Crucifix, Cross十字架,十字架

General Information一般资料

The cross is among the oldest and most universal symbols.十字架是其中最古老,最普遍的符号。 In preliterate societies it often represented a conjunction of dualities.在preliterate社会往往代表着一种二元结合。 The horizontal arm was associated with the terrestrial, worldly, feminine, temporal, destructive, and negative, passive, and death, while the vertical arm connoted the celestial, spiritual, masculine, eternal, creative, positive, active, and life.横臂是与陆地,世俗,女人味,时间,破坏性和消极的,被动的,而死亡,而垂直臂connoted的天体,精神,阳刚,永恒性,创造性,积极,主动,和生活。 Often symbolic of the four astrological elements of earth, water, fire, and air, a cross was also perceived as the cosmic axis from which radiated the spatial dimensions of height, length, width, and breadth, as well as the directions of north, east, south, and west.通常的四个土,水,火,空气占星元素符号,一个跨也被认为是宇宙辐射从中轴线的高度,长度,宽度和广度的空间尺寸,以及北方的方向,东,南,西。

The ankh (crux ansata) was an ancient Egyptian T - shaped cross surmounted with a loop.该十字章(关键ansata)是古埃及的T - 形交叉与循环克服的。It symbolized the creative energies of the male and female and the essence of life.它象征着男性和女性,生命的本质的创造力。 The simple T - shaped cross is named for the Greek letter tau.简单的T - 形交叉被命名为希腊字母头。It is often referred to as the Old Testament cross because Moses supposedly placed a brazen serpent on a T cross (Num. 21:6 - 9), and according to legend, the Israelites on Passover eve marked their doors with blood - drawn tau crosses to identify themselves as Yahweh's followers.它通常被称为旧约交叉因为摩西据说交叉放在一个T(民数记二十一点06 - 9)的铜蛇,并根据传说,以色列人在逾越节前夕标有血的门 - 画头跨越标识为耶和华的信徒自己。Another name for the T cross is the crux commissa.另一种为T交叉的名称是关键commissa。

In ancient Asian, European, and pre - Columbian American civilizations the left - directed swastika, or cruz gammata, appears to have been symbolic of solar power and movement.在古代亚洲,欧洲和前 - 哥伦布发现美洲文明的左 - 定向卍,或克鲁斯gammata,似乎一直是太阳能发电和运动的象征。Hindus see the swastika as a sign of the resigned spirit, whereas Buddhists consider it an emblem of the Buddha's mind.印度教徒看作是精神的辞职签署卍,而佛教徒认为这是佛陀的徽记。The German Nazis adopted a right - directed swastika for their party logo because they believed it to be an ancient Nordic symbol.德国纳粹采取了正确的 - 为他们的党的标志指示卍因为他们认为它是一个古老的北欧标志。

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The erect pole and crossbar used to crucify Jesus Christ became the principal symbol of Christianity. A cross stood for both the actual Crucifixion and the concept of the Christian church. More than 50 variants were to develop, but the most important are the Greek cross, with its equilateral arms, and the Latin cross, with a vertical arm traversed near the top by a shorter horizontal arm. 直立杆和横杆用来钉死耶稣成为基督教的主要标志。跨站为实际的受难和基督教教会的概念,超过50变种被开发,但最重要的是希腊十字架,与其等边武器,并与附近的拉丁十字架顶端走过一个短横臂垂直臂。 The Greek cross derives its name from its frequent use in the Greek and other Eastern Orthodox churches; the Latin cross was favored by the Western, or Roman Catholic, church.希腊交叉来自其在希腊东正教教堂及其他频繁使用的名称;拉丁十字架是由西方,或罗马天主教,教会的青睐。

Other major shapes include the diagonal, or x - shaped, cross on which Saint Andrew is said to have been crucified, and the cross paty (or patee), in which the arms widen at the extremities.其他主要包括对角线形状,或x - 形,十字架上的圣安德鲁说已经钉在十字架上,和跨paty(或patee),其中的武器在四肢扩大。A variant of the cross paty is the Maltese cross, has eight points.一个十字架的paty变种是马耳他十字,有八个百分点。The Chi - Rho is a cross formed by joining the first two letters of the Greek word for "Christ."志 - Rho的就是加入了前两个字母组成的希腊字一横“基督”。The Celtic or Iona cross, developed in early medieval Ireland and Scotland, is distinguished by a circle surrounding the point of crossing.凯尔特或Iona的交叉,在中世纪早期爱尔兰和苏格兰的开发,是杰出的一个过境点周围的圈子。 Two graduated crossbars indicate the Lorraine cross associated with archbishops and patriarchs, whereas the Papal cross has three graduated crossbars.两个毕业横梁表示洛林十字架与大主教和元老有关,而罗马教皇的十字架有三个毕业横杆。A commonly used Eastern Orthodox variant of the cross of Lorraine has an additional crossbar diagonally placed near the base.常用的东正教的洛林十字架变种有一个附加的横梁斜放在附近的基地。

The placement of the cross is often symbolic.十字架的位置往往是象征性的。Crosses surmounting orbs or spheres refer to the global triumph of Christianity.十字架超越天体或领域指的是基督教世界的胜利。 A cross erected on the site of a pagan temple indicated the victory of Christianity, and territory conquered by Christians would be claimed initially by planting a cross in the ground.跨在一个异教的庙宇网站架设表明了基督教的胜利,征服领土和基督徒声称将通过种植在地面交叉最初。

The cross was not widely depicted before the 4th century AD, when Christianity became the official religion of the Roman Empire. 交叉没有得到广泛描绘公元4世纪前,当基督教成为罗马帝国的官方宗教。Earlier, when Christians were often persecuted, the cross was frequently disguised as an anchor, or some other mundane object. Second century Christians, however, had already begun to make the sign of the cross as a gesture of identification, blessing, and warding off of evil. In the Roman church the sign of the cross was made from left to right and in Eastern Orthodox churches from right to left. 此前,当基督徒常常受到迫害,十字常常伪装成一个锚,或其他一些世俗的对象,第二世纪的基督徒,但是,已经开始做了鉴定,祝福手势十字架的标志,并抵挡邪恶的, 在罗马教堂的十字标志是从左至右,从右至左在东正教教堂了。

A crucifix is a cross bearing a painted or sculptured image of Christ. Crucifixes first appeared in the 5th century, and from the 9th century on medieval artists increasingly aimed at a realistic portrayal of Christ's suffering. 十字架是一个跨轴承基督的油漆或雕刻图像。十字架最早出现在公元5世纪,从上越来越多地在基督的苦难现实的写照针对中世纪的艺术家九世纪。 The Renaissance created a fashion for a more ideally conceived imagery that dramatically returned to pathos under the emotional taste of the baroque period. During the Reformation, Protestants generally repudiated the use of representational religious imagery; the crucifix therefore became associated with Roman Catholicism.文艺复兴时期创造了一个更理想的构思图像,极大地返回下的巴洛克时期的情绪悲怆的时尚品味在宗教改革,新教一般否定宗教的代表性图像的使用;十字架因此成为与罗马天主教有关。

When the art of Heraldry developed in medieval Europe, various types of Christian crosses were employed as symbols, or charges, in the designing of coats - of - arms.当纹章在中世纪的欧洲艺术的发展,各种类型的基督教十字架被聘用为符号,或收费,在大衣的设计 - 的 - 武器。A cross with equal arms and a diagonal cross, or saltire, were the most traditional heraldic forms.具有平等的武器和对角交叉,或saltire,交叉是最传统的纹章形式。Many of the insignias for medieval and Renaissance chivalric orders were crosses: the Maltese cross, for example, was the heraldic symbol of the Knights of Malta (the Hospitalers).对中世纪和文艺复兴时期的骑士徽章的订单很多都是跨越:马耳他交叉,例如,是马耳他(即Hospitalers)骑士纹章符号。 The flags of Switzerland, Greece, and the Scandinavian countries display various crosses.瑞士,希腊和斯堪的纳维亚国家的国旗显示各种跨越。The British Union Jack was designed to unify the diagonal crosses of Saint Patrick (Ireland) and Saint Andrew (Scotland) with the rectilinear cross of Saint George (England).英国国旗的目的是要统一的圣乔治(英格兰)直线交叉的圣帕特里克(爱尔兰)和圣安德鲁(苏格兰)的对角交叉。 A Saint Andrew's cross dominated the American Confederate flag, and it was subsequently incorporated into the state flags of some former Confederacy members.阿圣安德鲁的交叉控制了美国的同盟标志,它是后来到一些前联邦成员的状态标志中。

Robert J Loescher罗伯特J莱斯彻

Bibliography 参考书目
GW Benson, The Cross, Its History and Symbolism (1974); J Campbell, The Mythic Image (1974); JE Cirlot, A Dictionary of Symbols (1962); R Guenon, The Symbolism of the Cross (1975); J Hall, Dictionary of Subjects and Symbols in Art (1979).毛森,它的历史和象征(1974)十字架〔J坎贝尔的神话形象​​(1974年); JE Cirlot,一个符号词典(1962年),R长尾,十字架(1975)象征〔J厅,学科和艺术符号词典(1979年)。


The Crucifix十字架

Advanced Information先进的信息

Three kinds of Cross were in use: the so-called St. Andrew's Cross (x, the Crux decussata), the Cross in the form of a T (Crux Commissa), and the ordinary Latin Cross (+, Crux immissa).三交种在使用中:所谓的圣安德鲁十字(X,症结decussata),在一个T(症结Commissa)形成交叉,和普通的拉丁十字(+,症结immissa)。 We believe that Jesus bore the last of these.我们相信,耶稣承担了其中最后。This would also most readily admit of affixing the board with the threefold inscription, which we know His Cross bore.这也最容易被承认的追究与三重题词,我们知道他的十字孔的电路板。Besides, the universal testimony of those who lived nearest the time (Justin Martyr, Irenaeus, and others), and who, alas!此外,这些谁最近的时间(贾斯汀烈士,爱任纽,和其他人)居住,谁普遍的证词,唉!had only too much occasion to learn what crucifixion meant, is in favour of this view.只有太多的机会,学习什么十字架的意思,鉴于此有利。

This Cross, as St. John expressly states, Jesus Himself bore at the outset.这种交叉,如圣约翰明确规定,耶稣自己在一开始就承担。And so the procession moved on towards Golgotha. Not only the location, but even the name of that which appeals so strongly to every Christian heart, is matter of controversy. The name cannot have been derived from the skulls which lay about, since such exposure would have been unlawful, and hence must have been due to the skull-like shape and appearance of the place.因此游行队伍移动了向墓地,不仅位置,但即使是名称的,呼吁如此强烈地向每一个基督徒的心,是有争议的问题。名称不能被来自头骨奠定左右,因为这种接触,本来不合法的,因此必须是由于头骨般的形状和外观的地方。 Accordingly, the name is commonly explained as the Greek form of the Aramaean Gulgalta, or the Hebrew Gulgoleth, which means a skull.因此,该名称通常解释为对Aramaean Gulgalta希腊的形式,或希伯来文Gulgoleth,这意味着一个头骨。

The brief spring day was verging towards the 'evening of the Sabbath.'在短暂的春季一天接近于实现“的安息日晚上。”In general, the Law ordered that the body of a criminal should not be left hanging unburied over night.一般来说,法律下令刑事机构不应该离开悬在夜间掩埋。(a Deut. 21:23; comp. Jos. Wariv. 5, 2) Perhaps in ordinary circumstances the Jews might not have appealed so confidently to Pilate as actually to ask (3 'ask,' John 19:31.) him to shorten the sufferings of those on the Cross, since the punishment of crucifixion often lasted not only for hours but days, ere death ensued. (一申命记21时23分;。排版圣何塞Wariv 5,2。)或许在一般情况下,犹太人可能没有这么自信地呼吁为实际彼拉多问(3'问'约翰19时31分)他缩短在十字架上的人的痛苦,因为受难的处罚往往不仅持续了几个小时,但天,​​ERE死亡接踵而至。 But here was a special occasion.但这里是一个特殊的场合。

The Sabbath about to open was a 'high - day', it was both a Sabbath and the second Paschal Day, which was regarded as in every respect equally sacred with the first, nay, more so, since the so - called Wavesheaf was then offered to the Lord.安息日即将开放是一个“高 - 天”,这既是一个安息日和逾越节的第二日,这是因为在各方面都同样与第一,不仅如此,更使神圣认为,既然这样 - 所谓Wavesheaf当时提供给主。And what the Jews now proposed to Pilate was, indeed, a shortening, but not in any sense a mitigation, of the punishment. Sometimes there was added to the punishment of crucifixion that of breaking the bones (crurifragium) by means of a club or hammer.犹太人现在什么建议彼拉多的确是缩短了,但不是在任何意义上的缓解,处罚, 有时有添加到受难惩罚,打破由俱乐部指骨头(crurifragium)或锤。This would not itself bring death, but the breaking of the bones was always followed by a coup de grace, by sword, lance, or stroke (the perforatio or percussio sub alas), which immediately put an end to what remained of life. (1 Comp. Friedlieb, Archaeol. d. Leidensgesch. pp.163 - 168; but especially Nebe, us ii. pp. 394, 395.) Thus the 'breaking of the bones' was a sort of increase of punishment, by way of compensation for its shortening by the final stroke that followed. 这本身不会带来死亡,但骨头断裂总是跟一个致命一击的剑,枪,或中风(即perforatio或percussio子唉),立即制止什么样的生活依然存在,( 1,比赛Friedlieb,考古D. Leidensgesch pp.163 - 168; 但特别Nebe,我们II第394,395)这样的“骨头断”是一种惩罚增加排序,经由为缩短赔偿的最后中风之后。

It were unjust to suppose, that in their anxiety to fulfil the letter of the Law as to burial on the eve of that high Sabbath, the Jews had sought to intensify the sufferings of Jesus.它是不公正的假设,即在他们的焦虑履行的法律,以对高安息日前夕埋葬的信中,犹太人曾试图加大耶稣的苦难。The text gives no indication of this; and they could not have asked for the final stroke to be inflicted without the 'breaking of the bones,' which always preceded it. The irony of this punctilious care for the letter of the Law about burial and high Sabbath by those who had betrayed and crucified their Messiah on the first Passover - day is sufficiently great, and, let us add, terrible, without importing fictitious elements. John, who, perhaps, immediately on the death of Christ, left the Cross, alone reports circumstance.该文本没有给这个迹象;,他们不能有最后的行程是没有这之前总是它的骨头,打破“造成问的这个墓葬的有关法律条文执讽刺和护理高安息日那些谁背叛和钉在十字架上的第一个逾越节他们的弥赛亚-天足够大,而且,让我们添加,可怕的是没有进口虚构的元素,约翰,谁,也许,立即对基督的死,离开了跨单独报告的情况。

Perhaps it was when he concerted with Joseph of Arimathaea, with Nicodemus, or the two Marys, about measures for the burying of Christ, that he learned of the Jewish deputation to Pilate, followed it to Praetorium, and then watched how it was all carried out on Golgotha.也许是一致的,当他与约瑟夫Arimathaea,与尼哥底母,或两个玛利亚有关基督的埋葬措施,他的犹太代表团学会彼拉多,其次它Praetorium,然后看着它是如何进行的所有就各各他。 He records, how Pilate acceded to the Jewish demand, and gave directions for the crurifragium, and permission for the after - removal of the dead bodies, which otherwise might have been left to hang, till putrescence or birds of prey had destroyed them.他的记录,如何彼拉多加入犹太人的需求,又给了crurifragium方向,并为以后的权限 - 的尸体移走,否则它可能已经离开挂起,直到腐烂或猛禽摧毁了他们。But John also tells us what he evidently regards as so great a prodigy that he specially vouches for it, pledging his own veracity, as an eyewitness, and grounding on it an appeal to the faith of those to whom his Gospel is addressed.但约翰也告诉我们,他显然因为如此巨大的天才,他就为它专门vouches,表示自己的真实性,作为目击者,和接地它呼吁的那些人是写给他的福音信仰。

It is, that certain 'things came to pass (not as in our AV 'were done') that the Scripture should be fulfilled,' or, to put it otherwise, by which the Scripture was fulfilled.这是,某些'事情来通过(还不如我们的AV“是做”)认为圣经应得到履行,“或者,把它,否则,其中圣经的完成。 These things were two, to which a thrid phenomenon, not less remarkable, must be added.这些东西是两个,到其中三分之一的现象,而不是更少显着,必须加入。For, first, when, in the crurifragium, the soldiers had broken the bones of two malefactors, and then came to the Cross of Jesus, they found that He was dead already, and so 'a bone of Him' was 'not broken.'因为,第一,时,在crurifragium,战士打破了两个坏人的骨头,然后来到了耶稣的十字架,他们发现,他已经死了,所以“一骨的他'是'不破。 “Had it been otherwise, the Scripture concerning the Paschal Lamb, (a Ex. 12:46; Numb. 9:12) as well that concerning the Righteous Suffering Servant of Jehovah, (b Ps. 34:20) would have been broken.它当时否则,圣经关于逾越节的羔羊,(一前12点46分;。麻木9:12)以及有关耶和华的正义受苦的仆人,(,B诗34:20)将被打破。 In Christ alone these two ideas of the Paschal Lamb and the Righteous Suffering Servant of Jehovah are combined into a unity and fulfilled in their highest meaning.在基督的逾越节羔羊单独和耶和华的正义受苦的仆人这两种思想结合成一个团结,实现其最高的意义。

And when, by a strange concurrence of circumstances, it 'came to pass' that, contrary to what might have been expected, 'a bone of Him' was 'not broken' this outward fact served as the finger to point to the predictions which were fulfilled of Him.而当一个奇怪的同意的情况下,它来通过“说,相反的是人们意料之中,”骨的他'是'不破“这一事实,手指向外担任指向预测的为满足他。

Not less remarkable is the second fact.不少于引人注目的是第二个事实。If, on the Cross of Christ, these two fundamental ideas in the prophetic description of the work of the Messiah had been set forth: the fulfilment of the Paschal Sacrifice, which, as that of the Covenant, underlay all sacrifices, and the fulfilment of the ideal of the Righteous Servant of God, suffering in a world that hated God, and yet proclaimed and realising His Kingdom, a thrid truth remained to be exhibited.如果在基督的十字架,这两个在​​工作的弥赛亚预言的描述基本思想已经提出:对逾越节牺牲,其中,作为该公约认为,所有的牺牲底图履行,以及履行对上帝的义仆理想,苦难的世界,痛恨上帝,但宣告,实现他的王国,第三真相仍有待展出。 It was not in regard to the character, but the effects, of the Work of Christ, its reception, alike in the present and in the future.这不是在考虑到性格,但基督的工作的影响,其接待,都在现在和未来。

This had been indicated in the prophecies of Zechariah, (c Zech. 12:10) which foretold how, in the day of Israel's final deliverance and national conversion, God would pour out the spirit of grace and of supplication, and as 'they shall look on Him Whom they pierced,' the spirit of true repentance would be granted them, alike nationally and individually.这已经表明在撒迦利亚的预言,(C撒加利亚。12:10)的预言怎么样,在以色列的最终解脱和国家转换一天,上帝会倒出来的恩典和恳求的精神,为“他们应看不起他为谁他们刺穿,“确有悔改的精神将被授予他们,都在国家和个人。 The application of this to Christ is the more striking, that even the Talmud refers the prophecy to the Messiah.本应用到基督是更醒目,即使是塔木德,是指对弥赛亚的预言。(d Sukk. 52 a) And as these two things really applied to Christ, alike in His rejection and in His future return, (e Rev. 1:7) so did the strange historical occurence at His Crucifixion once more point to it as the fulfilment of Scripture prophecy. (四Sukk。52),而这两个真正应用到基督,在他拒绝和他今后的回报,(E启示录1:7)都做了奇怪的事情,以便在他受难的历史事件再次指向它作为圣经的预言实现。 For, although the soldiers, on finding Jesus dead, broke not one of His Bones, yet, as it was necessary to make sure of His Death, one of them, with a lance, 'pierced His Side, with a wound so deep, that Thomas might afterwards have thrust his hand into His Side.因为,虽然战士们,在寻找耶稣的死,打破了不属于他的骨头之一,然而,因为它是必要的,使用长矛他的死亡,其中一人,当然,“刺穿他的身边,与伤口如此之深,事后,托马斯有可能推到他身边他的手。 (f John 20:27)(F约翰20:27)

And with these two, as fulfilling Holy Scripture, yet a third phenonmenon was associated, symbolic of both.而这两个,为符合圣经,但在第三phenonmenon有关联,这两个象征性的。As the soldier pierced the side of the Dead Christ, 'forthwith came thereout Blood and Water.'由于士兵划破了死基督的一面,“随即来到thereout血和水。”

It has been thought by some, (1 So, with various modifications, which need not here be detailed, first, Dr. Gruner (Comment. Antiq. Med. de Jesu Christ Morte, Hal. 1805), who, however, regarded Jesus as not quite dead when the lance pierced the heart, and, of late, Dr. Stroud (The Physical Cause of the Death of Christ, 1871), and many interpreters (see Nebe, us pp. 400, 401).) that there was physical cause for this, that Christ had literally died of a broken heart, and that, when the lance pierced first the lung filled with blood and then the pericardium filled with serous fluid, (2 But certainly not through a separation of the serum and the cruor, which is the mark of beginning putrefaction.) there flowed from the wound this double stream.它被一些(1所以,用各种修改,而不必在这里进行详细的思想,首先,格鲁纳博士(Comment. Antiq。医学山Jesu基督莫提,哈尔,1805年),谁,但是,都把耶稣因为不是很死的时候长矛刺穿心脏,而且,最近,博士斯特劳德(即基督的,1871年死亡的物理原因),以及许多翻译(见Nebe,我们第400,401))有这是身体的原因,基督已经从字面上死于心都碎了,而且,当长矛刺穿先用血,然后用充满浆液性液体心包填补了肺,(2,但通过对血清中分离肯定不会和对凝血,这是开始腐烂标志。)有从伤口流这双码流。

(3 The fullest and most satisfactory physical explanation is that given by the Rev. S Haughton, and reprinted in the Speaker's Commentary on 1 John, pp. 349, 350. It demonstrates, that this phenomenon would take place, but only if a person who was also being crucified died of rupture of the heart.) In such cases, the lesson would be that reproach had literally broken His Heart. (3最充分,最满意的物理解释是,鉴于由牧师S霍顿,并在议长对约翰一书,第349,350评论重印,这表明,这种现象会发生,但只有一个人谁也被钉在十字架上死了的心破裂,在这种情况下),教训将是责备字面上打破了他的心。 (a Ps. 99;20.) But we can scarcely believe that John could have wished to convey this without clearly setting it forth, thus assuming on the part of his readers knowledge of an obscure, and, it must be added, a scientifically doubtful phenomenon.(一诗99; 20),但我们几乎无法相信,约翰可能希望转达没有明确设定它提出这一点,因此对他的读者的一个不起眼的,而且,它必须补充说,科学知识的一部分假设可疑的现象。 Accordingly, we rather believe that to John, as to most of us, the significance of the fact lay in this, that out of the Body of One dead had flowed Blood and Water, that corruption had not fastened on Him.因此,我们宁愿相信约翰,以我们大多数人,事实的意义在于在此,即在一个尸体,已经有流入血液和水,腐败没有在他身上固定。

Then, there would be the symbolic meaning conveyed by the Water (from the pericardium) and the Blood (from the heart), a symbolism most true, if corruption had no power nor hold on Him, if in Death He was not dead, if He vanquished Death and Corruption, and in this respect also fulfilled the prophetic ideal of not seeing corruption. (b Ps. xvi. 10.) To this symbolic bearing of the flowing of Water and Blood from His pierced side, on which the Evangelist dwells in his Epistle, (c 1 John 6) and to its external expression in the symbolism of the two Sacraments, we can only point the thoughtful Christian. 然后,将有象征意义的水(从心包)和血液(发自内心),一个象征最真实的传达,如果腐败没有权力也没有抱他,如果他死没死,如果他征服死亡和腐败,并在这方面也履行了理想的预言没有看到腐败(二诗篇十六10)对于这种流动的水和血从他扎边,对其中的传播者dwells象征性的关系在他的书信,(C约翰一6),并在两个圣礼象征的外在表现,我们只能点周到的基督徒。 For, the two Sacraments mean that Christ had come; that over Him, Who was crucified for us and loved us unto death with His broken heart, Death and Corruption had no power; and that He liveth for us with the pardoning and cleansing power of His offered Sacrifice.因为,这两个圣礼意味着基督已经到来;超过他,谁是钉在十字架上为我们和喜爱,以至于死与他的心都碎了我们,死亡和腐败没有权力,并认为他活着的赦免和洁净电力为我们他提供的牺牲。

Yet one other scene remains to be recorded.然而,另外一个场景仍然被记录下来。Whether before, or, more probably, after the Jewish deputation to the Roman Governor, another and a strange application came to Pilate.无论是以前,或者更可能,后到罗马的犹太总督代表,另一个和一个陌生的应用来彼拉多。It was from one apparently well known, a man not only of wealth and standing, (d Matthew.) whose noble bearing (4 This seems implied in the expression (AV 'honourable') Mark 15:43.) corresponded to his social condition, and who was known as a just and a good man.这显然​​是从众所周知的,这不仅是财富和地位的人,(D马太),其高尚的轴承(4这似乎暗示在表达式(AV'光荣')马克15点43)。对应他的社会条件,谁是作为一个公正和良好的人知道。 (e Luke) Joseph of Arimathaea was a Sanhedrist, (5 Taken in connection with Luke 23:51, this is probably the meaning of Otherwise we would have) but he had not consented either to the counsel or the deed of his colleagues. (E路)的Arimathaea约瑟夫是Sanhedrist(路加福音23时51分在5方面所采取的,这大概是意义,否则我们将有),但他没有同意或者向律师或他的同事契税。 It must have been generally known that he was one of those 'which waited for the Kingdom of God.'它必须是一般人都知道,他是其中之一“,这为神的国度等待着。”

But he had advanced beyond what that expression implies.但他已提前超越了那表情暗示。Although secretly, for fear of the Jews.虽然秘密,对犹太人的恐惧。(John) he was a disciple of Jesus.(约翰),他是耶稣的门徒。It is in strange contrast to this 'fear,' that )t.这是奇怪的对比,这种“恐惧”的)TMark tells us, that, 'having dared,' 'he went in unto Pilate and asked for the Body of Jesus'.马克告诉我们,说,“有敢”,“他去在祂彼拉多和耶稣的身体问道。

Thus, under circumstances the most unlikely and unforgivable, were his fears converted into boldness, and he, whom fear of the Jews had restrained from making open avowal of discipleship during the life - time of Jesus, not only professed such of the Crucified Christ, (2 At the same time I feel, that this might have been represented by the Jews as not quite importing what it really was, as rather an act of pietas towards the Rabbi of Nazareth than of homage to the Messiahship of Jesus.) but took the most bold and decide step before Jews and Gentiles in connection with it.因此,在最不可能的情况下和不可饶恕的,是他的恐惧转化成勇气,而他,谁是犹太人的恐惧已作出在生活门徒开放avowal克制 - 耶稣的时候,不仅声称基督的十字架等, (在同一时间,我觉得,这可能是由犹太人表示为不太它确实是进口的,而比的尊敬对耶稣的弥赛亚的走向拿撒勒拉比pietas行为,2),但花了前犹太人和外邦人在与此有关的最大胆的决定步骤。

So does trial elicit faith, and the wind, which quenches the feeble flame that plays around the outside, fan into brightness the fire that burns deep within, though for a time unseen.因此,不审判引起的信念,以及风,这微弱的火焰淬火的周围外剧,到亮度风扇的火烧伤深度范围内,虽然一时间看不见。 Joseph of Arimathaea, now no longer a secret disciple, but bold in the avowal of his regents love, would show to the Dead Body of his Master all veneration.约瑟夫Arimathaea,现在已不再是秘密的弟子,但在他的摄政avowal大胆的爱,将展现给所有崇拜他的主人尸体。 And the Divinely ordered concurrence of circumstances not only helped his pious purpose, but invested all with deepest symbolic significance.而有序的同意的情况下受神不仅帮助他的虔诚的目的,但投资与最深的象征意义的。It was Friday afternoon, and the Sabbath was drawing near.这是星期五下午,安息日是临近。

(3 No time therefore was to be lost, if due honour were to be paid to the Sacred Body. Pilate gave it to Joseph of Arimathaea. Such was within his power, and a favour not unfrequently accorded in like circumstances. (3没有时间因此被丢失,如果由于荣誉要支付给神圣的身体。彼拉多把它交给了Arimathaea约瑟夫,这样在他的权力,而不赞成unfrequently在类似情况下给予。

(4 See the proof in Wetstein, ad loc.) But two things must have powerfully impressed the Roman Governor, and deepened his former thoughts about Jesus: first, that the death on the Cross had taken place so rapidly, a circumatance on which he personally questioned the Centurion, (b Mark) and then the bold appearance and request of such a man as Joseph of Arimathaea. (4参见Wetstein,广告同上证明),但两件事情必须有有力地打动了罗马总督,并加深了他的前耶稣的想法:第一,死在十字架上发生了如此之快,一个circumatance上,他亲自质疑百夫长,(b标志),然后大胆的外观和这样一个男人的Arimathaea约瑟夫要求。

(5 The Arimathaea of Joseph is probably the modern Er - Ram, two hours north of Jerusalem, on a conical hill, somewhat east of the road that leads from Jerusalem to Nablus (Jos. Ant. 8:12. 3), the Armathaim of the LXX. The objection of Keim (which it would take too long to discuss in a note) are of no force (comp. his Jesu von Naz. III. p. 516). It is one of the undesigned evidences of the accuracy of Luke, that he described it as belonging to Judaea. For, whereas Ramah in Mount Ephraim originally belonged to Samaria, it was afterwards separated from the latter and joined to the province of Judaea (comp. 1 Macc. 10:38; 11:28, 34).) Or did the Centurion express to the Governer also some such feeling as that which had found utterance under the Cross in the words: 'Truly this Man was the Son of God'?(5约瑟夫Arimathaea可能是现代尔 - 拉姆,两个小时的耶路撒冷北部,在一个圆锥形小山,有些道路,导致从耶路撒冷纳布卢斯(圣何塞蚂蚁8时12分3)东,Armathaim。在LXX。异议的凯姆(这将需要很长时间来讨论在一份报告中)是任何力量(comp.他Jesu冯纳兹。三,第516),它是非故意的准确性的证据之一。卢克,他形容为属于犹太它,而在山莲拉玛原本属于撒马利亚,它是事后脱离后者而加入了犹太省(comp. 1排雷10:38; 11: 28,34)),抑或是百夫长表达对总督也有一些因为这其中有在十字架下找到的话表达这样的感觉:“真正的这个人是神的儿子”?

The proximity of the holy Sabbath, and the consequent need of haste, may have suggested or determined the proposal of Joseph to lay the Body of Jesus in his own rock hewn new tomb,而神圣的安息日接近,以及随之而来的急速需要,可有建议或决定了约瑟夫的建议,奠定了自己在新的岩石凿成的坟墓耶稣的身体,

(1 Meyer regards the statement of Matthew to the effect (27:60) as inconsistent with the notice in John 19:42. I really cannot see any inconsistency, nor does his omission of the fact that the tomb was Joseph's seem to me fatal. The narrative of John is concentrated on the burying rather than its accessories. Professor Westcott thinks that John 19:41, implies 'that the sepulchre in which the Lord was laid was not chosen as His final resting place.' But of this also I do not perceive evidence.) wherein no one had yet been laid. (1迈耶关于马修的声明,大意(27:60)与在约翰19时42分通知不一致的,我实在看不出任何不一致,他也没有遗漏的事实,该墓是约瑟夫的对我来说致命的约翰叙事集中在掩埋,而不是它的配件。韦斯科特教授认为,约翰19时41,暗示“,在其中主奠定了坟墓是不是他最后的安息之地选择”,但这个也是我没有察觉的证据。),其中没有一个尚未被解雇。 (a Luke)(一卢克)

The symbolic significance of this is the more marked, that the symbolism was undersigned.这种象征意义是更加明显,即象征了签字。These rock hewn sepulchres, and the mode of laying the dead in them, have been very fully described in connection with the burying of Lazarus.这些石头凿成的坟墓,并铺设在他们的死亡模式,已经非常充分说明与拉撒路埋连接。 We may therefore wholly surrender overselves to the sacred thoughts that gather around us.因此,我们可以完全放弃overselves到我们身边聚集神圣的想法。The Cross was lowered and laid on the ground; the curel nails drawn out, and the ropes unloosed.十字架被调低,而地面铺设;的屈雷尔钉画出来,绳索unloosed。Joseph, with those who attended him, 'wrapped' the Sacred Body 'in a clean linen cloth,' and rapidly carried It to the rock hewn tomb in the garden close by.约瑟夫,他与那些谁参加,“包裹”,“在一个干净的亚麻布,”圣体,并迅速进行关闭它在花园里的石头凿成的坟墓。Such a rock hewn tomb or cave (Meartha) had niches (Kukhin), where the dead were laid.这种石头凿成的坟墓或洞穴(Meartha)有壁龛(Kukhin),其中死者被解雇。

. It will be remembered, that at the entrance to 'the tomb', and within 'the rock', there was 'a court,' nine feet square, where ordinarly the bier was deposited, and its bearers gathered to do the last offices for the Dead.人们会记得,这在以“坟墓”,并在“岩石”的入口处,有“法院,”九英尺见方,其中ordinarly的柩沉积,其承载齐聚一堂,做最后的办事处为死者。 Thither we supposes Joseph to have carried the Sacred Body, and then the last scene to have taken place.我们到那里设约瑟都进行了神圣的身体,然后最后一幕有发生。For now another, kindered to Joseph in spirit, history, and position, had come.现在另一个kindered约瑟夫在精神,历史和地位,已经到来。The same spiritual Law, which had brought Joseph to open confession, also constrained the profession of that other Sanhedrist, Nicodemus.同样的精神法,带来了约瑟夫开供述,也制约了其他Sanhedrist,尼哥底母专业。 We remember, how at the first he had, from fear of detection, come to Jesus by night, and with what bated breath he had pleaded with his colleagues not so much the cause of Christ, as on His behalf that of law and justice.我们记得,如何在第一次,他从检测的恐惧,来到耶稣的夜晚,用什么屏息,他与他的同事们与其说是承认基督的事业上,他代表法律和正义的。 (b John 7:50)(二约翰7:50)

He now came, bringing 'a roll' of myrrh and aloes, in the fragrant mixture well known to the Jews for purposes of anointing or burying.他现在来了,引进知名的恩膏或掩埋的目的,以犹太人的香没药和沉香混合“一卷”。

It was in 'the court' of the tomb that the hasty embalmment, if such it may be called, took place.正是在“法庭”的墓的草率embalmment,如果这种可能被调用,发生了。None of Christ's former disciples seem to have taken part in the burying.基督的前弟子没有人可以采取在掩埋的一部分。John may have withdrawn to bring tidings to, and to comfort the Virgin Mother; the others also, that had 'stood after off, beholding,'appear to have left.约翰可能撤回带来福音来,并安慰圣母;人也,即有“关站后,仰望”,似乎已经离开了。

Only a few faithful ones, (a Luke) notably among them Mary Magdalene and the other Mary, the mother of Joseses, stood over against the tomb, watching at some distance where and how the Body of Jesus was laid.只有少数忠实的,特别是其中(一卢克)玛利亚和其他玛丽,Joseses母亲,站在了反对的墓,在一段距离的地方,以及如何看耶稣的身体被解雇。 It would scarcely have been in accordance with Jewish manners, if these women had mingled more closely with the two Sanhedrists and their attendants.这将几乎一直在与犹太礼仪规定,如果这些妇女夹杂着两个Sanhedrists和他们的服务员更密切的合作。 From where they stood they could only have had a dim view of what passed within the court, and this may explain how, on their return, they 'prepared spices and ointments' (b Luke.) for the more full honours which they hoped to pay the Dead after the Sabbath was past.从那里他们站在他们只能有一个什么样的法院内部通过暗淡说法,这也许可以解释,在他们的回归,他们准备香料和药膏“为更充分的荣誉,他们希望(B路)。支付死亡后的安息日是过去。

(1 John computes it at about 100 litras. As in all likelihood this would refer to Roman pounds, of about twelve ounces each, the amount is large, but not such as to warrant any reasonable objection. A servant could easily carry it, and it is not said that it was all used in the burying. If it were possible to find any similar use of the expression one might be tempted to regard the litras as indicating not the weight, but a coin. In that sense the words litra is used, sometimes as = 100 denars, in which case 100 litras would be = about 250 l., but more frequently as = 4 dranhms, in which case 100 litras would be = about 12 l. (comp. Herzfeld. Handelsgesch. p. 181).(约翰一计算约100 litras它作为在所有的可能性这将涉及到罗马磅,约12盎司,每年的数额很大,但不是这样,以保证任何合理的异议。仆人可以轻松携带它,这并不是说,这是所有在埋葬使用,如果它是可以找到任何一个可能倾向于认为,指示未重量,但硬币的litras表达类似用途的,在这个意义的话litra是使用时,有时= 100第纳尔,在这种情况下,将100 litras =约250升,但更经常为= 4 dranhms,在这种情况下,将100 litras =约12升(comp. Herzfeld。Handelsgesch。页181)。

But the linguistic difficulty seems very great, while any possible objection to the weight of the spices is really inconsiderable.但语言的难度似乎很大,而反对任何可能对香料的重量实在是不可小视的。For the kind of spices used in the burying, see Book EV.对于香料的使用,在埋葬那种,看到书EV。ch.CH。xxi.XXI。(as the burying of Lazarus). (如拉撒路掩埋)。In later times there was a regular rubric and prayers with Kabbalistic symbolism (see Perles, Leichenfeierlichk. p. 11, Note 12).在后来的时候有一个定期专栏和Kabbalistic象征祈祷(见珍珠,Leichenfeierlichk,第11页,注12)。 No doubt, the wounds in the Sacred Body of our Lord had been washed from their gore.)毫无疑问,在我们的主神圣的身体的伤口已经从他们的血腥清洗。)

For, it is of the greatest importance to remember, that hast characterised all that was done. It seems as if the 'clean linen cloth' in which the Body had been wrapped, was now torn into 'cloths' or swathes, into which the Body, limb by limb, was now 'bound,' (2 The Synopists record, that the Body of Jesus was 'wrapped' in a 'linen cloth;' John tells us that it was 'bound' with threads of aloes and myrrh of Nicodemus into 'swathes' or 'cloths,' even as they were found afterwards in the empty tomb, and by their side 'the napkin,' or soudarion, for the head. I have tried to combine the account of the Synoptists and that of John into a continuous narrative.) no doubt, between layers of myrrh and aloes, the Head being wrapped in a napkin.因为,它是最重要的要记住,这一切是祢的特点做了, 它好像“清洁亚麻布”在该机构已包裹,现在成了“布”或大片撕裂,将其中身体,四肢的肢体,现在“的约束,”(2 Synopists记录,即耶稣的身体被“包裹”中有“亚麻布;”约翰告诉我们,这是“必然”与沉香和没药的线程尼哥底母成“大片”或“布”,即使他们被发现后,在空墓,并通过他们一边“的餐巾纸,”或soudarion的头,我试图结合的Synoptists帐户,并认为约翰成一个连续的叙述。) 之间没有没药和沉香层怀疑,头被包裹在一张餐巾纸。

And so they laid Him to rest in the niche of the rock hewn new tomb.因此,他们奠定了他休息的岩石中凿成的新墓利基。And as they went out, they rolled, as was the custom, a 'great stone,' the Golel, to close the entrance to the tomb, (c Sanh. 47 b.) probably leaning against it for support, as was the practice, a smaller stone, the so - called Dopheq. (d Ohai. ii 4.) It would be where the one stone was laid against the other, that on the next day, Sabbath though it was, the Jewish authorities would have affixed the seal, so that the slightest disturbance might become apparent.正如他们出去,他们推出,因为是定制,一个“大石头”的Golel,收于墓入口,(C Sanh 47 B)可能反对倾斜支持,因为是实践,一个小石头,所以-所谓Dopheq(。。D Ohai二4)将是其中一石落案起诉,另一方面是在第二天,虽然是安息日,犹太人当局已加盖密封,从而使轻微的干扰可能会变得明显。

(3 But it must be admitted, that there are difficulties on this particular. See the remarks on this point at pp. 623 and 631, but espically pp, 636, 637.) to follow delegates from the Sanhedrin to the ceremony of cutting the Passover - sheaf. (3但必须承认,在这个有特殊困难。见第623和631在这一点上的讲话,但espically PP,636,637。)遵循从公会代表的切割仪式逾越节 - 束。The Law had it, "he shall bring a sheaf (literally, the Omer) with the first - fruits of your harvest, unto the priest; and he shall wave the Omer before Jehovah, to be accepted for you."法律有它,“他应当将与第一捆(字面上看,奥马尔) - 献给祭司你收获果实;他必在耶和华面前波的欧麦,要为你所接受。”

This Passover - sheaf was reaped in public the evening before it was offered, and it was to witness this ceremony that the crowd had gathered around the elders.这逾越节 - 捆在公众的收获是晚上,然后才提出的,它是见证了这一仪式的人群中有大约长老聚集。Already on the 14th Nisan the spot whence the first sheaf was to be reaped had been marked out, by tying together in bundles, while still standing, the barley that was to be cut down, according to custom, in the sheltered Ashes Valley across Kidron.已在尼散月14日现场何处是第一捆收获已经被标出来,通过捆绑成捆在一起,同时仍然站立时,大麦是降不下来,按照惯例,在整个基德隆庇护灰谷, 。When the time for cutting the sheaf had arrived, that is, on the evening of the 15th Nisan, even though it were a Sabbath, just as the sun went down, three men, each with a sickle and basket, set to work.当切割的捆时机已经到来,那就是,在尼散月15日晚上,尽管它是一个安息日,就像太阳落山了,三个人,用镰刀和篮子,每年设置工作。 Clearly to bring out what was distinctive in the ceremony, they first asked of the bystanders three times each of these questions: "Has the sun gone down?"显然带出了什么独特的仪式,他们首先问的三倍这些问题每一个路人:“有太阳了下来”"With this sickle?" “有了这个镰刀?”"Into this basket?"“进入这个篮子?”"On this Sabbath? (or first Passover - day)", and, lastly, "shall I reap?"“在这个安息日(或第一个逾越节 - 天)?”,最后,“我应该收获?”

Having each time been answered in the affirmative, they cut down barley to the amount of one ephah, or about three pecks and three pints of our English measure.经每次被肯定的回答,他们削减大麦到一个量器量,或约三啄三品脱的英语衡量。This is not the place to follow the ceremony farther, how the corn was threshed out, parched, ground, and one omer of the flour, mixed with oil and frankincense, waved before the Lord in the Temple on the second Paschal day (or 16th of Nisan).这不是地方,循礼远,怎么出来的玉米脱粒,口干舌燥,地面,一奥马尔的面粉,油和乳香混合,在寺庙前的第二个主挥手逾越节日(或16日尼散月)。 But, as this festive procession started, amidst loud demonstrations, a small band of mourners turned from having laid their dead Master in His resting place.但是,由于这节日游行开始的浪潮中,大声示威,送葬的小乐队原来有规定,从他的安息之地的死硕士学位。The contrast is as sad as it is suggestive.对比度是悲哀,因为它是暗示。And yet, not in the Temple, nor by the priest, but in the silence of that garden tomb, was the first Omer of the new Paschal flour to be waved before the Lord.'然而,不是在寺庙,也不是由祭司,但在该园墓默哀,是新的逾越节面粉要在主面前挥舞第一欧麦。“(1 See 'The Temple and its Services,' pp. 221 - 224.)(1参见“寺及其服务”,第221 - 224)

excerpts from Book 5, Chapter 15, Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah节录从书5,第15章, 生活和耶稣的弥赛亚时代
by Alfred Edersheim, 1886)由阿尔弗雷德爱德生,1886年)


Author Edersheim refers to MANY reference sources in his works.作者爱德生提到许多参考来源,他的作品。As a Bibliography resource, we have created a separate Edersheim References list.作为一个书目资源,我们创建了一个单独的爱德生参考清单。 All of his bracketed references indicate the page numbers in the works referenced.他表示在括号内的所有引用引用作品的页码。


Cross

Advanced Information先进的信息

Cross, in the New Testament was the instrument of crucifixion, and hence used for the crucifixion of Christ itself (Eph. 2:16; Heb. 12:2; 1 Cor. 1:17, 18; gal. 5:11; 6:12, 14; Phil. 3:18).十字架,是在新约中的受难仪器,从而为基督本身(以弗所书2时16受难使用;希伯来书12点02;林前1:17,18;加仑5时11分; 6。 :12,14;菲尔3:18)。The word is also used to denote any severe affliction or trial (Matt. 10:38; 16:24; Mark 8:34; 10:21).这个词也可以用来表示任何严重痛苦或审判(太10:38; 16点24分,马克8点34分,10时21分)。

The forms in which the cross is represented are these:-在这十字架是代表形式是这些: -

After the conversion, so-called, of Constantine the Great (BC 313), the cross first came into use as an emblem of Christianity.转换后,所谓的康斯坦丁大帝(公元前313),跨第一个进入了作为基督教标志的使用。He pretended at a critical moment that he saw a flaming cross in the heavens bearing the inscription, "In hoc signo vinces", ie, By this sign thou shalt conquer, and that on the following night Christ himself appeared and ordered him to take for his standard the sign of this cross.他假装在一个关键时刻,他看到了在轴承的题词天燃烧的十字架,“在特殊signo vinces”,即通过这个标志你要征服,而在第二天晚上基督自己出现,并命令他采取他的标准的这种交叉的迹象。In this form a new standard, called the Labarum, was accordingly made, and borne by the Roman armies.在这种形式下一个新的标准,称为Labarum,是据此作出的,由罗马军队承担。It remained the standard of the Roman army till the downfall of the Western empire.它仍然是罗马军队的标准,直到西方帝国灭亡。 It bore the embroidered monogram of Christ, ie, the first two Greek letters of his name, X and P (chi and rho), with the Alpha and Omega.它承担了基督的绣字母组合,即前两个他的名字,X和P(志和Rho)希腊字母,Alpha和欧米茄。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary)(伊斯顿说明字典)


Cross (noun)十字(名词)

Advanced Information先进的信息

Cross denotes, primarily, "an upright pale or stake."十字表示,主要是“一个正直苍白或股权。”On such malefactors were nailed for execution.在这样的坏人被钉的执行。Both the noun and the verb stauroo, "to fasten to a stake or pale, " are originally to be distinguished from the ecclesiastical form of a two beamed "cross."无论是名词和动词stauroo,“扣上了股权或苍白,”本来是从两个横梁教会形式尊贵“的十字架。”The shape of the latter had its origin in ancient Chaldea, and was used as the symbol of the god Tammuz (being in the shape of the mystic Tau, the initial of his name) in that country and in adjacent lands, including Egypt.后者的形状有它起源于古老的迦勒底,被作为神塔姆兹(在神秘的头形正,他的名字最初)符号用于该国,并在相邻的土地,包括埃及。 By the middle of the 3rd cent.到了3%的中间。AD the churches had either departed from, or had travestied, certain doctrines of the Christian faith.公元教会经已离开,或已travestied,基督教信仰的某些教义。

In order to increase the prestige of the apostate ecclesiastical system pagans were received into the churches apart from regeneration by faith, and were permitted largely to retain their pagan signs and symbols.为了增加背道教会系统异教徒的威信被接收到教会除了因信再生,主要是被允许保留他们的异教标志和符号。Hence the Tau or T, in its most frequent form, with the cross-piece lowered, was adopted to stand for the "cross" of Christ.因此,头或T,在其最常见形式的跨片降低,通过站立的“十字架”的基督。As for the Chi, or X, which Constantine declared he had seen in a vision leading him to champion the Christian faith, that letter was the initial of the word "Christ" and had nothing to do with "the Cross" (for xulon, "a timber beam, a tree, " as used for the stauros).至于志,或X,而康斯坦丁宣布他在他领导的基督教信仰的眼光冠军看出,该信是这个词的“基督”最初与己无关的“十字架”(做xulon, “一木束,一棵树,”至于stauros使用)。The method of execution was borrowed by the Greeks and Romans from the Phoenicians.的执行方法是借由希腊人和罗马人从腓尼基人。

The stauros denotes (a) "the cross, or stake itself, " eg, Matt.该stauros表示(一)“的十字架,或股份本身”,例如,马特。27:32; (b) "the crucifixion suffered, " eg, 1 Cor.27:32;(二)“的受难遭遇”,例如,1肺心病。1:17-18, where "the word of the cross, " RV, stands for the gospel; Gal. 1:17-18,这里的“十字架的一句话,”RV,代表了福音;加尔。5:11, where crucifixion is metaphorically used of the renunciation of the world, that characterizes the true Christian life; 6:12, 14; Eph.5:11,在十字架上是隐喻的世界放弃,特点的真正的基督徒生活中使用; 6点12,14;弗。2:16; Phil.2:16;菲尔。3:18.3:18。The judicial custom by which the condemned person carried his stake to the place of execution, was applied by the Lord to those sufferings by which His faithful followers were to express their fellowship with Him, eg, Matt.司法定制其中的人进行谴责他的股份的执行到位,被应用在那些痛苦,其中他的忠实追随者,以表达他自己的奖学金,例如,马特主。 10:38.10:38。


Cross

Jewish Viewpoint Information犹太观信息

1. 1。

The stake (σταῦρος = or ) used by the Romans at crucifixion.股权(σταῦρος=或)由罗马人在十字架上使用。This was so familiar to the Jews in New Testament times that they spoke frequently of "men carrying their cross before them while going to be executed" (Gen. R. lvi.; Pesiḳ. R. xxxi., ed. Buber, 143b), as did Jesus (Matt. x. 38, xvi. 24, and parallels; see Crucifixion).这是如此熟悉在新约时代的犹太人,他们经常谈到“背着自己的十字架前的男子,而他们将要执行的”(将军河LVI;PesiḳR.三十一,编布伯,143B。)作为耶稣(太十38,十六24,和Parallels,见受难)。

2. 2。

A specific Christian symbol: termed by Jews ("warp and woof"); also ("idol").一个具体的基督教的象征:犹太人称为(“经纬”);也(“偶像”)。Concerning this the law is: "As far as it is made an object of worship by Christians, it is to be treated as an idol and prohibited for use; if, however, it is worn as an ornament without any religious object, its use is permitted to the Jews" (Isserles, Shulḥan 'Aruk, Yore De'ah, 141, 1: R. Mordecai to 'Ab. Zarah iii. in the name of R. Eleazar b. Jacob of Worms).关于这个法律是:“至于它是由一个由基督徒崇拜的对象,它是被视为偶像和禁止使用的;但是,如果它是作为装饰品佩戴没有任何宗教的对象,它的使用允许犹太人“(Isserles,Shulḥan”Aruk,昔日De'ah,141,1:R.末底改为“。抗体Zarah三中的R. B.雅各布埃​​莱亚萨的蠕虫名称)。However, being a Christian symbol, it has always been scrupulously avoided by Jews.然而,作为一个基督教的象征,它一直严格避免犹太人。Pious Jews would not even wear badges or decorations with the cross attached to them, whereas more liberal ones do not hesitate to wear either the Iron Cross as German soldiers, or the Red Cross as members of the Red Cross Society.虔诚的犹太人甚至不穿附属于他们的交叉徽章或装饰品,而更自由的不要犹豫,无论是穿的德国士兵铁十字,或作为红十字会成员红十字会。 To embroider ornamental crosses upon silk dresses for Christian ladiesis not forbidden to Jewish artists, according to Solomon b.绣在不禁止犹太艺术家基督教ladiesis丝绸礼服装饰十字架,根据索罗门湾Adret (see Berliner, "Aus dem Leben der Juden," 1900, pp. 13, 130).Adret(见柏林,“澳大利亚DEM别人的生活DER Juden,”1900年,第13,130)。The Jewish aversion to using any sign resembling a cross was so strong that in books on arithmetic or algebra written by Jews the plus sign was represented by an inverted "ḳameẓ" ().犹太厌恶使用任何标志类似交叉是如此强烈,在算术或犹太人的书面代数书的加号是由一个倒“ḳameẓ”()表示。

The cross as a Christian symbol or "seal" came into use at least as early as the second century (see "Apost. Const." iii. 17; Epistle of Barnabas, xi.-xii.; Justin, "Apologia," i. 55-60; "Dial. cum Tryph." 85-97); and the marking of a cross upon the forehead and the chest was regarded as a talisman against the powers of demons (Tertullian, "De Corona," iii.; Cyprian, "Testimonies," xi. 21-22; Lactantius, "Divinæ Institutiones," iv. 27, and elsewhere).作为一个基督徒符号或“封”跨来到投入使用至少早在公元二世纪(见“Apost CONST。”三17;书信巴拿巴,xi. - XII;贾斯汀,“辩解,”我55-60;“。拨号暨Tryph。”85-97),以及一个在额头和胸前交叉标记被视为对恶魔的权力(良,“德电晕,”三法宝;塞浦路斯,“证言”十一21-22;拉克唐修,“Divinæ Institutiones,”四27,和其他地方)。Accordingly the Christian Fathers had to defend themselves, as early as the second century, against the charge of being worshipers of the cross, as may be learned from Tertullian, "Apologia," xii., xvii., and Minucius Felix, "Octavius," xxix.因此基督教神父不得不保卫自己,早在公元二世纪,对被崇拜者的交叉负责,因为可以从良了解到,“辩解,”十二,十七,和米诺西乌菲利克斯,“屋大维, “二十九。Christians used to swear by the power of the cross (see Apocalypse of Mary, viii., in James, "Texts and Studies," iii. 118).所用的交叉权力(见玛丽启示,八,在詹姆斯,“文本和研究,”三。118)发誓基督徒。Nevertheless Jewish teachers in the Middle Ages declared that Christians must be believed when swearing by the cross, as, in reality, they swear by the true God (Isaac of Corbeil, in "Sefer Miẓwot Ḳaṭan," 119, quoted by Güdemann, "Gesch. d. Erz. u. Cultur in Italien," 1880, i. 90).不过,在中世纪犹太教师宣称,基督徒必须相信通过交叉宣誓就职时,因为,在现实中,他们的真神(以撒的科贝伊,在“之书MiẓwotḲaṭan,”119 Güdemann引述,“Gesch发誓。D. ERZ。U. Cultur在义大利,“1880年,第90)。The fact, however, that the cross was worshiped as an idol during the Middle Ages caused the Jews to avoid (compare Ex. xxiii. 13) the very word "Cross," as well as all derivatives of it; for instance, "kreuzer" they called "ẓelem" or, abbreviated, "ẓal"; and the town "Kreuznach" they called "Ẓelem-Maḳom."事实上,然而,交叉是作为偶像崇拜在中世纪的犹太人,以避免造成(比较前二十三13。)这个词“十字架”,以及它的所有衍生工具,例如,“kreuzer “他们所谓的”ẓelem“或简称”湾“,以及镇”。Kreuznach的“,他们所谓的”Ẓelem-Maḳom“

Several forms of the cross appear to have been used: the simple form, like a plus sign, the so-called St. Andrew's cross, and the Latin cross, which is mentioned in Ezek.几种形式的交叉似乎已被用于:像一个加号,所谓的圣安德鲁的交叉,和拉丁十字架,这是在以西结书提到的简单形式。ix.九。4 (Hebr.) as the "mark of life set upon the men to be saved" (compare Aquila, Symmachus, Theodotion, and Vulgate, or St. Jerome, to Ezek. lc; and Tertullian, "Adversus Marcum," iii. 22; compare Job xxxi. 35). 4(Hebr.)作为“生命后,要保存的男人设置标志”(比较拉奎拉,Symmachus,Theodotion,和武加大,或圣杰罗姆,要以西结书LC;和戴尔都良,“Adversus马坎,”三。 22;比较作业XXXI 35)。On the other hand, the oblique or St. Andrew's cross, resembling the letter "x," was used in Justin's time (see "Apologia," i. 60, where he compares the Christian cross with the cosmogonic starting-point in Plato's "Timæus," 36), and was known also to the Jews (see Anointing and Cabala), this form as the initial letter of Χριστός being preferably used.另一方面,斜或圣安德鲁的交叉,类似字母“X”,被用在Justin的时间(见“辩解,”一60,他比较了宇宙起源的出发点在柏拉图的基督教十字架“蒂迈欧篇“36),也被称为犹太人(见恩膏和Cabala),这种形式作为Χριστός首字母是最好用。 In Jewish circles the original connections of both the Latin and the St. Andrew's cross were quite naturally ignored.在犹太人的圈子双方的拉丁和圣安德鲁的交叉连接是相当原始的自然被忽略。

Kaufmann Kohler考夫曼科勒
Jewish Encyclopedia, published between 1901-1906.犹太百科全书,1901至1906年间出版。

Bibliography 参考书目
Zöckler, Das Kreuz Christi, 1875; Hastings, Dict. Zöckler,达斯Kreuz酒店斯蒂,1875年,黑斯廷斯,快译通。Bibl.Bibl。sv; Cheyne and Black, Encyc. SV;进益和黑色,百科全书。Bibl. Bibl。sv; Winer, BR sv; Herzog-Hauck, Real-Encyc.SV;温纳,BR SV;赫尔佐格 - 豪克,实时百科全书。sv; Krauss, Realencyclopädie der Christlichen Archäologie, svSV;克劳斯,Realencyclopädie DER Christlichen Archäologie,SV



Also, see:此外,见:
Crucifixion 在十字架上
Seven Words On The Cross7换言之在十字架上
Words Inscribed on the Cross换言之者在十字架上
The Arising of Jesus产生的耶稣

This subject presentation in the original English language这在原来的主题演讲, 英语



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