Church教堂

General Information一般资料

In Christian theology, the church is defined as the community of those who are called to acknowledge the lordship of Jesus Christ and to collaborate in his historic mission for the coming of the kingdom, or reign, of God. The word church is derived from two Greek words, kuriake and ekklesia, the one meaning "belonging to the Lord," and the other "an assembly called forth."在基督教神学, 教会被定义为那些谁被称为承认耶稣基督的贵族身份和合作,他对即将到来的王国,或在位的神,社会的历史使命。一词教会是由两个派生希腊字,kuriake和ekklesia,一个意思是“属于上帝”和其他“的要求提出大会。” Etymologically, therefore, the church is God's holy people summoned to worship.词源,因此,教会被召唤来崇拜上帝的神圣的人。

The church of the New Testament was described through various images drawn from pastoral life, agriculture, building construction, and even from family and married life.在新约教会被描述通过从田园生活,农业,建筑,甚至来自家庭和婚姻生活绘制各种图像。Thus the church is called a sheepfold (John 10:1 - 10), the field of God (1 Cor. 3:9), a vineyard (Matt. 21:33 - 43), God's building (1 Cor. 3:9), God's household in the Spirit (Eph. 2:19 - 22), God's dwelling place among humankind (Rev. 21:3), the Lord's spotless spouse (Rev. 19:7), and the body of Christ (1 Cor. 12:12 - 28).因此,教会被称为羊圈(约翰福音10:1 - 10),神的领域(林三时09分),葡萄园(太21时33分 - 43),上帝的建设(1肺心病3时09分),神的家庭在精神(以弗所书2点19分 - 22),神的人类居住的地方之间(启21:3),主的一尘不染的配偶(启示录19时07分),和基督的身体(林前。12:12 - 28)。

In addition to designating the entire body of Christians, church is used to denote the individual Christian denominations, as well as the building used for Christian worship.除了 ​​指定的基督徒整个身体,教会是用来表示个人的基督教教派,以及基督教崇拜中使用的建设。

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Bibliography 参考书目
H Kung, The Church (1967); R McBrien, Church: The Continuing Quest (1970). H,教会(1967)公,R McBrien,教会:持续的任务(1970年)。


Church, Church Visible, Church Invisible教会,教会有形,无形的教会

Advanced Information先进的信息

The word Church was derived probably from the Greek kuriakon (ie, "the Lord's house"), which was used by ancient authors for the place of worship.教会是派生词可能是由希腊kuriakon(即“主的房子”),这是由古代作家用于祭祀的地方。In the New Testament it is the translation of the Greek word ecclesia, which is synonymous with the Hebrew kahal of the Old Testament, both words meaning simply an assembly, the character of which can only be known from the connection in which the word is found.在新约圣经是教会的希腊字,这与旧约的希伯来文kahal的代名词,这两个词的意思只是一个装配翻译,只能从其中的字是发现已知字符连接。 There is no clear instance of its being used for a place of meeting or of worship, although in post-apostolic times it early received this meaning.没有它正在为一个会议或崇拜的地方使用明确的实例,尽管在后使徒时代是早期收到这个意思。Nor is this word ever used to denote the inhabitants of a country united in the same profession, as when we say the "Church of England," the "Church of Scotland," etc.永远也不是用来表示在同行业中一个国家的居民团结这个词,因为当我们说“英国教会”的“苏格兰教会”等

We find the word ecclesia used in the following senses in the New Testament:我们发现教会这个词在新约以下意义上使用:

The church visible "consists of all those throughout the world that profess the true religion, together with their children."教会有形 “组成,所有这些在世界各地的信奉真正的宗教,与孩子在一起”It is called "visible" because its members are known and its assemblies are public.这就是所谓“看得见”,因为其成员被称为及其集会是公开的。Here there is a mixture of "wheat and chaff," of saints and sinners.这里有一个“小麦和糠,”圣人和罪人的混合物。"God has commanded his people to organize themselves into distinct visible ecclesiastical communities, with constitutions, laws, and officers, badges, ordinances, and discipline, for the great purpose of giving visibility to his kingdom, of making known the gospel of that kingdom, and of gathering in all its elect subjects. Each one of these distinct organized communities which is faithful to the great King is an integral part of the visible church, and all together constitute the catholic or universal visible church." “上帝吩咐他的人组织成不同的可见教会社区本身,与宪法,法律,人员,徽章,条例和纪律,为使他的王国的能见度非常积极的作用使已知该天国的福音,并在其所有选科目聚会,每个不同的组织,这些社区之一是忠于伟大的国王是一个有形教会的组成部分,一起构成了天主教或普遍可见的教堂。“

A credible profession of the true religion constitutes a person a member of this church.一个真正的宗教可信的职业构成一个人的这个教会的成员。This is "the kingdom of heaven," whose character and progress are set forth in the parables recorded in Matt.这是“天国”,其性质和进步都设置在马特记录的寓言等等。13.13。The children of all who thus profess the true religion are members of the visible church along with their parents.因此,谁所有信奉宗教的真正的儿童是有形教会成员以及他们的父母。Children are included in every covenant God ever made with man.儿童是包含在每一个曾经与神立约人为。They go along with their parents (Gen. 9:9-17; 12:1-3; 17:7; Ex. 20:5; Deut. 29:10-13).他们与父母一起去(创9:9-17; 12:1-3;十七时07分,前二十时05;。申命记29:10-13)。

Peter, on the day of Pentecost, at the beginning of the New Testament dispensation, announces the same great principle.彼得在五旬节当天,在新约福音的开始,宣布同伟大的原则。"The promise [just as to Abraham and his seed the promises were made] is unto you, and to your children" (Acts 2:38, 39).“无极[就像亚伯拉罕和他的后裔的承诺作了]是你们,和你们的孩子”(徒2:38,39)。The children of believing parents are "holy", ie, are "saints", a title which designates the members of the Christian church (1 Cor. 7:14).相信父母的孩子们是“圣洁”,即是“圣人”,标题是指定的基督教教会(林前7:14)的成员。 (See Baptism.)(见洗礼。)

The church invisible "consists of the whole number of the elect that have been, are, or shall be gathered into one under Christ, the head thereof."教会无形 “组成,在对已经,正在,或应根据成一个基督,头部及其聚集选出的整数”This is a pure society, the church in which Christ dwells.这是一个纯粹的社会,教会在基督dwells。It is the body of Christ.它是基督的身体。it is called "invisible" because the greater part of those who constitute it are already in heaven or are yet unborn, and also because its members still on earth cannot certainly be distinguished.它被称为“看不见的”,因为那些构成它的大部分已经在天上或尚未出生的,也因为它的成员在地球上仍然不能肯定加以区别。 The qualifications of membership in it are internal and are hidden.在它的成员的资格,是内部和隐藏。It is unseen except by Him who "searches the heart."除非他是谁看不见的“搜索之心。”"The Lord knoweth them that are his" (2 Tnn. 2:19).“耶和华knoweth他们是他的”(2 TNN。2:19)。The church to which the attributes, prerogatives, and promises appertaining to Christ's kingdom belong, is a spiritual body consisting of all true believers, ie, the church invisible.教会的属性,特权,并承诺附属于基督的王国属于,是一种精神体的所有真正的信徒,即教会无形组成。

(1.) Its unity. God has ever had only one church on earth.(1) 它的统一,神曾经在地球上只有一个教会。We sometimes speak of the Old Testament Church and of the New Testament church, but they are one and the same.我们有时讲旧约​​教会和新约教会,但他们是同一个。The Old Testament church was not to be changed but enlarged (Isa. 49:13-23; 60:1-14).旧约教会并没有被改变,但扩大(以赛亚书49:13-23; 60:1-14)。When the Jews are at length restored, they will not enter a new church, but will be grafted again into "their own olive tree" (Rom. 11:18-24; comp. Eph. 2:11-22).当犹太人在恢复时间,他们不会进入一个新的教会,但将被嫁接到“自己的橄榄树”(罗11:18-24;弗​​2:11-22比赛。)再次。 The apostles did not set up a new organization.使徒们并没有成立一个新组织。Under their ministry disciples were "added" to the "church" already existing (Acts 2:47).在他们的部门徒“补充”到“教会”已经存在的(徒2:47)。

(2.) Its universality. It is the "catholic" church; not confined to any particular country or outward organization, but comprehending all believers throughout the whole world.(2)它的普遍性 ,是“天主教”教会,不局限于任何特定的国家或组织外,但理解整个世界所有信徒。

(3.) Its perpetuity. It will continue through all ages to the end of the world.(3) 其永久,将继续通过各种年龄到世界的尽头。It can never be destroyed.它不能被破坏。It is an "everlasting kindgdom."这是一个“永恒的kindgdom。”

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary)(伊斯顿说明字典)


The Church教会

Advanced Information先进的信息

The English word "church" derives from the late Greek word kyriakon, the Lord's house, a church building.英文单词“教会”源于希腊字kyriakon后期,主的房子,教堂建筑。In the NT the word translates the Greek word ekklesia.在NT词翻译希腊文ekklesia。In secular Greek ekklesia designated a public assembly, and this meaning is still retained in the NT (Acts 19:32, 39, 41).在世俗的希腊ekklesia指定的公众集会,而这个意义仍然保留在新台币(使徒19时32分,39,41)。

In the Hebrew OT the word qahal designates the assembly of God's people (eg, Deut. 10:4; 23:2 - 3; 31:30; Ps. 22:23), and the LXX, the Greek translation of the OT, translated this word with both ekklesia and synagoge.在旧约的希伯来字qahal指定上帝的人民议会(如申命记10时04; 23点02分 - 3;。31:30;诗篇22时23分)和LXX,对OT希腊语翻译,翻译这既ekklesia和synagoge字。Even in the NT ekklesia may signify the assembly of the Isrealites (Acts 7:38; Heb. 2:12); but apart from these exceptions, the word ekklesia in the NT designates the Christian church, both the local church (eg, Matt. 18:17; Acts 15:41; Rom. 16:16; 1 Cor. 4:17; 7:17; 14:33; Col. 4:15) and the universal church (eg, Matt. 16:18; Acts 20:28; 1 Cor. 12:28; 15:9; Eph. 1:22).即使在新台币ekklesia可能意味的Isrealites大会(徒7时38;希伯来书2:12),但除了这些例外,在NT字ekklesia指定的基督教教堂,无论是当地教会(例如,马特,18时17分,15时41分行为;罗16:16; 1肺心病4:17;,7时17分,14时33分;上校4:15)和普世教会(例如,马特16时18分;徒20:28;林前12点28分; 15点09;弗1:22)。

Origin原产

According to Matthew, the only Gospel to use the word "church," the origin of the church goes back to Jesus himself (Matt. 16:18).据马修,唯一的福音,用的是“教会”,教会的起源可追溯到耶稣(马太福音16:18)。Historical problems, though, arise in regard to this passage.历史问题,虽然出现在关于这段话。For only in Matt.对于马特只。 16:18 and 18:17 does Jesus use the word "church," and there are no good reasons that Mark would omit the words of Matt.十六点18分和18点17分耶稣用“教会”,并没有充分的理由,马克将省略马特的话。16:17 - 19 if they were spoken by Jesus.16时17 - 19,如果他们被耶稣发言。Further, if Jesus expected God to establish his kingdom soon (cf. Mark 9:1; 13:30), then he would not have foreseen the need to establish a church with regulations for binding and loosing, ie, to decide which actions are permissible and not permissible according to the teachings of Jesus.此外,如果耶稣预计上帝建立他的王国很快(参见马克9:1; 13:30),那么他就不会预见到需要建立一个教会法规的约束力和松动,即决定哪些行动允许和不允许根据耶稣的教导。Matt.马特。16:18 - 19 may well be the Syrian church's declaration of independence from the synagogue and may derive from that early community which identified itself with Peter.十六点18分 - 19可能是叙利亚教会的犹太教堂,从宣布独立,并可能从早期的社会,确定了彼得本身派生。

The question thus arises: Did Jesus intend to establish the church?问题由此产生:耶稣打算建立教会? The answer to this question must be based not on statements of church dogma but on careful interpretation of the NT writings.对这个问题的答案必须以不教会教条报表,但对NT著作细致的解释。Here one's conclusions will be affected by the degree to which one assigns various statements of Jesus to Jesus himself or to the postresurrection church and by one's interpretation of terms such as "Son of man" and parables such as the fish net, the leaven, and seeds of growth (Matt. 13:47 - 50; 13:33; Mark 4:1 - 20).在这里,人们的结论会受到影响的程度哪一个指定的耶稣各种报表,以耶稣自己或对postresurrection教堂和一个人的,如“人子”,如鱼的网,酵比喻条款的解释,生长种子(太13时47分 - 50; 13时33分,马​​可福音4:1 - 20)。Critical study of the Gospels reveals that Jesus probably did not give teachings for the purpose of establishing and ordering the church.关键的福音研究表明,耶稣很可能没有给为建立和订购教会教义的目的。Rather his whole life and teaching provide the foundations upon which the church was created and called into being through its faith in the risen Lord.而他的整个生命和教学提供了赖以建立的教会,并呼吁将通过其在复活的主的信心正在基础。

Nature自然

Throughout most of history the nature of the church has been defined by divided Christians trying to establish the validity of their own existence.纵观历史上最教会的性质已被定义除以试图建立自己存在的合法性基督徒。 The Donatists of North Africa in the early centuries focused on the purity of the church and claimed to be the only church that measured up to the biblical standard.在早期几个世纪以来,北非的多纳徒集中在教会的纯洁性,并声称是唯一的教会测量到圣经的标准。In the Middle Ages various sects defined the church in such ways as to claim that they, and not the Roman Catholic Church, were the true church.在中世纪各教派中定义的方法等,以声称他们,而不是罗马天主教教会,是真正的教会教堂。The Arnoldists emphasized poverty and identification with the masses; the Waldenses stressed literal obedience to Jesus' teachings and emphasized evangelical preaching.该Arnoldists强调了与群众的贫困和鉴定;的瓦勒度派强调字面服从耶稣的教诲,并强调传福音。Roman Catholics claimed that the only true church was that over which the pope was supreme as successor of the apostle Peter.罗马天主教会声称,唯一真正的教会,超过该教皇是作为使徒彼得的继任最高。The Reformers Martin Luther and John Calvin, following John Wycliffe, distinguished between the visible and invisible church, claiming that the invisible church consists of the elect only.改革者马丁路德和约翰加尔文,继约翰威克里夫之间的有形和无形的教会区别,声称无形教会的选举只组成。Thus an individual, including the pope, might be a part of the visible church but not a part of the invisible and true church.因此个人,包括教皇,可能是有形的教会的一部分,但不是不可见的,真正的教会的一部分。

If one is to be true to the NT testimony, it must be acknowledged that there is a multiplicity of images and concepts that contribute to an understanding of the nature of the church.如果要真正到了NT的证词,它必须承认,有一个形象和概念,有助于对教会的本质的理解的多样性。In the appendix of Images of the Church in the New Testament, Paul Minear lists ninety six images which he classifies as (1) minor images, (2) the people of God, (3) the new creation, (4) the fellowship in faith, and (5) the body of Christ.在对在新约教会的图像附件,保罗Minear列出96的图片,他为(1),小图像(2)神的人,(3)新的创造,(4)奖学金在分类信心,(5)基督的身体。 Listing only a few of these will demonstrate the great diversity of images: the salt of the earth, a letter from Christ, branches of the vine, the elect lady, the bride of Christ, exiles, ambassadors, a chosen race, the holy temple, priesthood, the new creation, fighters against Satan, the sanctified slaves, friends, sons of God, household of God, members of Christ, spiritual body.上市仅这些很少人会表现出极大的多样性图片:地球的盐,从基督的信,藤的选小姐,基督的新娘,流亡者,大使,选定的比赛中,圣殿分行,祭司,新的创造,对撒旦,圣洁的奴隶,朋友,神的儿子,家庭的神,基督的成员,灵体战士。

Though such a plethora of images exists, it is nonetheless possible and useful to find the major concepts that hold these many images together.虽然这样的图像过多存在,但却是可能的和有益的找到许多持有这些图像一起重大的概念。From the Council of Constantinople in 381 and reaffirmed at Ephesus (431) and Chalcedon (451) the church has affirmed itself to be "one, holy, catholic, and apostolic."从君士坦丁堡在381会议和在以弗所(431)和迦克墩(451)重申教会已肯定自己是“一,圣洁,天主教,和使徒。”

The Church Is One教会是一个整体

According to the World Christian Encyclopedia (1982), there were an estimated 1,900 church denominations at the beginning of the twentieth century.据世界基督教百科全书(1982年),估计有1900在二十世纪开始的教会教派。Today there are an estimated 22,000.今天,估计有22,000人。Do not such numbers effectively refute the theological assertion that the church is one?不要这样的数字有效地反驳神学断言,教会是一个?The answer must be no.答案当然是否定的。

First of all, the NT witness is clear regarding the unity of the church.首先,新台币证人是明确关于教会的团结。In 1 Cor.在1肺心病。1:10 - 30 Paul warns against divisions in the church and urges the people to be united in Christ.1:10 - 30保罗警告反对分裂的教会,并敦促人们在基督团结。In this same letter (ch. 12), he states that while there are many gifts, there is one body (cf. Rom. 12:3 - 8).在同一信(章12),他指出,虽然有很多礼物,有一个身体(罗12点03 - 8)。The Gospel of John speaks of the one shepherd and the one flock (10:16), and Jesus prays that his followers may be one even as Father and Son are one (17:20 - 26).在约翰福音谈到一个牧羊人和一个羊群(10:16),耶稣祈祷,他的追随者可能是一个即使是父子有一个(17:20 - 26)。 In Gal.在GAL。3:27 - 28 Paul declares that in Christ all are one, with no distinction of race, social status, or sex.3点27分 - 28保罗宣称,在基督都是一个没有种族区分,社会地位,或性别。Acts 2:42 and 4:32 are likewise eloquent testimony to the oneness of the church.使徒行传2:42和4时32分也同样雄辩地证明了教会的合一。Perhaps the most stirring passage on this point is Eph.也许在这一点上最激动人心的话是弗。4:1 - 6: "There is one body and one Spirit, just as you were called to the one hope that belongs to your call, one Lord, one faith, one baptism, one God and Father of us all, who is above all and through all and in all" (vss. 4 - 6).4:1 - 6:“有一个机构和一个精神,就像你叫一个希望属于您的电话,一主,一信,一洗,一神和我们父亲所有,谁是以上所有通过的所有与一切“(VSS的4 - 6)。

Unity, however, does not demand uniformity.团结,但是,不要求统一。Indeed, from the beginning the church has manifested itself in many local churches (in Jerusalem, Antioch, Corinth, Ephesus, etc.); and the one NT church had neither uniformity of worship nor structures, or even a uniform theology.事实上,从一开始就表现在许多教会(在耶路撒冷,安提阿,科林斯,以弗所等)的地方教会本身,和一个NT教会既没有信仰也没有结构的均匀性,甚至是统一的神学。 Certainly the ecumenical movement which arose in this century out of the missionary movement of the nineteenth century has challenged the church today to recognize that "God wills unity" (Faith and Order Conference, Lausanne, 1927).当然,合一运动,产生于本世纪十九世纪的传教运动出了挑战教会今天承认,“上帝的意志统一”(信仰和秩序会议,洛桑,1927)。 The challenge for Christians today is to live in unity without insisting that our worship, structure, and theology be more uniform than that of the NT church.对于今天的基督徒的挑战是团结生活在没有坚持,我们的崇拜,结构和神学超过新台币教会的统一。Unity is possible when we stop thinking of our church or denomination as the vine and all others as the branches.统一是可能的,当我们停止我们的教会或作为葡萄和所有其他面额的分支机构思想。Rather, Jesus is the vine and all of us are branches.相反,耶稣是葡萄树,而我们都分行。

The Church Is Holy教会是圣洁的

According to 1 Cor., Christians there were guilty of incest (5:1), suing one another in pagan courts (6:6), defrauding each other (6:8), having sexual relations with prostitutes (6:16).据林前,基督徒有乱伦罪(5:1),起诉一(6:6)异教法院另,骗取对方(6:8),因与妓女(6:16)发生性关系。 In Rome the weak Christians were judging the strong Christians, and the latter despised the former (Rom. 14:10).在罗马的薄弱基督徒判断强的基督徒,而后者看不起前者(罗马书14点10)。Such is the partial testimony of the NT concerning the reality of sin in the church, but then one scarcely needs to leave the twentieth century church to verify this reality.这就是新台币部分证词关于在教会的罪恶现实,但再一个几乎需要告别二十世纪的教堂,以验证这一现实。Does not the presence of sin refute the theological assertion that the church is holy?难道不是罪恶的存在反驳神学断言,教会是圣洁的?Again, the answer is no.同样,答案是否定的。

Various solutions have been proposed in the history of the church to reconcile the fact that the holy church is a sinful church.提出各种解决方案已经在教会历史调和的事实,圣教是一个罪孽深重的教会。 Donatists as well as Gnostics, Novationists, Montanists, Cathari, and other sects solved the problem by claiming that they alone were holy while all others were not really members of the church.多纳徒以及诺斯替教派,Novationists,Montanists,卡塔利和其他教派声称他们解决独显圣,而所有其他人不是真正的教会成员的问题。 But 1 John 1:8 reminds one that the church which has no sin to confess simply does not exist.但约翰一1点08分提醒一个教会它没有罪承认根本不存在。Others have claimed that the members are sinful but the church is holy.另一些人声称的成员是有罪的,但教会是圣洁的。But the church does not exist in the abstract; it is sinful people who constitute the church.但是,教会不存在抽象的,它是谁构成了教堂有罪的人。Gnostics claimed that the body was sinful while the soul was holy.诺斯替教派声称尸体罪而灵魂是神圣的。But biblical anthropology declares that it is the whole, undivided human being who is sinful.但圣经人类学声明,它是整体,不可分割的人谁是有罪的。

The solution lies in the awareness of what "holy" means in the Bible.解决的办法在于什么“圣”在圣经方法的认识。To be holy is to be separated from what is profane and to be dedicated to the service of God.为了神圣的,是要分开的,什么是亵渎和被奉献给上帝的服务。It does not mean that the Christian is free of sin.这并不意味着基督教是罪恶的自由。The apostle Paul said of himself: "Not that I have already obtained this or am already perfect" (Phil. 3:12a), and in the greetings to the Corinthian Christians he calls them "sanctified" and "saints."使徒保罗说自己:“这并不是说我已经获得这个或我已经完美”(腓3点12分一),并在对科林斯的基督徒的问候,他呼吁他们“神圣化”和“圣人”。 Christians are holy in that they are separated for God's service and set apart by God (2 Thess. 2:13; Col. 3:12, etc.).基督徒是神圣的,因为它们是分开为上帝的服务和由神(帖后2:13;上校3:12等)分开。

The Church Is Catholic教会是天主教

The word "catholic" derives from the Latin catholicus, which in turn derives from the Greek katholikos, meaning "universal."单词“天主教”派生“万能”来自拉丁语catholicus,这反过来又源于希腊katholikos,这意味着 Although the word is not used in the NT to describe the church, the concept which it expresses is biblical.虽然这个词是不是在NT用来描述教堂,它表达的概念是圣经。Ignatius of Antioch wrote in the early second century, "Wherever the bishop is, there his people should be, just as where Jesus Christ is, there is the Catholic Church" (Smyr. 8:2).安提阿的伊格说,在第二个世纪初,“只要主教,还有他的人是应该的,正如耶稣基督里,有天主教教会”(Smyr. 8:2)。 Only from the third century on was "catholic" used in a polemical sense to refer to those who were "orthodox" Christians as opposed to schismatics and heretics.只有从第三个世纪是“天主教”在论战感用来指那些谁是“正统”,而不是schismatics和异端基督徒。To speak of the catholicity of the church is thus to refer to the entire church, which is universal and which has a common identity of origin, lordship, and purpose.说话的教会的大公因此指整个教会,这是普遍的,其中有一个起源,贵族身份,共同的身份和目的。

While the local church is an entire church, it is not the entire church.虽然地方教会是一个完整的教堂,它是不是整个教堂。As catholic, the church includes believers of past generations and believers of all cultures and societies.天主教,教会,包括过去世代的所有文化和社会的信徒信徒。It is unfortunate that the church in the Western world has for far too long formulated theology and mission strategy in isolation from the churches of Africa, Asia, and Latin America, the churches of the two thirds world.不幸的是,在西方世界教会已太久制定神学和来自非洲,亚洲和拉丁美洲,世界上三分之二的教会教会隔离使命的战略。The World Christian Encyclopedia shows that whites now represent 47.4 percent of the Christian population of the world, the first time in 1,200 years that whites are not the majority.世界基督教百科全书表明,现在白人占47.4%的世界基督教人口,在1200年来第一次,白人并不占多数。Two hundred eight million Christians speak Spanish, 196 million speak English, 128 million speak Portuguese, followed by German, French, Italian, Russian, Polish, Ukrainian, and Dutch.两百800万基督徒讲西班牙语,英语1.96亿,1.28亿讲葡萄牙语,德国,法国,意大利,俄罗斯,波兰,乌克兰和荷兰之后。

The Church Is Apostolic教会是使徒

Eph.弗。2:20 states that the church is "built upon the foundation of the apostles and prophets, Christ Jesus himself being the cornerstone."2点20分指出,教会是“后,使徒和先知的基础之上,基督耶稣自己作为基石。”Apostles are those who were eyewitnesses of the ministry of Jesus, and prophets are Christian prophets who were spokesmen for the risen Jesus.使徒是那些谁是耶稣的事工目击者,和先知谁是耶稣的复活的基督教先知的代言人。Previous centuries of Christians assumed that the NT manuscripts were written by the apostles or else by someone who was closely associated with them.上一个世纪的基督徒假设新台币手稿是由使徒或其他的人谁是与他们密切相关的书面。Many critical scholars today question apostolic authorship for all four Gospels, Acts, James, 1 and 2 Peter, Jude, and Revelation, and further question or reject Pauline authorship of Ephesians, Colossians, 1 and 2 Timothy, Titus and Hebrews.许多关键问题的学者今天使徒作者所有四个福音,行为,詹姆斯,1和2彼得,裘德和启示,进一步的问题或拒绝宝莲作者以弗所书,歌罗西书,1和2提摩太,提图斯和希伯来人。 Yet the truth is that regardless of who wrote these Gospels and letters, the church canonized these writings and accepted them as normative for faith and practice.然而,事实是,不管是谁写了这些福音书和信件,教会册封的这些著作,并接受为他们的信仰和实践的规范性。The message of these documents is thus the norm by which the life of the church is to be measured; and the church can be one, holy, and catholic only if it is an apostolic church.这些文件的消息是这样的规范,其中教会的生活,是衡量和教会可以是一个,圣洁的,只有当它和天主教是使徒的教会。

To claim that the church is apostolic is not to assert a direct line of succession through specific individuals.声称教会是使徒,不是断言,通过具体的个人的一脉相承。It is to recognize that the message and the mission of the apostles as mediated through Scripture must be that of the whole church.它是要认识到信息和作为​​中介,通过圣经的使徒使命必须是整个教会。

The adjectives "one, holy, catholic, apostolic" are terms specific enough to describe the essential nature of the church and yet allow for differences within denominations and churches in the ways in which each fulfills the mission and ministry of the church in the world.的形容词“一,圣洁,天主教,使徒”的条款不够具体描述教会的本质,但允许在教派和教会的差异的方法,使每个履行的使命和世界教会事工。 As previously mentioned, the NT uses nearly a hundred images that relate to the church.正如前面提到的,NT使用近百年的图像涉及到教堂。One major image, the body of Christ, is especially rich in what it communicates about the nature of the church.一个主要的形象,基督的身体,尤其是在什么是关于教会的自然沟通的丰富。

The Body of Christ基督的身体

Of the NT writers only Paul uses this term.唯一的NT作家保罗使用这个词。It is significant that he speaks of the church as the body of Christ but never as a body of Christians.重要的是,他的教会说,作为基督的身体,但从来没有作为一个基督徒的身体。Scholars debate how literally Paul intended this phrase to be understood.学者讨论如何从字面上保罗打算这句话可以理解。One may safely say that though the image may perhaps be taken too literally, it cannot be taken too seriously.人们可以放心地说,虽然形象可能是采取望文生义,也不能太认真对待。

Christians are one body in Christ with many members (Rom. 12:4 - 5; I Cor. 12:27).基督徒是一个基督的身体与(罗马书12时04分 - 5;林前12:27)的许多成员。Indeed, the church is the body of Christ (Eph. 1:22 - 23; 4:12), who is the head of the body (Eph. 5:23; Col. 1:18); and the body is dependent on its head for its life and growth (Col. 2:19).事实上,教会是基督(弗1时22分 - 23; 4:12)的身体,谁是身体(弗5时23分;上校1:18);头部和身体依赖它的头其生活和成长(西2:19)。The church is never directly called the bride of Christ, but is so understood by Paul's analogy in which the husband - wife relationship is said to be like the Christ - church relationship (Eph. 5:22 - 33).教会是不会直接叫基督的新娘,而是让保罗的比喻中,丈夫的理解 - 妻子的关系是说要像基督 - 教会的关系(以弗所书5点22分 - 33)。Husband and wife are to be one flesh, and this is the same regarding Christ and the church (Eph. 5:31 - 32).丈夫和妻子要成为一体,这是相同的关于基督和教会(以弗所书5点31分 - 32)。

Through this image several important theological concepts are expressed concerning the church.通过这一形象的几个重要的神学概念表示关注教会。Christians form a unity both with Christ and with one another, and Christ is acknowledged as both the authority who stands over the church and the one who gives life and growth.基督徒形成既与基督和相互团结,既是基督是谁的权力在教会的立场和一个谁给生活和成长承认。Also, this image is a strong assertion regarding the need for and proper appreciation of the diverse gifts that God gives to the church.此外,这个形象是一个强大的断言有关的必要性,并认为上帝给教会不同的天赋适当升值。

Purpose目的

God has called the church out of the world for a purpose.神呼吁教会为目的进行的世界。He intended for his creation to have fellowship with him.他打算为他的创作与他相交。When that fellowship was broken, God called the people of Israel to be "a light to the nations" (Isa. 42:5 - 8); but when Israel failed, God called a remnant (Isa. 10:20 - 22).当该奖学金被打破,神称以色列人民是“一盏灯,万国”(以赛亚书42:5 - 8),但以色列失败时,神称为残余(以赛亚书10:20 - 22)。In the fullness of time God himself entered fully into human history in the birth of Jesus Christ, whom Simeon at the temple called "a light for revelation to the Gentiles, and for glory to thy people Israel" (Luke 2:32).在时间进入神丰满自己完全融入人类历史中的耶稣基督,他们在一个叫庙西缅诞生“一个启示外邦人的光,和你的百姓以色列的荣耀”(路加福音2:32)。 Jesus then called twelve disciples as symbolic of the new Israel of the end time which he was creating (Matt. 19:28).耶稣则称为的结束时间,他是以色列的象征创造新的十二门徒(太19时28分)。These twelve formed the nucleus of God's new people, the church, which like Israel of old has been called into being to be the means by which all of humanity is restored to fellowship with its creator (Acts 1:8; Matt. 28:18 - 20).这十二形成了上帝的新人们的核心,教会,就像老以色列一直应运而生成为其中全人类恢复与它的创始人奖学金方式称为(徒1:8;太28:18。 - 20)。

The church has a dual purpose; it is to be a holy priesthood (1 Pet. 2:5) and is to "declare the wonderful deeds of him who called you out of darkness into his marvelous light" (1 Pet. 2:9).教会有双重目的,它是一个神圣的祭司(彼​​前2:5。),并以“申报到他的奇妙的光对他的精彩事迹黑暗谁叫你去”(彼前2时09分。 )。It is the whole church in relationship to the world which is to exercise the tasks of priesthood.它是关系到世界上是行使全教会神职人员的任务。As a priesthood the church is entrusted with the responsibility of bringing God's word to mankind and of interceding with God on behalf of mankind.作为教会神职人员与带来神的话给人类和与上帝祈求人类的代表委以重任。

In addition to the priestly function the church also has a missionary function of declaring God's wonderful deeds.除了祭司功能的教会也有一个宣布上帝的奇妙事迹宣教功能。The missionary task of the church is not optional, for by its very nature the church is mission.教会的传教任务不是可选的,其本质是教会的使命。Furthermore, mission is in and to the world, not in and to itself.此外,其任务是在和世界,而不是在和自己。

RL Omanson RL Omanson
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary)(Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 参考书目
K Barth, Church Dogmatics IV; GC Berkouwer, The Church; E Brunner, The Christian Doctrine of the Church, Faith, and the Consummation; RN Flew, Jesus and His Church; H Kung, The Church; JH Leith, ed., Creeds of the Church; P Minear, Images of the Church in the NT ; KL Schmidt, TDNT, III; H Schwaz, The Christian Church; E Schweizer, The Church As the Body of Christ; DD Bannerman, The Scripture Doctrine of the Church; EG Jay, The Church; D Watson, I Believe in the Church; FJA Hort, The Christian Ecclesia; A Cole, The Body of Christ.K巴特,教会教义学IV;,教会GC Berkouwer,E布伦纳,在教会,信仰,基督教教义和完善; RN飞去,耶稣和他的教会,H区,教会; JH利思,ED信条。教会,P Minear,​​该教会在新台币图像; KL施密特,TDNT,三,H施瓦茨,基督教堂,E施韦策,作为基督的身体教会; DD纳曼,教会的圣经教义;例如,教会周杰伦,D沃森,我相信在教会; FJA园艺,基督教教会,一个科尔,基督的身体。


The Church教会

Catholic Information天主教信息

The term church (Anglo-Saxon, cirice, circe; Modern German, Kirche; Sw., Kyrka) is the name employed in the Teutonic languages to render the Greek ekklesia (ecclesia), the term by which the New Testament writers denote the society founded by Our Lord Jesus Christ.术语教堂(盎格鲁撒克逊,cirice,喀耳刻;现代德语,Kirche; SW,Kyrka)是在日尔曼语言聘请来呈现希腊ekklesia(教会),术语,其中新约作家代表社会的名称成立由我们的主耶稣基督。The derivation of the word has been much debated.这个词的派生一直备受争议。It is now agreed that it is derived from the Greek kyriakon (cyriacon), ie the Lord's house, a term which from the third century was used, as well as ekklesia, to signify a Christian place of worship.现在认为,它是从希腊kyriakon(cyriacon)派生,即主的房子,这从第三世纪使用的术语,以及ekklesia,表示一个信仰基督教的地方。 This, though the less usual expression, had apparently obtained currency among the Teutonic races.这,虽然平时较少表达,显然获得日耳曼种族之间的货币。The Northern tribes had been accustomed to pillage the Christian churches of the empire, long before their own conversion.北部部落已习惯于掠夺很久以前自己转换帝国的基督教教堂。Hence, even prior to the arrival of the Saxons in Britain, their language had acquired words to designate some of the externals of the Christian religion.因此,即使之前在英国撒克逊人的到来,他们的语言已经获得的话,指定的基督教宗教外部一些。

The present article is arranged as follows:本文章是安排如下:

I. The term Ecclesia一,长期教会

II. II。The Church in Prophecy在教会的预言

III. III。Its Constitution by Christ; the Church after the Ascension它的章程由基督耶稣升天后教会

IV. IV。Its Organization by the Apostles其组织由使徒

V. The Church, a Divine Society五,教会,一个神圣的社会

VI. VI。The Church, the Necessary Means of Salvation教会,拯救的必要手段

VII.七。Visibility of the Church可见教会

VIII.第八。The Principle of Authority; Infallibility; Jurisdiction该管理局的原则;犯错误;管辖权

IX. IX。Members of the Church教会成员

X. Indefectibility of the Church; Continuity十Indefectibility教会;连续性

XI.十一。Universality of the Church; the "Branch" Theory普遍性的教会;的“科”理论

XII.十二。Notes of the Church注教会

XIII.第十三。The Church, a Perfect Society教会,一个完美的社会

I. THE TERM ECCLESIA一,TERM教会

In order to understand the precise force of this word, something must first be said as to its employment by the Septuagint translators of the Old Testament.为了了解这个字的精确力量,首先必须说的东西作为其就业的旧约译本翻译。Although in one or two places (Psalm 25:5; Judith 6:21; etc.) the word is used without religious signification, merely in the sense of "an assembly", this is not usually the case.虽然在一,两个地方(诗篇25:5;朱迪思6时21分,等等)这个词是没有用的宗教意义,只是在“汇编”的感觉,这不是通常的情况。 Ordinarily it is employed as the Greek equivalent of the Hebrew qahal, ie, the entire community of the children of Israel viewed in their religious aspect.按说这是就业作为希伯来qahal,即以色列的儿童整个社会在其宗教方面看希腊等价的。Two Hebrew words are employed in the Old Testament to signify the congregation of Israel, viz.两个希伯来字受雇于在旧约以示对以色列,即众。qahal 'êdah.qahal“êdah。 In the Septuagint these are rendered, respectively, ekklesia and synagoge.在这些译本呈现,分别ekklesia和synagoge。 Thus in Proverbs v, 14, where the words occur together, "in the midst of the church and the congregation", the Greek rendering is en meso ekklesias kai synagoges.因此,在箴言V,14,其中一起发生的话,“在教会和众之中”,希腊渲染EN观ekklesias偕synagoges。 The distinction is indeed not rigidly observed -- thus in Exodus, Leviticus and Numbers, both words are regularly represented by synagoge -- but it is adhered to in the great majority of cases, and may be regarded as an established rule.这种区别的确是没有硬性观察 - 因此在出埃及记,利未记和数字,这两个词是定期synagoge代表 - 但它坚持在绝大多数情况下,可能是作为一个既定规则的一部分。In the writings of the New Testament the words are sharply distinguished.在新约圣经的著作的话是一针见血区别开来。With them ecclesia denotes the Church of Christ; synagoga, the Jews still adhering to the worship of the Old Covenant.与他们教会表示基督的教会; synagoga,犹太人仍然坚持旧约崇拜。Occasionally, it is true, ecclesia is employed in its general significance of "assembly" (Acts 19:32; 1 Corinthians 14:19); and synagoga occurs once in reference to a gathering of Christians, though apparently of a non-religious character (James 2:2) But ecclesia is never used by the Apostles to denote the Jewish Church.有时候,这是事实,教会是在其受雇“集结号”(使徒19时32;哥林多前书14:19),一般意义和synagoga出现一次中提到的基督徒聚会,虽然一个非宗教性质明显(雅2:2),但教会是从未使用过的使徒来表示犹太人教堂。 The word as a technical expression had been transferred to the community of Christian believers.作为一个专业术语词已经转移到了基督教信徒的社区。

It has been frequently disputed whether there is any difference in the signification of the two words.据经常争议是否有任何意义的两个词的区别。St. Augustine (in Psalm. lxxvii, in PL, XXXVI, 984) distinguishes them on the ground that ecclesia is indicative of the calling together of men, synagoga of the forcible herding together of irrational creatures: "congregatio magis pecorum convocatio magis hominum intelligi solet".圣奥古斯丁(。诗篇第七十七号,在PL,三十六,984)的区别,理由是教会是调用在一起的男人,强行放牧不合理的生物一起synagoga指示他们:“congregatio MAGIS pecorum convocatio MAGIS hominum intelligi solet“。But it may be doubted whether there is any foundation for this view.但它可能会怀疑是否有任何这种观点的基础。It would appear, however, that the term qahal, was used with the special meaning of "those called by God to eternal life", while 'êdah, denoted merely "the actually existing Jewish community" (Schürer, Hist. Jewish People, II, 59).这样看来,不过,这个词qahal,是与“上帝叫永生的”使用特殊的意义,而“êdah,表示仅仅是”实际存在的犹太社区“(Schürer,组织胺。犹太人民,II ,59)。Though the evidence for this distinction is drawn from the Mishna, and thus belongs to a somewhat later date, yet the difference in meaning probably existed at the time of Christ's ministry.虽然这种区别的证据是取材于密西拿,因而属于一个较晚的日期,但在意义上的差异可能在基督的职事时存在。But however this may have been, His intention in employing the term, hitherto used of the Hebrew people viewed as a church, to denote the society He Himself was establishing cannot be mistaken.但是,但是这可能是,他在用人来看,迄今为止,作为教会认为希伯来人使用,以表示他自己是建立社会不能误认为意图。 It implied the claim that this society now constituted the true people of God, that the Old Covenant was passing away, and that He, the promised Messias, was inaugurating a New Covenant with a New Israel.它暗示的说法,现在这个社会构成了神的真实的人,认为旧约是逝去,他的承诺弭赛亚,是开创一个新的以色列新约。

As signifying the Church, the word Ecclesia is used by Christian writers, sometimes in a wider, sometimes in a more restricted sense.作为象征教会,教会这个词用的基督教作家,有时在更广泛,有时在较受限制的感觉。

It is employed to denote all who, from the beginning of the world, have believed in the one true God, and have been made His children by grace.它是用来表示所有谁,从世界的开始,有一个真正相信上帝,并已作出的恩典,他的孩子。In this sense, it is sometimes distinguished, signifying the Church before the Old Covenant, the Church of the Old Covenant, or the Church of the New Covenant.从这个意义上讲,它有时是杰出的,标志着前的旧约,旧约的教会,或者是新约教会的教会。Thus St. Gregory (Epp. V, ep. xviii ad. Joan. Ep. Const., in PL, LXXVII, 740) writes: "Sancti ante legem, sancti sub lege, sancti sub gratiâ, omnes hi . . . in membris Ecclesiæ sunt constituti" (The saints before the Law, the saints under the Law, and the saints under grace -- all these are constituted members of the Church).因此圣格雷戈里(。。。Epp. V,EP十八广告琼EP CONST,在PL,第七十七号,740)写道:“Sancti事前legem,sancti分勒格,sancti子特惠,义务喜在membris。 ,该书必须遵守constituti“(在法律面前圣人,根据法律的圣徒,并在优雅的圣人 - 所有这些都是教会的组成成员)。

It may signify the whole body of the faithful, including not merely the members of the Church who are alive on earth but those, too, whether in heaven or in purgatory, who form part of the one communion of saints.这可能意味着的忠实全身,包括不只是教会的成员谁是地球上活着,但那些,也无论是在天堂还是在炼狱,谁形成的圣徒之一共融的一部分。 Considered thus, the Church is divided into the Church Militant, the Church Suffering, and the Church Triumphant.因此认为,教会是分为教会激进,教会的痛苦,教会胜利。

It is further employed to signify the Church Militant of the New Testament.这是进一步采用以示对新约教会激进分子。Even in this restricted acceptation, there is some variety in the use of the term.即使在这种限制词义,有一些在长期使用多种。 The disciples of a single locality are often referred to in the New Testament as a Church (Revelation 2:18; Romans 16:4; Acts 9:31), and St. Paul even applies the term to disciples belonging to a single household (Romans 16:5; 1 Corinthians 16:19, Colossians 4:15; Philemon 1-2).单一地区的弟子经常提到在新约中的教会(启示录2:18;罗马书16时04分;行为9时31分)和圣保罗也适用于这个词来弟子属于一个家庭(罗马书16点05;哥林多前书16时十九,歌罗西书4:15;腓利门书1-2)。 Moreover, it may designate specially those who exercise the office of teaching and ruling the faithful, the Ecclesia Docens (Matthew 18:17), or again the governed as distinguished from their pastors, the Ecclesia Discens (Acts 20:28).而且,也可以指定专门那些谁行使的教学水平和执政的忠实办公室,教会Docens(马太18时17分),或再从他们的牧师,在教会Discens(徒20:28)杰出的管辖。 In all these cases the name belonging to the whole is applied to a part.在所有这些情况下,名称是属于整个应用的一部分。The term, in its full meaning, denotes the whole body of the faithful, both rulers and ruled, throughout the world (Ephesians 1:22; Colossians 1:18).这个词,在其全部意义,表示的忠实,无论是统治者统治整个身体和整个世界,(以弗所书1:22;歌罗西书1:18)。 It is in this meaning that the Church is treated of in the present article.正因为如此,教会是在目前的文章对待这个意思。As thus understood, the definition of the Church given by Bellarmine is that usually adopted by Catholic theologians: "A body of men united together by the profession of the same Christian Faith, and by participation in the same sacraments, under the governance of lawful pastors, more especially of the Roman Pontiff, the sole vicar of Christ on earth" (Coetus hominum ejusdem christianæ fidei professione, et eorumdem sacramentorum communione colligatus, sub regimine legitimorum pastorum et præcipue unius Christi in Terris vicarii Romani Pontificis. -- Bellarmine, De Eccl., III, ii, 9).由于这样的理解,由贝拉明给教会的定义通常是由天主教神学家所采用的:“一个统一由同一专业的共同信仰基督教的男子身上,并在同一圣礼牧师下,合法管理,参与,更多的罗马教皇,基督的地球上唯一的牧师“,尤其是(Coetus hominum ejusdem christianæ fidei professione,等eorumdem sacramentorum communione colligatus,分regimine legitimorum pastorum等præcipue unius斯蒂在Terris vicarii罗姆Pontificis - 贝拉明,德传道书,,三,二,9)。The accuracy of this definition will appear in the course of the article.这个定义的准确性将出现在文章的过程。

II. II。THE CHURCH IN PROPHECY在预言的教会

Hebrew prophecy relates in almost equal proportions to the person and to the work of the Messias.希伯来预言涉及到人,并在工作中的messias比例几乎相等。This work was conceived as consisting of the establishment of a kingdom, in which he was to reign over a regenerated Israel.这项工作被视为组成了一个王国的建立,是在他在位超过再生以色列。The prophetic writings describe for us with precision many of the characteristics which were to distinguish that kingdom.该预言的著作为我们描述了精确的特点,要区分的王国很多。Christ during His ministry affirmed not only that the prophecies relating to the Messias were fulfilled in His own person, but also that the expected Messianic kingdom was none other than His Church.在他的部基督肯定不仅如此预言有关的messias是履行他自己的人,但也认为,预期弥赛亚王国的莫过于他的教会等。 A consideration of the features of the kingdom as depicted by the Prophets, must therefore greatly assist us in understanding Christ's intentions in the institution of the Church.作为一个由先知所描绘的天国的特点考虑,因此必须大大有助于了解在基督的教会机构的意图我们。Indeed many of the expressions employed by Him in relation to the society He was establishing are only intelligible in the Light of these prophecies and of the consequent expectations of the Jewish people.事实上,他所雇用的关系是建立在社会,他的表情很多都只是理解在这些预言光线和犹太人民期望的结果。It will moreover appear that we have a weighty argument for the supernatural character of the Christian revelation in the precise fulfillment of the sacred oracles.而且它会出现,我们有一个为在履行神圣的神谕精确基督教的启示超自然的字符重的说法。

A characteristic feature of the Messianic kingdom, as predicted, is its universal extent.一个典型特征的弥赛亚王国,据预测,是它的普及程度。Not merely the twelve tribes, but the Gentiles are to yield allegiance to the Son of David.不仅是十二个支派,但外邦人都产生效忠大卫的儿子。All kings are to serve and obey him; his dominion is to extend to the ends of the earth (Psalm 21:28 sq.; 2:7-12; 116:1; Zechariah 9:10).所有的国王,服务和服从他,他的统治是要延伸到天涯海角(诗篇21时28平方米; 2:7-12; 116:1;撒迦利亚书9:10)。Another series of remarkable passages declares that the subject nations will possess the unity conferred by a common faith and a common worship -- a feature represented under the striking image of the concourse of all peoples and nations to worship at Jerusalem.另一个显着的段落主题的一系列声明,国家将拥有一个共同的信念和共同的崇拜赋予的统一 - 下的所有人民和国家的大堂崇拜在耶路撒冷引人注目的形象代表的功能。"It shall come to pass in the last days (ie in the Messianic Era] . . . that many nations shall say: Come and let us go up to the mountain of the Lord, and to the house of the God of Jacob; and he will teach us of his ways and we will walk in his paths; for the law shall go forth out of Sion, and the word of the Lord out of Jerusalem" (Micah 4:1-2; cf. Isaiah 2:2; Zechariah 8:3). This unity of worship is to be the fruit of a Divine revelation common to all the inhabitants of the earth (Zack., xiv, 8). Corresponding to the triple office of the Messias as priest, prophet, and king, it will be noted that in relation to the kingdom the Sacred Writings lay stress on three points: (a) it is to be endowed with a new and peculiar sacrificial system; (b) it is to be the kingdom of truth possessed of a Divine revelation; (c) it is to be governed by an authority emanating from the Messias. “凡来传递在最后的日子(即在弥赛亚时代],许多国家会说:来吧,让我们去到主山,到了雅各神的殿和。他会教他的方式与我们联系,我们将走在他的路,对法律规定应去出锡永,以及出耶路撒冷王“(弥4:1-2字;比照以赛亚书2:2;撒迦利亚书8:3),这是团结的崇拜是一个神圣的启示共同所有的地球居民(Zack.,十四,8)水果。对应,作为祭司,先知的messias三重办公室,王,这将是指出,相对于王国的神圣的著作奠定了三点强调:(一)它是用一个新的和独特的祭祀制度赋予;(二)要对真理的王国拥有的一个神圣的启示(三)它是由一个由权威统治的messias产生。

In regard to the first of these points, the priesthood of the Messias Himself is explicitly stated (Ps. cix, 4); while it is further taught that the worship which He is to inaugurate shall supersede the sacrifices of the Old Dispensation.至于这些点第一,明确说明了自己是(诗篇CIX,4)弭赛亚祭司;而它进一步告诉我们,崇拜的是他开创将取代旧的豁免的牺牲。 This is implied, as the Apostle tells us, in the very title, "a priest after the order of Melchisedech"; and the same truth is contained in the prediction that a new priesthood is to be formed, drawn from other peoples besides the Israelites (Isaiah 66:18), and in the words of the Prophet Malachias which foretell the institution of a new sacrifice to be offered "from the rising of the sun even to the going down" (Malachi 1:11).这是隐含的,因为使徒告诉我们,在很称号“的命令后,Melchisedech祭司”,以及同样的真理是包含在预测一个新的神职人员是要形成,从其他国家的人民除了以色列人得出(以赛亚书66:18),并在先知玛拉基亚亚这预示着一个新的牺牲可获“从上升的太阳甚至到了去了”(玛1:11)机构的话。 The sacrifices offered by the priesthood of the Messianic kingdom are to endure as long as day and night shall last (Jeremiah 33:20).由祭司的弥赛亚王国提供的牺牲是忍受只要昼夜应昨(耶利米书33:20)。

The revelation of the Divine truth under the New Dispensation attested by Jeremias: "Behold the days shall come saith the Lord, and I will make a new covenant with the house of Israel and with the house of Juda . . . and they shall teach no more every man his neighbour, saying: Know the Lord: for all shall know me from the least of them even to the greatest" (Jeremiah 31:31, 34), while Zacharias assures us that in those days Jerusalem shall be known as the city of truth.而根据新的豁免神圣真理的启示核签赫雷米亚斯:“看哪,天自耶和华如此说,我将与以色列家和房子的犹大新约,并应教导没有。每一个男人更​​他的邻居,说:认识主:所有应当知道,从他们至少我什至最大“(耶利米书31:31,34),而撒迦利亚向我们保证,在那些日子耶路撒冷应称为城市的真相。 (Zechariah 8:3). (撒迦利亚书8:3)。

The passages which foretell that the Kingdom will possess a peculiar principle of authority in the personal rule of the Messias are numerous (eg Psalms 2 and 71; Isaiah 9:6 sq.); but in relation to Christ's own words, it is of interest to observe that in some of these passages the prediction is expressed under the metaphor of a shepherd guiding and governing his flock (Ezekiel 34:23; 37:24-28).该通道这预示着该国将拥有在个人统治的messias的权力有许多奇特的原则(如诗篇2和71;以赛亚书9:6平),但相对于基督自己的话来说,它的利益观察,在这些通道的一些预测是根据一个指导和管理他的羊群(以西结书34:23; 37:24-28)牧人的比喻表达。It is noteworthy, moreover, that just as the prophecies in regard to the priestly office foretell the appointment of a priesthood subordinate to the Messias, so those which relate to the office of government indicate that the Messias will associate with Himself other "shepherds", and will exercise His authority over the nations through rulers delegated to govern in His name (Jeremiah 18:6; Psalm 44:17; cf. St. Augustine Enarr. in Psalm. 44:no. 32).值得注意的是,此外,就如同在关于祭司办公室的预言预言下属的一个神职人员的任命向messias,使那些涉及到政府办公室表示的messias会联想到自己其他“牧羊人”,并行使对国家的治理中,通过委托给他的名字(耶18点06;诗篇44:17;比照圣奥古斯丁Enarr在诗篇44。。:没有32)的统治者,他的权威。 Another feature of the kingdom is to be the sanctity of its members.另一个国度的特点是将其成员的尊严。The way to it is to be called "the holy way: the unclean shall not pass over it".而它的方法是被称为“神圣的方式:通过不洁的,不得超过它。”The uncircumcised and unclean are not to enter into the renewed Jerusalem (Isaiah 35:8; 52:1).该割包皮和不洁不进入到新耶路撒冷(以赛亚书35:8,52:1)。

The later uninspired apocalyptic literature of the Jews shows us how profoundly these predictions had influenced their national hopes, and explains for us the intense expectation among the populace described in the Gospel narratives.后来的平庸的犹太人世界末日文学告诉我们如何深刻地影响了这些预测的国家的希望,并为我们解释了其中的福音叙述中描述的民众强烈期待。 In these works as in the inspired prophecies the traits of the Messianic kingdom present two very different aspects.在这些作品中的启发预言的弥赛亚王国目前两个非常不同方面的特征。On the one hand, the Messias is a Davidic king who gathers together the dispersed of Israel, and establishes on this earth a kingdom of purity and sinlessness (Psalms of Solomon, xvii).在一方面,messias是一个davidic国王谁汇聚以色列分散,这个地球上建立了一个纯洁和清白(诗篇所罗门,十七)王国。 The foreign foe is to be subdued (Assumpt. Moses, c. x) and the wicked are to be judged in the valley of the son of Hinnon (Enoch, xxv, xxvii, xc).而国外的敌人是要制服(Assumpt.摩西角x)和恶人要在儿子的Hinnon(伊诺克,二十五,二十七,XC)山谷判断。 On the other hand, the kingdom is described in eschatological characters.另一方面,王国中介绍了末世论的字符。The Messias is pre-existent and Divine (Enoch, Simil., xlviii, 3); the kingdom He establishes is to be a heavenly kingdom inaugurated by a great world-catastrophe, which separates this world (aion outos), from the world to come (mellon).该messias是预先存在的和神圣(伊诺克,Simil,XLVIII,3);王国建立,他是一个伟大的天国世界的灾难,分离这个世界(永恒之塔outos)开幕,来自世界来(梅隆)。 This catastrophe is to be accompanied by a judgment both of angels and of men (Jubilees, x, 8; v, 10; Assumpt. Moses, x, 1).这场灾难是由这两个天使和男子(五十年节,X,8; V,10; Assumpt摩西,X,1)判断陪同。The dead will rise (Ps. Solom., iii, 11) and all the members of the Messianic kingdom will become like to the Messias (Enoch, Simil., xc, 37).死者将上升(诗篇Solom,,三,11)和所有的弥赛亚王国的成员将成为像向messias(伊诺克,Simil。,XC,37)。 This twofold aspect of the Jewish hopes in regard to the coming Messias must be borne in mind, if Christ's use of the expression "Kingdom of God" is to be understood.这方面有两个方面的犹太人希望即将到来的弭赛亚必须牢记,如果基督的表达“上帝的王国”的用途是可以理解。 Not infrequently, it is true, He employs it in an eschatological sense.不经常,这是事实,他利用在末世论意义上。But far more commonly He uses it of the kingdom set up on this earth -- of His Church.但更常用的王国他用这个地球上设置了它 - 他的教会。These are indeed, not two kingdoms, but one.这些确实是,没有两个王国,只是其中之一。The Kingdom of God to be established at the last day is the Church in her final triumph.上帝的王国将在最后一天成立,是在她最后的胜利堂。

III. III。CONSTITUTION BY CHRIST宪法的基督

The Baptist proclaimed the near approach of the Kingdom of God, and of the Messianic Era.浸会宣告了神的国近的方法,和救世主的时代。He bade all who would share its blessings prepare themselves by penance.他吩咐所有谁准备将分享其通过忏悔自己的祝福。 His own mission, he said, was to prepare the way of the Messias.他自己的使命,他说,当时准备的messias方式。To his disciples he indicated Jesus of Nazareth as the Messias whose advent he had declared (John 1:29-31).为了他的弟子,他表示作为的messias的来临,他宣布(约翰1:29-31)拿撒勒人耶稣。From the very commencement of His ministry Christ laid claim in an explicit way to the Messianic dignity.从开始他的部基督奠定了非常明确的方式,以救世主的尊严索赔。In the synagogue at Nazareth (Luke 4:21) He asserts that the prophecies are fulfilled in His person; He declares that He is greater than Solomon (Luke 11:31), more venerable than the Temple (Matthew 12:6), Lord of the Sabbath (Luke 6:5).在在拿撒勒(路4:21)犹太教堂,他声称,在他的预言是人履行;他宣称,他是比所罗门(路加福音11:31),超过了寺(太12:6)古老的大,主在安息日(路加福音6:5)。 John, He says, is Elias, the promised forerunner (Matthew 17:12); and to John's messengers He vouchsafes the proofs of His Messianic dignity which they request (Luke 7:22).约翰,他说,是埃利亚斯,所承诺的先行者(马太17:12);和约翰的使者,他vouchsafes他的救世主的尊严,他们要求的证明(路加福音7:22)。 He demands implicit faith on the ground of His Divine legation (John 6:29).他要求对他的神使馆地面(约翰6时29分)隐含的信念。 His public entry into Jerusalem was the acceptance by the whole people of a claim again and again reiterated before them.他进入耶路撒冷公共项目是由索赔的全民接受一次又一次重申了他们面前。The theme of His preaching throughout is the Kingdom of God which He has come to establish.他的说教整个主题是神的王国,他已经建立。St. Mark, describing the beginning of His ministry, says that He came into Galilee saying, "The time is accomplished, and the Kingdom of God is at hand".圣马克,描述了他的部初说,他来到加利利说,“时间是完成,神的国就在眼前”。For the kingdom which He was even then establishing in their midst, the Law and the Prophets had been, He said, but a preparation (Luke 16:16; cf. Matthew 4:23; 9:35; 13:17; 21:43; 24:14; Mark 1:14; Luke 4:43; 8:1; 9:2, 60; 18:17).对于王国,他甚至然后在他们中间建立,法律和先知已,他说,但准备(路加福音16:16;比照马太4时23分,9时35分,13时17分,21: 43,24:14,马可福音1:14;路加福音4时43分,8时零一;九时02分,60; 18时十七分)。

When it is asked what is this kingdom of which Christ spoke, there can be but one answer.当有人问这是什么王国的基督发言,但可以有一个答案。It is His Church, the society of those who accept His Divine legation, and admit His right to the obedience of faith which He claimed.这是他的教会,那些谁接受他的神公使馆的社会,并承认他的权利,信仰的服从他声称。His whole activity is directed to the establishment of such a society: He organizes it and appoints rulers over it, establishes rites and ceremonies in it, transfers to it the name which had hitherto designated the Jewish Church, and solemnly warns the Jews that the kingdom was no longer theirs, but had been taken from them and given to another people.他的整个活动是针对这样一个社会的建立:他组织并任命了它的统治者,建立在它的仪式和礼节,转移给它的名字,迄今已指定的犹太人教堂,并郑重警告犹太人的王国不再是他们的,但已经从他们给另一个人。 The several steps taken by Christ in organizing the Church are traced by the Evangelists.基督的教会组织采取的几个步骤是追踪的福音。He is represented as gathering numerous disciples, but as selecting twelve from their number to be His companions in an especial manner.他表示为聚集众多弟子,但他们的选择,从12号是在一个特殊的方式,他的同伴。These share His life.这些分享他的生活。To them He reveals the more hidden parts of His doctrine (Matthew 13:11).对他们来说,他揭示了他的学说更隐蔽的部位(马太13:11)。He sends them as His deputies to preach the kingdom, and bestows on them the power to work miracles.他作为他的代表发送他们宣讲王国,并在他们的权力,创造奇迹赠送。All are bound to accept their message; and those who refuse to listen to them shall meet a fate more terrible than that of Sodom and Gomorra (Matthew 10:1-15).都必须接受他们的信息;和那些谁不听他们应达到的命运比所多玛和Gomorra(太10:1-15)的可怕。The Sacred Writers speak of these twelve chosen disciples in a manner indicating that they are regarded as forming a corporate body.神圣的作家说的这十二个门徒中选择一个指示,他们正在以形成一个法人团体视为方式。In several passages they are still termed "the twelve" even when the number, understood literally, would be inexact.在一些段落他们仍称之为“十二条”即使数量,从字面上理解,将是不准确的。The name is applied to them when they have been reduced to eleven by the defection of Judas, on an occasion when only ten of them were present, and again after the appointment of St. Paul has increased their number to thirteen (Luke 24:33; John 20:24; 1 Corinthians 15:5; Revelation 21:14).这个名字被应用到他们时,他们已减少了犹大背叛在一个场合,至十一时只有其中十人出席,及后再次圣保罗任命其数量已增至十三(路加福音24:33 ;约翰20时24分;哥林多前书15时05;启示录21:14)。

In this constitution of the Apostolate Christ lays the foundation of His Church.在这个基督的使徒宪法奠定了基础,他的教会。But it is not till the action of official Judaism had rendered it manifestly impossible to hope the Jewish Church would admit His claim, that He prescribes for the Church as a body independent of the synagogue and possessed of an administration of her own.但它不是直到官方犹太教行动已提供它显然不可能希望犹太教会会承认他声称,即他规定了作为一个机构的独立教会和犹太教堂的她拥有自己的管理。 After the breach had become definite, He calls the Apostles together and speaks to them of the judicial action of the Church, distinguishing, in an unmistakable manner, between the private individual who undertakes the work of fraternal correction, and the ecclesiastical authority empowered to pronounce a judicial sentence (Matthew 18:15-17).后违反已成为明确的,他呼吁使徒一起,给他们讲的是教会的司法行动,区分,在明确无误地个体私营机构之间谁承担矫正工作的兄弟,并教会权威授权发音司法判决(马太18:15-17)。 To the jurisdiction thus conferred He attached a Divine sanction.因此,要赋予他的司法管辖权附加一个神圣的制裁。A sentence thus pronounced, He assured the Apostles, should be ratified in heaven.一个句子从而显着,他向使徒,应在天上批准。 A further step was the appointment of St. Peter to be the chief of the Twelve.另一个步骤是圣彼得被任命的首席十二。For this position he had already been designated (Matthew 16:15 sqq.) on an occasion previous to that just mentioned: at Cæsarea Philippi, Christ had declared him to be the rock on which He would build His Church, thus affirming that the continuance and increase of the Church would rest on the office created in the person of Peter.对于这个位置,他已经被指定(马太16时15 SQQ)之前的一个场合上刚才提到的是:在该撒利亚腓立比,基督已宣布他是岩石上,他将建立他的教会,因此肯定的延续和教会的增加将在其余人的彼得创建办公室。 To him, moreover, were to be given the keys of the Kingdom of Heaven -- an expression signifying the gift of plenary authority (Isaiah 22:22).在他看来,此外,要给予的天国钥匙 - 一个表达式标志着全体会议管理局(以赛亚书22:22)的礼物。The promise thus made was fulfilled after the Resurrection, on the occasion narrated in John, xxi.从而履行所作的承诺是复活后,在约翰,二十一世纪之际叙述。Here Christ employs a simile used on more than one occasion by Himself to denote His own relation to the members of His Church -- that of the shepherd and his flock.基督在这里使用自己员工在多个场合表示,他自己与他的教会的成员比喻 - 对牧羊人和他的羊群的。His solemn charge, "Feed my sheep", constituted Peter the common shepherd of the whole collective flock.他郑重负责,“你喂养我的羊”,构成彼得整个集体的羊群常见牧羊人。(For a further consideration of the Petrine texts see article PRIMACY.) To the twelve Christ committed the charge of spreading the kingdom among all nations, appointing the rite of baptism as the one means of admission to a participation in its privileges (Matthew 28:19). (如需伯多禄文本作进一步审议看到文章的首要地位。)为了基督的十二所犯下的所有国家之间传播的王国,任命一个手段录取的洗礼仪式,以在其权限参与(马太28负责人: 19)。

In the course of this article detailed consideration will be given to the principal characteristics of the Church.在这篇文章的过程中详细考虑将给予教会的主要特点。Christ's teaching on this point may be briefly summarized here.基督的教学在这一点上可能会在这里简要概括。It is to be a kingdom ruled in His absence by men (Matthew 18:18; John 21:17).它是要在他的男性(马太18时18分,约翰21:17)的情况下统治的王国。It is therefore a visible theocracy; and it will be substituted for the Jewish theocracy that has rejected Him (Matthew 21:43).因此,它是可见的神权政治,以及它会为犹太神权已拒绝他(马太21点43分)取代。In it, until the day of judgment, the bad will be mingled with the good (Matthew 13:41).在这里面,直到审判的日子,坏将夹杂着良好的(马太13时41分)。Its extent will be universal (Matthew 28:19), and its duration to the end of time (Matthew 13:49); all powers that oppose it shall be crushed (Matthew 21:44).它的范围将普及(马太28:19),其持续时间结​​束的时间(马太13:49),所有的权力,反对它应粉碎(马太21:44)。 Moreover, it will be a supernatural kingdom of truth, in the world, though not of it (John 18:36).此外,这将是一个真理的超自然的王国,在世界上,虽然不是它(约翰福音18:36)。It will be one and undivided, and this unity shall be a witness to all men that its founder came from God (John 17:21).这将是一个和不可分割的,这应是一个以团结所有的人见证,它的创始人来自上帝(约翰17:21)来了。It is to be noticed that certain recent critics contest the positions maintained in the preceding paragraphs.这是必须注意到,最近的一些批评者的较量在前款保持的立场。They deny alike that Christ claimed to be the Messias, and that the kingdom of which He spoke was His Church.他们都否认基督自称是该messias,并认为英国其中他谈到了他的教会。Thus, as regards Christ's claim to Messianic dignity, they say that Christ does not declare Himself to be the Messias in His preaching: that He bids the possessed who proclaimed Him the Son of God be silent: that the people did not suspect His Messiahship, but formed various extravagant hypotheses as to his personality.因此,关于基督的自称救世主的尊严,他们说,基督没有声明自己是在他的说教的messias:他出价拥有谁宣称他是神的儿子沉默:即人们不怀疑他的弥赛亚,但以他的个性形成各种奢侈的假说。 It is manifestly impossible within the limits of this article to enter on a detailed discussion of these points.正是在这篇文章的限制显然不可能进入这些点的详细讨论。But, in the light of the testimony of the passages above cited, it will be seen that the position is entirely untenable.但是,在上述提到的段落证词来,我们将看到的立场是完全站不住脚的。In reference to the Kingdom of God, many of the critics hold that the current Jewish conception was wholly eschatological, and that Christ's references to it must one and all be thus interpreted.在谈到上帝的王国,许多批评者认为,目前的构想是完全犹太末世论和基督的参考之一,它必须是这样解释的。 This view renders inexplicable the numerous passages in which Christ speaks of the kingdom as present, and further involves a misconception as to the nature of Jewish expectations, which, as has been seen, together with eschatological traits, contained others of a different character.这种观点在其中呈现莫名的基督王国说,作为目前许多段落,并进一步牵涉到对犹太人的期望,这正如已经看到的,与末世的特征,包含了不同的性格别人性质的误解。 Harnack (What is Christianity? p. 62) holds that in its inner meaning the kingdom as conceived by Christ is "a purely religious blessing, the inner link of the soul with the living God".哈纳克(什么是基督教?第62页)持有其内在的意义与所设想的基督王国是“纯粹的宗教祝福,灵魂与活着的上帝的内在联系”的问题。 Such an interpretation can in no possible way be reconciled with Christ's utterances on the subject.这样的解释可以在任何可能的方式不甘心就此事与基督的话语。The whole tenor of his expressions is to lay stress on the concept of a theocratic society.他的表情整个男高音是躺在一个政教合一的社会观念的压力。

The Church after the Ascension耶稣升天后的教会

The doctrine of the Church as set forth by the Apostles after the Ascension is in all respects identical with the teaching of Christ just described.教会的教义由使徒们提出的升天后在各方面均与基督刚刚描述的教学相同。St. Peter, in his first sermon, delivered on the day of Pentecost, declares that Jesus of Nazareth is the Messianic king (Acts 2:36).圣彼得大教堂,宣布拿撒勒人耶稣是弥赛亚王(徒2:36)在他的第一个布道的五​​旬节交付。The means of salvation which he indicates is baptism; and by baptism his converts are aggregated to the society of disciples (ii, 41).救恩的意思是,他表示洗礼,洗礼和他的转换都汇集到社会的弟子(二,41)。Though in these days the Christians still availed themselves of the Temple services, yet from the first the brotherhood of Christ formed a society essentially distinct from the synagogue.虽然在这些天的基督徒仍然利用了圣殿服务本身,还从第一个基督的兄弟成立了一个社会本质的不同的犹太教堂。The reason why St. Peter bids his hearers accept baptism is none other than that they may "save themselves from this unbelieving generation".之所以圣彼得竞标他的听众不是别人,正是接受洗礼,他们可能“拯救这一代不信自己”等。Within the society of believers not only were the members united by common rites, but the tie of unity was so close as to bring about in the Church of Jerusalem that condition of things in which the disciples had all things common (ii, 44).在信徒的社会不仅是由共同的仪式团结的成员,但团结配合是如此接近,使在耶路撒冷教会有关的事物,其中门徒所有事物的共同(二,44)的条件。

Christ had declared that His kingdom should be spread among all nations, and had committed the execution of the work to the twelve (Matthew 28:19).基督已宣布,他的王国应该是所有国家之间的传播,并承诺工作的执行到十二(马太28:19)。Yet the universal mission of the Church revealed itself but gradually.然而,教会的普世传教使命,但逐渐显露了出来。St. Peter indeed makes mention of it from the first (Acts 2:39).圣彼得的确使得它提到从第一(使徒2点39分)。But in the earliest years the Apostolic activity is confined to Jerusalem alone.但在早年的使徒活动仅限于耶路撒冷的独立。Indeed an old tradition (Apollonius, cited by Eusebius "Hist. Eccl.", V, xvii, and Clem. Alex., "Strom.", VI, v, in PG IX, 264) asserts that Christ had bidden the Apostles wait twelve years in Jerusalem before dispersing to carry their message elsewhere.的确是一个古老的传统(阿波罗纽斯,由尤西比乌斯引“组织胺。传道书”,V,十七和克莱姆。亚历克斯。“斯特罗姆 ”,六,五,在PG IX,264)声称,基督使徒等待bidden十二个​​耶路撒冷年前分散到其他地方进行的消息。The first notable advance occurs consequent on the persecution which arose after the death of Stephen, AD 37.第一个显着的进步发生在迫害后,斯蒂芬,公元37死随之出现。This was the occasion of the preaching of the Gospel to the Samaritans, a people excluded from the privileges of Israel, though acknowledging the Mosaic Law (Acts 8:5).这是在向撒玛利亚,从以色列的特权排除了人际传播福音,但承认摩西律法(徒8:5)。A still further expansion resulted from the revelation directing St. Peter to admit to baptism Cornelius, a devout Gentile, ie one associated to the Jewish religion but not circumcised.一个还在进一步扩大,导致从指挥圣彼得承认洗礼留斯,一个虔诚的詹蒂莱,即一个关联的犹太宗教,但不受割礼的启示。 From this tune forward circumcision and the observance of the Law were not a condition requisite for incorporation into the Church.从这个调着割礼和遵守法律并没有条件进入教会成立的必要条件。But the final step of admitting those Gentiles who had known no previous connection with the religion of Israel, and whose life had been spent in paganism, was not taken till more than fifteen years after Christ's Ascension; it did not occur, it would seem, before the day described in Acts xiii, 46, when, at Antioch in Pisidia, Paul and Barnabas announced that since the Jews accounted themselves unworthy of eternal life they would "turn to the Gentiles".但是,承认那些谁已经知道没有与以色列宗教以前的连接,而且其生活已在异教花了外邦人的最后一步,是不是采取直到超过十五后,基督升天年,它并没有出现,看来,前一天所述行为十三,46时,在皮西迪亚安提阿,保罗和巴拿巴宣布,由于自己是犹太人占永生愧对他们将“转向外邦人”。

In the Apostolic teaching the term Church, from the very first, takes the place of the expression Kingdom of God (Acts 5:11).在长期的教学使徒教会,从一开始,采用神(徒5:11)表达王国的地方。 Where others than the Jews were concerned, the greater suitability of the former name is evident; for Kingdom of God had special reference to Jewish beliefs.如果别人比犹太人而言,前者的名字更适合是显而易见的;为神的国特别提到了犹太信仰。But the change of title only emphasizes the social unity of the members.但标题改变只强调社会成员的团结。They are the new congregation of Israel -- the theocratic polity: they are the people (laos) of God (Acts 15:14; Romans 9:25; 2 Corinthians 6:16; 1 Peter 2:9 sq.; Hebrews 8:10; Revelation 18:4; 21:3).他们是以色列新众 - 神权政体:他们是上帝的子民(老挝)(徒15:14;罗马书9:25;哥林多后书6:16;彼前2:9平;希伯来书8: 10,启示录18:4,21:3)。By their admission to the Church, the Gentiles have been grafted in and form part of God's fruitful olive-tree, while apostate Israel has been broken off (Romans 11:24).通过他们进入教会,外邦人已嫁接,形成神的卓有成效的橄榄树的一部分,而叛教以色列一直中断(罗11:24)。St. Paul, writing to his Gentile converts at Corinth, terms the ancient Hebrew Church "our fathers" (1 Corinthians 10:1).圣保罗,他写信给在哥林多詹蒂莱转换,条款古代希伯来文堂“我们的父亲”(林前10:1)。 Indeed from time to time the previous phraseology is employed, and the Gospel message is termed the preaching of the Kingdom of God (Acts 20:25; 28:31).事实上,不时以前的用语是就业,福音信息是被称为神的王国(使徒20时25分; 28:31)讲道。

Within the Church the Apostles exercised that regulative power with which Christ had endowed them.在教会的使徒们行使权力的调控与基督赋予了他们。It was no chaotic mob, but a true society possessed of a corporate life, and organized in various orders.它没有乱挤乱,但真正的社会生活中拥有的企业,组织和各种订单。The evidence shows the twelve to have possessed (a) a power of jurisdiction, in virtue of which they wielded a legislative and judicial authority, and (b) a magisterial office to teach the Divine revelation entrusted to them.有证据表明有十二个拥有(一)权力的管辖权,据此他们挥舞的立法和司法权威,(b)一个威严的办公室,教导神的启示托付给他们。 Thus (a) we find St. Paul authoritatively prescribing for the order and discipline of the churches.因此,(a)我们找到圣保禄权威的秩序和纪律规定的教堂。He does not advise; he directs (1 Corinthians 11:34; 26:1; Titus 1:5).他不提醒,他指示(林前11:34; 26:1;多1:5)。 He pronounces judicial sentence (1 Corinthians 5:5; 2 Corinthians 2:10), and his sentences, like those of other Apostles, receive at times the solemn sanction of miraculous punishment (1 Timothy 1:20; Acts 5:1-10).他发音司法判决(哥林多前书五点05分;哥林多后书2:10),和他的句子,像其他使徒的人,有时收到的严正制裁神奇的处罚(提摩太前书1时20分;徒5:1-10 )。In like manner he bids his delegate Timothy hear the causes even of priests, and rebuke, in the sight of all, those who sin (1 Timothy 5:19 sq.).同样地,他的出价甚至听他的代表蒂莫西神父,和训斥的原因,在所有的视线,谁的罪(提前5时19平方)。(b) With no less definiteness does he assert that the Apostolate carries with it a doctrinal authority, which all are bound to recognize.(二)不确定性并没有随着他断言,使徒与它携带的理论权威,而这一切都必然要承认。God has sent them, he affirms, to claim "the obedience of faith" (Romans 1:5; 15:18).神打发他们,他肯定,要求“的信念顺从”(罗马书1:5; 15:18)。Further, his solemnly expressed desire, that even if an angel from heaven were to preach another doctrine to the Galatians than that which he had delivered to them, he should be anathema (Galatians 1:8), involves a claim to infallibility in the teaching of revealed truth.此外,他郑重表示的愿望,即使是从天上来的使者宣讲比他所交付给他们一个学说向加拉太,他应该被诅咒(加拉太书1:8),涉及到犯错误的教学要求对发现​​的真理。

While the whole Apostolic College enjoyed this power in the Church, St. Peter always appears in that position of primacy which Christ assigned to him.虽然整个使徒学院享有这种权力的教会,圣彼得总是出现在那首要基督分配给他的位置。It is Peter who receives into the Church the first converts, alike from Judaism and from heathenism (Acts 2:41; 10:5 sq.), who works the first miracle (Acts 3:1 sqq.), who inflicts the first ecclesiastical penalty (Acts 5:1 sqq.).这是彼得教堂谁接收到的第一个转换,从犹太教和异教一样(使徒行传2:41; 10点05平方米),谁的作品的第一个奇迹(徒三时01 SQQ),谁第一个教会的敌人造成罚款(徒5时01分SQQ)。It is Peter who casts out of the Church the first heretic, Simon Magus (Acts 8:21), who makes the first Apostolic visitation of the churches (Acts 9:32), and who pronounces the first dogmatic decision (Acts 15:7).这是彼得谁蒙上了教会的第一个异教徒,西蒙法师(徒8:21),谁使第一探视教会使徒(徒9:32),谁宣告第一教条的决定(使徒15时07 )。(See Schanz, III, p. 460.) So indisputable was his position that when St. Paul was about to undertake the work of preaching to the heathen the Gospel which Christ had revealed to him, he regarded it as necessary to obtain recognition from Peter (Galatians 1:18). (见Schanz,III,第460页。)所以不争的是他的位置,当圣保罗即将进行的说教向异教徒的基督曾透露他的福音工作,他都把它作为需要获得认可的彼得(加拉太书1:18)。 More than this was not needful: for the approbation of Peter was definitive.比这更不是needful:为彼得认可的权威性。

IV. IV。ORGANIZATION BY THE APOSTLES组织由使徒

Few subjects have been so much debated during the past half-century as the organization of the primitive Church.很少有这么多科目的辩论期间,作为原始教会组织过去半个世纪。The present article cannot deal with the whole of this wide subject.本文章不能处理这个大主题的整体。Its scope is limited to a single point.其范围仅限于一个单一的点。An endeavour will be made to estimate the existing information regarding the Apostolic Age itself.一个努力将作出估计现有的信息就使徒年龄本身。Further light is thrown on the matter by a consideration of the organization that is found to have existed in the period immediately subsequent to the death of the last Apostle.光引发进一步就此事通过的是发现了在该期间后立即到最后使徒死亡存在组织的考虑。(See BISHOP.) The independent evidence derived from the consideration of each of these periods will, in the opinion of the present writer, be found, when fairly weighed, to yield similar results.(见主教。)独立的证据来自上述各期间所得的考虑,在目前的作家认为,被发现时,相当重,产生类似的结果。Thus the conclusions here advanced, over and above their intrinsic value, derive support from the independent witness of another series of authorities tending in all essentials to confirm their accuracy.因此,结论在这里先进的,远远超过其内在价值,来自另一个在所有要领趋向,以确认其准确性当局的一系列独立证人支持。 The question at issue is, whether the Apostles did, or did not, establish in the Christian communities a hierarchical organization.所讨论的问题是,是否使徒那样,或者没有在基督教社区建立一个分层组织。All Catholic scholars, together with some few Protestants, hold that they did so.所有天主教学者,以及一些少数信奉基督教,认为他们这样做。The opposite view is maintained by the rationalist critics, together with the greater number of Protestants.与此相反的观点是保持了理性的批评,再加上更多的新教徒。

In considering the evidence of the New Testament on the subject, it appears at once that there is a marked difference between the state of things revealed in the later New Testament writings, and that which appears in those of an earlier date.在审议关于这一问题的新约的证据,它出现在一旦之间存在着在后来的新约圣经的著作揭示事物的状态,而这在那些日期较早出现明显的区别。 In the earlier writings we find but little mention of an official organization.在早期著作中,我们找到,但很少提到的一个官方组织。Such official positions as may have existed would seem to have been of minor importance in the presence of the miraculous charismata of the Holy Spirit conferred upon individuals, and fitting them to act as organs of the community in various grades.如可能存在的官方立场似乎有在圣灵的神奇charismata存在轻微的重要性被授予个人,和装修他们作为社会机构的行为在各个等级。 St. Paul in his earlier Epistles has no messages for the bishops or deacons, although the circumstances dealt with in the Epistles to the Corinthians and in that to the Galatians would seem to suggest a reference to the local rulers of the Church.在他的早期书信圣保罗的主教或执事没有消息,尽管情况处理,在书信的科林蒂安在这向加拉太似乎表明引用教会的地方统治者。 When he enumerates the various functions to which God has called various members of the Church, he does not give us a list of Church offices.当他列举了对神的教会呼吁各成员的各种功能,他不给我们一个教会机构名单。"God", he says, "hath set some in the church, first apostles, secondly prophets, thirdly doctors [didaskaloi]; after that miracles; then the graces of healings, helps, governments, kinds of tongues" (1 Corinthians 12:28). “上帝”,他说:“祂所设置在教堂,第一使徒,第二是先知,第三医生[didaskaloi]一些;之后,奇迹;然后医治的青睐,帮助,各国政府,各种方言”(哥林多前书12: 28)。This is not a list of official designations.这不是一个官方名称列表。It is a list of "charismata" bestowed by the Holy Spirit, enabling the recipient to fulfill some special function.这是一个“charismata”圣灵赐予的名单,使收件人履行一些特殊功能。The only term which forms an exception to this is that of apostle.长期形成的唯一一个例外是使徒的。Here the word is doubtless used in the sense in which it signifies the twelve and St. Paul only.这里所说的,无疑是用在某种意义上,它标志着十二和圣保罗只。As thus applied the Apostolate was a distinct office, involving a personal mission received from the Risen Lord Himself (1 Corinthians 1:1; Galatians 1:1).由于应用了使徒是这样一个独特的办公室,涉及个人的使命从复活的主自己收到的(林前1:1;加拉太书1:1)。Such a position was of altogether too special a character for its recipients to be placed in any other category.这种立场是完全太特殊字符为它被放置在任何其他类别的人士。The term could indeed be used in a wider reference.这个词的确可以用在更广泛的参考。It is used of Barnabas (Acts 14:13) and of Andronicus and Junias, St. Paul's kinsmen (Romans 16:7).这是巴拿巴(徒14:13)和安多尼古和Junias使用,圣保罗的亲属(罗马书16:7)。In this extended signification it is apparently equivalent to evangelist (Ephesians 4:11; 2 Timothy 4:5) and denotes those "apostolic men", who, like the Apostles, went from place to place labouring in new fields, but who had received their commission from them, and not from Christ in person.在这个意义是很明显延长相当于传播者(以弗所书4时11分;提摩太后书4:5),并表示那些“使徒的人”,谁像使徒,从一个地方到地方劳动在新的领域,但谁收到了从他们的佣金,而不是从基督的人。 (See APOSTLES.)(见使徒。)

The "prophets", the second class mentioned, were men to whom it was given to speak from time to time under the direct influence of the Holy Spirit as the recipients of supernatural inspiration (Acts 13:2; 15:23; 21:11; etc.).而“先知”,第二类中提到,要谁给讲了下,圣灵直接的影响,不时为超自然的灵感收件人(使徒13时02分男子,15时23分,21时十一等等)。 By the nature of the case the exercise of such a function could be occasional only.到了案件的性质这样的功能锻炼可以偶尔而已。 The "charisma" of the "doctors" (or teachers) differed from that of the prophets, in that it could be used continuously.而“魅力”的“医生”(或教师)从不同的先知,因为它可以连续使用。They had received the gift of intelligent insight into revealed truth, and the power to impart it to others.他们收到的智能洞察揭示真理,权力传授给别人的礼物。It is manifest that those who possessed such a power must have exercised a function of vital moment to the Church in those first days, when the Christian communities consisted to so large an extent of new converts.这是体现那些谁拥有这样的权力行使必须有一个重要的时刻功能,教会在这些第一天,当基督教团体组成,以如此之大的一个新的转换程度。 The other "charismata" mentioned do not call for special notice.其他“charismata”中提到的不要求特别通知。But the prophets and teachers would appear to have possessed an importance as organs of the community, eclipsing that of the local ministry.但先知和教师似乎已经具备作为社会器官的重要性,食部的地方了。Thus in Acts, xiii, 1, it is simply related that there were in the Church which was at Antioch prophets and doctors.因此,在行为,十三,1,它只是在相关有在安提阿教会的先知和医生的人。There is no mention of bishops or deacons.有没有提到主教或执事。And in the Didache -- a work as it would seem of the first century, written before the last Apostle had passed away -- the author enjoins respect for the bishops and deacons, on the ground that they have a claim similar to that of the prophets and doctors.而在十二使徒遗训 - 一个工作,因为它似乎在一世纪,书面前的最后使徒已经去世 - 笔者责成当地的主教和执事敬,他们有类似的说法是先知和医生。"Appoint for yourselves", he writes, "bishops and deacons, worthy of the Lord, men who are meek, and not lovers of money, and true and approved; for unto you they also perform the service [leitourgousi ten leitourgian] of the prophets and doctors. Therefore despise them not: for they are your honourable men along with the prophets and teachers" (c. xv). “任命自己”,他写道:“主教和执事,主值得,男人谁是温顺,而不是金钱四溢,真实而批准;为你们服务,他们还执行[leitourgousi ten leitourgian]的。先知和医生,因此他们不鄙视,因为他们是你的正人君子随着先知和教师“(C.十五)。

It would appear, then, indisputable that in the earliest years of the Christian Church ecclesiastical functions were in a large measure fulfilled by men who had been specially endowed for this purpose with "charismata" of the Holy Spirit, and that as long as these gifts endured, the local ministry occupied a position of less importance and influence.这样看来,那么,不争,在基督教会教会职能早年受谁已专门为此赋有“charismata”圣灵的男人很大程度上满足了,而且,只要这些礼物长忍受,当地部占据了较少的重要性和影响力的地位。 Yet, though this be the case, there would seem to be ample ground for holding that the local ministry was of Apostolic institution: and, further, that towards the later part of the Apostolic Age the abundant "charismata" were ceasing, and that the Apostles themselves took measures to determine the position of the official hierarchy as the directive authority of the Church.然而,虽然这是这样,似乎要举行,当地部使徒机构是充足的理由:和,而且,对后来的使徒时代的一部分,丰富的“charismata”被终止,而使徒自己采取措施确定为教会的指令权威的官方层次中的位置。 The evidence for the existence of such a local ministry is plentiful in the later Epistles of St. Paul (Philippians, 1 and 2 Timothy, and Titus).对于这样一个地方部存在的证据是在圣保罗(腓,1和2提摩太和提多)后来的书信丰富。 The Epistle to the Philippians opens with a special greeting to the bishops and deacons.到腓Epistle打开一个特殊的问候主教和执事。Those who hold these official positions are recognized as the representatives in some sort of the Church.这些谁持有这些官方立场是承认在一些教会的代表进行排序。Throughout the letter there is no mention of the "charismata", which figure so largely in the earlier Epistles.整个信没有了“charismata”提到,这数字在早期书信所以大部分。It is indeed urged by Hort (Christian Ecelesia, p. 211) that even here these terms are not official titles.这实在是敦促园艺(基督教Ecelesia,第211页)在这里,即使这些条款并非正式名称。But in view of their employment as titles in documents so nearly contemporary, as I Clem., c.但在他们的文件名称,以便在近现代的就业观,我克莱姆。角4, and the Didache, such a contention seems devoid of all probability.4,和十二使徒遗训,这样的争夺似乎缺乏所有的可能性。

In the Pastoral Epistles the new situation appears even more clearly.教牧书信在新形势下出现的更清楚。The purpose of these writings was to instruct Timothy and Titus regarding the manner in which they were to organize the local Churches.这些著作的目的是指导提摩太和提多关于以何种方式,他们组织当地教会。The total absence of all reference to the spiritual gifts can scarcely be otherwise explained than by supposing that they no longer existed in the communities, or that they were at most exceptional phenomena.对所有的精神礼物共参考的情况下几乎可以被解释,否则比假设他们不再存在于社区,或者说他们在最特殊的现象。 Instead, we find the Churches governed by a hierarchical organization of bishops, sometimes also termed presbyters, and deacons.相反,我们找到了分层组织管辖的主教教堂,有时也被称为长老,和执事。That the terms bishop and presbyter are synonymous is evident from Titus 1:5-7: "I left thee in Crete, that thou shouldest . . . ordain priests in every city . . . For a bishop must be without crime."这条款主教和长老是同义词,是显而易见的,从提图斯1:5-7:“。。。。。我离开你在克里特岛,即你shouldest祝圣司铎在每一个城市对于一个主教必须是没有犯罪” These presbyters form a corporate body (1 Timothy 4:14), and they are entrusted with the twofold charge of governing the Church (1 Timothy 3:5) and of teaching (1 Timothy 3:2; Titus 1:9).这些长老形成一个法人团体(提前4:14),以及它们与执政的教会(提前3:5)和教学双重收费(提摩太前书3:2;提多书1:9)委托。 The selection of those who are to fill this post does not depend on the possession of supernatural gifts.对那些谁是填补该职位的选择并不取决于拥有超自然的礼物。It is required that they should not be unproved neophytes, that they should be under no charge, should have displayed moral fitness for the work, and should be capable of teaching.这是要求他们不应该未经证实的新手,他们应在不收费的,应该有显示德育工作的健身,而且应该是教学的能力。(1 Timothy 3:2-7; Titus 1:5-9) The appointment to this office was by a solemn laying on of hands (1 Timothy 5:22).(提摩太前书3:2-7;提多书1:5-9)这项任命是由办公室按手庄严的铺设(提摩太前书5:22)。Some words addressed by St. Paul to Timothy, in reference to the ceremony as it had taken place in Timothy's case, throw light upon its nature.由圣保罗给提摩太有些话,在参考了,因为它采取了在提摩太的情况下举行仪式,扔在它的性质。"I admonish thee", he writes, "that thou stir up the grace (charisma) of God, which is in thee by the laying on of my hands" (2 Timothy 1:6). “我警告你”,他写道:“那你挑起了上帝的恩典(风采),这是你的我的手就铺设”(提摩太后书1:6)。The rite is here declared to be the means by which a charismatic gift is conferred; and, further, the gift in question, like the baptismal character, is permanent in its effects.仪式是在这里宣布为其中一个有魅力的礼物是授予手段,进一步,有问题的礼物,如洗礼的性格,是永久的影响。The recipient needs but to "waken into life" [anazopyrein] the grace he thus possesses in order to avail himself of it.收件人需要,但以“走进生活唤醒”[anazopyrein]因此,他拥有的宽限期,以便利用它自己。It is an abiding endowment.这是一个守法的禀赋。There can be no reason for asserting that the imposition of hands, by which Timothy was instructed to appoint the presbyters to their office, was a rite of a different character, a mere formality without practical import.可以有没有声称的手中,其中提摩太奉命任命长老强加给他们的办公室,是一个不同的性格,一个没有实际进口流于形式仪式的原因。

With the evidence before us, certain other notices in the New Testament writings, pointing to the existence of this local ministry, may be considered.随着我们面前的证据,还有其他一些注意事项在新约圣经的著作,指着这个地方部的存在,可以考虑。There is mention of presbyters at Jerusalem at a date apparently immediately subsequent to the dispersion of the Apostles (Acts 11:30; cf. 15:2; 16:4; 21:18).有提及的长老在耶路撒冷的日期显然后立即分散的使徒(徒十一时30分,比照15时02; 16时04分,21时18分)。 Again, we are told that Paul and Barnabas, as they retraced their steps on their first missionary journey, appointed presbyters in every Church (Acts 14:22).同样,我们被告知,保罗和巴拿巴,因为他们在他们的第一折回传教之旅的步伐,在每个指定的教会(徒14:22)长老。 So too the injunction to the Thessalonians (1 Thessalonians 5:12) to have regard to those who are over them in the Lord (proistamenoi; cf. Romans 12:6) would seem to imply that there also St. Paul had invested certain members of the community with a pastoral charge.所以也给帖撒罗尼迦禁令(帖前5:12)必须考虑那些谁对他们在主(proistamenoi;比照罗马书12时06),似乎在暗示,也有一定的投资圣保罗成员对具有田园社区负责。 Still more explicit is the evidence contained in the account of St. Paul's interview with the Ephesian elders (Acts 20:17-23).更明确的是在圣保罗与以弗所长老(徒20:17-23)采访帐户中的证据。It is told that, sending from Miletus to Ephesus, he summoned "the presbyters of the Church", and in the course of his charge addressed them as follows: "Take heed to yourselves and to the whole flock, wherein the Holy Ghost has placed you bishops to tend [poimainein] the Church of God" (xx, 28).它被告知,从米利都发送到以弗所,他召见“教会的长老”,并在他的充电过程中解决这些如下:“要谨慎,以自己和整个羊群,其中圣灵已将您主教往往[poimainein]上帝的教会“(XX,28)。 St. Peter employs similar language: "The presbyters that are among you, I beseech, who am myself also a presbyter . . . tend [poimainein] the flock of God which is among you."圣彼得采用类似的语言:“ 的长老说是你们中间,我恳求,谁就是我自己也是长老趋向[poimainein]上帝的羊群这在你们中间是”These expressions leave no doubt as to the office designated by St. Paul, when in Ephesians 4:11, he enumerates the gifts of the Ascended Lord as follows: "He gave some apostles, and some prophets, and other some evangelists, and other some pastors and doctors [tous de poimenas kai didaskalous]. The Epistle of St. James provides us with yet another reference to this office, where the sick man is bidden send for the presbyters of the Church, that he may receive at their hands the rite of unction (James 5:14).这些表达式由离开圣保罗,在以弗所书4时11时,他列举了如下的登高主的礼物指定的办公室毫无疑问:“他给了一些使徒,和一些先知,和其他一些福音,和其他一些牧师和医生[所有往来启德poimenas didaskalous]的圣雅各福群Epistle提供了又一次提到这个办公室,那里的病夫是bidden派教会的长老,他可能会在他们的手中收到我们成年礼的unction(詹姆斯5:14)。

The term presbyter was of common use in the Jewish Church, as denoting the "rulers" of the synagogue (cf. Luke 13:14).长老一词是在共同使用的犹太人教堂,为表示对“统治者”的犹太教堂(参见路加福音13:14)。Hence it has been argued by some non-Catholic writers that in the bishops and deacons of the New Testament there is simply the synagogal organization familiar to the first converts, and introduced by them into the Christian communities.因此,一直主张通过一些非天主教作家,在主教和新约执事有简单的synagogal组织熟悉的第一个转换,并通过他们引进的基督教社区。 St. Paul's concept of the Church, it is urged, is essentially opposed to any rigid governmental system; yet this familiar form of organization was gradually established even in the Churches he had founded.圣保罗教会的概念,它是要求,本质上是反对任何僵化的政府制度;但这种组织形式逐渐熟悉,即使在他所创立的教会成立。 In regard to this view it appears enough to say that the resemblance between the Jewish "rulers of the synagogue" and the Christian presbyter-episcopus goes no farther than the name.关于这一观点似乎足够地说,犹太人之间的“统治者的犹太教堂”和基督教长老- episcopus相似云没有超出这个名字。 The Jewish official was purely civil and held office for a time only.犹太官员纯粹的民事和办公室举行一次只。The Christian presbyterate was for life, and its functions were spiritual.基督教presbyterate是终身的,其职能是精神的。There is perhaps more ground for the view advocated by some (cf. de Smedt, Revue des quest. hist., vols. XLIV, L), that presbyter and episcopus may not in all cases be perfectly Synonymous.也许有更多的一些(参见德Smedt,歌剧团DES的追求。历史。,二卷。XLIV,L),即长老和episcopus可能并非在所有情况下是完全同义的观点主张地面。 The term presbyter is undoubtedly an honorific title, while that of episcopus primarily indicates the function performed.长老一词无疑是一种尊称,而episcopus的主要指示函数执行。It is possible that the former title may have had a wider significance than the latter.这是可能的前题可能有一个比后者更广泛的意义。The designation presbyter, it is suggested, may have been given to all those who were recognized as having a claim to some voice in directing the affairs of the community, whether this were based on official status, or social rank, or benefactions to the local Church, or on some other ground; while those presbyters who had received the laying on of hands would be known, not simply as "presbyters", but as "presiding [proistamenoi -- I Thess., v. 12) presbyters", "presbyter-bishops", "presbyter-rulers" (hegoumenoi -- Hebrews 13:17).长老的称号,这是建议,可能已经给所有那些谁被归类为索赔一些声音在指挥社会的事务,这是否是官方地位,或社会地位,或benefactions根据当地认可教堂,或在其他一些地面;而那些谁收到的双手铺设长老会知道,不能简单地称为“长老”,而是“。主持[proistamenoi - 帖前,诉12)长老”,“长老,主教“,”长老,统治者“(hegoumenoi - 希伯来书13:17)。

It remains to consider whether the so-called "monarchical" episcopate was instituted by the Apostles.它仍然要考虑是否所谓的“君权”主教是由使徒提起。Besides establishing a college of presbyter-bishops, did they further place one man in a position of supremacy, entrusting the government of the Church to him, and endowing him with Apostolic authority over the Christian community?除了建立一个牧师,主教大学,他们才进一步放在至高无上的地位一个人,委托教会的政府给他,并赋予了基督教社会使徒权威呢? Even if we take into account the Scriptural evidence alone, there are sufficient grounds for answering this question in the affirmative.即使我们考虑到圣经证据的就有回答是肯定的这个问题的充分理由。From the time of the dispersion of the Apostles, St. James appears in an episcopal relation to the Church of Jerusalem (Acts 12:17; 15:13; Galatians 2:12).从分散时间的使徒,圣雅各福群会出现在主教有关耶路撒冷的教会(徒十二时十七分,15时13分;加拉太书2:12)。 In the other Christian communities the institution of "monarchical" bishops was a somewhat later development.在其他基督教社区的“君权”主教机构是一个较晚的发展。At first the Apostles themselves fulfilled, it would seem, all the duties of Supreme oversight.起初使徒自己完成,看来,所有的最高监督的职责。They established the office when the growing needs of the Church demanded it.他们成立了办公室,当教会不断增长的需求要求它。 The Pastoral Epistles leave no room to doubt that Timothy and Titus were sent as bishops to Ephesus and to Crete respectively.教牧书信留下任何余地怀疑,提摩太和提多被以以弗所和克里特岛主教分别发送。To Timothy full Apostolic powers are conceded.要充分提摩太使徒权力让步。Notwithstanding his youth he holds authority over both clergy and laity.尽管他的青年时期,他拥有超过两僧侣和俗人的权威。 To him is confided the duty of guarding the purity of the Church's faith, of ordaining priests, of exercising jurisdiction.对他来说是吐露了守卫教会的信仰纯洁的责任,对祝圣司铎,行使管辖权。Moreover, St. Pauls exhortation to him, "to keep the commandment without spot, blameless, unto the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ" shows that this was no transitory mission.此外,圣保尔斯告诫他,“要保持无斑,无可指责的诫命所不欲,我们的主耶稣基督降临的时候,”显示,这是没有过渡的使命。 A charge so worded includes in its sweep, not Timothy alone, but his successors in an office which is to last until the Second Advent.这样的措辞阿费包含在其扫描,而不是单独提摩太,但在办公室这是第二次降临,直到最后他的继任者。 Local tradition unhesitatingly reckoned him among the occupants of the episcopal see.当地传统毫不犹豫地估计之间的主教占用他看。 At the Council of Chalcedon, the Church of Ephesus counted a succession of twenty-seven bishops commencing with Timothy (Mansi, VII, 293; cf. Eusebius, Hist. Eccl., III, iv, v).在迦克墩,对以弗所教会理事会算的27与蒂莫西(曼西,七,293。;比照尤西比乌斯,历史传道书,三,四,五)开始主教继承。

These are not the sole evidences which the New Testament affords of the monarchical episcopate.这些都不是它的新约的君权主教affords的唯一证据。In the Apocalypse the "angels" to whom the letters to the seven Churches are addressed are almost certainly the bishops of the respective communities.在启示录的“天使”谁给七个教会的信件是针对几乎肯定各自社区的主教。 Some commentators, indeed, have held them to be personifications of the communities themselves.一些评论家认为,事实上,举行了他们成为自己的社区人格化。But this explanation can hardly stand.但这种解释难以成立。St. John, throughout, addresses the angel as being responsible for the community precisely as he would address its ruler.圣约翰,贯穿始终,地址,正在为社会正是因为他将负责解决其统治者的天使。Moreover, in the symbolism of ch.此外,在通道的象征意义。i, the two are represented under different figures: the angels are the stars in the right hand of the Son of Man; the seven candlesticks are the image which figures the communities.一,两者是代表不同的数字:天使在人子的右手星;七个灯台是形象,数字社区。The very term angel, it should be noticed, is practically synonymous with apostle, and thus is aptly chosen to designate the episcopal office.很长远的天使,应该注意到,实际上是使徒的代名词,因而是恰当地选择指定主教办公室。Again the messages to Archippus (Colossians 4:17; Philemon 2) imply that he held a position of special dignity, superior to that of the other presbyters.再次要亚基布消息(歌罗西书4:17;利蒙2)暗示,他举行了特殊的尊严地位,优于其他长老的。The mention of him in a letter entirely concerned with a private matter, as is that to Philemon, is hardly explicable unless he were the official head of the Colossian Church.而他在完全私人的事有关的信提到,因为是给腓利门,是很难加以解释,除非他是官方教会的Colossian头。We have therefore four important indications of the existence of an office in the local Churches, held by a Single person, and carrying with it Apostolical authority.因此,我们有四个是在当地一个教堂举行的单身人士,办公室存在的重要指示,并与它进行使徒的权威。Nor can any difficulty be occasioned by the fact that as yet no special title distinguishes these successors of the Apostles from the ordinary presbyters.也可以被任何困难所引致的是,还没有特别的称号区别于普通长老的使徒这些接班人。It is in the nature of things that the office should exist before a title is assigned to it.正是在该办公室的东西应该存在前一个标题是分配给它的性质。The name of apostle, we have seen, was not confined to the Twelve.使徒的名字,我们已经看到,并没有局限在十二。St. Peter (I Peter, V, 1) and St. John (2 and 3 John 1:1) both speak of themselves as presbyters". St. Paul speaks of the Apostolate as a diakonia. A parallel case in later ecclesiastical history is afforded by the word pope. This title was not appropriated to the exclusive use of the Holy See till the eleventh century. Yet no one maintains that the supreme pontificate of the Roman bishop was not recognized till then. It should cause no surprise that a precise terminology, distinguishing bishops, in the full sense, from the presbyter-bishops, is not found in the New Testament. The conclusion reached is put beyond all reasonable doubt by the testimony of the sub-Apostolic Age. This is so important in regard to the question of the episcopate that it is impossible entirely to pass it over. It will be enough, however, to refer to the evidence contained in the epistles of St. Ignatius, Bishop of Antioch, himself a disciple of the Apostles. In these epistles (about AD 107) he again and again asserts that the supremacy of the bishop is of Divine institution and belongs to the Apostolic constitution of the Church. He goes so far as to affirm that the bishop stands in the place of Christ Himself. "When ye are obedient to the bishop as to Jesus Christ," he writes to the Trallians, "it is evident to me that ye are living not after men, but after Jesus Christ.圣彼得(彼得,V,1)和圣约翰(2和3约翰1:1)同时说自己是长老。“圣保罗谈到DIAKONIA使徒作为一个在以后的教会历史并行的情况下给予这个词是由教皇,这标题不是拨教廷专用见至十一世纪,但没有人认为,最高的罗马教皇的主教,直到再没有公认的,这应当引起毫不奇怪,一个精确的术语,区分主教从长老,主教,在完整意义上,是不是发现在新约。得出的结论是超越一切合理怀疑所提出的分使徒时代的见证,这是非常重要的方面到的主教,这是不可能完全传递过来的问题,这将是不够的,然而,是指在圣依纳爵主教安提阿,自己弟子的使徒的书信中的证据,在这些书信(约公元107),他一再声称,至高无上的主教是神圣的机构,属于教会的使徒宪法,他竟以肯定的主教在基督站在自己的地方。“当你们是听话的,以耶稣基督的主教“,他写的Trallians,”很明显,我认为你们是不是在男人的生活,但在耶稣基督。 ..be ye obedient also to the presbytery as to the Apostles of Jesus Christ" (ad Trall., n. 2). He also incidentally tells us that bishops are found in the Church, even in "the farthest parts of the earth" (ad Ephes., n. 3) It is out of the question that one who lived at a period so little removed from the actual Apostolic Age could have proclaimed this doctrine in terms such as he employs, had not the episcopate been universally recognized as of Divine appointment. It has been seen that Christ not only established the episcopate in the persons of the Twelve but, further, created in St. Peter the office of supreme pastor of the Church. Early Christian history tells us that before his death, he fixed his residence at Rome, and ruled the Church there as its bishop. It is from Rome that he dates his first Epistle, speaking of the city under the name of Babylon, a designation which St. John also gives it in the Apocalypse (c. xviii). At Rome, too, he suffered martyrdom in company with St. Paul, AD 67. The list of his successors in the see is known, from Linus, Anacletus, and Clement, who were the first to follow him, down to the reigning pontiff. The Church has ever seen in the occupant of the See of Rome the successor of Peter in the supreme pastorate. (See POPE.)你们要听话还向以耶稣基督的使徒长老“(广告Trall。,注2),他还顺带告诉我们,主教在教会发现,即使在”地球最远的部分“(广告Ephes。,注3)这是出了问题,一个谁在这么少的实际,从使徒时代中删除一个时期居住在可能宣布他雇用条款,如本主义,并没有得到普遍的主教作为神的认可任命。它已经看到,基督不仅成立了十二的人的主教,但进一步的,在圣彼得创造了最高的教会牧师办公室。早期基督教的历史告诉我们,在他死之前,他固定他的居住在罗马,并裁定教会有作为的主教,这是他从罗马日期他的第一书信,这个城市来讲下巴比伦名称,指定其中圣约翰也给它的启示(三十八)在罗马也是如此,他遭受了与圣保罗,AD公司67殉难的,在看到他的继任者名单是已知的,从莱纳斯,Anacletus,和克莱门特,谁是第一个跟随他,下至在位教宗,教会曾经在见罗马在最高法院牧师职务。彼得的继承人乘客看到(见教皇。)

The evidence thus far considered seems to demonstrate beyond all question that the hierarchical organization of the Church was, in its essential elements, the work of the Apostles themselves; and that to this hierarchy they handed on the charge entrusted to them by Christ of governing the Kingdom of God, and of teaching the revealed doctrine.迄今为止,认为这些证据似乎表明超越一切问题,该教会的分层组织是在其基本要素,对自己工作的使徒,并认为这一层次上的基督,他们负责委托给他们的手管神,和教​​学透露学说王国。 These conclusions are far from being admitted by Protestant and other critics.这些结论还远远没有被录取的新教和其他批评。 They are unanimous in holding that the idea of a Church -- an organized society -- is entirely foreign to the teaching of Christ.他们是抱着,一个教会的想法unanimous - 一个有组织的社会 - 是完全陌生的基督的教学。It is therefore, in their eyes, impossible that Catholicism, if by that term we signify a worldwide institution, bound together by unity of constitution, of doctrine, and of worship, can have been established by the direct action of the Apostles.因此,在他们眼里,不可能,天主教,如果这个词,我们表示一个世界性的机构,受宪法团结在一起,教义和崇拜,可以一直由使徒建立的直接行动。 In the course of the nineteenth century many theories were propounded to account for the transformation of the so-called "Apostolic Christianity" into the Christianity of the commencement of the third century, when beyond all dispute the Catholic system was firmly established from one end of the Roman Empire to the other.在十九世纪中的许多理论是propounded占了所谓的“使徒基督教”进入第三个世纪开始的基督教,超越一切争端时,天主教系统是从一端牢牢确立转型罗马帝国的其他。 At the present day (1908) the theories advocated by the critics are of a less extravagant nature than those of FC Baur (1853) and the Tübingen School, which had so great a vogue in the middle of the nineteenth century.在今天(1908年)由批评所倡导的理论是一个比FC鲍尔(1853年)和蒂宾根大学学院,其在十九世纪中叶如此巨大的奢侈之风盛行的少的性质。 Greater regard is shown for the claims of historical possibility and for the value of early Christian evidences.大方面显示了历史的可能性索赔和早期基督教的证据价值。At the same time it is to be observed that the reconstruction's suggested involve the rejection of the Pastoral Epistles as being documents of the second century.同时它是观察到重建的建议涉及的作为是文件的第二个世纪的教牧书信拒绝。It will be sufficient here to notice one or two salient points in the views which now find favour with the best known among non-Catholic writers.这将足以在这里要注意的意见,现在发现用在非天主教作家最著名的青睐一个或两个要点。

It is held that such official organization as existed in the Christian communities was not regarded as involving special spiritual gifts, and had but little religious significance.它认为这些官方组织,如基督教社区存在的不作为视为涉及特殊的精神礼物,但并没有宗教意义。Some writers, as has been seen, believe with Holtzmann that in the episcopi and presbyteri, there is simply the synagogal system of archontes and hyperetai.有些作家,因为已经看到的,相信与HOLTZMANN,在episcopi和presbyteri,根本的archontes和hyperetai synagogal系统。Others, with Hatch, derive the origin of the episcopate from the fact that certain civic functionaries in the Syrian cities appear to have borne the title of "episcopi".其他人,与哈奇,推导出了主教的事实,在叙利亚城市的某些民间工作人员似乎已经承担了“episcopi”称号的由来。 Professor Harnack, while agreeing with Hatch as to the origin of the office, differs from him in so far as he admits that from the first the superintendence of worship belonged to the functions of the bishop.教授哈纳克,虽然同意以该办事处的起源与舱口,不同于他在至今他也承认,从第一个礼拜监管局属于主教的职能。 The offices of prophet and teacher, it is urged, were those in which the primitive Church acknowledged a spiritual significance.先知和教师的办公室,它是呼吁,是那些在其中的原始教会承认一种精神意义。These depended entirely on special charismatic gifts of the Holy Ghost.这些完全取决于圣灵的特殊魅力的礼物。The government of the Church in matters of religion was thus regarded as a direct Divine rule by the Holy Spirit, acting through His inspired agents.该教会在政府宗教事务因此被视为神圣的规则直接由圣灵,通过他的启发剂作用。 And only gradually, it is supposed, did the local ministry take the place of the prophets and teachers, and inherit from them the authority once attributed to the possessors of spiritual gifts alone (cf. Sabatier, Religions of Authority, p. 24).而只有逐步,它应该是,有没有地方部采取的先知和教师的地方,并从他们继承的权力一旦归因于独自的精神礼物(参见萨巴蒂尔,权力,第24页宗教)的拥有者。 Even if we prescind altogether from the evidence considered above, this theory appears devoid of intrinsic probability.即使我们prescind从上面的证据完全考虑,这一理论似乎缺乏内在的可能性。A direct Divine rule by "charismata" could only result in confusion, if uncontrolled by any directive power possessed of superior authority.一个直接的“charismata”神圣的规则只能造成混乱,如果由上级机关指令拥有任何权力失控。Such a directive and regulative authority, to which the exercise of spiritual gifts was itself subject, existed in the Apostolate, as the New Testament amply shows (1 Corinthians 14).这些指令和调控的权威,其中的精神礼物演习本身的问题,在使徒存在的,因为新约充分显示了(哥林多前书14)。In the succeeding age a precisely similar authority is found in the episcopate.在随后的年龄正是类似的法令中发现的主教。 Every principle of historical criticism demands that the source of episcopal power should be sought, not in the "charismata", but, where tradition places it, in the Apostolate itself.每一个历史的批评原则的要求,该电源的主教应寻求,而不是在“charismata”,但是,它在传统的地方,在使徒本身。

It is to the crisis occasioned by Gnosticism and Montanism in the second century that these writers attribute the rise of the Catholic system.它是在第二个世纪所引致的诺斯替主义和孟他努这些作家属性的天主教系统上升的危机。They say that, in order to combat these heresies, the Church found it necessary to federate itself, and that for this end it established a statutory, so-called "apostolic" faith, and further secured the episcopal supremacy by the fiction of "apostolic succession", (Harnac, Hist. of Dogma, II, ii; Sabatier, op. cit., pp. 35-59).他们说,为了打击这些异端,教会认为有必要进行联合本身,而且对为此设立了一个法定的,所谓的“使徒”的信念,进一步获得由“使徒小说主教至上继承“(Harnac,历史的教条,二,二;。萨巴蒂尔,同上,第35-59)。 This view appears to be irreconcilable with the facts of the case.这种观点似乎与案件的事实不可调和的。The evidence of the Ignatian epistles alone shows that, long before the Gnostic crisis arose, the particular local Churches were conscious of an essential principle of solidarity binding all together into a single system.仅依纳爵的书信证据表明,早在诺斯底危机出现时,特别是地方教会是一个团结的重要结合成一个单一的系统一起原则意识。 Moreover, the very fact that these heresies gained no foothold within the Church in any part of the world, but were everywhere recognized as heretical and promptly excluded, suffices to prove that the Apostolic faith was already clearly known and firmly held, and that the Churches were already organized under an active episcopate.此外,张女士这些歪理邪说内没有得到任何世界的一部分教会了脚跟,而且到处都是公认的邪教,并及时排除,足以证明使徒的信仰已经清楚地知道,坚定地认为,这教会已经下组织积极主教。 Again, to say that the doctrine of Apostolic succession was invented to cope with these heresies is to overlook the fact that it is asserted in plain terms in the Epistle of Clement, c.再次,说的是,使徒继承主义的发明,以应付这些歪理邪说就是忽略了它在平原上宣称的克莱门特书信,角事实xlii.四十二。

M. Loisy's theory as to the organization of the Church has attracted so much attention in recent years as to call for a brief notice. M.卢瓦西的以教会的组织理论,近年来吸引了这么多的关注,呼吁作为一个简短的通知。In his work, "L'Evangile et l'Eglise", he accepts many of the views held by critics hostile to Catholicism, and endeavours by a doctrine of development to reconcile them with some form of adhesion to the Church.在他的作品“L' Evangile ET L' Eglise”,他接受了批评者的敌视天主教举行的许多意见,并以发展主义努力调和与一些粘连形式向教会他们。He urges that the Church is of the nature of an organism, whose animating principle is the message of Jesus Christ.他敦促该教会的一个有机体,它的动画原理是耶稣基督的信息性质。This organism may experience many changes of external form, as it develops itself in accordance with its inner needs, and with the requirements of its environment.这种生物可能会遇到许多外在形式的变化,它的发展与它的内在根据自身需要,并与周围环境的要求。Yet so long as these changes are such as are demanded in order that the vital principle may be preserved, they are unessential in character.然而,只要这些变化,如在命令的重要原则,能够保存下来的要求,它们在性质上非本质的。 So far indeed are they from being organic alterations, that we ought to reckon them as implicitly involved in the very being of the Church.到目前为止,确实是他们从被有机的改变,我们应该算它们隐含在非常教会被卷入。 The formation of the hierarchy he regards as a change of this kind.该层次结构的形成,他认为这是一个对这种变化。In fact, since he holds that Jesus Christ mistakenly anticipated the end of the world to be close at hand, and that His first disciples lived in expectation of His immediate return in glory, it follows that the hierarchy must have had some such origin as this.事实上,自从他认为耶稣基督误预计到年底的世界就在眼前接近,而他的第一个弟子在他的荣耀立即返回期望寿命,它遵循的层次,因为这必须有一些这样的起源。 It is out of the question to attribute it to the Apostles.这是出了问题归咎于它的使徒。Men who believed the end of the world to be impending would not have seen the necessity of endowing a society with a form of government intended to endure.男子谁相信世界的尽头是即将就不会看到了政府赋予的目的忍受形成一个社会的必需品。

These revolutionary views constitute part of the theory known as Modernism, whose philosophical presuppositions involve the complete denial of the miraculous.这些革命性的观点构成的现代主义,其涉及的奇迹般的彻底否定哲学的前提称为理论的一部分。The Church, according to this theory, is not a society established by eternal Divine interposition.教会,根据这一理论,是不是永恒的神的干预建立了社会。It is a society expressing the religious experience of the collectivity of consciences, and owing its origin to two natural tendencies in men, viz.它是一种社会表达了集体的良心宗教经验,并由于它的起源中的两个男人自然的倾向,即。the tendency of the individual believer to communicate his beliefs to others, and the tendency of those who hold the same beliefs to unite in a society.个体信徒倾向传达他的信念给别人,和那些谁持有同样的信念,团结的社会倾向。The Modernist theories were analyzed and condemned as "the synthesis of all the heresies" in the Encyclical "Pascendi Dominici gregis" (18 September, 1907).现代主义理论进行了分析,为“综合所有的异端邪说”的通谕“Pascendi Dominici gregis”(1907年9月18日)谴责。The principal features of M. Loisy's theory of the Church had been already included among the condemned propositions contained in the Decree "Lamentabili" (3 July, 1907). M的卢瓦西的教会理论的主要特征已经包含了各国在法令“Lamentabili”(1907年7月3日)所载的谴责主张。The fifty-third of the propositions there singled out for reprobation is the following: "The original constitution of the Church is not immutable; but the Christian society like human society is subject to perpetual change."该命题有单独的非难了第五十三届如下:“教会的原宪法不是一成不变的,但像基督教社会是人类社会永恒的主题,以改变”。

V. THE CHURCH, A DIVINE SOCIETY五,教会,神的协会

The church, as has been seen, is a society formed of living men, not a mere mystical union of souls.教会,因为已经看到的,是活人,不是一个单纯的灵魂神秘的工会组成的社会。As such it resembles other societies.因此,它类似于其他社会。Like them, it has its code of rules, its executive officers, its ceremonial observances.和他们一样,它有它的规则,其行政人员,其礼仪纪念活动代码。Yet it differs from them more than it resembles them: for it is a supernatural society.然而,它不同于他们比它类似于他们:因为这是一个超自然的社会。The Kingdom of God is supernatural alike in its origin, in the purpose at which it aims, and in the means at its disposal.上帝的王国是超自然都在它的起源,目的在于它的目标,并在其掌握的手段。Other kingdoms are natural in their origin; and their scope is limited to the temporal welfare of their citizens.其他王国在其原产地的自然,他们的范围仅限于本国公民暂时的福利。The supernatural character of the Church is seen, when its relation to the redemptive work of Christ is considered.教会的超自然的字符是看到的,当它与基督的救赎工作是考虑。It is the society of those whom He has redeemed from the world.它是那些人,他已经从世界赎回社会。The world, by which term are signified men in so far as they have fallen from God, is ever set forth in Scripture as the kingdom of the Evil One.这个世界,其中男子在长期的标志,因为他们迄今已经从神堕落,是有史以来设在经文提出作为魔鬼的国度。

It is the "world of darkness" (Ephesians 6:12), it is "seated in the wicked one" (1 John 6:19), it hates Christ (John 15:18).这是(以弗所书6:12)“黑暗的世界”,它是(约翰一书6:19)“在那恶者坐”,它憎恨基督(约15:18)。 To save the world, God the Son became man.为了拯救世界,神的儿子成为人。He offered Himself as a propitiation for the sins of the whole world (1 John 2:2).他提出作为整个世界的罪(约翰一书2:2)作了挽回祭自己。God, Who desires that all men should be saved, has offered salvation to all; but the greater part of mankind rejects the proffered gift.神,人的欲望,所有男人应该被保存,提供了拯救所有,但人类的大部份拒绝递上礼物。The Church is the society of those who accept redemption, of those whom Christ "has chosen out of the world" (John 15:19).教会是那些谁接受赎回的社会,那些被基督“​​已经选择了外面的世界”(约翰福音15:19)。Thus it is the Church alone which He "hath purchased with his own blood" (Acts 20:28).因此,单靠这是教会他“祂所用他自己的血购买了”(徒20:28)。Of the members of the Church, the Apostle can say that "God hath delivered us from the power of darkness, and hath translated us into the kingdom of the Son of his love" (Colossians 1:13).在教会的成员,使徒可以说是“上帝祂所交付从黑暗的力量我们,祂所翻译成他的爱子的国我们”(歌罗西书1:13)。St. Augustine terms the Church "mundus salvatus" -- the redeemed world -- and speaking of the enmity borne towards the Church by those who reject her, says: "The world of perdition hates the world of salvation" ("in Joan.", Tract. lxxx, vii, n. 2 in PL, XXXV, 1885).圣奥古斯丁方面的教会“Mundus的salvatus” - 赎回世界 - 和对教会承担那些谁拒绝她的敌意地说,说:“恨的毁灭世界的拯救世界”(“在琼。 “道。LXXX,七,N.在PL,第三十五卷,1885年2)。 To the Church Christ has given the means of grace He merited by His life and death.要教会基督给予的宽限期,意味着他通过他的生死值得。She communicates them to her members; and those who are outside her fold she bids to enter that they too may participate in them.她传达给她的成员,和那些谁在她折她出价进入,他们也可能参与其中。By these means of grace -- the light of revealed truth, the sacraments, the perpetual renewal of the Sacrifice of Calvary -- the Church carries on the work of sanctifying the elect.通过这些恩典的手段 - 揭示真理之光,圣礼,在各各他的牺牲永久重建 - 教会进行了圣洁的选举工作。Through their instrumentality each individual soul is perfected, and conformed to the likeness of the Son of God.通过他们的工具性每一个人的灵魂,是完善,顺应了神的儿子相似。

It is thus manifest that, when we regard the Church simply as the society of disciples, we are considering its external form only.因此,这是明显的是,当我们认为只是作为社会的教会徒弟,我们正在考虑它的外在形式而已。Its inward life is found in the indwelling of the Holy Ghost, the gifts of faith, hope, and charity, the grace communicated by the sacraments, and the other prerogatives by which the children of God differ from the children of the world.它向内的生活是在圣灵留置发现,信仰,希望和慈善的礼物,在宽限期沟通的圣礼,并以何种神的孩子来自不同的世界儿童其他特权。 This aspect of the Church is described by the Apostles in figurative language.这一方面是教会在形象化的语言描述的使徒。They represent it as the Body of Christ, the Spouse of Christ, the Temple of God.他们表示作为基督,基督,神的寺庙配偶体内。In order to understand its true nature some consideration of these comparisons is requisite.为了了解它的真正本质其中一些比较是必要的考虑。In the conception of the Church as a body governed and directed by Christ as the head, far more is contained than the familiar analogy between a ruler and his subjects on the one hand, and the head guiding and coordinating the activities of the several members on the other.在教会的概念作为一个机构管辖和指挥基督为头,更是中比之间的统治者,一方面他的臣民熟悉的比喻,和头部指导和协调的几个成员的活动其他。 That analogy expresses indeed the variety of function, the unity of directive principle, and the Cooperation of the parts to a common end, which are found in a society; but it is insufficient to explain the terms in which St. Paul speaks of the union between Christ and His disciples.这个比喻确实表达的功能品种,统一指导原则,而到一个共同的目的,是在一个社会中找到部分合作,但它不足以解释的条款,其中圣保罗工会说话基督与他的弟子。 Each of them is a member of Christ (1 Corinthians 6:15); together they form the body of Christ (Ephesians 4:16); as a corporate unity they are simply termed Christ (1 Corinthians 12:12).他们每一个都是基督成员(林前6:15);它们​​共同构成了基督的身体(弗4:16),作为企业的团结,他们只是被称为基督(林前12:12)。

The intimacy of union here suggested is, however, justified, if we recall that the gifts and graces bestowed upon each disciple are graces merited by the Passion of Christ, and are destined to produce in him the likeness of Christ.这里的建议是亲密的联盟,但是,有道理的,如果我们还记得,礼物,并呼吁每个弟子赐予恩典是值得青睐由基督的激情,是注定要在他身上产生了基督的肖像。 The connection between Christ and himself is thus very different from the purely juridical relation binding the ruler of a natural society to the individuals belonging to it.基督和他本人之间的连接因此很纯粹从法律约束力的一种自然的社会统治者的个人属于它的关系不同。The Apostle develops the relation between Christ and His members from various points of view.使徒发展之间的基督和他的成员来自各点的角度关系。As a human body is organized, each joint and muscle having its own function, yet each contributing to the union of the complex whole, so too the Christian society is a body "compacted and firmly joined together by that which every part supplieth" (Ephesians 4:16), while all the parts depend on Christ their head.由于人体组织,每个关节和肌肉有其自身的功能,但每个促进了整个联盟的复杂,所以太基督教社会为一体的“压缩,坚决加入了一起,每一部分supplieth”(以弗所书4:16),而所有的部件依赖于基督的头。 It is He Who has organized the body, assigning to each member his place in the Church, endowing each with the special graces necessary, and, above all, conferring on some of the members the graces in virtue of which they rule and guide the Church in His name (ibid., iv, 11).这是他组织了身体,分配给每个成员他在教会的地方,赋予必要的特别青睐,每年,首先,对在德成员的青睐,他们的统治和引导一些教会赋予在他的名字(同上,四,11)。 Strengthened by these graces, the mystical body, like a physical body, grows and increases.通过加强这些青睐,神秘的身体,就像一个身体,增长和增加。This growth is twofold.这种增长是双重的。It takes place in the individual, inasmuch as each Christian gradually grows into the "perfect man", into the image of Christ (Ephesians 4:13, 15; Romans 8:29).它发生在个别地方,生死时刻,因为每个基督徒逐渐进入“完美男人”的增长,进入基督的​​形象(弗四点13分,15;罗马书8:29)。 But there is also a growth in the whole body.但也有在整个机体生长。As time goes on, the Church is to increase and multiply till it fills the earth.随着时间的推移,教会是增加和繁殖,直到它填补了地球。So intimate is the union between Christ and His members, that the Apostle speaks of the Church as the "fullness" (pleroma) of Christ (Ephesians 1:23; 4:13), as though apart from His members something were lacking to the head.所以,亲密是基督和他的成员之间的联合,是使徒谈到了教会的“丰满”基督(pleroma)(以弗所书1:23; 4:13),好像除了他的一些成员还缺乏对头。He even speaks of it as Christ: "As all the members of the body whereas they are many, yet are one body, so also is Christ" (1 Corinthians 12:12).他甚至谈到了它作为基督:“由于所有的机构的成员,而他们很多,但有一个机构,所以也就是基督”(哥林多前书12:12)。 And to establish the reality of this union he refers it to the efficacious instrumentality of the Holy Eucharist: "We being many, are one bread, one body: for we all partake of that one bread" (1 Corinthians 10:17 -- Greek text).而要建立这个联盟的现实,他是指它的有效工具性的圣体圣事:“我们是很多,是一个饼,一个身体:因为我们所有的那一个面包分享”(哥林多前书10点17分 - 希腊文本)。

The description of the Church as God's temple, in which the disciples are "living stones" (1 Peter 2:5), is scarcely less frequent in the Apostolic writings than is the metaphor of the body.而作为神的寺庙教堂的描述,其中的弟子是“活石”(彼前2:5),是几乎不经常在使徒的著作比身体的比喻。"You are the temple of the living God" (2 Corinthians 6:16), writes St. Paul to the Corinthians, and he reminds the Ephesians that they are "built upon the foundation of the apostles and prophets, Jesus Christ himself being the chief corner stone; in whom all the building being framed together, groweth up into a holy temple in the Lord" (Ephesians 2:20 sq.). “你是活着的上帝庙”(哥林多后书6:16),写圣保罗​​的科林蒂安,他提醒以弗所书,他们是“后,使徒和先知的基础之上,耶稣基督自己作为房角石,在他们所有的建筑一起被诬陷,groweth成一主“(以弗所书2:20平方米)的圣殿。 With a slight change in the metaphor, the same Apostle in another passage (1 Corinthians 3:11) compares Christ to the foundation, and himself and other Apostolic labourers to the builders who raise the temple upon it.随着在比喻略有变化,在另一段同样的使徒(林前3:11)比较基督的基础,自己和建设者谁提出的在它寺庙其他使徒的劳动者。 It is noticeable that the word translated "temple" is naos, a term which signifies properly the inner sanctuary.值得注意的是,翻译成“庙”字古寺,一个术语,表示适当的内部圣所。The Apostle, when he employs this word, is clearly comparing the Christian Church to that Holy of Holies where God manifested His visible presence in the Shekinah.使徒,当他采用这个词,显然是比较基督教教会的至圣所里神舍吉拿他的表现在可见的存在。The metaphor of the temple is well adapted to enforce two lessons.寺庙的比喻很好地适应执行两个教训。On several occasions the Apostle employs it to impress on his readers the sanctity of the Church in which they have been incorporated.有几次使徒雇用它在他的读者留下深刻印象的,在他们被纳入教会的神圣性。"If any shall violate the temple of God", he says, speaking of those who corrupt the Church by false doctrine, "him shall God destroy" (1 Corinthians 3:17). “如果任何规定,违反了神的殿”,他说,那些以虚假学说谁腐败教会来说,“他将神灭”(林前3:17)。And he employs the same motive to dissuade disciples from forming matrimonial alliance with Unbelievers: "What agreement hath the temple of God with idols? For you are the temple of the living God" (2 Corinthians 6:16).他采用了同样的动机,以阻止形成与不信婚姻联盟的弟子:“什么协议祂所与偶像的神殿对于你是永生神的殿?”(林后6:16)。 It further illustrates in the clearest way the truth that to each member of the Church God has assigned his own place, enabling him by his work there to cooperate towards the great common end, the glory of God.它进一步说明了最清晰的方式,为每一个神的教会成员指派他自己的地方的道理,使他在那里工作,以合作谋求共同的伟大年底,神的荣耀他。

The third parallel represents the Church as the bride of Christ.第三平行代表作为基督的新娘教会。Here there is much more than a metaphor.这里有更多的不仅仅是一个比喻。The Apostle says that the union between Christ and His Church is the archetype of which human marriage is an earthly representation.使徒说,基督和他的教会之间的联盟是原型,其中人类婚姻是人间的代表。Thus he bids wives be subject to their husbands, as the Church is subject to Christ (Ephesians 5:22 sq.).因此,他出价的妻子受到丈夫,因为教会是受基督(以弗所书5点22平方米)。Yet he points out on the other hand that the relation of husband to wife is not that of a master to his servant, but one involving the tenderest and most self-sacrificing love.但他指出,另一方面认为,丈夫与妻子是不是对他的仆人的主人,而是一个涉及温柔,最自我牺牲的爱。He bids husbands love their wives, "as Christ also loved the Church, and delivered himself up for it" (ibid., v, 25).他出价的丈夫爱自己的妻子,“作为基督也爱教会,并发表自己为它”(同上,V,25)。Man and wife are one flesh; and in this the husband has a powerful motive for love towards the wife, since "no man ever hated his own flesh".男子和妻子一体,在这丈夫有一个强大的对妻子的爱的动机,因为“从来没有人恨恶自己的肉”。 This physical union is but the antitype of that mysterious bond in virtue of which the Church is so truly one with Christ, that "we are members of his body, of his flesh, and of his bones. 'For this cause shall a man leave his father and mother, and shall cleave to his wife, and they shall be two in one flesh"' (Ephesians 5:30 sq.; Genesis 2:24).这个物理联盟,但凭借神秘的,在教会的债券,其中真正与基督是如此的,说:“我们是他的班子成员对他的肉,和他的骨头,对于这项事业”,人要离开antitype他的父亲和母亲,并应劈开他的妻子,他们应在一肉两个“”(以弗所书5时半平方米;创世记2:24)。 In these words the Apostle indicates the mysterious parallelism between the union of the first Adam with the spouse formed from his body, and the union of the second Adam with the Church.在这些话表明使徒之间的从他的身上形成的配偶联盟第一亚当与第二亚当与教会联盟神秘的并行性。She is "bone of his bones, and flesh of his flesh", even as Eve was in regard to our first father.她是“骨他的骨头,和他的肉中的肉”,即使是除夕对于我们的第一个父亲。And those only belong to the family of the second Adam, who are her children, "born again of water and of the Holy Ghost".而那些只属于第二个亚当,谁是她的孩子,“生于水和圣灵的一次”家庭。Occasionally the metaphor assumes a slightly different form.偶尔的比喻假设略有不同的形式。In Apoc., xix, 7, the marriage of the Lamb to his spouse the Church does not take place till the last day in the hour of the Church's final triumph.在载脂蛋白C。,十九,7,对他的配偶教会羔羊婚姻不走,直到最后一天,在教会的最后胜利小时的地方。Thus too St. Paul, writing to the Corinthians (2 Corinthians 11:2), compares himself to "the friend of the bridegroom", who played so important a part in the Hebrew marriage ceremony (cf. John 3:29).因此太圣保罗,以书面形式向科林蒂安(哥林多后书11:2),自喻为“朋友的新郎”,谁发挥在希伯来文结婚仪式很重要的一部分(参见约翰3:29)。 He has, he says, espoused the Corinthian community to Christ, and he holds himself responsible to present it spotless to the bridegroom.他,他说,信奉科林斯社会基督,他认为自己负责,目前它一尘不染的新郎。 Through the medium of these metaphors the Apostles set forth the inward nature of the Church.通过这些比喻中的使徒提出了教会的向内的性质。Their expressions leave no doubt that in them they always refer to the actually existing Church founded by Christ on earth -- the society of Christ's disciples.他们的表情离开毫无疑问,在他们,他们总是指实际存在的教会由基督创立地球上 - 基督的门徒社会。Hence it is instructive to observe that Protestant divines find it necessary to distinguish between an actual and an ideal Church, and to assert that the teaching of the Apostles regarding the Spouse, the Temple, and the Body refers to the ideal Church alone (cf. Gayford in Hastings, "Dict. of the Bible", sv Church).因此,它是指导观察的新教神学家认为有必要区分一个实际和理想的教会,并断言,关于配偶,庙,身体使徒教学是指单纯的理想教会(参在黑斯廷斯盖福德,“快译通。的圣经”,SV堂)。

VI. VI。THE NECESSARY MEANS OF SALVATION救恩的必要手段

In the preceding examination of the Scriptural doctrine regarding the Church, it has been seen how clearly it is laid down that only by entering the Church can we participate in the redemption wrought for us by Christ.在圣经关于教会的教义考试前,就已经清楚地看到它是如何规定,只有进入教会才能在赎回参与为我们锻造了基督。Incorporation with the Church can alone unite us to the family of the second Adam, and alone can engraft us into the true Vine.与教会法团可以单独团结我们的第二个亚当家庭,仅靠灌输到我们的真葡萄树。Moreover, it is to the Church that Christ has committed those means of grace through which the gifts He earned for men are communicated to them.此外,它是教会,基督的恩典的承诺,通过它的礼物是他获得男子传达给他们的手段。The Church alone dispenses the sacraments.教会的圣礼仅省却。It alone makes known the light of revealed truth.它仅使已知的揭示的真理光芒。Outside the Church these gifts cannot be obtained.外教会这些礼品无法获得。From all this there is but one conclusion: Union with the Church is not merely one out of various means by which salvation may be obtained: it is the only means.从所有这一切只有一个结论:与教会联盟不只是其中的一个可能获得拯救了各种手段:它是唯一的手段。

This doctrine of the absolute necessity of union with the Church was taught in explicit terms by Christ.这对联盟与教会的教义是绝对必要的教授明确由基督。Baptism, the act of incorporation among her members, He affirmed to be essential to salvation.洗礼,她的成员之间成立的行为,他肯定是至关重要的救赎。"He that believeth and is baptized shall be saved: he that believeth not shall be condemned" (Mark 16:16). “他信而受洗的必然得救:他不信的必被定罪”(马可福音16:16)。Any disciple who shall throw off obedience to the Church is to be reckoned as one of the heathen: he has no part in the Kingdom of God (Matthew 18:17).任何弟子谁应摆脱服从教会是被作为异教徒one计算:他没有神(马太福音18时17分)王国的一部分。St. Paul is equally explicit.圣保罗也同样明确。"A man that is a heretic", he writes to Titus, "after the first and second admonition avoid, knowing that he that is such a one is . . . condemned by his own judgment" (Tit., iii, 10 sq.). “一个人就是一个邪教组织”,他写信给提多,“避免在第一次和第二次警告,知道他就是这样的一个是。通过自己的判断谴责”(Tit.,三,10平方)。 The doctrine is summed up in the phrase, Extra Ecclesiam nulla salus.该学说是总结一语中的,额外Ecclesiam nulla salus。This saying has been the occasion of so many objections that some consideration of its meaning seems desirable.这句话一直是这么多的反对意见之际,一些考虑其含义似乎可取的。It certainly does not mean that none can be saved except those who are in visible communion with the Church.这当然并不意味着没有可除了那些谁在有形的共融与教会保存。The Catholic Church has ever taught that nothing else is needed to obtain justification than an act of perfect charity and of contrition.天主教会曾经告诉我们,没有其他需要获得比一个完美的慈善机构和悔悟行为的理由。 Whoever, under the impulse of actual grace, elicits these acts receives immediately the gift of sanctifying grace, and is numbered among the children of God.无论是谁,根据实际优雅的冲动,会引起这样的行为立即得到了圣洁恩典,是神的儿女之间的编号。Should he die in these dispositions, he will assuredly attain heaven.如果他死在这些部署,他会稳妥地达到天堂。It is true such acts could not possibly be elicited by one who was aware that God has commanded all to join the Church, and who nevertheless should willfully remain outside her fold.诚然这种行为不可能由一个谁知道上帝已经吩咐所有加入教会,但应该和谁故意留在她折引出。For love of God carries with it the practical desire to fulfill His commandments.对于神的爱进行的实际愿望,满足他的诫命它。 But of those who die without visible communion with the Church, not all are guilty of willful disobedience to God's commands.但是,这些谁死无可见的共融与教会,不是所有人都故意不服从上帝的命令有罪。Many are kept from the Church by Ignorance.许多人不断地从教堂的无知。Such may be the case of numbers among those who have been brought up in heresy.这些可能是在那些谁已经带来了异端高达数的情况。 To others the external means of grace may be unattainable.为了他人的外部手段的宽限期可能达不到的。Thus an excommunicated person may have no opportunity of seeking reconciliation at the last, and yet may repair his faults by inward acts of contrition and charity.因此,一个驱逐的人可能没有寻求在最后和解的机会,但可以修复的悔悟和慈善行为向内他的缺点。

It should be observed that those who are thus saved are not entirely outside the pale of the Church.应该指出,这些谁是节省不是外教会完全苍白。The will to fulfill all God's commandments is, and must be, present in all of them.该会履行所有上帝的诫命是,而且必须是目前在所有这些。Such a wish implicitly includes the desire for incorporation with the visible Church: for this, though they know it not, has been commanded by God.这样一个愿望隐含包括与有形教会的成立愿望:对于这一点,虽然他们知道这不,已经被上帝命令。They thus belong to the Church by desire (voto).因此,他们属于教会的愿望(博托)。

Moreover, there is a true sense in which they may be said to be saved through the Church.此外,还有一个真正意义上可以说,他们将通过教会保存。In the order of Divine Providence, salvation is given to man in the Church: membership in the Church Triumphant is given through membership in the Church Militant.在神圣的普罗维登斯秩序,救恩是考虑到人在教会:​​凯旋在教会的成员是通过教会的激进成员在给定的。Sanctifying grace, the title to salvation, is peculiarly the grace of those who are united to Christ in the Church: it is the birthright of the children of God. sanctifying恩典,得救的称号,是独有的那些谁是美国教会在基督的恩典:它是神的孩子与生俱来的权利。The primary purpose of those actual graces which God bestows upon those outside the Church is to draw them within the fold.而那些神在教会之外的赋予实际青睐的主要目的是吸引他们的褶皱内。Thus, even in the case in which God Saves men apart from the Church, He does so through the Church's graces.因此,即使在案件中,上帝拯救男人除了教会,他这样做,通过教会的青睐。They are joined to the Church in spiritual communion, though not in visible and external communion.他们加入到在教会共融的精神,虽然不是在有形和对外交流。In the expression of theologians, they belong to the soul of the Church, though not to its body.在表达的神学家,他们是属于教会的灵魂,虽然不是它的身体。Yet the possibility of salvation apart from visible communion with the Church must not blind us to the loss suffered by those who are thus situated.然而,救赎与教会除了有形的共融的可能性​​切不可盲目我们那些谁也由此遭受的损失坐落。They are cut off from the sacraments God has given as the support of the soul.他们切断从圣礼上帝关闭了作为灵魂给予支持。 In the ordinary channels of grace, which are ever open to the faithful Catholic, they cannot participate.在宽限期,这是不断开放的忠实天主教的正常渠道,他们可以不参加。Countless means of sanctification which the Church offers are denied to them.成圣,教会提供被剥夺他们无数的手段。It is often urged that this is a stern and narrow doctrine.人们常常呼吁,这是一个严峻的和狭隘的学说。The reply to this objection is that the doctrine is stern, but only in the sense in which sternness is inseparable from love.对这一反对意见的答复是,该学说是严峻的,但只有在这个意义上,其中严厉是从爱分不开的。It is the same sternness which we find in Christ's words, when he said: "If you believe not that I am he, you shall die in your sin" (John 8:24).这是一样的严厉,我们发现在基督的话,他说:“如果你相信我不是他,你会死在你的罪”(约翰8时24分)。The Church is animated with the spirit of Christ; she is filled with the same love for souls, the same desire for their salvation.教会是动画与基督的精神,她与同为灵魂的爱,为他们的得救同样充满渴望。Since, then, she knows that the way of salvation is through union with her, that in her and in her alone are stored the benefits of the Passion, she must needs be uncompromising and even stern in the assertion of her claims.因为,当时,她知道,得救的方法是通过工会与她,在她和她单独存储的激情带来的好处,需要的话,她必须妥协,甚至在她的索赔主张严厉。 To fail here would be to fail in the duty entrusted to her by her Lord.失败在这里将是在她失败的责任托付给她的主。Even where the message is unwelcome, she must deliver it.即使该消息是不受欢迎的,她必须提供它。It is instructive to observe that this doctrine has been proclaimed at every period of the Church's history.它是指导观察,这个学说已经在每一个教会的历史时期宣告成立。It is no accretion of a later age.这是一个没有年龄较晚增生。The earliest successors of the Apostles speak as plainly as the medieval theologians, and the medieval theologians are not more emphatic than those of today.最早的使徒的继承人发言,显然是为中世纪的神学家,和中世纪的神学家不超过今天的斩钉截铁。From the first century to the twentieth there is absolute unanimity.从第一世纪至二十有绝对的一致。St. Ignatius of Antioch writes: "Be not deceived, my brethren. If any man followeth one that maketh schism, he doth not inherit the kingdom of God. If any one walketh in strange doctrine, he hath no fellowship with the Passion" (ad Philad., n. 3).圣依纳爵的安提阿写道:“你们不要上当受骗,我的弟兄们若有人followeth一个maketh分裂,他doth不能承受神的国如果有任何奇怪的学说one遍地游行,祂所用激情没有奖学金。”(广告Philad。,注3)。 Origen says: "Let no man deceive himself. Outside this house, ie outside the Church, none is saved" (Hom. in Jos., iii, n. 5 in PG, XII, 841).奥利说:“让他自己之外没有人欺骗这套房子,即教会之外,没有被保存。”(Hom.在圣何塞,三,N.在PG,十二5,841)。 St. Cyprian speaks to the same effect: "He cannot have God for his father, who has not the Church for his mother" (De Unit., c. vi).圣塞浦路斯说,以相同的效果:“他不能为他的父亲,谁不为他的母亲教会神”(德股角六)。The words of the Fourth Ecumenical Council of Lateran (1215) define the doctrine thus in its decree against the Albigenses: "Una est fidelium universalis Ecclesia, extra quam nullus omnino salvatur" (Denzinger, n. 357); and Pius IX employed almost identical language in his Encyclical to the bishops of Italy (10 August, 1863): "Notissimum est catholicum dogma neminem scilicet extra catholicam ecclesiam posse salvari" (Denzinger, n. 1529).在第四次拉特兰大公会议(1215年)确定的话学说因而在其法令对Albigenses:“乌纳EST fidelium universalis教会,额外华富nullus omnino salvatur”(登青格,N. 357)和比约九雇用几乎相同在他的通谕的意大利(1863年8月10日)主教的语言:“Notissimum EST catholicum教条neminem scilicet额外catholicam ecclesiam波塞salvari”(登青格,N. 1529)。

VII.七。VISIBILITY OF THE CHURCH能见度的教会

In asserting that the Church of Christ is visible, we signify, first, that as a society it will at all times be conspicuous and public, and second, that it will ever be recognizable among other bodies as the Church of Christ.在断言基督的教会是可见的,我们表示,首先,作为一个社会它会在任何时候都必须突出和公众,第二,它永远不会是其中的基督教会其他机构识别。 These two aspects of visibility are termed respectively "material" and "formal" visibility by Catholic theologians.这两个方面的能见度分别被称为“物质”和“正规”的天主教神学家的知名度。The material visibility of the Church involves no more than that it must ever be a public, not a private profession; a society manifest to the world, not a body whose members are bound by some secret tie.教会的材料涉及到的能见度不超过它必须永远是公众,而不是一个私人行业,一个社会舱单世界,而不是一个机构,其是由一些秘密领带约束成员。 Formal visibility is more than this.正式的能见度比这更多。It implies that in all ages the true Church of Christ will be easily recognizable for that which it is, viz.这意味着,在所有年龄段的基督真正的教会将能够轻松的它是,即辨认。as the Divine society of the Son of God, the means of salvation offered by God to men; that it possesses certain attributes which so evidently postulate a Divine origin that all who see it must know it comes from God.作为神的儿子,由上帝给予人得救意味着神圣的社会,它具有一定的属性,这让显然假设一个神圣的起源,所有谁看到它必须知道它来自上帝。 This must, of course, be understood with some necessary qualifications.这必须的,当然,要了解一些必要的条件。The power to recognize the Church for what it is presupposes certain moral dispositions.的权力,承认它是什么先决条件一定的道德性情教会。Where there is a rooted unwillingness to follow God's will, there may be spiritual blindness to the claims of the Church.那里有一个根深蒂固不愿遵循上帝的旨意,有可能是精神的盲目性,教会的主张。Invincible prejudice or inherited assumptions may produce the same result.无敌偏见或继承假设可能产生同样的结果。But in such cases the incapacity to see is due, not to the want of visibility in the Church, but to the blindness of the individual.但在这种情况下,丧失工作能力,看是因为,还没到要在教会中的知名度,但对个人的盲目性。The case bears an almost exact analogy to the evidence possessed by the proofs for the existence of God.案件负有几乎确切的比喻为上帝所存在的证据具有证据。The proofs in themselves are evident: but they may fail to penetrate a mind obscured by prejudice or ill will.在自己的证据是显而易见的:但他们可能无法穿透的偏见或恶意遮挡一记。From the time of the Reformation, Protestant writers either denied the visibility of the Church, or so explained it as to rob it of most of its meaning.从时间的改革,新教作家要么否认教会的知名度,或因此作出解释,以剥夺其意义最它。After briefly indicating the grounds of the Catholic doctrine, some views prevalent on this subject among Protestant authorities will be noticed.在简要说明了天主教教义的理由,有些意见在这间新教当局受到普遍会被察觉。

It is unnecessary to say more in regard to the material visibility of the Church than has been said in sections III and IV of this article.这是不必要的说,在关于教会的材料能见度不足已经在第三节和第四节的这篇文章说的。It has been shown there that Christ established His church as an organized society under accredited leaders, and that He commanded its rulers and those who should succeed them to summon all men to secure their eternal salvation by entry into it.它已被证明有基督成立领导下有组织的社会认可他的教会,他指挥的统治者和那些谁应该接替他们召集所有的人,以确保通过它进入到他们的永恒的救赎。 It is manifest that there is no question here of a secret union of believers: the Church is a worldwide corporation, whose existence is to be forced upon the notice of all, willing or unwilling.这是明显,没有一个信徒秘密工会问题在这里:教会是一个世界性的公司,其存在是要取决于所有通知,愿意或不愿意被迫的。 Formal visibility is secured by those attributes which are usually termed the "notes" of the Church -- her Unity, Sanctity, Catholicity, and Apostolicity (see below).正式能见度担保那些通常被称为“笔记”的教会属性 - 她的团结,神圣性,共通性,和使徒(见下文)。The proof may be illustrated in the case of the first of these.该证据可以说明在这些尚属首例。The unity of the Church stands out as a fact altogether unparalleled in human history.教会的团结作为一个突出的事实完全在人类历史上无与伦比的。Her members all over the world are united by the profession of a common faith, by participation in a common worship, and by obedience to a common authority.世界各地的她的成员团结在一个共同的信仰职业,在一个共同的崇拜参与,并服从一个共同的权威。Differences of class, of nationality, and of race, which seem as though they must be fatal to any form of union, cannot sever this bond.阶级差异,国籍,种族,这似乎好像他们必须是致命的任何形式的联盟,不能割断这种联系。 It links in one the civilized and the uncivilized, the philosopher and the peasant, the rich and the poor.它连接在一个文明与不文明,哲学家和农民,富人与穷人。One and all hold the same belief, join in the same religious ceremonies, and acknowledge in the successor of Peter the same supreme ruler.一,所有持有同样的信念,加入在同一宗教的仪式,并承认在彼得的继任者相同的最高统治者。 Nothing but a supernatural power can explain this.无非是一个超自然的力量可以解释这一点。It is a proof manifest to all minds, even to the simple and the unlettered, that the Church is a Divine society.这是一个清单,以证明所有的头脑,甚至到了简单的胸无点墨,教会是一个神圣的社会。Without this formal visibility, the purpose for which the Church was founded would be frustrated.如果没有这种正式的知名度,为其教会成立的目的是挫败。Christ established it to be the means of salvation for all mankind.基督建立它是对全人类的拯救手段。For this end it is essential that its claims should be authenticated in a manner evident to all; in other words, it must be visible, not merely as other public societies are visible, but as being the society of the Son of God.对于这个目标,至关重要的是应其要求的方式有目共睹的认证,换句话说,它必须是可见的,而不是仅仅作为其他公共社团是可见的,但是,因为这是神的儿子的社会。

The views taken by Protestants as to the visibility of the Church are various.由新教徒采取以教会的能见度的意见是不同的。The rationalist critics naturally reject the whole conception.批评的理性主义自然拒绝整个概念。To them the religion preached by Jesus Christ was something purely internal.向他们宣讲耶稣基督的宗教是什么单纯的内部。When the Church as an institution came to be regarded as an indispensable factor in religion, it was a corruption of the primitive message.当教会作为一个机构来作为宗教视为不可缺少的因素,这是一个腐败的原始信息。(See Harnack, What is Christianity, p.213.) Passages which deal with the Church in her corporate unity are referred by writers of this school to an ideal invisible Church, a mystical communion of souls. (见哈纳克,什么是基督教,同上页213)。旅费这与企业的统一教会在她的处理被称为作家的这所学校的理想无形的教会,一个神秘的灵魂交流。Such an interpretation does violence to the sense of the passages.这种解释不暴力的段落感。Moreover, no explanation possessing any semblance of probability has yet been given to account for the genesis among the disciples of this remarkable and altogether novel conception of an invisible Church.此外,没有任何解释的概率外表拥有尚未给占了其中的这一显着的一种无形的教会和完全立意新颖的弟子的起源。It may reasonably be demanded of a professedly critical school that this phenomenon should be explained.它可合理要求的一个自称批判学派认为,这种现象应加以解释。Harnack holds that it took the place of Jewish racial unity.哈纳克认为,它采取了统一的犹太种族的地方。But it does not appear why Gentile converts should have felt the need of replacing a feature so entirely proper to the Hebrew religion.但它并没有出现,为什么詹蒂莱转换应该感到的更换功能,以便完全正确的希伯来宗教的需要。

The doctrine of the older Protestant writers is that there are two Churches, a visible and an invisible.在老年人基督教作家的学说是有两个教会,一个有形和无形的。This is the view of such standard Anglican divines as Barrow, Field, and Jeremy Taylor (see eg Barrow, Unity of Church, Works, 1830, VII, 628).这是这种标准,手推车,现场和杰里米泰勒(见如手推车,对教会的合一,工,1830年,第七,628)英国圣公会神学观点。 Those who thus explain visibility urge that the essential and vital element of membership in Christ lies in an inner union with Him; that this is necessarily invisible, and those who possess it constitute an invisible Church.因此,那些谁解释能见度敦促成员在基督必不可少的重要元素,与他内心的工会谎言,这必然是无形的,和那些谁拥有它构成一种无形的教会。 Those who are united to Him externally alone have, they maintain, no part in His grace.这些谁是团结起来,他对外才有,他们保持,没有他的恩典的一部分。Thus, when He promised to His Church the gift of indefectibility, declaring that the gates of hell should never prevail against it, the promise must be understood of the invisible, not of the visible Church.因此,当他承诺他的教会的indefectibility的礼物,声称地狱之门不应该战胜她,承诺必须理解的无形,不可见的教会。 In regard to this theory, which is still tolerably prevalent, it is to be said that Christ's promises were made to the Church as a corporate body, as constituting a society.关于这个理论,这仍然是容忍普遍,它是说,基督的许诺向教会作为一个法人团体构成的社会。As thus understood, they were made to the visible Church, not to an invisible and unknown body.由于这样的理解,他们向有形的教会,而不是一种无形的和未知的身体。Indeed for this distinction between a visible and an invisible Church there is no Scriptural warrant.事实上,这之间的有形和无形教会的区别是没有圣经的手令。Even though many of her children prove unfaithful, yet all that Christ said in regard to the Church is realized in her as a corporate body.即使她的孩子很多证明不忠,但所有的基督在教会方面表示,在她意识到作为一个法人团体。 Nor does the unfaithfulness of these professing Catholics cut them off altogether from membership in Christ.也不对这些自称天主教徒削减它们赶走不忠完全从基督的成员。They are His in virtue of their baptism.他们是他在凭借其洗礼。The character then received still stamps them as His.字符再接到他仍然邮票他们。Though dry and withered branches they are not altogether broken off from the true Vine (Bellarmine, Dc Ecciesiâ, III, ix, 13).虽然干枯枝他们没有完全碎裂开来是真葡萄树(贝拉明,直流Ecciesiâ,三,九,13)。The Anglican High Church writers explicitly teach the visibility of the Church.圣公会高教会作家明确教导教会的知名度。 They restrict themselves, however, to the consideration of material visibility (cf. Palmer, Treatise on the Church, Part I, C. iii).他们限制自己,但是,物质的知名度考虑(参见帕尔默,对教会论,第I,C三)。

The doctrine of the visibility in no way excludes from the Church those who have already attained to bliss.该学说的知名度丝毫不排除教会那些谁已经达到到幸福。These are united with the members of the Church Militant in one communion of saints.这些都是团结的教会的成员在一个激进的圣人共融。They watch her struggles; their prayers are offered on her behalf.他们看她的斗争,他们的祷告代为提供。Similarly, those who are still in the cleansing fires of purgatory belong to the Church.同样,那些谁是在炼狱清洁火灾仍然属于教会。There are not, as has been said, two Churches; there is but one Church, and of it all the souls of the just, whether in heaven, on earth, or in purgatory, are members (Catech. Rom., I, x, 6).有没有,正如人们所说,两个教会,只有一个教会,和它所有的只是灵魂,无论是在天上,在地球上,或在炼狱,是成员(Catech.光盘,I,X。 ,6)。But it is to the Church only in so far as militant here below -- to the Church among men -- that the property of visibility belongs.但是,教会至今只在下面的战斗在这里 - 对男性教会 - 这属于财产的能见度。

VIII.第八。THE PRINCIPLE OF AUTHORITY对权威原则

Whatever authority is exercised in the Church, is exercised in virtue of the commission of Christ.无论是在教会的权力行使,行使在基督的佣金美德。He is the one Prophet, Who has given to the world the revelation of truth, and by His spirit preserves in the Church the faith once delivered to the saints.他是一个先知,谁给世界的真理启示,并通过他的精神在教会一次交付圣徒的信仰保留。He is the one Priest, ever pleading on behalf of the Church the sacrifice of Calvary.他是一个牧师,曾在教会的代表恳求各各牺牲。And He is the one King -- the chief Shepherd (1 Peter 5:4) -- Who rules and guides, through His Providence, His Church's course.而且他是一个国王 - 行政牧羊人(彼得5:4) - 谁的规则和指南,通过他的上帝,他的教会的过程。 Yet He wills to exercise His power through earthly representatives.然而,他的意志行使他的权力,通过地上的代表。He chose the Twelve, and charged them in His name to teach the nations (Matthew 28:19), to offer sacrifice (Luke 22:19), to govern His flock (Matthew 18:18; John 21:17).他选择了十二个,并指控他的名字在他们教的国家(马太28:19),提供牺牲(路加福音22:19),治理他的羊群(马太18时18;约翰21:17)。 They, as seen above, used the authority committed to them while they lived; and before their death, they took measures for the perpetuation of this principle of government in the Church.他们,如上所述,使用承诺他们,而他们住的权威,他们的死亡之前,他们花了政府的这一原则在教会永久措施。From that day to this, the hierarchy thus established has claimed and has exercised this threefold office.从那天到这一点,从而建立了层次结构,并声称行使这项三倍办公室。Thus the prophecies of the Old Testament have been fulfilled which foretold that to those who should be appointed to rule the Messianic kingdom it should be granted to participate in the Messias' office of prophet, priest, and king.因此,在旧约的预言已经应验预言那些谁应该被委任统治弥赛亚王国应该给予参与的messias“的先知,祭司,和国王办公室。 (See II above.)(见上文第二。)

The authority established in the Church holds its commission from above, not from below.在教会中设立的机关持有其佣金上面,而不是从下面。The pope and the bishops exercise their power as the successors of the men who were chosen by Christ in person.教皇和主教们行使的谁是基督的人选择了男性继承人的权力。They are not, as the Presbyterian theory of Church government teaches, the delegates of the flock; their warrant is received from the Shepherd, not from the sheep.他们都没有,作为政府的长老教会教的理论,对羊群的代表,他们的权证收到牧羊犬,从羊没有。The view that ecclesiastical authority is ministerial only, and derived by delegation from the faithful, was expressly condemned by Pius VI (1794) in his Constitution "Auctorem Fidei" (qv); and on the renovation of the error by certain recent Modernist writers, Pius X reiterated the condemnation in the Encyclical on the errors of the Modernists.认为教会的权威,是部级而已,从忠实代表团派生,被明确谴责庇护六世(1794)在他的宪法“Auctorem Fidei”(请参阅​​),以及对某些最近的现代派作家错误装修,皮乌斯X重申了对现代主义的错误,在通谕的谴责。In this sense the government of the Church is not democratic.在这个意义上教会的政​​府不是民主的。This indeed is involved in the very nature of the Church as a supernatural society, leading men to a supernatural end.这的确是参与教会作为一个超自然社会的主导男性超自然结束,非常自然。No man is capable of wielding authority for such a purpose, unless power is communicated to him from a Divine source.没有人是这样一个目的挥舞权力的能力,除非权力是从神源传达给他。The case is altogether different where civil society is concerned.此案是完全不同的地方民间社会关注。There the end is not supernatural: it is the temporal well-being of the citizens.到底是不是有超自然的:它是时间的市民的福祉。 It cannot then be said that a special endowment is required to render any class of men capable of filling the place of rulers and of guides.它不能再这样说,一个特殊的天赋是必须使任何人填补的地方统治者和指导能力的类。Hence the Church approves equally all forms of civil government which are consonant with the principle of justice.因此,教会批准同样的一切形式的文官政府与正义的原则是一致的。The power exercised by the Church through sacrifice and sacrament (potestas ordinis) lies outside the present subject.由通过牺牲和圣教会行使权力(potestas ordinis)位于外目前的主题。It is proposed briefly to consider here the nature of the Church's authority in her office (1) of teaching (potestas magisterii) and (2) of government (potestas jurisdictionis).它建议在这里简要地考虑在她的办公室性质的教会的权威教学(1)(potestas magisterii)和(2)政府(potestas jurisdictionis)。

(1) Infallibility(1)犯错误

As the Divinely appointed teacher of revealed truth, the Church is infallible.由于受神启示的真理专任教师,教会是不变的真理。This gift of inerrancy is guaranteed to it by the words of Christ, in which He promised that His Spirit would abide with it forever to guide it unto all truth (John 14:16; 16:13).这种无误的礼物是保证它是由基督的话,其中他承诺,他的精神将永远遵守它来指导祂所有的真理(约翰14时16分; 16:13)。It is implied also in other passages of Scripture, and asserted by the unanimous testimony of the Fathers.它也意味着在圣经的其他段落,以及对父亲的证词一致断言。The scope of this infallibility is to preserve the deposit of faith revealed to man by Christ and His Apostles (see INFALLIBILITY.) The Church teaches expressly that it is the guardian only of the revelation, that it can teach nothing which it has not received.这个犯错误的范围是维护存款信仰透露,由基督和他的使徒的人(见犯错误。)教会教导明确,它是唯一的监护人的启示,它可以教它什么也没有收到。 The Vatican Council declares: "The Holy Ghost was not promised to the successors of Peter, in order that through His revelation they might manifest new doctrine: but that through His assistance they might religiously guard, and faithfully expound the revelation handed down by the Apostles, or the deposit of the faith" (Conc. Vat., Sess. IV, cap. liv).梵蒂冈理事会宣布:“圣灵不答应彼得的接班人,以便通过他的启示,他们可能表现新的学说:但是,通过他的帮助,他们可能会宗教后卫,并忠实地阐述启示转交由使徒下降或信仰的存款“(Conc.增值税,SESS四,帽。LIV)。 The obligation of the natural moral law constitutes part of this revelation.对自然的道德义务的法律构成了这个启示的一部分。The authority of that law is again and again insisted on by Christ and His Apostles.该法律的权威,是一而再,再由基督和他的使徒坚持。The Church therefore is infallible in matters both of faith and morals.因此,在教会的信仰和道德两个方面犯错。Moreover, theologians are agreed that the gift of infallibility in regard to the deposit must, by necessary consequence, carry with it infallibility as to certain matters intimately related to the Faith.此外,神学家都一致认为,对于犯错误的存款礼物必须通过必要的后果,随身带着它犯错误,以密切相关的某些事项的信仰。 There are questions bearing so nearly on the preservation of the Faith that, could the Church err in these, her infallibility would not suffice to guard the flock from false doctrine.有问题的轴承上的信念,可以在这些犯错误的教会保存如此近,她一贯正确是不够的看守羊群从虚假的学说。Such, for instance, is the decision whether a given book does or does not contain teaching condemned as heretical.这样,举例来说,是决定是否给定的书没有或不包含教学谴责为异端邪说。(See DOGMATIC FACTS.) (见教条式的事实。)

It is needless to point out that if the Christian Faith is indeed a revealed doctrine, which men must believe under pain of eternal loss, the gift of infallibility was necessary to the Church.这是不用指出,如果基督教信仰确实是一个揭示学说,其中男性必须相信,在永恒的失落之苦,对犯错误的礼物是必要的教会。 Could she err at all, she might err in any point.难道在她犯错,她可能会犯错的任何一点。The flock would have no guarantee of the truth of any doctrine.羊群本来没有任何主义真理的保证。The condition of those bodies which at the time of the Reformation forsook the Church affords us an object-lesson in point.这些机构的条件,在时间的改革离弃教会使我们在点对象的教训。Divided into various sections and parties, they are the scene of never-ending disputes; and by the nature of the case they are cut off from all hope of attaining to certainty.到各科室和政党之分,他们是永无止境的纷争场面,以及由该案件的性质,他们是切断所有对确定性希望实现了。In regard also to the moral law, the need of an infallible guide is hardly less imperative.在道德方面也向法律,一个犯错的指导需要的是几乎不势在必行。Though on a few broad principles there may be some consensus of opinion as to what is right and what is wrong, yet, in the application of these principles to concrete facts, it is impossible to obtain agreement.虽然几大原则上可能有一些共识,以什么是对的,什么是错的,然而,在这些原则适用于具体事实,就不可能取得协议。 On matters of such practical moment as are, for instance, the questions of private property, marriage, and liberty, the most divergent views are defended by thinkers of great ability.在这样的时刻事项的实际,例如,私有财产,婚姻和自由的问题,最不同的意见是辩护能力很强的思想家。Amid all this questioning the unerring voice of the Church gives confidence to her children that they are following the right course, and have not been led astray by some specious fallacy.在一片质疑这一切无误的声音,教会她的孩子们提供了信心,他们是按照正确的道路,并没有得到领导的一些似是而非的谬误歧途。 The various modes in which the Church exercises this gift, and the prerogatives of the Holy See in regard to infallibility, will be found discussed in the article dealing with that subject.在该教会练习这个礼物,和神圣的特权见在各种模式方面犯错误,会发现在同一篇文章中讨论这一问题的处理。

(2) Jurisdiction(2)管辖权

The Church's pastors govern and direct the flock committed to them in virtue of jurisdiction conferred upon them by Christ.教会的牧师治理和直接管辖致力于凭借他们的羊群赋予他们的基督。The authority of jurisdiction differs essentially from the authority to teach.管辖权的机关不同本质的权威教。The two powers are concerned with different objects.这两个大国所关心的是不同的对象。The right to teach is concerned solely with the manifestation of the revealed doctrine; the object of the power of jurisdiction is to establish and enforce such laws and regulations as are necessary to the well-being of the Church.正确的教完全是与表现主义的揭示有关;的管辖权力的目的是建立和实施这些法律和法规所必要的教会的福祉。Further, the right of the Church to teach extends to the whole world: The jurisdiction of her rulers extends to her members alone (1 Corinthians 5:12).此外,教会的教权延伸到整个世界:她的统治者管辖范围延伸到她的成员单独(林前5:12)。Christ's words to St. Peter, "I will give thee the keys of the kingdom of heaven", distinctly express the gift of jurisdiction.基督的话来圣彼得大教堂,“我给你的天国的钥匙”,明显表达了管辖权的礼物。Supreme authority over a body carries with it the right to govern and direct.最高法院在一个机构的权力,附有治理权和直接。 The three elements which go to constitute jurisdiction -- legislative power, judicial power, and coercive power -- are, moreover, all implied in Christ's directions to the Apostles (Matthew 18).这三个要素去构成管辖权 - 立法权,司法权和强制力 - 是,而且,在基督的方向隐含的使徒(马太18)所有。Not merely are they instructed to impose obligations and to settle disputes; but they may even inflict the extremest ecclesiastical penalty -- that of exclusion from membership in Christ.不仅是他们指示强加义务,解决纠纷,但他们甚至可能造成的extremest教会的惩罚 - 从在基督成员排斥。

The jurisdiction exercised within the Church is partly of Divine right, and partly determined by ecclesiastical law.在教会内行使司法管辖权部分是神圣的权利,部分由教会法确定。A supreme jurisdiction over the whole Church -- clergy and laity alike -- belongs by Divine appointment to the pope (Conc. Vat, Sess. IV, cap. iii).一个对整个教会的最高司法管辖区 - 僧侣和俗人一样 - 属于由神任命为教皇(Conc.增值税,SESS四,第III。)The government of the faithful by bishops possessed of ordinary jurisdiction (ie a jurisdiction that is not held by mere delegation, but is exercised in their own name) is likewise of Divine ordinance.由主教的普通管辖权(即不是单纯的代表团举行,但以自己的名义行使管辖权)拥有忠实的政府同样是神圣的条例。 But the system by which the Church is territorially divided into dioceses, within each of which a single bishop rules the faithful within that district, is an ecclesiastical arrangement capable of modification.但是,其中教会是领土划分成教区系统内每一个单一的主教规则在该地区的忠实,是一个教会安排的修改能力。 The limits of dioceses may be changed by the Holy See.对教区的限制可能会改变了罗马教廷。In England the old pre-Reformation diocesan divisions held good until 1850, though the Catholic hierarchy had become extinct in the reign of Queen Elizabeth.在英国,老学前教育改革直到1850年举行的教区司好,虽然天主教层次已成为女王伊丽莎白统治灭绝。In that year the old divisions were annulled and a new diocesan system established.在这一年被废止的老师和一个新的教区系统的建立。Similarly in France, a complete change was introduced after the Revolution.同样,在法国,一个彻底的改变是引入革命后。A bishop may exercise his power on other than a territorial basis.一位主教可以行使领土的基础上比其他他的权力。Thus in the East there are different bishops for the faithful belonging to the different rites in communion with the Holy See.因此,在东方是有属于不同的共融与罗马教廷礼仪见忠实不同的主教。Besides bishops, in countries where the ecclesiastical system is fully developed, those of the lower clergy who are parish priests, in the proper sense of the term, have ordinary jurisdiction within their own parishes.除了主教,在教会所在的系统完全发达国家,较低的神职人员谁是教区司铎在真正意义上的术语,这些都在自己的教区普通管辖权。

Internal jurisdiction is that which is exercised in the tribunal of penance.内部管辖的是,这是在苦修法庭行使。It differs from the external jurisdiction of which we have been speaking in that its object is the welfare of the individual penitent, while the object of external jurisdiction is the welfare of the Church as a corporate body.它不同于从外部管辖范围,我们一直讲,因为它的对象是个人忏悔的福利,而外部管辖对象是教会作为一个法人团体的福利。To exercise this internal jurisdiction, the power of orders is an essential condition: none but a priest can absolve.要行使这项内部管辖权,权力的订单是一个必要条件:没有,但一个牧师可以开脱。But the power of orders itself is insufficient.但是,订单本身的力量是不够的。The minister of the sacrament must receive jurisdiction from one competent to bestow it.而圣餐部长必须接受从一个管辖权的赐给它。Hence a priest cannot hear confessions in any locality unless he has received faculties from the ordinary of the place.因此,一个牧师不能听到任何地方,除非他已收到从地方普通院系口供。On the other hand, for the exercise of external jurisdiction the power of orders is not necessary.另一方面,对于外部管辖权的行使权力的订单是没有必要的。A bishop, duly appointed to a see, but not yet consecrated, is invested with external jurisdiction over his diocese as soon as he has exhibited his letters of appointment to the chapter.一位主教,正式任命一见,但尚未奉献,是投资在他的教区,当他表现出了他的任命书的一章与外部管辖权。

IX. IX。MEMBERS OF THE CHURCH成员的教会

The foregoing account of the Church and of the principle of authority by which it is governed enables us to determine who are members of the Church and who are not.该教会和权威其中管辖原则是上述帐户使我们能够确定谁是教会成员,谁不是。The membership of which we speak, is incorporation in the visible body of Christ.其中的成员,我们说话,是在基督纳入有形的身体。It has already been noted (VI) that a member of the Church may have forfeited the grace of God.它已经指出(六),一个教会的成员可能已丧失了神的恩典。In this case he is a withered branch of the true Vine; but he has not been finally broken off from it.在这种情况下,他是一个真正的葡萄枝枯,但他并没有被最终彻底摆脱它。He still belongs to Christ.他仍然属于基督。Three conditions are requisite for a man to be a member of the Church.三个条件是一个人是教会成员的必要条件。

In the first place, he must profess the true Faith, and have received the Sacrament of Baptism.首先,他必须信奉真正的信仰,并接受了洗礼。The essential necessity of this condition is apparent from the fact that the Church is the kingdom of truth, the society of those who accept the revelation of the Son of God.这种状况必须从必要性是显而易见的事实,即教会是真理,那些谁接受神的儿子启示社会的王国。Every member of the Church must accept the whole revelation, either explicitly or implicitly, by profession of all that the Church teaches.每一个教会的成员必须接受整个启示,或隐或显,由所有教会的教导专业。He who refuses to receive it, or who, having received it, falls away, thereby excludes himself from the kingdom (Titus, iii, 10 sq.).他谁拒绝接受它,或谁,在得到它,落在距离,从而排除王国(提多书,三,10平方米)自己。 The Sacrament of Baptism is rightly regarded as part of this condition.的洗礼,是公认为这种情况的一部分。By it those who profess the Faith are formally adopted as children of God (Ephesians 1:13), and an habitual faith is among the gifts bestowed in it.通过它的谁自称信仰被正式采纳为神(以弗所书1:13)的孩子,习惯性的信仰之间的是它赋予的礼物。Christ expressly connects the two, declaring that "he who believeth and is baptized shall be saved" (Mark 16:16; cf. Matthew 28:19).基督明文连接两个,宣称“谁信而受洗​​的必然得救”(马可福音16:16;比照马太28:19)。 It is further necessary to acknowledge the authority of the Church and of her appointed rulers.它是进一步要承认的教会和她任命的统治者的权威。Those who reject the jurisdiction established by Christ are no longer members of His kingdom.这些谁拒绝基督建立的管辖权是他的王国不再成员。Thus St. Ignatius lays it down in his letter to the Church of Smyrna: Wheresoever the bishop shall appear, there let the people be; even as where Jesus may be there is the universal Church" (ad Smyrn., n. 8). In regard to this condition, the ultimate touchstone is to be found in communion with the Holy See. On Peter Christ founded his Church. Those who are not joined to that foundation cannot form part of the house of God.因此,圣依纳爵奠定了在他的信给士每拿教会了下去:Wheresoever主教应出现,让人们可以有,甚至为耶稣可能有普世教会“(广告Smyrn,注8)。至于这种情况下,最终的试金石,是在交流中找到与罗马教廷。彼得基督创立自己的教会,那些谁不加入到这个基础不能形成了神的殿的一部分。

The third condition lies in the canonical right to communion with the Church.第三个条件在于教会共融的规范权。In virtue of its coercive power the Church has authority to excommunicate notorious sinners.在凭借其强制力的教会权威破门臭名昭著的罪人。It may inflict this punishment not merely on the ground of heresy or schism, but for other grave offences.它不仅可能造成对异端邪说或分裂地面这个处罚,但对于其他严重罪行。Thus St. Paul pronounces sentence of excommunication on the incest Corinthian (1 Corinthians 5:3).因此,圣保罗发音上乱伦科林斯(哥林多前书5:3)的禁教一句。This penalty is no mere external severance from the rights of common worship.这并非仅仅是从刑罚的共同崇拜的权利外部遣散。 It is a severance from the body of Christ, undoing to this extent the work of baptism, and placing the excommunicated man in the condition of the heathen and the publican". It casts him out of God's kingdom; and the Apostle speaks of it as "delivering him over to Satan" (1 Corinthians 5:5; 1 Timothy 1:20).它是从基督的身体遣散,撤消到这个程度的洗礼工作,并把在异教徒和税吏“条件的驱逐男子它蒙上神的国度他出去;和使徒它说,作为“提供他交给撒旦”(哥林多前书5时05;提前1:20)。

Regarding each of these conditions, however, certain distinctions must be drawn.至于这些条件每一个,但是,必须制​​定一定的区别。

Many baptized heretics have been educated in their erroneous beliefs.许多受过教育的洗礼异端已经在错误的信念。Their case is altogether different from that of those who have voluntarily renounced the Faith.他们的情况是完全从这些谁已自愿放弃信仰的不同。They accept what they believe to be the Divine revelation.他们接受了他们认为是神的启示。Such as these belong to the Church in desire, for they are at heart anxious to fulfill God's will in their regard.如在这些属于教会的愿望,因为他们心里着急履行其关于上帝的旨意的。In virtue of their baptism and good will, they may be in a state of grace.在他们的洗礼和良好意愿美德,他们可能在一个国家的宽限期。 They belong to the soul of the Church, though they are not united to the visible body.他们属于教会的灵魂,虽然他们不团结,以有形的身体。As such they are members of the Church internally, though not externally.因此他们是教会的成员在内部,虽然不是外部。Even in regard to those who have themselves fallen away from the Faith, a difference must be made between open and notorious heretics on the one hand, and secret heretics on the other.即使对于那些谁拥有自己堕落远离信仰,相差之间必须作出公开和臭名昭著的异端一方面,另一方面秘密异端。Open and notorious heresy severs from the visible Church.打开和臭名昭著的邪教断绝从有形的教会。The majority of theologians agree with BeIlarrrne (de Ecclesiâ, III, c. x), as against Francisco Suárez, that secret heresy has not this effect.大多数的神学家同意BeIlarrrne(德教会,三角X),作为对弗朗西斯科苏亚雷斯,即秘密异端没有这种效果。

In regard to schism the same distinction must be drawn.关于分裂的同样的区别,必须绘制。A secret repudiation of the Church's authority does not sever the sinner from the Church.一个教会的权威秘密抵赖不切断从教会的罪人。The Church recognizes the schismatic as a member, entitled to her communion, until by open and notorious rebellion he rejects her authority.教会承认为享有她共融的成员,分裂,直到开放和臭名昭著的叛乱,他拒绝她的权威。

Excommunicated persons are either excommunicati tolerati (ie those who are still tolerated) or excommunicati vitandi (ie those to be shunned).逐出教会的人要么excommunicati tolerati(即那些谁仍然容忍)或excommunicati vitandi(即那些被回避)。Many theologians hold that those whom the Church still tolerates are not wholly cut off from her membership, and that it is only those whom she has branded as "to be shunned" who are cut off from God's kingdom (see Murray, De Eccles., Disp. i, sect. viii, n. 118).许多神学家认为,这些人的教会仍然容忍并非完全切断了她的会员资格,并且是唯一的人,她已经为“要避开”谁是隔绝神的国(见穆雷,德埃克尔斯。关闭品牌, DISP我,第八节,注118)。(See EXCOMMUNICATION.) (见逐出教会。)

X. INDEFECTIBILITY OF THE CHURCH十INDEFECTIBILITY的教会

Among the prerogatives conferred on His Church by Christ is the gift of indefectibility.在他的教会在基督所赋予的特权是indefectibility的礼物。By this term is signified, not merely that the Church will persist to the end of time, but further, that it will preserve unimpaired its essential characteristics.通过这个名词所指,不仅教会将坚持到结束的时间,但进一步的,它会保留未受损害其本质特征。The Church can never undergo any constitutional change which will make it, as a social organism, something different from what it was originally.教会不能接受任何宪法上的改变,将使其作为一个社会有机体,它是什么东西从原来的不同。It can never become corrupt in faith or in morals; nor can it ever lose the Apostolic hierarchy, or the sacraments through which Christ communicates grace to men.它永远不能成为信仰或道德腐败,也不可能永远失去了使徒的层次结构,或通过基督圣礼通信恩典男子。The gift of indefectibility is expressly promised to the Church by Christ, in the words in which He declares that the gates of hell shall not prevail against it.该indefectibility的礼物是明确承诺由基督教会,在词中,他宣称,地狱之门,应不能战胜它。It is manifest that, could the storms which the Church encounters so shake it as to alter its essential characteristics and make it other than Christ intended it to be, the gates of hell, ie the powers of evil, would have prevailed.这是明显的,可以在遇到风暴,教会因此动摇它作为改变其本质特征,使它比其他基督打算它是,地狱之门,即邪恶的权力,将有占了上风。 It is clear, too, that could the Church suffer substantial change, it would no longer be an instrument capable of accomplishing the work for which God called it in to being.很明显,也可以教会遭受重大变化,它将不再是一种手段的完成工作,上帝被称为它的能力。He established it that it might be to all men the school of holiness.他建立了它,它可能是所有男人的圣洁的学校。This it would cease to be if ever it could set up a false and corrupt moral standard.这将不再是如以往任何时候都可以建立一个虚假和腐败的道德标准。He established it to proclaim His revelation to the world, and charged it to warn all men that unless they accepted that message they must perish everlastingly.他建立了它宣布他的启示世界,收取它警告所有的人,除非他们接受了这一信息,他们必须灭亡everlastingly。 Could the Church, in defining the truths of revelation err in the smallest point, such a charge would be impossible.请问教会,在确定启示的真理在最小点出错,这样的收费是不可能的。No body could enforce under such a penalty the acceptance of what might be erroneous.没有任何机构可以强制执行下了这样的刑罚是什么可能是错误的验收。By the hierarchy and the sacraments, Christ, further, made the Church the depositary of the graces of the Passion.由层次结构和圣礼,基督,进一步作了教会的激情保存的青睐。Were it to lose either of these, it could no longer dispense to men the treasures of grace.要么是它失去这些,它再也不能免除男性的风度的宝藏。

The gift of indefectibility plainly does not guarantee each several part of the Church against heresy or apostasy.礼物的indefectibility显然并不保证每一个教会对异端或叛教几个部分。The promise is made to the corporate body.这个承诺是向法人团体。Individual Churches may become corrupt in morals, may fall into heresy, may even apostatize.个别教会可能成为道德的腐败,可能会陷入异端,甚至可能apostatize。Thus at the time of the Mohammedan conquests, whole populations renounced their faith; and the Church suffered similar losses in the sixteenth century.因此,在穆罕默德征服的时候,整个人群放弃他们的信仰和教会在十六世纪遭受类似的损失。But the defection of isolated branches does not alter the character of the main stem.但是,个别分支机构叛逃不会改变的主茎字符。The society of Jesus Christ remains endowed with all the prerogatives bestowed on it by its Founder.耶稣基督的社会仍然具有上的所有赋予其创始人赋予的特权。Only to One particular Church is indefectibility assured, viz.只有到一个特定的教会是indefectibility保证,即to the See of Rome.到见罗马。 To Peter, and in him to all his successors in the chief pastorate, Christ committed the task of confirming his brethren in the Faith (Luke 22:32); and thus, to the Roman Church, as Cyprian says, "faithlessness cannot gain access" [Ep.彼得和他的所有他的继任首席牧师,基督犯了确认,在信仰他的弟兄们(路加福音22时32分)的任务;,因此,到了罗马教会,为塞浦路斯说,“不忠无法访问“[EP。 lv (lix), ad Cornelium). LV(LIX),广告Cornelium)。The various bodies that have left the Church naturally deny its indefectibility.而那些离开教会自然否认其indefectibility各机构。Their plea for separation rests in each case on the supposed fact that the main body of Christians has fallen so far from primitive truth, or from the purity of Christian morals, that the formation of a separate organization is not only desirable but necessary.他们对分离呼吁掌握在每个案件的事实,即所谓的基督徒的主体已经从原始的真相,还是从基督教道德的纯洁性,到目前为止,该组织成立一个独立的不仅是可取的,但必要的。 Those who are called on to defend this plea endeavour in various ways to reconcile it with Christ's promise.这些谁被称为在捍卫这一请求以各种方式努力调和与基督的承诺了。Some, as seen above (VII), have recourse to the hypothesis of an indefectible invisible Church.有些如上所述(七),求助于一个不败的无形教会的假说。The Right Rev. Charles Gore of Worcester, who may be regarded as the representative of high-class Anglicanism, prefers a different solution.正确的牧师查尔斯戈尔的伍斯特,谁可能被看作是中高级英国国教代表认为,喜欢不同的解决方案。In his controversy with Canon Richardson, he adopted the position that while the Church will never fail to teach the whole truth as revealed, yet "errors of addition" may exist universally in its current teaching (see Richardson, Catholic Claims, Appendix).在与佳能理查森争议,他所采取的立场,虽然教会将永远不会失败,教导整个真相透露,但“增补错误”可能存在于当前的教学普遍(见理查森,天主教的债权,附录)。 Such an explanation deprives Christ's words of all their meaning.这种解释剥夺了他们所有的意义基督的话。A Church which at any period might conceivably teach, as of faith, doctrines which form no part of the deposit could never deliver her message to the world as the message of God.这在任何一所教堂内可以设想教,为信仰,教义构成没有存款的一部分永远无法实现的神的消息她的消息到世界各地。Men could reasonably urge in regard to any doctrine that it might be an "error of addition".男子可以合理地要求对于任何学说,它可能是一种“加法错误”。

It was said above that one part of the Church's gift of indefectibility lies in her preservation from any substantial corruption in the sphere of morals.有人说,一个以上的教会的indefectibility礼物的一部分保存在她的谎言,从任何道德领域的重大腐败。 This supposes, not merely that she will always proclaim the perfect standard of morality bequeathed to her by her Founder, but also that in every age the lives of many of her children will be based on that sublime model.这设,不只是说她永远宣告完美的道德标准留给她由她的创始人,而且在每一个年龄的孩子许多人的生活将在这崇高的模型。 Only a supernatural principle of spiritual life could bring this about.只有精神生活超自然原则可以实现这个目标。Man's natural tendency is downwards.人的自然趋势是向下。The force of every religious movement gradually spends itself; and the followers of great religious reformers tend in time to the level of their environment.每一个宗教运动力量逐渐花费本身,以及伟大的宗教改革的追随者往往在时间到他们的环境水平。According to the laws of unassisted human nature, it should have been thus with the society established by Christ.据求告无门人性的规律,它应该是这样与基督建立的社会。Yet history shows us that the Catholic Church possesses a power of reform from within, which has no parallel in any other religious organization.然而,历史告诉我们,天主教教会拥有从电力改革,这是没有任何其他宗教组织平行。Again and again she produces saints, men imitating the virtues of Christ in an extraordinary degree, whose influence, spreading far and wide, gives fresh ardour even to those who reach a less heroic standard.她一次又一次产生圣人,模仿男人在平凡的程度,其影响力,传播无远弗届,给人新鲜的热情,甚至那些谁达到少英雄的标准基督的美德。 Thus, to cite one or two well-known instances out of many that might be given: St. Dominic and St. Francis of Assisi rekindled the love of virtue in the men of the thirteenth century; St. Philip Neri and St. Ignatius Loyola accomplished a like work in the sixteenth century; St. Paul of the Cross and St. Alphonsus Liguori, in the eighteenth.因此,举一两个知名的许多情况下出,可考虑:玫瑰和圣方济各亚西西重燃在十三世纪的男人爱的美德;圣菲内里和圣依纳爵罗耀拉完成了在十六世纪的喜欢的工作;在十八圣十字架和圣阿方Liguori保罗。 No explanation suffices to account for this phenomenon save the Catholic doctrine that the Church is not a natural but a supernatural society, that the preservation of her moral life depends, not on any laws of human nature, but on the life-giving presence of the Holy Ghost.没有足以解释这一现象帐户储存天主教教义,教会是不是自然,而是超自然的社会,她的道德生活的保存取决于,而不是对人性的任何法律,但对生命的存在圣灵。 The Catholic and the Protestant principles of reform stand in sharp contrast the one to the other.天主教和新教改革的原则立场形成鲜明对比的另一个。Catholic reformers have one and all fallen back on the model set before them in the person of Christ and on the power of the Holy Ghost to breathe fresh life into the souls which He has regenerated.天主教改革者有一个和所有回到他们面前设置在基督的人的模型和对圣灵呼吸到他有再生的灵魂鲜活的生命动力下降。 Protestant reformers have commenced their work by separation, and by this act have severed themselves from the very principle of life.新教改革者已开始通过分离工作,并通过这种行为已经切断从自己生命的原则。No one of course would wish to deny that within the Protestant bodies there have been many men of great virtues.当然没有人愿意否认,在新教团体也出现了很大的好处很多男人。Yet it is not too much to assert that in every case their virtue has been nourished on what yet remained to them of Catholic belief and practice, and not on anything which they have received from Protestantism as such.然而,它并不过分断言,在任何情况下他们的美德一直在什么但仍然是天主教的信仰和实践给他们,并没有任何东西,他们从新教收到这样的滋养。

The Continuity Theory连续性理论

The doctrine of the Church's indefectibility just considered will place us in a position to estimate, at its true value, the claim of the Anglican Church and of the Episcopalian bodies in other English-speaking countries to be continuous with the ancient pre-Reformation Church of England, in the sense of being part of one and the same society.而只是考虑教会的indefectibility学说将放在一个位置,估计我们在它的真正价值,在英国圣公会教堂和其他英语国家的圣公会组织声称自己是与古代学前教育改革教会不断英格兰,在被一部分是同一个社会意识。 The point to be determined here is what constitutes a breach of continuity as regards a society.这里将要确定的一点是什么构成违反连续性方面的社会。It may safely be said that the continuity of a society is broken when a radical change in the principles it embodies is introduced.它可以安全地说,一个社会的连续性被打破时,在原则彻底改变它体现了介绍。In the case of a Church, such a change in its hierarchical constitution and in its professed faith suffices to make it a different Church from what it was before.在教会的情况下,这样在其层次的宪法,并在其声称的信念改变足以使其从它以前不同的教会。For the societies we term Churches exist as the embodiment of certain supernatural dogmas and of a Divinely-authorized principle of government.对于我们的社会长期存在,教会的某些超自然的教条体现和受神的政府授权的原则。when, therefore, the truths previously field to be of faith are rejected, and the Principle of government regarded as sacred is repudiated, there is a breach of continuity, and a new Church is formed.因此,当真理以前外地要信仰被拒绝,而政府的原则视为神圣的否定,是有连续性的行为,并形成一个新的教会。In this the continuity of a Church differs from the continuity of a nation.在这一个教会的连续性不同于一个国家的连续性。 National continuity is independent of forms of government and of beliefs.国家连续性的政府和信仰形式无关。A nation is an aggregate of families, and so long as these families constitute a self-sufficing social organism, it remains the same nation, whatever the form of government may be.一个民族是一个家庭的总和,而且只要这些家庭构成了自我sufficing社会有机体,它仍然是同一个国家,无论政府的形式而定。 The continuity of a Church depends essentially on its government and its beliefs.该教会的连续性主要取决于其政府和信念。

The changes introduced into the English Church at the time of the Reformation were precisely of the character just described.进入英国教会介绍了在时间的改革的变化,正是刚才所描述的字符。 At that period fundamental alterations were made in its hierarchical constitution and in its dogmatic standards.在此期间进行了根本性的改变在其层次的宪法,并在其教条式的标准。It is not to be determined here which was in the right, the Church of Catholic days or the Reformed Church.这是不能确定它在这里的权利,天主教天或归正教会。It is sufficient if we show that changes were made vitally affecting the nature of the society.这足以表明,如果我们更改了极其影响了社会的性质。It is notorious that from the days of Augustine to those of Warham, every archbishop of Canterbury recognized the pope as the supreme source of ecclesiastical jurisdiction.它是臭名昭著的,从奥古斯丁天的Warham的,每坎特伯雷大主教公认的教会管辖教皇至高无上的来源。 The archbishops themselves could not exercise jurisdiction within their province until they had received papal confirmation.该大主教自己都不管辖范围内行使自己的省份,直到他们收到了罗马教皇的确认。Further, the popes were accustomed to send to England legates a latere, who, in virtue of their legatine authority, whatever their personal status in the hierarchy, possessed a jurisdiction superior to that of the local bishops.此外,教皇习惯于发送到英国使节a latere,谁,在他们的legatine凭借权力,无论在层次结构中个人的地位,拥有优越的司法管辖区的当地主教的。Appeals ran from every ecclesiastical court in England to the pope, and his decision was recognized by all as final.上诉跑了从每一个在英国教会法庭的教皇,他的决定是由所有的最终认可。The pope, too, exercised the right of excommunication in regard to the members of the English Church.教宗也行使有关的英语教会成员的逐出教会的权利。This supreme authority was, moreover, regarded by all as belonging to the pope by Divine right, and not in virtue of merely human institution.这是至高无上的权威,而且,把所有属于由神权的教皇,而不是仅仅凭借人组成的机构。 When, therefore, this power of jurisdiction was transferred to the king, the alteration touched the constitutive principles of the body and was fundamental in its character.因此,当这种管辖权力移交给了国王,改建触及身体的组成原则,并在其根本性质。Similarly, in regard to matters of faith, the changes were revolutionary.同样,对于信仰问题,是革命的变化。It will be sufficient to note that a new rule of faith was introduced, Scripture alone being substituted for Scripture and Tradition; that several books were expunged from the Canon of Scripture; that five out of the seven sacraments were repudiated; and that the sacrifices of Masses were declared to be "blasphemous fables and dangerous deceits".这将是足够地注意到,新规则的信仰被引入,唯独圣经被取代圣经和传统,这几本书是从圣经佳能擦除;,五七个圣礼出被否定,并认为牺牲群众被宣布为“亵渎寓言和危险的欺骗伎俩。” It is indeed sometimes said that the official formularies of Anglicanism are capable of a Catholic sense, if given a "non-natural" interpretation.有时,实在说,英国国教的正式处方是一个天主教的感觉能力,如果给一个“非天然”的解释。This argument can, however, carry no weight.这种说法可以,但是,不携带重量。In estimating the character of a society, we must judge, not by the strained sense which some individuals may attach to its formularies, but by the sense they were intended to bear.在估计一个社会的性质,我们必须判断,而不是由紧张感有些人可能会附着在其处方,而是由意识,他们打算来承担。Judged by this criterion, none can dispute that these innovations were such as to constitute a fundamental change in the dogmatic standpoint of the Church of England.按这个标准来看,没有人可以否认,这些创新都如构成在英国的教会教条立场的根本转变。

XI.十一。UNIVERSALITY OF THE CHURCH普遍性的教会

The Church of Christ has from the first claimed to transcend all those national differences which divide men.基督的教会已经从最初声称超越所有那些分裂国家差异的男子。In it, the Apostle asserts, "there is neither Gentile nor Jew . . . Barbarian nor Scythian" (Colossians 3:11).在这里面,使徒称,“既没有犹太人,也不外邦人。野蛮人也不西徐亚人”(歌罗西书3:11)。Men of every race are one in it; they form a single brotherhood in the Kingdom of God.每场比赛的男子是1人,他们形成一个单一的天国兄弟。In the pagan world, religion and nationality had been coterminous.在异教徒的世界,宗教和国籍已被牙买加宪法。The boundaries of the State were the boundaries of the faith which the State professed.国家的边界​​都是该国的信念宣称的边界。Even the Jewish Dispensation was limited to a special race.即使是犹太人的豁免仅限于特殊的比赛。Previous to the Christian revelation the idea of a religion adapted to all peoples was foreign to the conceptions of men.在此之前基督教启示的宗教思想适用于所有人民是陌生男人的观念。It is one of the essential features of the Church that she should be a single, worldwide society embracing all races.这是教会的本质特征,她应该是一个单一的,全球社会包罗所有的比赛之一。In it, and in it alone, is the brotherhood of man realized.在它,并且在孤军奋战,是人类认识的兄弟。All national barriers, no less than all differences of class, disappear in the City of God.所有国家的障碍,没有比类的所有分歧少,消失在神的城市。It is not to be understood that the Church disregards the ties which bind men to their country, or undervalues the virtue of patriotism.这是不被理解,教会无视关系人的约束自己的国家,或低估了爱国主义的美德。The division of men into different nations enters into the scheme of Providence.而男人进入到不同的国家划分成上帝的计划。 To each nation has been assigned a special task to accomplish in the working out of God's purposes.每个民族都有被分配一个特殊的任务来完成,在上帝的目的工作了。A man owes a duty to his nation no less than to his family.一个人欠了他的国家的责任并不比他的家人少。One who omits this duty has failed in a primary moral obligation.一个谁也不能忽略了这个责任在一所小学的道德义务。Moreover, each nation has its own character, and its own special gifts.此外,每个民族都有自己的性格,和自己的特殊礼物。 It will usually be found that a man attains to high virtue, not by neglecting these gifts, but by embodying the best and noblest ideals of his own people.它通常会发现,一个人达到高美德,而不是忽视这些礼物,而是通过体现自己的人最好和最崇高的理想。

For these reasons the Church consecrates the spirit of nationality.由于这些原因,教会供奉国籍的精神。 Yet it transcends it, for it binds together the various nationalities in a single brotherhood.然而,它超越了它,因为它结合在一起,一个各民族兄弟情谊。More than this, it purifies, develops, and perfects national character, just as it purifies and perfects the character of each individual.比这更能够净化,开发和完善民族性格,正如它净化和完善每个人的性格。Often indeed it has been accused of exercising an anti patriotic influence.事实上,常常被指责行使反爱国的影响。But it will invariably be found that it has incurred this reproach by opposing and rebuking what was base in the national aspirations, not by thwarting what was heroic or just.但都会被发现,它已招致反对和斥责什么是在民族愿望的基础,通过阻止什么是英雄或只是这不是责备。As the Church perfects the nation, so reciprocally does each nation add something of its own to the glory of the Church.由于教会完善的国家,因此每个国家相互不加入自己的东西教会的荣耀。It brings its own type of sanctity, its national virtues, and thus contributes to "the fullness of Christ" something which no other race could give.它带来了它的神圣自己的类型,其国家的美德,从而有助于“丰满的基督”没有其他东西可以给比赛。Such are the relations of the Church to what is termed nationality.这些都是教会的关系是什么所谓的国籍。The external unity of the one society is the visible embodiment of the doctrine of the brotherhood of man.在一个社会外部的统一,是对人的兄弟情谊可见主义的体现。The sin of schism, the Fathers tell us, lies in this, that by it the law of love to our neighbour is implicitly rejected.而分裂罪,父亲告诉我们,就在于这一点,即由它的爱我们的邻居法是含蓄拒绝。"Nec hæretici pertinent ad Ecclesiam Catholicam, qæ diligit Deum; nec schismatici quoniam diligit proximum" (Neither do heretics belong to the Catholic church, for she loves God; nor do schismatics, for she loves her neighbour -- Augustine, De Fide et Symbolo, ch. x, in PL, XL, 193).“NEC hæretici相关广告Ecclesiam Catholicam,QAE diligit Deum; NEC schismatici quoniam diligit proximum”(也没有异端属于天主教教会,因为她爱上帝,也不做schismatics,因为她爱她的邻居 - 奥古斯丁,德等Symbolo国际棋联,CH,X在PL,XL,193)。It is of importance to insist on this point.它是坚持这一点的重要性。For it is sometimes urged that the organized unity of Catholicism may be adapted to the Latin races but is ill-suited to the Teutonic spirit.它有时敦促天主教组织团结可能是适应了比赛,但拉丁不适合的日尔曼精神。To say this is to say that an essential characteristic of this Christian revelation is ill-suited to one of the great races of the world.如果说这是说的这个基督教启示的本质特征是不适合的世界的伟大的比赛之一。

The union of different nations in one society is contrary to the natural inclinations of fallen humanity.不同民族在一个社会的工会是违背人性的堕落的自然倾向。It must ever struggle against the impulses of national pride, the desire for complete independence, the dislike of external control.它必须不断斗争的民族自豪感,为完全独立,不喜欢的外部控制欲望的冲动。Hence history provides various cases in which these passions have obtained the upper hand, the bond of unity has been broken, and "National Churches" have been formed.因此,历史提供了各种案件中,这些激情已取得上风,团结债券已被打破,“国家教会”已经形成。In every such case the so-called National Church has found to its cost that, in severing its connection with the Holy See, it has lost its one protector against the encroachments of the secular Government.在此情况下,每一个所谓的国家教会发现其成本,在切断其与教廷方面,它已经失去了它的一个对世俗政府的侵犯保护。 The Greek Church under the Byzantine Empire, the autocephalous Russian Church today, have been mere pawns in the hands of the civil authority.拜占庭帝国下的希腊教会,autocephalous俄罗斯教会的今天,已在公务员手中的权力只是马前卒。The history of the Anglican Church presents the same features.圣公会教堂的历史呈现相同的功能。There is but one institution which is able to resist the pressure of secular powers -- the See of Peter, which was set in the Church for this purpose by Christ, that it might afford a principle of stability and security to every part.但有一个机构,它能够抵御世俗权力压力 - 见彼得,这是为这个目的,由基督的教会,它可能买得起的稳定和安全的原则,每一个部分。The papacy is above all nationalities.罗马教廷首先是民族的。It is the servant of no particular State; and hence it has strength to resist the forces that would make the religion of Christ subservient to secular ends.它是没有特别的国家公务员,因此它有实力抵抗的力量,就会使基督宗教屈从于世俗的目的。Those Churches alone have retained their vitality which have kept their union with the See of Peter.仅保留了这些教会的活力有跟上见彼得工会。The branches which have been broken from that stem have withered.在已经从该干折枝已枯萎。

The Branch Theory科理论

In the course of the nineteenth century, the principle of National Churches was strenuously defended by the High Church Anglican divines under the name of the "Branch theory".在十九世纪的过程中,国家教会的原则是极力辩护的高教会下的“科论”的名称圣公会神学。According to this view, each National Church when fully constituted under its own episcopate is independent of external control.根据这种观点,每个国家的教会在完全根据自己的主教组成的独立的外部控制。It possesses plenary authority as to its internal discipline, and may not merely reform itself as regards ritual and ceremonial usages, but may correct obvious abuses in matters of doctrine.它拥有作为其内部纪律的绝对权力,并可能不仅仅是改革方面的仪式和礼仪惯例本身,但可能正确的理论问题明显的弊端。 It is justified in doing this even if the step involve a breach of communion with the rest of Christendom; for, in this case, the blame attaches not to the Church which undertakes the work of reformation, but to those which, on this score, reject it from communion.这是有道理的,即使在这样做的步骤涉及共融与基督教其他违反,因为,在这种情况下,怪不重视教会的工作进行了改革,但那些,在这一点上,拒绝从共融的。 It still remains a "branch" of the Catholic Church as it was before.它仍是一个“分支”的天主教教会,因为它是以前。At the present day the Anglican, Roman Catholic, and Greek Churches are each of them a branch of the Universal Church.在今天的英国圣公会,罗马天主教和希腊教会是其中的每一项普世教会分支。None of them has an exclusive right to term itself the Catholic Church.他们中没有一个长远的专属权利本身的天主教教会。The defenders of the theory recognize, indeed, that this divided state of the church is abnormal.该理论的捍卫者承认,的确,这是教会的分裂状态是不正常的。They admit that the Fathers never contemplated the possibility of a church thus severed into parts.他们承认,父亲从来没有考虑的,从而将部分切断教堂的可能性。But they assert that circumstances such as those which led to this abnormal state of things never presented themselves during the early centuries of ecclesiastical history.但他们声称,如那些导致这种异常状态的情况下从来没有的东西呈现在早期的教会历史的百年本身。

The position is open to fatal objections.的立场是开放的致命反对。

It is an entirely novel theory as to the constitution of the Church, which is rejected alike by the Catholic and the Greek Churches.这是一个以教会,这是拒绝了天主教和希腊教会都完全新型的宪法理论。Neither of these admit the existence of the so-called branches of the Church.既不承认,这对教会的所谓的​​分支存在。The Greek schismatics, no less than the Catholics, affirm that they, and they only, constitute the Church.希腊schismatics,没有比天主教徒少,肯定他们,他们只,构成了教堂。Further, the theory is rejected by the majority of the Anglican body.此外,该理论被拒绝由英国圣公会的身体多数。It is the tenet of but one school, though that a distinguished one.它是一所学校的宗旨,但是,尽管这一位杰出的一个。It Is almost a reductio ad absurdum when we are asked to believe that a single school in a particular sect is the sole depositary of the true theory of the Church.这几乎是一个反证法当我们问到认为,在一个特定的教派单一的学校是教会的真正理论的唯一保存人。

The claim made by many Anglicans that there is nothing in their position contrary to ecclesiastical and patristic tradition in quite indefensible.由有在他们的立场违背了教会和教父在相当站不住脚的传统没有许多教徒的说法。Arguments precisely applicable to their case were used by the Fathers against the Donatists.参数恰恰适用于他们的情况,使用了反对多纳徒的父亲。It is known from the "Apologia" that Cardinal Wiseman's masterly demonstration of this point was one of the chief factors in bringing about the conversion of Newman.据了解,从“辩解”的枢机怀斯曼的这点精湛的示范是在对纽曼的转换带来的主要因素之一。In the controversy with the Donatists, St. Augustine holds it sufficient for his purpose to argue that those who are separated from the Universal Church cannot be in the right.在与多纳徒争议,圣奥古斯丁认为他的目的是为那些争论谁是从普世教会分开,不能在正确的就足够了。He makes the question one of simple fact.他做了一个简单的事实问题之一。Are the Donatists separated from the main body of Christians, or are they not?从基督徒的主体分离的多纳​​徒,或压根就没有? If they are, no vindication of their cause can absolve them from the charge of schism.如果是这样,没有自己的事业平反可以免除他们的分裂负责。"Securus judicat orbis terrarum bonos non esse qui se dividunt ab orbe terrarum in quâcunque parte orbis terrarum" (The entire world judges with security that they are not good, who separate themselves from the entire world in whatever part of the entire world -- Augustine, contra epist. Parm., III, c. iv in PL, XLIII, 101).“SECURUS judicat奥比斯terrarum bonos非魁Esse品牌本身dividunt AB orbe terrarum在quâcunque单方面奥比斯terrarum”(整个世界的安全与法官,他们也不好,谁脱离整个世界无论对整个世界的一部分自己 - 奥古斯丁,禁忌epist。帕姆,,三,c.在PL,四十三,四101)。St. Augustine's position rests through out on the doctrine he assumes as absolutely indubitable, that Christ's Church must be one, must be visibly one; and that any body that is separated from it is ipso facto shown to be in schism.圣奥古斯丁的立场就在于通过他的学说假定为绝对不容置疑的,基督的教会必须是一个必须明显地之一,而任何从它的身体是分离的事实本身证明是在分裂。

The contention of the Anglican controversialists that the English Church is not separatist since it did not reject the communion of Rome, but Rome rejected it, has of course only the value of a piece of special pleading, and need not be taken as a serious argument.该圣公会controversialists论点,即英国教会不分裂,因为它没有拒绝罗马的共融,但罗马拒绝了,当然有只是一种特殊的恳求一块价值,而无须考虑作为一项严肃的争论。 Yet it is interesting to observe that in this too they were anticipated by the Donatists (Contra epist. Petil., II, xxxviii in PL, XLIII, 292).然而,有趣的是观察,在这个太他们由多纳徒(魂斗罗epist。Petil,,二,在PL三十八,四十三,292)的预期。

The consequences of the doctrine constitute a manifest proof of its falsity.该学说的后果构成了其虚假的清单证明。The unity of the Catholic Church in every part of the world is, as already seen, the sign of the brotherhood which binds together the children of God.而在世界的每一个部分天主教教会的合一,正如已经看到的,有约束力的兄弟在一起的神的儿女的标志。More than this, Christ Himself declared that it would be a proof to all men of His Divine mission.不止此,基督亲自宣布,这将是对他的神圣使命所有的人证明。The unity of His flock, an earthly representation of the unity of the Father and the Son, would be sufficient to show that He had come from God (John 17:21).他的羊群,一个团结的父亲和儿子尘世的代表性,统一将足以表明,他从神(约翰17:21)前来。Contrariwise, this theory, first advanced to justify a state of things having Henry VIII as its author, would make the Christian Church, not a witness to the brotherhood of God's children, but a standing proof that even the Son of God had failed to withstand the spirit of discord amongst men. Contrariwise,这个理论,首次提出的理由是有作为的作家亨利八世事物的状态,就会使基督教教会,而不是对神的儿女兄弟情谊的见证,而是站在证明,即使是上帝的儿子没能顶住男人的精神之间的不和谐。 Were the theory true, so far from the unity of the Church testifying to the Divine mission of Jesus Christ, its severed and broken condition would be a potent argument in the hands of unbelief.理论是真实的,至今从见证耶稣基督的神圣使命,教会的合一其切断和破坏的情况将是不信的手中有力的论据。

XII.十二。NOTES OF THE CHURCH注意到教会

By the notes of the Church are meant certain conspicuous characteristics which distinguish it from all other bodies and prove it to be the one society of Jesus Christ.通过教会的说明是指一定的突出特点,区别于所有其他机构,并证明它是耶稣基督的一个社会。Some such distinguishing marks it needs must have, if it is, indeed, the sole depositary of the blessings of redemption, the way of salvation offered by God to man.它需要一些这样的识别标志必须具备的,如果是,的确,赎回的祝福唯一保存,拯救上帝的方式提供给男子。A Babel of religious organizations all proclaim themselves to be the Church of Christ.巴贝尔的宗教组织都宣称自己是基督的教会。Their doctrines are contradictory; and precisely in so far as any one of them regards the doctrines which it teaches as of vital moment, it declares those of the rival bodies to be misleading and pernicious.他们的学说是矛盾的,并恰恰在迄今为其中任何一个方面的教义教它作为重要的时刻,它声明的对手机构的被误导和毒害。 Unless the true Church were endowed with such characteristics as would prove to all men that it, and it alone, had a right to the name, how could the vast majority of mankind distinguish the revelation of God from the inventions of man?除非真正的教会是用这样的特点赋予的会证明一切,它矣,孤军奋战,有一个正确的名称,怎么可能是人类区别于绝大多数人的发明创造是神的启示? If it could not authenticate its claim, it would be impossible for it to warn all men that to reject it was to reject Christ.如果它无法验证其索赔,就不可能为它警告所有的人,要拒绝它拒绝基督。In discussing the visibility of the Church (VII) it was seen that the Catholic Church points to four such notes -- those namely which were inserted in the Nicene Creed at the Council of Constantinople (AD 381): Unity, Sanctity, Catholicity, and Apostolicity.在讨论教会的能见度(七)它被认为是天主教教会点,四个这样的音符 - 那些即这些在尼西亚信插在安理会君士坦丁堡(公元381):团结,神圣性,共通性,并使徒。These, it declares, distinguish it from every other body, and prove that in it alone is to be found the true religion.这些,它宣布,区别于其他所有体内,并证明在单打独斗是要找到真正的宗教。Each of these characteristics forms the subject of a special article in this work.这些特点构成了每一个在此工作的特殊文章的主题。 Here, however, will be indicated the sense in which the terms are to he understood.但在这里,将显示的意义,其中的条款是他的理解。A brief explanation of their meaning will show how decisive a proof they furnish that the society of Jesus Christ is none other than the Church in communion with the Holy See.其含义的简要说明将展示如何提供决定性的证据,他们认为耶稣基督的社会不是别人,正是在与教廷共融教会等。

The Protestant reformers endeavoured to assign notes of the Church, such as might lend support to their newly-founded sects.新教改革者努力分配的教会音符,如可能支持了他们的新成立的教派。Calvin declares that the Church is to be found "where the word of God is preached in its purity, and the sacraments administered according to Christ's ordinance" (Instit., Bk. IV, c. i; cf. Confessio August., art. 4).加尔文宣称,教会是要找到“里的上帝的话是在宣扬其纯度,并根据管理圣礼基督条例”(Instit.,浅滩四,C.我;比照Confessio八月艺术。 4)。It is manifest that such notes are altogether nugatory.这是体现这种纸币共有nugatory。The very reason why notes are required at all is that men may be able to discern the word of God from the words of false prophets, and may know which religious body has a right to term its ceremonies the sacraments of Christ.该票据的原因非常需要在所有的男人也许能辨别假先知的话语上帝的话,可能知道哪个宗教机构有权长期的基督圣礼仪式。 To say that the Church is to be sought where these two qualities are found cannot help us.如果说,教会是寻求在这两种素质是发现并不能帮助我们。The Anglican Church adopted Calvin's account in its official formulary (Thirty-Nine Articles, art. 17); on the other hand, it retains the use of the Nicene Creed; though a profession of faith in a Church which is One, Holy, Catholic, and Apostolic, can have little meaning to those who are not in communion with the successor of Peter.圣公会通过其官方处方(第三十九条,第17条)。卡尔文的帐户;另一方面,它保留了尼西亚信经使用,虽然没有在一个教堂,这是一个,神圣,天主教界的信仰和使徒,能有多大意义的那些谁是共融不与彼得的继任者。

Unity统一

The Church is One because its members;教会是因为它的成员之一;

Are all united under one government都团结在一个政府

All profess the same faith所有信奉同样的信念

All join in a common worship所有参加一个共同的崇拜

As already noted (XI) Christ Himself declared that the unity of his followers should bear witness to Him.如前所述(十一)基督自己宣布他的追随者团结应见证他。Discord and separation are the Devil's work on the earth.不和分居是魔鬼的地球上的工作。The unity and brotherhood promised by Christ are to be the visible manifestation on the earth of the Divine union (John 17:21).的团结和兄弟情谊的基督许诺要对地球的神圣联盟明显的表现(约17:21)。St. Paul's teaching on this point is to the same effect.圣保罗在这一点上是相同的教学效果。He sees in the visible unity of the body of Christ an external sign of the oneness of the Spirit who dwells within it.他认为在基督的圣灵谁在它dwells一体的外部标志身体可见的统一。There is, he says, "one body and one Spirit" (Ephesians 4:4).还有就是,他说,“一个机构和一个精神”(弗4:4)。As in any living organism the union of the members in one body is the sign of the one animating principle within, so it is with the Church.正如在任何生物体的成员在一个机构联盟是一个动画的原则签订之内,因此它是与教会。If the Church were divided into two or more mutually exclusive bodies, how could she witness to the presence of that Spirit Whose name is Love.如果教会分成两个或两个以上相互排斥的机构划分,怎么可能她见证了那灵的名字是爱的存在。Further, when it is said that the members of the Church are united by the profession of the same faith, we speak of external profession as well as inward acceptance.此外,当有人说,教会的成员是由同样的信念界团结一致,我们讲的外部专业以及向内验收。In recent years, much has been said by those outside the Church, about unity of spirit being compatible with differences of creed.近年来,已说了很多教会以外的人,大约是与信仰的差异兼容精神的统一。Such words are meaningless in reference to a Divine revelation.这样的话是毫无意义的参照一个神圣的启示。Christ came from heaven to reveal the truth to man.基督是从天上来揭示真相的人。If a diversity of creeds could be found in His Church, this could only be because the truth He revealed had been lost in the quagmire of human error.如果一个信仰的多样性可以在他的教会发现,这只能是因为真理他透露已在人为错误的泥潭丢失。It would signify that His work was frustrated, that His Church was no longer the pillar and ground of the truth.这将意味着,他的工作很沮丧,他的教会不再是真理的柱石和基础。There is, it is plain, but one Church, in which is found the unity we have described -- in the Catholic Church, united under the government of the supreme pontiff, and acknowledging all that he teaches in his capacity as the infallible guide of the Church.还有就是,它是平淡,但一堂,在其中发现了我们所描述的统一 - 在天主教教会,在政府的最高教皇团结,承认一切,他的身份教导作为犯错的指导教会。

Sanctity尊严

When the Church points to sanctity as one of her notes, it is manifest that what is meant is a sanctity of such a kind as excludes the supposition of any natural origin.当教会分,她注意到一个神圣,它是体现的是什么意思是这样一种神圣的排除了任何自然起源的假设。The holiness which marks the Church should correspond to the holiness of its Founder, of the Spirit Who dwells within it, of the graces bestowed upon it.这标志着该圣洁的教会应该对应于它的创始人圣洁,人的精神在它的dwells赋予它的青睐。A quality such as this may well serve to distinguish the true Church from counterfeits.像这样的质量很可能为假冒产品,以区别于真正的教会。It is not without reason that the Church of Rome claims to be holy in this sense.这不是没有原因,罗马教会自称是在这个意义上圣洁。Her holiness appears in the doctrine which she teaches, in the worship she offers to God, in the fruits which she brings forth.她的圣洁出现在她教的教义,在神崇拜她提供的水果,她带出。

The doctrine of the Church is summed up in the imitation of Jesus Christ.教会的教义归纳起来就是耶稣基督的模仿。This imitation expresses itself in good works, in self-sacrifice, in love of suffering, and especially in the practice of the three evangelical counsels of perfection -- voluntary poverty, chastity, and obedience.这种模仿表达了自己的优秀作品,在自我牺牲,在痛苦的爱,特别是在三个福音律师执业的完美 - 自愿贫穷,贞洁,服从。The ideal which the Church proposes to us is a Divine ideal.理想是我们教会的建议是一个神圣的理想。 The sects which have severed themselves from the Church have either neglected or repudiated some part of the Church's teaching in this regard.当中有来自教会断绝自己教派要么忽视或否定在这方面的一些教会的教学环节。The Reformers of the sixteenth century went so far as to deny the value of good works altogether.十六世纪的宗教改革竟然否认价值的优秀作品完全。Though their followers have for the most part let fall this anti-Christian doctrine, yet to this day the self-surrender of the religious state is regarded by Protestants as folly.虽然他们的追随者在大多数情况下让今秋反基督教的教义,但到今天的宗教国家自我投降被视为是愚蠢的新教徒。

The holiness of the Church's worship is recognized even by the world outside the Church.该教会的崇拜圣洁是公认的,甚至由教会之外的世界。In the solemn renewal of the Sacrifice of Calvary there lies a mysterious power, which all are forced to own.在庄严的各各牺牲重建之间存在着神秘的力量,而这一切都迫使自己。Even enemies of the Church realize the sanctity of the Mass.教会即使敌人实现对马萨诸塞州的神圣

Fruits of holiness are not, indeed, found in the lives of all the Church's children.圣洁的水果都没有,事实上,发现在所有教会的儿童的生命。Man's will is free, and though God gives grace, many who have been united to the Church by baptism make little use of the gift.人的意志是自由的,但上帝给的恩典,许多谁已经团结教会的洗礼,以使小的礼品使用。But at all times of the Church's history there have been many who have risen to sublime heights of self-sacrifice, of love to man, and of love to God.但在教会的历史时刻出现了许多谁已经上升到自我牺牲的崇高的高度,爱的人,爱上帝。It is only in the Catholic Church that is found that type of character which we recognize in the saints -- in men such as St. Francis Xavier, St. Vincent de Paul, and many others.只有在天主教教会发现,性格类型,我们在圣人承认 - 如圣弗朗西斯泽维尔,圣文森特德保罗,和许多其他人。Outside the Church men do not look for such holiness.外教会男人不找这样的圣洁。Moreover, the saints, and indeed every other member of the Church who has attained to any degree of piety, have been ever ready to acknowledge that they owe whatever is good in them to the grace the Church bestows.此外,圣人,甚至每一个谁已达到任何程度的虔诚教会其他成员,已随时准备承认自己欠他们什么是良好的恩典教会赠送。

Catholicity大公

Christ founded the Church for the salvation of the human race.基督创立为人类得救的教会。He established it that it might preserve His revelation, and dispense His grace to all nations.他建立了它,它可能保留他的启示,并免除他的恩典给所有国家。Hence it was necessary that it should be found in every land, proclaiming His message to all men, and communicating to them the means of grace.因此它是必要的,应当在每一块土地发现,宣布他的消息,所有的人,和他们沟通手段的宽限期。To this end He laid on the Apostles the Injunction to "go, and teach all nations".为此他放在使徒的禁令“走出去,和教导所有国家”。 There is, notoriously, but one religious body which fulfills this command, and which can therefore lay any claim to the note of Catholicity.还有就是,出了名的,但一个宗教机构,履行该命令,并因此可以打下任何的共通性注意索赔。The Church which owns the Roman pontiff as its supreme head extends its ministrations over the whole world.教会拥有作为其最高元首罗马教皇延伸到整个世界的ministrations。It owns its obligation to preach the Gospel to all peoples.它拥有自己的义务,传福音给所有人民。No other Church attempts this task, or can use the title of Catholic with any appearance of justification.没有其他教会尝试这项任务,也可以使用任何理由出现在天主教称号。The Greek Church is at the present day a mere local schism.希腊教会是一个只有在当地分裂至今。None of the Protestant bodies has ever pretended to a universal mission.在新教团体从来没有假装一个普遍的使命。They claim no right to convert to their beliefs the Christianized nations of Europe.他们声称没有权利转换为自己的信念的基督教化的欧洲国家。Even in regard to the heathen, for nearly two hundred years missionary enterprise was unknown among Protestant bodies.即使在关于异教徒,为近二百年的传教士企业不明新教团体之间。In the nineteenth century, it is true, many of them displayed no little zeal for the conversion of the heathen, and contributed large sums of money for this purpose.在十九世纪,这是事实,其中不乏没有显示为异教徒转换小热情,并为此作出贡献的大笔资金。But the results achieved were so inadequate as to justify the conclusion that the blessing of God did not rest upon the enterprise.但取得的成果是如此不足,以证明结论,即上帝的祝福没有休息后的企业。(See CATHOLIC MISSIONS; MISSIONS; PROTESTANT.)(见天主教任务;任务;新教)。

Apostolicity使徒

The Apostolicity of the Church consists in its identity with the body which Christ established on the foundation of the Apostles, and which He commissioned to carry on His work.教会的使徒在于它与身体建立在基督的使徒的基础,并委托他继续他的工作身份。No other body save this is the Church of Christ.没有其他机构保存,这是基督的教会。The true Church must be Apostolic in doctrine and Apostolic in mission.真正的教会必须使徒在理论和使命使徒。Since, however, it has already been shown that the gift of infallibility was promised to the Church, it follows that where there is Apostolicity of mission, there will also be Apostolicity of doctrine.但是,由于它已经表明,一贯正确的礼物是答应教会,它遵循,哪里有使徒的使命,也将有使徒的教义。Apostolicity of mission consists in the power of Holy orders and the power of jurisdiction derived by legitimate transmission from the Apostles.使徒的使命包括在神圣的命令权和由使徒合法传输派生管辖的权力。 Any religious organization whose ministers do not possess these two powers is not accredited to preach the Gospel of Christ.任何宗教组织,其部长不具备这两个权力是不认可的宣讲基督福音。For "how shall they preach", asks the Apostle, "unless they be sent?"对于“如何应言行一致”,要求使徒,“除非他们被送到?”(Romans 10:15).(罗10:15)。 It is Apostolicity of mission which is reckoned as a note of the Church.这是使命,是为教会的注意计算使徒。No historical fact can be more clear than that Apostolicity, if it is found anywhere, is found in the Catholic Church.没有历史事实可以比这更使徒明确,一旦发现任何地方,是在天主教教会中找到。In it there is the power of Holy orders received by Apostolic succession.在它存在的神圣的使徒继承收到订单的权力。In it, too, there is Apostolicity of jurisdiction; for history shows us that the Roman bishop is the successor of Peter, and as such the centre of jurisdiction.在这里面,也有管辖权的使徒,为历史告诉我们,罗马主教是彼得的继承人,因此中心的管辖范围。Those prelates who are united to the Roman See receive their jurisdiction from the pope, who alone can bestow it.这些谁是团结的罗马主教见得到教皇,谁赋予它单靠他们的管辖范围。No other Church is Apostolic.没有其他教会是使徒。The Greek church, it is true, claims to possess this property on the strength of its valid succession of bishops.希腊教会,这是事实,声称拥有关于其强度的主教有效继承这个属性。But, by rejecting the authority of the Holy See, it severed itself from the Apostolic College, and thereby forfeited all jurisdiction.但是,通过拒绝了罗马教廷的权威,它断绝了从使徒学院本身,从而丧失所有管辖。Anglicans make a similar claim.圣公会提出类似要求。But even if they possessed valid orders, jurisdiction would be wanting to them no less than to the Greeks.不过,即使他们拥有有效的订单,管辖权将想他们没有比希腊人少。

XIII.第十三。THE CHURCH, A PERFECT SOCIETY教会,一个完美的社会

The Church has been considered as a society which aims at a spiritual end, but which yet is a visible polity, like the secular polities among which it exists.教会一直被视为一个社会的最终目的是在一种精神,但却又是一个可见的政体一样,其中存在的世俗政体。It is, further, a "perfect society".这是,进一步,“完美社会”。The meaning of this expression, "a perfect society", should be clearly understood, for this characteristic justifies, even on grounds of pure reason, that independence of secular control which the Church has always claimed.这个表达式的意思,“一个完美的社会”,应清楚地了解,为证明这一特点,即使在纯粹理性的,即世俗的控制独立的教会一直宣称的理由。 A society may be defined as a number of men who unite in a manner more or less permanent in order, by their combined efforts, to attain a common good.一个社会可以定义为一个男人谁团结的方式或多或少为了永久的,他们的共同努力,以实现一个共同的好一些。Association of this kind is a necessary condition of civilization.这种协会是一个文明的必要条件。An isolated individual can achieve but little.一个孤立的个体可以实现,但很少。He can scarcely provide himself with necessary sustenance; much less can he find the means of developing his higher mental and moral gifts.他几乎无法自己提供必要的寄托,更不能找他开发他的更高的精神和道德的礼物的手段。 As civilization progresses, men enter into various societies for the attainment of various ends.随着文明的进步,男人进入了各种不同的社会目的的实现。These organizations are perfect or imperfect societies.这些组织是完美或不完美的社会。For a society to be perfect, two conditions are necessary:对于一个社会是完美的,两个条件是必要的:

The end which it proposes to itself must not be purely subordinate to the end of some other society.最终它建议本身不能单纯从属于其他一些社会末期。For example, the cavalry of an army is an organized association of men; but the end for which this association exists is entirely subordinate to the good of the whole army.例如,一个军队的骑兵是一个男性组织的关联,但在结束本协会的存在是完全服从整个军队好。Apart from the success of the whole army, there can properly speaking be no such thing as the success of the lesser association.除了全军成功,就不可能正确地说是没有作为较小的协会成功这样的事情。Similarly, the good of the whole army is subordinate to the welfare of the State.同样,全军良好从属于国家的福利。

The society in question must be independent of other societies in regard to the attainment of its end.有问题的社会必须是独立于其他社会就其最终的实现。Mercantile societies, no matter how great their wealth and power, are imperfect; for they depend on the authority of the State for permission to exist.商品社会中,无论多么伟大的财富和权力,是不完善的,因为他们对国家权力的许可存在依赖。So, too, a single family is an imperfect society.因此,太,一个家庭是一个不完美的社会。It cannot attain its end -- the well-being of its members -- in isolation from other families.它不能达到其最终 - 福祉其成员 - 来自其他家庭隔离。Civilized life requires that many families should cooperate to form a State.文明的生活需要,很多家庭应进行合作,形成一个国家。

There are two societies which are perfect -- the Church and the State.有两个社团是完美的 - 教会和国家。The end of the State is the temporal welfare of the community.该州到底是社会福利的时间。It seeks to realize the conditions which are requisite in order that its members may be able to attain temporal felicity.它旨在实现的条件,是为了必要的,其成员可以达到颞幸福。It protects the rights, and furthers the interests of the individuals and the groups of individuals which belong to it.它保护的权利,并进一步加强了对个人和个人属于它的群体的利益。All other societies which aim in any manner at temporal good are necessarily imperfect.所有以任何方式着眼于颞好其他社会必然是不完美的。Either they exist ultimately for the good of the State itself; or, if their aim is the private advantage of some of its members, the State must grant them authorization, and protect them in the exercise of their various functions.无论它们的存在,最终为国家本身好,或者,如果他们的目标是它的一些成员谋取私利,国家必须给予他们授权,并保护其各种功能锻炼他们。 Should they prove dangerous to it, it justly dissolves them.如果他们证明危险是,它公正地溶解它们。The Church also possesses the conditions requisite for a perfect society.教会还拥有一个完美的条件,为社会的必要条件。 That its end is not subordinate to that of any other society is manifest: for it aims at the spiritual welfare, the eternal felicity, of man.它到底是不是从属于其他任何社会,是明显的:它在精神福利,永恒的幸福,人的目的。 This is the highest end a society can have; it is certainly not an end subordinate to the temporal felicity aimed at by the State.这是最高端的一个社会可以有,它肯定不是目的服从于颞幸福在由国家目标。Moreover, the Church is not dependent on the permission of the State in the attaining of its end.此外,教会不上国家在其最终实现的权限而定。Its right to exist is derived not from the permission of the State, but from the command of God.其存在的权​​利派生不是从国家的批准,但是从神的命令。Its right to preach the Gospel, to administer the sacraments, to exercise jurisdiction over its subjects, is not conditional on the authorization of the civil Government.它的权利,传福音,管理圣礼,行使其管辖权的主体,是不是在政府授权的民间条件。It has received from Christ Himself the great commission to teach all nations.它已收到来自基督自己的伟大委员会,教导所有国家。 To the command of the civil Government that they should desist from preaching, the Apostles replied simply that they ought to obey God rather than men (Acts 5:29).到民间政府,他们应该停止说教命令,使徒回答简单,就是他们应该服从上帝而不是男人(徒5:29)。Some measure of temporal goods is, indeed, necessary to the Church to enable it to carry out the work entrusted to it.有些商品的时间衡量,着实有必要教会,使其能够开展工作委托给它。The State cannot justly prohibit it from receiving this from the benefactions of the faithful.国家不能理直气壮地禁止接受的忠实benefactions这个它。Those whose duty it is to achieve a certain end have a right to possess the means necessary to accomplish their task.那些职责是要达到一定的结束,都有权拥有必要的手段来完成自己的任务。

Pope Leo XIII summed up this doctrine in his Encyclical "Immortale Dei" (1 November, 1885) on the Christian constitution of States: "The Church", he says, "is distinguished and differs from civil society; and, what is of highest moment, it is a society chartered as of right divine, perfect in its nature and its title to possess in itself and by itself through the will and loving kindness of its Founder, all needful provision for its maintenance and action. And just as the end at which the Church aims is by far the noblest of ends, so is its authority the most excellent of all authority, nor can it be looked on as inferior to the civil power, or in any manner dependent upon it."教皇利奥十三世在他的通谕中总结了“Immortale业会”(1885年11月1日)本主义关于国家基督教的宪法:“教会”,他说,“是杰出的和民间社会的不同,以及,什么是最高目前,它是神圣的特许权的社会,在其性质和所有权本身和本身具备通过的意志和它的创办人,所有的维修和行动needful提供完美的慈爱,而只是作为结束在这教会的目的是迄今为止最崇高的目的,所以是它的最权威的权威优秀,也不能被视为逊色于公务员的权力,或以任何方式依赖于它的。“ It is to be observed that though the end at which the Church aims is higher than that of the State, the latter is not, as a society, subordinate to the Church.这是必须指出,虽然最终在该教会的目标是比国家要高,后者则不然,作为一个社会,服从教会。The two societies belong to different orders.两个社会属于不同的订单。The temporal felicity at which the State aims is not essentially dependent on the spiritual good which the Church seeks.幸福的时间在该国的目标是没有本质上的精神很好,教会的目的而定。Material prosperity and a high degree of civilization may be found where the Church does not exist.物质繁荣和文明的高度可能会发现在教会不存在。Each society is Supreme in its own order.每个社会在它自己的顺序最高。At the same time each contributes greatly to the advantage of the other.同时,每个很大的贡献的其他优势。The church cannot appeal to men who have not some rudiments of civilization, and whose savage mode of life renders moral development impossible.教会不能吸引男人谁没有一些文明的雏形,而且其野蛮的方式呈现生活的道德发展是不可能的。Hence, though her function is not to civilize but to save souls, yet when she is called on to deal with savage races, she commences by seeking to communicate the elements of civilization to them.因此,虽然她的功能是不开化而是拯救灵魂,然而,当她呼吁对付野蛮的种族,她开始寻求沟通的文明的元素给他们。On the other hand, the State needs the Supernatural sanctions and spiritual motives which the Church impresses on its members.另一方面,国家需要超自然的制裁和精神动机教会对其成员的印象。A civil order without these is insecurely based.一个没有这些社会秩序是不安全的。

It has often been objected that the doctrine of the Church's independence in regard to the State would render civil government impossible.它经常被反对,该教会在考虑到国家的独立主义会使文官政府是不可能的。Such a theory, it is urged, creates a State within a State; and from this, there must inevitably result a conflict of authorities each Claiming supreme dominion over the same subjects.这样的理论,它是呼吁,建立一个国家一个国家内,并从这个,就必须不可避免地造成了当局都宣称在相同科目的最高统治权的冲突。 Such was the argument of the Gallican Regalists.这些是该gallican Regalists说法。The writers of this school, consequently, would not admit the claim of the Church to be a perfect society.这所学校的作家,因此,不承认教会的主张是一个完美的社会。They maintained that any jurisdiction which it might exercise was entirely dependent on the permission of the civil power.他们认为,任何可行使司法管辖权,而它是完全的民事权力的权限而定。The difficulty, however, is rather apparent than real.困难,但是,是不是真正显现出来。The scope of the two authorities is different, the one belonging to what is temporal, the other to what is spiritual.这两个机构的范围是不同的,一个属于什么时间,对什么是精神等。Even when the jurisdiction of the Church involves the use of temporal means and affects temporal interests, it does not detract from the due authority of the State.即使教会的管辖范围涉及到时间的手段,影响时间利益,它并不影响国家的应有权力。If difficulties arise, they arise, not by the necessity of the case, but from some extrinsic reason.如果出现困难,他们出现,而不是由对案件的必要性,但是从一些外在原因。In the course of history, occasions have doubtless arisen, when ecclesiastical authorities have grasped at power which by right belonged to the State, and, more often still, when the State has endeavoured to arrogate to itself spiritual jurisdiction.在历史的长河中,曾先后出现无疑,当教会当局的权力,以权属于国家所掌握,而且更经常的是,当国家一直努力独揽到自己的精神管辖权。 This, however, does not show the system to be at fault, but merely that human perversity can abuse it.然而,这并不表明,该系统将在故障,而只是人类变态可以滥用它。So far, indeed, is it from being true that the Church's claims render government impossible, that the contrary is the case.到目前为止,的确,它是被真正教会的主张使政府不可能,相反的情况。By determining the just limits of liberty of conscience, they are a defence to the State.通过确定的只是良心自由的限制,它们对国家的防御。Where the authority of the Church is not recognized, any enthusiast may elevate the vagaries of his own caprice into a Divine command, and may claim to reject the authority of the civil ruler on the plea that he must obey God and not man.如果教会的权威,是不被认可,任何爱好者可提升到一个神圣的命令自己的任性的反复无常,并可能要求对拒绝认罪,他必须服从上帝而不是人的民事统治者的权威。 The history of John of Leyden and of many another self-styled prophet will afford examples in point.对莱顿约翰和许多​​其他自称先知的历史将承受点的例子。The Church bids her members see in the civil power "the minister of God", and never justifies disobedience, except in those rare cases when the State openly violates the natural or the revealed law.教会出价她的成员在民间力量看到“神部长”,从不辩解抗命,除了那些罕见的情况下,当国家公然违反了自然或揭示规律。(See CIVIL ALLEGIANCE.) (见公务员忠诚。)

Publication information Written by GH Joyce.出版信息GH乔伊斯写。Transcribed by Douglas J. Potter.转录由道格拉斯J.波特。Dedicated to the Immaculate Heart of the Blessed Virgin Mary The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume III.献给圣母玛利亚天主教百科全书,第三卷无玷圣心。Published 1908.发布1908年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, November 1, 1908. Nihil Obstat 11月1日,1908。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰farley枢机主教,大主教纽约

Bibliography参考书目

Among the writings of the Fathers, the following are the principal works which bear on the doctrine of the Church: ST.其中的父亲的著作,以下是于教会的教义承担的主要工作:ST。IRENÆUS, Adv.爱任纽,高级。 Hereses in PG, VII; TERTULLIAN, De Prescriptionibus in PL, II; ST.在PG,七Hereses;良,德Prescriptionibus在PL,二; ST。CYPRIAN, De Unitate Ecclesie in PL, IV; ST.塞浦路斯,德Unitate Ecclesie在PL,IV; ST。 OPTATUS, De Schismate Donatistarum in PL, XI; ST.OPTATUS,德Schismate Donatistarum在PL席; ST。AUGUSTINE, Contra Donatistas, Contra Epistolas Parmeniani, Contra Litteras Petiliani in PL, XLIII; ST.奥古斯丁,魂斗罗Donatistas,魂斗罗Epistolas Parmeniani,魂斗罗Litteras Petiliani在PL,XLIII; ST。VINCENT OF LÉRINS, Commonitorium in PL, L. -- Of the theologians who in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries defended the Catholic Church against the Reformers may be mentioned: STAPLETON, Principiorum Fidei Doctrinalium Demonstratio (1574; Paris, 1620); BELLARMINE, Disputationes de Controversiis Fidei (1576; Prague, 1721); SUAREZ, Defensio Fidea Catholicoe adversus Anglicanoe Sectoe Errores (1613; Paris, 1859).的LÉRINS,Commonitorium在PL,L.文森特 - 其中的神学家谁在十六,十七世纪捍卫天主教反对改革者可能提到:芮,Principiorum Fidei Doctrinalium Demonstratio(1574,巴黎,1620);贝拉明,Disputationes德Controversiis Fidei(1576,布拉格,1721),苏亚雷斯,Defensio Fidea Catholicoe adversus Anglicanoe Sectoe ERRORES(1613,巴黎,1859年)。-- Among more recent writers: MURRAY, De Ecclesiâ (Dublin, 1866); FRANZLIN, De Ecclesiâ (Rome, 1887); PALMIERI, De Romano Pontifice (Prato, 1891); DÖLLINGER, The First Age of the Church (tr. London, 1866); SCHANZ, A Christian Apology (tr. Dublin, 1892).- 在最近的作家:穆雷,德教会(都柏林,1866年); FRANZLIN,德教会(罗马,1887年);帕尔米耶里,德罗马诺Pontifice(普拉托,1891年);多林格,教会的第一年龄(编辑部伦敦,1866); SCHANZ,基督徒道歉(编辑部都柏林,1892年)。---

The following English works may also be noticed: WISEMAM, Lectures on the Church; NEWMAN, Development Of Christian Doctrine; IDEM, Difficulties Of Anglicans; MATHEW, ed., Ecclesia (London, 1907).下列英文作品也可能会注意到:WISEMAM,对教会讲座;纽曼,基督教的教义发展;同上,在英国圣公会困难; MATHEW,海关,教会(伦敦,1907年)。In special relation to recent rationaIist criticism regarding the primitive Church and its organization, may be noted: BATIFFOL, Etudes d'histoire et de la théologie positive (Paris, 1906); important articles by Mgr.在特殊的关系最近rationaIist批评有关的原始教会及其组织,可以指出:BATIFFOL,练习曲D' histoire等德拉神学阳性(巴黎,1906年);主教的重要文章。Batiffol will also he found in the Bulletin de littérature ecclésiastique for 1904, 1905, 1906, and in the Irish Theological Quarterly for 1906 and 1907; DE SMEDT in the Revue des questions historiques (1888, 1891), vols.Batiffol也将他发现,在德littérature ecclésiastique公告的1904年,1905年,1906年,在爱尔兰神学季度为1906年和1907年在歌剧DE SMEDT DES问题historiques(1888年,1891年),第一卷和第二卷。XLIV, CL; BUTLER in The Dublin Review (1893, 1897), vols.XLIV,CL;巴特勒在都柏林回顾(1893年,1897年),第一卷和第二卷。CXIII, CXXI.CXIII,CXXI。 The following works are by Anglican divines of various schools of thought: PALMER, Treatise on the Church (1842); GORE, Lux Mundi (London, 1890); IDEM, The Church and the Ministry (London, 1889); HORT, The Christian Ecciesia (London, 1897); LIGHTFOOT, the dissertation entitled The Christian Ministry in his Commentary on Epistle to Philippians (London, 1881); GAYFORD in HASTING, Dict.以下作品是由各个学校圣公会神学思想:帕尔默,伤寒论教会(1842年); GORE,力士蒙迪(伦敦,1890年);同上,教会和部(伦敦,1889年);园艺,基督教Ecciesia(伦敦,1897年);娜莱,该论文题为他的书信向腓利评论(伦敦,1881年)基督教部;盖福德在黑廷斯,快译通。 of Bible, sv Church.圣经,SV教会。Amongst rationalist critics may be mentioned: HARNACK, History of Dogma (tr. London, 1904); IDEM, What is Christianity?当中理性的批评可能会提到:哈纳克,历史的教条(编辑部伦敦,1904年);同上,什么是基督教?(tr. London, 1901), and articles in Expositor (1887), vol.(编辑部伦敦,1901年),并在解释者(1887),第二卷的文章。V; HATCH, Organization of the Early Christian Churches (London, 1880); WEISZÄCKER, Apostolic Age (tr. London, 1892); SABATIER, Religions of Authority and the Religion of the Spirit (tr. London, 1906); LOWRIE, The Church and its Organization -- an Interpretation of Rudolf Sohm's 'Kirchenrecht" (London, 1904). With these may be classed: LOISY, L'Evangile et l'Eglise (Paris, 1902).V;,早期基督教教会组织(伦敦,1880年)HATCH; WEISZÄCKER,使徒时代(编辑部伦敦,1892年);萨巴蒂尔,管理局的宗教和精神(编辑部伦敦,1906年)的宗教; LOWRIE,该。教会及其组织 - 一个鲁道夫Sohm的“Kirchenrecht”(伦敦,1904年)诠释有了这些可能被归类:卢瓦西,欧莱雅L' Eglise Evangile等(巴黎,1902年)。



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