that they, especially the younger generation under the leadership of Erasmus and Mutianus Rufus, had in many ways paved the way for it.大多数的人文主义,反对设置新的运动本身,尽管它不能否认他们,特别是下伊拉斯谟和Mutianus Rufus leadership年轻一代,在许多方面为它铺平了道路。

The progress of Humanism in other lands may be reviewed more briefly.在其他土地的人文进步可能更简单地进行审查。In France the University of Paris exerted a powerful influence.在法国的巴黎大学施加强大的影响力。By the end of the fourteenth century the students of this institution were already conversant with the ancient authors.到了十四世纪结束该机构的学生已经与古代作家熟悉。Nicolas de Clémanges (1360-1434) lectured on Ciceronian rhetoric, but the earliest real Humanist in France was Jean de Montreuil (d. 1418).萨科DE Clémanges(1360年至1434年)讲授Ciceronian夸夸其谈,而是真正的人文主义最早在法国是让德蒙特勒伊(卒于1418)。 In 1455 Gregorio of Città di Castello, who had resided in Greece, was installed in the university to lecture on Greek and rhetoric.在1455 Città酒店迪堡,谁曾在希腊居住,格雷戈里奥被安装在大学讲授希腊和修辞。Subsequently, there came from Italy scholars and poets -- eg Andreas Joannes Lascaris, Julius Cæsar Scaliger, and Andreas Alciati -- who made France the docile daughter of Italy.随后,有来自意大利的学者和诗人 - 例如安德烈亚斯Joannes Lascaris,凯撒大帝Scaliger,和安德烈亚斯Alciati - 谁做法国意大利听话的女儿。Among the leading scholars in France may be mentioned Budé (Budæus), the first Hellenist of his age (1467-1540), the accomplished printers Robert (1503-59) and Henri (1528-98) Estienne (Stephanus), to whom we are indebted for the "Thesaurus linguæ Latinæ" and the "Thesaurus linguæ Græcæ"; Joseph Justus Scaliger (1540-1609), famed for his knowledge of epigraphy, numismatics, and especially of chronology; the philologist Isaac Casaubon (1559-1614), well known for his excellent edition of the classics, and Petrus Ramus (1515-72), a profound student of Greek and medieval philosophy.在法国的知名学者可能会提到布德(Budæus),他的年龄首次Hellenist(1467至1540年),在完成打印机罗伯特(1503年至1559年)和亨利(1528年至1598年)埃蒂安纳(Stephanus),我们向他是负债的“舌Latinæ词库”和“词库舌Græcæ”;约瑟夫贾斯特斯Scaliger(1540-1609),他的知识金石,钱币学,尤其是著名的年表;的语言学家艾萨克Casaubon(1559年至1614年),众所周知,他出色的版的经典,佩特鲁斯拉莫斯(1515年至1572年),是希腊和中世纪哲学深刻的学生。 Classical learning was naturalized in Spain through Queen Isabella (1474-1504).古典学习是通过西班牙女王伊莎贝拉(1474年至1504年)归。The school system was reorganized, and the universities entered on a new era of intellectual prosperity.学校系统进行了重组,和大学的智力上的繁荣的新时代进入。Of Spanish scholars Juan Luis Vives (1492-1540) enjoyed a European reputation.西班牙学者胡安路易斯比韦斯(1592至40年)欧洲享有声誉。In England Humanism was received with less favour.在英国人文主义收到事半功倍的青睐。Poggio, indeed, passed some time in that country, and young Englishmen, like William Grey, a pupil of Guarino's, later Bishop of Ely and privy councillor in 1454, sought instruction in Italy.波焦,事实上,通过在该国一些时间,而年轻的英国人喜欢威廉灰色,一个瓜里诺的学生,后来的伊利和枢密院主教在1454年,在意大利寻求指令。 But the troubled conditions of English life in the fifteenth century did not favour the new movement.但在十五世纪的英国生活陷入困境的条件不赞成新的运动。In the spread of classical learning William Caxton (1421-91), the first English printer, played an important part.在古典学习威廉卡克斯顿(1421年至1491年),第一英语打印机,蔓延发挥了重要作用。The learned, refined, charitable, and courageous chancellor Thomas More (1478-1535) was in a way an intellectual counterpart of Erasmus, with whom he was on terms of closest intimacy.而据悉,精,慈善和勇敢的校长托马斯更多(1478年至1535年)是在一种智力对口的伊拉斯谟与他最接近的亲密条件是,。 Of special importance was the foundation of such excellent schools as Eton in 1440, and St. Paul's (London) in 1508.其中特别重要的是这些优秀的伊顿公学校在1440的基础,圣保罗在1508年(伦敦)。The founder of the latter was the accomplished Dean John Colet (1466-1519); the first rector was William Lilly (1468-1523), who had studied Greek in the Island of Rhodes, and Latin in Italy, and was the pioneer of Greek education in England.后者的创始人约翰Colet完成的院长(1466年至1519年),第一任校长是威廉礼来公司(1468年至1523年),谁曾就读于希腊罗得岛,并在意大利拉丁,并且是希腊先锋教育在英国。 During the sojourn of Erasmus at Oxford (1497-9) he found kindred hellenistic spirits in William Grocyn and Thomas Linacre, both of whom had been educated in Italy.在牛津的伊拉斯谟(1497-9)旅居他发现在威廉Grocyn和托马斯Linacre,他们两人曾在意大利接受教育骨肉希腊精神。 From 1510 to 1513 Erasmus taught Greek at Cambridge.从1510至13年任教于剑桥大学希腊伊拉斯谟。

Publication information Written by Klemens Löffler.出版信息克莱门斯Löffler写。Transcribed by Richard Hemphill.转录由理查德亨普希尔。The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume VII.天主教百科全书,体积七。Published 1910.发布1910年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, June 1, 1910. Nihil Obstat,1910年6月1日。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰farley枢机主教,大主教纽约


BURCKHARDT, Die Kultur der Renaissance in Italien (Leipzig, 1908), I, II; VOIGT, Die Wiederbelebung des klassischen Altertums (Berlin, 1893), I, II; GEIGER, Renaissance und Humanismus in Italien und Deutschland (Berlin, 1882); PAULSEN, Geschichte des gelehrten Unterrichts, I (Leipzig, 1896); BRANDI, Die Renaissance in Florenz und Rom (Leipzig, 1909); SYMONDS, Renaissance in Italy, IV (London, 1875-81); GEBHART, Les Origines de la Renaissance en Italie (Paris, 1879); LINDNER, Weltgeschichte, IV (Stuttgart and Berlin, 1905); The Cambridge Modern History, I, The Renaissance (Cambridge, 1902).布克哈特,模具Kultur DER在义大利文艺复兴时期(莱比锡,1908年),I,II;福格特,模具Wiederbelebung DES klassischen Altertums(柏林,1893年),I,II;盖革,在义大利文艺复兴时期的UND Humanismus UND德国(柏林,1882年);保尔森,历史馆DES gelehrten Unterrichts,我(莱比锡,1896年);布兰迪,模具在Florenz UND罗文艺复兴(莱比锡,1909年);西蒙兹,在意大利文艺复兴时期,四(伦敦,1875年至1881年); GEBHART,莱斯Origines德拉文艺复兴EN意大利广场(巴黎,1879年); LINDNER,Weltgeschichte,四(斯图加特和柏林,1905年);剑桥近代史,我,文艺复兴(剑桥,1902年)。On the German Renaissance see JANSSEN, History of the German People since the Middle Ages, tr., I (St. Louis, 1896); and for Italy, SHAHAN, On the Italian Renaissance in The Middle Ages (New York, 1904).在德国文艺复兴看到扬森,中世纪以来,TR,我(圣路易斯,1896年)德国人的历史,就在中世纪(纽约,1904年)意大利文艺复兴时期和意大利,沙汉,。

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