Death of God Theology神神学 死亡

General Information一般资料

In Thus Spake Zarathustra (1883 - 85), Friedrich Nietzsche introduced in eloquent poetic prose the concepts of the death of God, the superman, and the will to power.在查拉图斯特拉如是说(1883 - 85),弗里德里希尼采引入雄辩诗意散文的神,超人死亡的概念,而权力意志。Vigorously attacking Christianity and democracy as moralities for the "weak herd," he argued for the "natural aristocracy" of the superman who, driven by the "will to power," celebrates life on earth rather than sanctifying it for some heavenly reward.为大力攻击基督教的道德和民主“弱势群体”,他的“自然贵族”的谁,由驱动超人说:“权力意志”,庆祝地球上的生命,而不是天上圣洁的一些回报。 Such a heroic man of merit has the courage to "live dangerously" and thus rise above the masses, developing his natural capacity for the creative use of passion.这样的英雄值得人有敢于“生活危险的”,从而超越了群众,发展他的激情创造性地利用自然的能力。

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Bibliography 参考书目
HG Alderman, Nietzsche's Gift (1977); DB Allison, ed., The New Nietzsche: Contemporary Styles of Interpretation (1985); P Bergman, Nietzsche (1987); JA Bernstein, Nietzsche's Moral Philosophy (1987); H Bloom, ed., Friedrich Nietzsche (1987); FC Copleston Friedrich Nietzsche: Philosopher of Culture (1975); AC Danto, Nietzsche as Philosopher (1965); V Durr, et al., eds., Nietzsche: Literature and Values (1988); E Heller, The Importance of Nietzsche (1989); RJ Hollingdale, Nietzsche: The Man and His Philosophy (1973); W Kaufmann, Nietzsche: Philosopher, Psychologist, Antichrist (1975); B Magnus, Nietzsche's Existential Imperative (1978); KM May, Nietzsche and the Spirit of Tragedy (1990); A Nehemas, Nietzsche: Life as Literature (1985); R Solomon, ed., Nietzsche (1973); TB Strong, Friedrich Nietzsche and the Politics of Transfiguration (1976); M Warren, Nietzsche and Political Thought (1988).HG阿尔德曼,尼采的礼物(1977年); DB阿利森,教育署,新尼采:当代风格的解释(1985年),P伯格曼,尼采(1987); JA伯恩斯坦,尼采的道德哲学(1987年),H布卢姆主编。弗里德里希尼采(1987年); FC Copleston尼采:文化哲学家(1975年),AC丹托,作为哲学家尼采(1965),V杜尔等人合编,尼采:文学和价值观(1988年),E海勒,尼采的重要性(1989年); RJ赫林达勒,尼采:在人与他的哲学(1973),W考夫曼,尼采:哲学家,心理学家,敌基督(1975),B马格努斯,尼采的存在主义势在必行(1978年); KM五月,尼采的悲剧精神(1990年),A Nehemas,尼采:文学生活(1985年),R所罗门编,尼采(1973年);结核病强,尼采和变形(1976年)的政治,M沃伦。尼采和政治思想(1988年)。


Death of God Theology死亡的神神学

Advanced Information先进的信息

Also known as radical theology, this movement flourished in the mid 1960s. 激进的神学也被称为这项运动蓬勃发展在20世纪60年代中期。As a theological movement it never attracted a large following, did not find a unified expression, and passed off the scene as quickly and dramatically as it had arisen.由于它从来没有一个神学运动吸引了大批追随者,没有找到一个统一的表达,并通过了现场的迅速和显着,因为它已经出现。 There is even disagreement as to who its major representatives were.甚至还有是谁其主要代表的分歧。Some identify two, and others three or four.有些识别两个,和其他三四个。Although small, the movement attracted attention because it was a spectacular symptom of the bankruptcy of modern theology and because it was a journalistic phenomenon.虽然小,运动引起人们的重视,因为它是现代神学破产壮观的症状,因为这是一个新闻现象。The very statement "God is dead" was tailor - made for journalistic exploitation.非常声明“上帝死了”是裁缝 - 为新闻剥削了。The representatives of the movement effectively used periodical articles, paperback books, and the electronic media.有效地使用期刊的文章,平装书,和电子媒​​体运动的代表。

History历史

This movement gave expression to an idea that had been incipient in Western philosophy and theology for some time, the suggestion that the reality of a transcendent God at best could not be known and at worst did not exist at all.这一运动体现了一项已被用于一些时间,这是一个超越神充其量现实无法知道,最差不存在的建议在西方哲学和神学思想萌芽。Philosopher Kant and theologian Ritschl denied that one could have a theoretical knowledge of the being of God.哲学家康德和神学家里奇尔无可否认,人们可以有一个神被理论知识。Hume and the empiricists for all practical purposes restricted knowledge and reality to the material world as perceived by the five senses.休谟和限制的知识和现实的物质世界的五种感官知觉所有的实际目的,经验主义。 Since God was not empirically verifiable, the biblical world view was said to be mythological and unacceptable to the modern mind.因为上帝没有经验可核查的,圣经的世界观被说成是神话和不能接受的现代思想。Such atheistic existentialist philosophers as Nietzsche despaired even of the search of God; it was he who coined the phrase "God is dead" almost a century before the death of God theologians.如无神论的存在主义哲学家尼采绝望甚至是神的搜索,它是谁创造了​​他一句“上帝死了”在上帝的神学家死亡几乎一个世纪。

Midtwentieth century theologians not associated with the movement also contributed to the climate of opinion out of which death of God theology emerged. Midtwentieth世纪不与运动相关的神学家也促进了意见,其中死亡的上帝神学出现了气候。Rudolf Bultmann regarded all elements of the supernaturalistic, theistic world view as mythological and proposed that Scripture be demythologized so that it could speak its message to the modern person.鲁道夫布特曼认为的supernaturalistic,作为神话和建议有神论世界观的经文是demythologized以便能够说出它的消息,现代的人的所有元素。

Paul Tillich, an avowed antisupernaturalist, said that the only nonsymbolic statement that could be made about God was that he was being itself.保罗蒂利希,一个自认antisupernaturalist说,只有非符号声明,可以对神提出的是,他被自己。He is beyond essence and existence; therefore, to argue that God exists is to deny him.他是超越的本质和存在,因此,论证上帝存在是拒绝了他。It is more appropriate to say God does not exist.这是更恰当的说神不存在。At best Tillich was a pantheist, but his thought borders on atheism.在最好的蒂利希是泛神论,但他的思想对无神论的边界。Dietrich Bonhoeffer (whether rightly understood or not) also contributed to the climate of opinion with some fragmentary but tantalizing statements preserved in Letters and Papers from Prison.迪特里希朋霍费尔(是否正确地理解与否)也促进了与监狱的信件和文件保存一些零碎的,但诱人的陈述意见气候。He wrote of the world and man "coming of age," of "religionless Christianity," of the "world without God," and of getting rid of the "God of the gaps" and getting along just as well as before.他写的世界和人“时代的到来,”的“religionless基督教”的“没有上帝的世界”,并获得了“神的差距”和相处像以前一样好摆脱。 It is not always certain what Bonhoeffer meant, but if nothing else, he provided a vocabulary that later radical theologians could exploit.它并不总是可以确定潘霍华的意思,但如果不出意外,他提供了一个词汇,后来激进的神学家可以利用。

It is clear, then, that as startling as the idea of the death of God was when proclaimed in the mid 1960s, it did not represent as radical a departure from recent philosophical and theological ideas and vocabulary as might superficially appear.很明显,那么,只要是上帝之死的想法令人吃惊的是,当在20世纪60年代中期宣布,它并不代表作为激进的背离近期哲学和神学思想和词汇的表面上可能出现。

Nature自然

Just what was death of God theology?究竟什么是上帝神学的死亡?The answers are as varied as those who proclaimed God's demise.答案是因为不同那些谁宣布上帝的灭亡。Since Nietzsche, theologians had occasionally used "God is dead" to express the fact that for an increasing number of people in the modern age God seems to be unreal.自尼采,神学家曾偶尔用“上帝死了”来表达这一事实,为更多的人在现代数字神似乎是虚幻的。But the idea of God's death began to have special prominence in 1957 when Gabriel Vahanian published a book entitled God is Dead.但上帝的死亡想法在1957年就开始有特别突出时,加布里埃尔汉年发表了一篇题为上帝死书。Vahanian did not offer a systematic expression of death of God theology.汉年也没有为死亡的上帝神学系统的表达。Instead, he analyzed those historical elements that contributed to the masses of people accepting atheism not so much as a theory but as a way of life.相反,他分析了那些有助于接受作为一种理论,但作为一种生活方式无神论与其说人民群众的历史元素。Vahanian himself did not believe that God was dead.汉年自己都不相信上帝已经死了。But he urged that there be a form of Christianity that would recognize the contemporary loss of God and exert its influence through what was left.但他敦促有一个基督教的形式,承认上帝的当代损失和施加通过什么被留下的影响。Other proponents of the death of God had the same assessment of God's status in contemporary culture, but were to draw different conclusions.神死亡的其他支持者有上帝在当代文化中的地位同样的评​​估,但要得出不同的结论。

Thomas JJ Altizer believed that God had actually died.托马斯认为,上帝的JJ Altizer实际上已死亡。 But Altizer often spoke in exaggerated and dialectic language, occasionally with heavy overtones of Oriental mysticism.但Altizer经常发言夸张和辩证的语言,偶尔与东方神秘主义色彩重。Sometimes it is difficult to know exactly what Altizer meant when he spoke in dialectical opposites such as "God is dead, thank God!"有时很难确切地知道什么意思,他Altizer如辩证的对立面讲到“上帝死了,感谢上帝!” But apparently the real meaning of Altizer's belief that God had died is to be found in his belief in God's immanence.但显然是Altizer的信念,上帝已经死亡的真正意义是要在他对上帝的信仰中找到内在。To say that God has died is to say that he has ceased to exist as a transcendent, supernatural being.如果说,上帝已经死了,是说他已不再存在作为一个超然,超自然的福祉。Rather, he has become fully immanent in the world.相反,他已经成为完全的世界无处不在。The result is an essential identity between the human and the divine.其结果是一个介于人与神的基本特征。God died in Christ in this sense, and the process has continued time and again since then.神在基督里死在这个意义上说,这一过程持续的时间,从那时起一次。Altizer claims the church tried to give God life again and put him back in heaven by its doctrines of resurrection and ascension.Altizer索赔教会试图给神的生命再次把他带回了天堂的复活和升天的教义。But now the traditional doctrines about God and Christ must be repudiated because man has discovered after nineteen centuries that God does not exist.但现在对上帝和基督的传统学说,必须推翻,因为人有几个世纪后nineteen神是不存在的发现。Christians must even now will the death of God by which the transcendent becomes immanent.基督徒必须即使现在将上帝的死亡而成为内在的超越。

For William Hamilton the death of God describes the event many have experienced over the last two hundred years.对于威廉汉密尔顿上帝之死说明了许多有超过过去200年经历的事件。They no longer accept the reality of God or the meaningfulness of language about him.他们不再接受上帝或关于他的语言意义的现实。Nontheistic explanations have been substituted for theistic ones.Nontheistic解释已经取代有神论的。This trend is irreversible, and everyone must come to terms with the historical - cultural - death of God.这种趋势是不可逆转的,大家一定要来的历史条件 - 文化 - 上帝之死。God's death must be affirmed and the secular world embraced as normative intellectually and good ethically.上帝之死,必须肯定和世俗世界拥抱作为规范性的智力和良好的职业道德。Indeed, Hamilton was optimistic about the world, because he was optimistic about what humanity could do and was doing to solve its problems.事实上,汉密尔顿是对世界的乐观,因为他是人类可以做什么乐观,并做以解决其问题。

Paul van Buren is usually associated with death of God theology, although he himself disavowed this connection.保罗范布伦通常与上帝的神学死亡,虽然他本人否认了这一点。But his disavowal seems hollow in the light of his book The Secular Meaning of the Gospel and his article "Christian Education Post Mortem Dei."但他否认似乎在他的著作的世俗意义的福音光中空和他的文章“基督教教育程度验尸业会的。”In the former he accepts empiricism and the position of Bultmann that the world view of the Bible is mythological and untenable to modern people.在以前的他接受经验主义和布特曼的立场,即圣经的世界观,是站不住脚的神话和现代的人。In the latter he proposes an approach to Christian education that does not assume the existence of God but does assume "the death of God" and that "God is gone."在后者,他提出了一个基督教教育的方法,不承担神的存在,但不承担“上帝死亡”和“神走了。”

Van Buren was concerned with the linguistic aspects of God's existence and death.范布伦关注与上帝的存在和死​​亡的语言方面。He accepted the premise of empirical analytic philosophy that real knowledge and meaning can be conveyed only by language that is empirically verifiable.他接受了实证分析哲学的前提下,真正的知识和意义,只能通过语言,可核查的经验传达。This is the fundamental principle of modern secularists and is the only viable option in this age.这是现代世俗主义的基本原则,并且是唯一可行的选择在这个年龄段。If only empirically verifiable language is meaningful, ipso facto all language that refers to or assumes the reality of God is meaningless, since one cannot verify God's existence by any of the five senses.如果只是经验核查语言是有意义的,事实本身的语言,是指所有或承担上帝的现实是没有意义的,因为一个无法验证上帝的由五感存在任何。 Theism, belief in God, is not only intellectually untenable, it is meaningless.有神论,对上帝的信仰,不仅是智力站不住脚的,它是没有意义的。In The Secular Meaning of the Gospel van Buren seeks to reinterpret the Christian faith without reference to God.在世俗的意义福音范布伦旨在重新解释没有提到上帝的信仰。One searches the book in vain for even one clue that van Buren is anything but a secularist trying to translate Christian ethical values into that language game.一个搜索徒劳,哪怕只是线索书,范布伦决不是一个世俗试图翻译成该语言游戏基督教的道德价值观。There is a decided shift in van Buren's later book Discerning the Way, however.有一个范布伦的后来决定书辨识方式的转变,但是。

In retrospect, it becomes clear that there was no single death of God theology, only death of God theologies.现在回想起来,显然是没有神的神学,神神学只死亡的单一死亡。Their real significance was that modern theologies, by giving up the essential elements of Christian belief in God, had logically led to what were really antitheologies.他们的真正意义在于通过现代神学放弃对上帝的信仰基督教的基本要素,在逻辑上导致了什么是真正antitheologies。 When the death of God theologies passed off the scene, the commitment to secularism remained and manifested itself in other forms of secular theology in the late 1960s and the 1970s.当神的神学死亡通过了现场,对世俗主义的承诺依然存在,表现在世俗神学在60年代末和70年代其他形式本身。

SN Gundry SN Gundry

(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary)(Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 参考书目
TJJ Altizer, The Gospel of Christian Atheism; TJJ Altizer and W Hamilton, Radical Theology and the Death of God; SN Gundry and AF Johnson, eds., Tensions in Contemporary Theology; K Hamilton, God Is Dead: The Anatomy of a Slogan; PM van Buren, "Christian Education Post Mortem Dei," RelEd 60; G Vahanian, No Other God.。TJJ,基督教福音Altizer无神论; TJJ Altizer和W汉密尔顿,激进的神学和神的死亡; SN Gundry和AF约翰逊编,当代神学的紧张局势,K汉密尔顿,上帝死了:一个口号解剖;下午范布伦,“基督教教育程度验尸业会,”RelEd 60,G汉年,没有其他的神。



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