Coptic Church科普特教堂

General Information一般资料

The Coptic church is the major Christian community in Egypt, numbering between 6 and 7 million.科普特教堂是主要在埃及基督教社区,编号6至7万元。The name Coptic is derived from the Greek word for Egyptian and reflects the national character of this ancient church, which goes back to the origins of Christianity.科普特人的名字源于希腊字为埃及,反映了这个古老教堂的民族性格,这可以追溯到基督教的起源。When the Christian church was torn apart by the 5th century controversies on the identity of Christ, most Egyptian Christians sided with the Monophysite party, which held that Christ has one nature, a doctrine condemned at the Council of Chalcedon (451).当基督教教堂被撕裂的关于基督的身份第5个世纪的争议外,大多数埃及基督徒与基督一性片面党,认为基督有一个性质,在Chalcedon委员会(451)谴责学说。

Monophysitism is still formally affirmed by the Coptic church.基督一性仍然是正式肯定了科普特教堂。 Coptic is sometimes used improperly to refer to the Ethiopian church because of its unity in faith and close affinity with Christian Egypt.科普特有时使用不当是指由于其在埃及与基督教信仰和团结埃塞俄比亚教会的密切关系。The Ethiopian church, however, declared itself independent of the Coptic patriarch in 1959.埃塞俄比亚教会,但是,宣布自己在1959年的科普特族长独立。The Coptic church is headed by the "patriarch and pope of Alexandria, Pentapolis and Ethiopia," who is elected by the entire community of clergy and laity.科普特教会为首的“族长和教皇亚历山大,Pentapolis和埃塞俄比亚,”谁是由僧侣和俗人整个社会的当选。His permanent residence is in Cairo.他的永久居留权是在开罗举行。

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Bibliography 参考书目
BL Carter, The Copts in Egyptian Politics 1918 - 1952 (1985); OFA Meindarus, Christian Egypt, Faith and Life (1970); K Murad, Coptic Egypt (1968); CH Roberts, Manuscript, Society and Belief in Early Christian Egypt (1979).BL卡特,1918年埃及政治的科普特人 - 1952年(1985年); OFA Meindarus,信仰与人生(1970年)基督教埃及,K穆拉德,科普特埃及(1968年); CH罗伯茨,手稿,社会和埃及在早期基督教信仰( 1979年)。


Coptic Church科普特教堂

General Information一般资料

The Coptic Church (Arabic qubt; from Greek aiguptios, "Egyptian"), is the major Christian church in Egypt.科普特教堂(阿拉伯语qubt;从希腊aiguptios,“埃及”),是主要在埃及的基督教教堂。Its name points to its national origins.它的名字点,国家的起源。Unsubstantiated tradition attributes to the apostle Mark the initial preaching of Christianity in Egypt.证据不足的传统属性使徒马克在埃及的基督教最初的说教。Recent scholarship suggests that the origins of Egyptian Christianity are to be found among the Jews living in Alexandria in the 1st century AD.最近的学术研究表明,埃及基督教的起源要跻身于亚历山大生活在公元1世纪的犹太人发现。By the end of the 2nd century in Alexandria, the major city of Hellenistic Egypt, the Christian catechetical school headed by Clement of Alexandria had already acquired great fame.到了第二世纪末在亚历山大,埃及的古希腊,基督教教理学校由克莱门特的亚历山德里亚市的主要领导已取得很大的名气。Origen, the founder of Greek Christian theology and biblical science, followed Clement as head of the school.奥利,希腊基督教神学和圣经科学的奠基人,其次为校长克莱门特。In the 4th and 5th centuries, two great bishops of Alexandria defended Christian orthodoxy - Saint Athanasius, against Arianism, and Saint Cyril, against Nestorianism.在第4和第5世纪,两个伟大的亚历山大主教捍卫正统基督教 - 圣亚他那修,反对阿里乌斯教,和圣西里尔,对景教。

Some Egyptian Christians, however, refused to follow the decrees of the Council of Chalcedon (451), which defined the person of Jesus Christ as being "one in two natures."一些埃及的基督徒,然而,拒绝遵循Chalcedon委员会(451),它定义为耶稣基督的人法令“两种性质之一。” The doctrine of "two natures" appeared to them to imply the existence of two Christs, divine and human, and was therefore tainted with Nestorianism. “两个性质”学说似乎暗示他们的两个基督,神和人的存在,并因此与景教污染。They upheld the terminology of Cyril, who had spoken of "one incarnate nature of God the Word."他们坚持了西里尔术语,谁曾说过“一个神的化身性质的话语。”Those Egyptian Christians who rejected the Council of Chalcedon - a council accepted both in Constantinople (present-day Ýstanbul) and in Rome - faced charges of Monophysitism, the belief that Christ has only one nature rather than two.这些埃及的基督徒谁拒绝了Chalcedon委员会 - 一个议会接受君士坦丁堡都(今Ýstanbul)和罗马 - 面临指控的基督一性,相信基督只有一个,而不是两者的性质。

Only a few Alexandrians remained faithful to Chalcedonian orthodoxy.只有少数Alexandrians仍然忠实于Chalcedonian正统。Because this minority was supported by Byzantine imperial authorities, the Copts developed national and cultural animosity against the Byzantine Empire.因为这是由拜占庭帝国少数部门的支持下,科普特人对拜占庭帝国发达的国家和文化敌意。This hostility facilitated the conquest of Egypt by the Arab Muslims in the 7th century.这种敌意促进了阿拉伯穆斯林在公元7世纪征服了埃及。Today the Coptic Christian population of Egypt constitutes a substantial minority of about 7 million, although official government statistics lower this figure.今天,埃及科普特基督徒人口构成了约700万大幅少数,但正式的官方统计数字减少这个数字。Traditionally the Coptic church is headed by the pope and patriarch of Alexandria, who is nominated by an electoral college of clergy and laity, with the final selection among three leading nominees decided by lot.传统的科普特教堂的负责人是教皇和主教亚历山德里亚,谁是由僧侣和俗人的选举团提名,与经由很多决定三个主要候选人最后的选择。 After the Egyptian government banished the pope to a desert monastery in September 1981, church-state relations were handled by a commission of five Coptic clergymen; the pope was restored to his powers early in 1985.之后,埃及政府驱逐了教皇1981年9月到沙漠修道院,政教关系处理五个科普特牧师委员会;教皇恢复到他的权力早在1985年。

With a flourishing monastic tradition dating from the early Christian era (1st century to 8th century), the church has, in recent times, encouraged the development of a modern school system.随着繁荣寺院从早期基督教时代(公元1世纪至8世纪)约会的传统,教会,在近代,鼓励现代学校制度的发展。The Coptic church has also been in fruitful communication with the Ethiopian, Armenian, Jacobite, and Malabâr communities.科普特教堂也已经在卓有成效的交流与埃塞俄比亚,亚美尼亚,詹姆斯党和马拉巴尔社区。Recent discussion between Coptic and Eastern Orthodox theologians has indicated that the controversies of the past, provoked mainly by verbal differences, could be overcome and communion restored between the two.科普特东正教之间和神学家最近的讨论表明,过去的争论,主要是由语言差异引起,可以克服和共融两国恢复。

Rev. John Meyendorff牧师约翰Meyendorff



Also, see:此外,见:
(Eastern) Orthodox Church(东区)东正教教堂
Oriental Orthodox Churches东方东正教教堂
Monophysitism monophysitism
Chalcedon 迦克墩
Nestorianism 景教
Apollinarianism 亚波里
Alexandrian Theology亚历山大神学
Origen 奥利


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