Comparative Religion比较宗教学

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Although it is possible to trace the origin of comparative religion to the sixth century Greek thinker Xenophanes, who noted that different peoples tend to depict God in their own image, it was not until the nineteenth century that the study of comparative religion began in earnest.虽然可以跟踪的比较宗教起源到六世纪的希腊思想家诺芬尼,谁指出,不同的民族往往描绘自己的形象的神,直到十九世纪,宗教的比较研究发轫于。 Under the influence of evolutionary theory a number of scholars found what they believed to be evolutionary links between various religious traditions.根据进化理论的影响一些学者找到了他们认为是不同的宗教传统之间的进化联系。Chief among these were F Max Muller, EB Tylor, and JG Fraser.其中最主要的是F最大穆勒,EB泰勒,和JG弗雷泽。The discipline gained rapid academic recognition, and chairs were established in various institutions, particularly the new universities of North America.该学科获得了长足的学术认可,椅子各院校,特别是北美的新的大学成立。In Britain the subject tended to serve the needs of the empire and was closely linked to the study of Asian languages.在英国的主题往往服务于帝国的需要,是密切联系在一起的亚洲语言的研究。In Germany it took the form of the history of religions, which was seen as an adjunct to Christian theology.在德国,参加了对宗教的历史,这是基督教神学作为辅助形式出现。

In the United States, under the influence of institutions like the University of Chicago, it became an important element in the expression of the American liberal consensus.在美国,在像芝加哥大学的机构的影响,它成为一个在美国自由​​主义共识表达的重要元素。As an undergraduate subject comparative religion became highly popular in the late 1960s and early 1970s, with the result that new religious studies departments were opened in many universities in Britain and North America.作为一个本科生的主题比较宗教成为高度在60年代末和70年代初流行,与宗教研究的新部门分别在英国和北美的许多大学开设的结果。

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In its crudest form comparative religion makes the assumption that all religions are essentially one. Thus the ten commandments of Judaism, the teachings of Jesus, the four noble truths of Buddhism, and various Hindu moral codes are compared to show that they all contain a common denominator such as the command to love one's neighbor. In a similar way it is often argued that despite apparent differences, all men worship a supreme being. 在其最原始的形式比较宗教使假设所有的宗教基本上之一,因此,犹太教十诫,耶稣的教诲,四大佛教的崇高真理,以及各种印度教道德准则的比较表明, 它们都含有一个共同的分母为命令,以爱自己的邻居等。以类似的方式,往往认为,尽管明显的差异,所有的人崇拜的最高福祉。However, serious study of various religions has revealed more disagreements than agreements.然而,认真研究各种宗教透露更多的分歧比协议。Thus, while it may be true that English housewives and African women in Uganda carry umbrellas, this information tells us very little about the actual life style of the women involved.因此,尽管它可能是真实的,英语家庭主妇和乌干达非洲妇女携带雨伞,这个信息告诉我们非常关注有关妇女的实际生活方式不大。 Using an umbrella to protect oneself from the rain is not the same as using it to avoid the glare of the sun.撑伞从雨中来保护自己是不一样的使用它,以避免刺眼的阳光一样。

Similarly, prayer to God in Christianity and meditation in Buddhism may look similar, but the object of each exercise is very different.同样,在基督教的祈祷和冥想在佛教神看起来相似,但每次运动的对象是非常不同的。Such a religion as Theravada Buddhism, in fact, presents a strong argument against crude forms of comparative religion because of its rejection of the importance of belief in God and denial of the existence of an individual self.这样一个小乘佛教的宗教,其实,提出了对宗教比较粗形式,因为其在上帝和一个人的自我否定的信念的重要性存在拒绝了有力的论据。 As a result of considerations like these, the study of religion as a universal phenomenon with a variety of different expressions has become increasingly complex.作为这样的考虑,因此,宗教作为一个有各种不同的表现形式已成为普遍现象的研究越来越复杂。Some scholars still retain a desire to find an underlying unity, while many others have abandoned this quest in favor of the study of a particular religious tradition which they recognize to be unique.一些学者还保留希望找到一个基本的统一,而许多人已经放弃了在一个特定的宗教传统,他们承认是唯一的研究支持这个任务。

I Hexham我赫克瑟姆
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Bibliography 参考书目
EJ Sharp, Comparative Religion; M Eliade and JM Kitagawa, eds., The History of Religions; N Smart, Reasons and Faiths. EJ,比较宗教夏普,M伊利亚德和,宗教历史JM北川,EDS;,N智能,原因和信仰。

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