General Information一般资料

Determinism is sometimes confused with predestination and fatalism, but as such it asserts neither that human affairs have been prearranged by a being outside the causal order nor that a person has an unavoidable fate.宿命论是有时混淆宿命和宿命论,但它声称这种既不是人类事务已经由外部的因果顺序,也不是一个人有一个不可回避的命运被预先安排。

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Brief Definitions简短的定义

General Information一般资料

determinism 决定论
The view that every event has a cause and that everything in the universe is absolutely dependent on and governed by causal laws.认为每一个事件都有一个原因,宇宙中的一切是绝对依赖和因果规律的制约。Since determinists believe that all events, including human actions, are predetermined, determinism is typically thought to be incompatible with free will.既然决定论认为,所有事件,包括人的行动,是预先决定的,决定论通常被认为是与自由意志相抵触。
fatalism 宿命论
The belief that "what will be will be," since all past, present, and future events have already been predetermined by God or another all-powerful force.相信“会是怎样将”,因为所有过去,现在和未来事件已经由上帝或其他全预定的强大力量。In religion, this view may be called predestination; it holds that whether our souls go to Heaven or Hell is determined before we are born and is independent of our good deeds.在宗教,这种看法可能是所谓的宿命,它认为,无论我们的灵魂去天堂或地狱的决心,才出生,是我们的好行为无关。
free will自由意志
The theory that human beings have freedom of choice or self-determination; that is, that given a situation, a person could have done other than what he did.该理论认为,人类有自由选择或自决,也就是说,鉴于这种情况,一个人可以做得比他做了什么其他的。Philosophers have argued that free will is incompatible with determinism.哲学家们认为,自由意志与决定论是不相容的。 See also indeterminism.又见非决定论。
indeterminism 非决定论
The view that there are events that do not have any cause; many proponents of free will believe that acts of choice are capable of not being determined by any physiological or psychological cause.认为有事件没有任何理由;自由许多支持者会认为,选择行为是不被任何生理或心理的原因决定的能力。

Fate, Fatalism命运,宿命论

Advanced Information先进的信息

Fate, personified by the Greeks under the name of Moira, signified in the ancient world the unseen power that rules over human destiny.命运,由下莫伊拉名希腊人人格化,标志着在古代世界的看不见的力量统治着人类的命运。In classical thought fate was believed to be superior to the gods, since even they were unable to defy its all - encompassing power.在古典思想的命运被认为是优于神,因为即使他们不能无视它的一切 - 包括电源。Fate is not chance, which may be defined as the absence of laws, but instead a cosmic determinism that has no ultimate meaning or purpose.命运不是偶然的机会,这可能是由于缺乏法律定义,而是一个宇宙决定论,它没有终极意义或目的。In classical thought as well as in Oriental religion fate is a dark, sinister power related to the tragic vision of life.在古典思想以及在东方宗教的命运是一个黑暗,邪恶力量与悲惨的生命视野。It connotes not the absence of freedom but the subjection of freedom.它意味着没有自由,但自由的情况下服从。It is the transcendent necessity in which freedom is entangled (Tillich).它是超越的必然在其中自由纠缠(蒂利希)。Fate is blind, inscrutable, and inescapable.命运是盲目的,高深莫测,而且势在必行。

Christianity substituted for the hellenistic concept of fate the doctrine of divine providence.基督教取代的命运希腊概念的神圣天意的学说。Whereas fate is the portentous, impersonal power that thwarts and overrules human freedom, providence liberates man to fulfill the destiny for which he was created.虽然命运是自命不凡,非个人力量,阻挠和推翻人的自由,解放人履行上帝为他所创造的命运。Fate means the abrogation of freedom; providence means the realization of authentic freedom through submission to divine guidance.命运是指自由废除;普罗维登斯指通过提交给神圣的指导真正的自由的实现。Providence is the direction and support of a loving God, which makes life ultimately bearable; fate is the rule of contingency that casts a pall over all human striving.普罗维登斯是方向和一位慈爱的神,这使得最终可以承受的生命支持;命运的应急规则,对所有人类的努力蒙上蒙上了一层阴影。 Whereas fate makes the future precarious and uncertain, providence fills the future with hope.而命运岌岌可危,并使得未来的不确定性,普罗维登斯充满希望的未来。Fate is impersonal and irrational; providence is supremely personal and suprarational.命运是客观和不合理;上帝是至高无上的个人和suprarational。

Fatalism was present among the ancient Stoics, and it pervades much of the thought of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Islam.宿命论是其中的古代斯多葛目前,它贯穿多大的印度教,佛教思想,和伊斯兰教。 Modern philosophers who have entertained ideas akin to fate are Oswald Spengler, Herbert Spencer, John Stuart Mill, and Arthur Schopenhauer.谁已经受理的想法类似命运的现代哲学家斯宾格勒,斯宾塞,穆勒和叔本华。

DG Bloesch DG Bloesch
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary)(Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 参考书目
WC Greene, Moira: Fate, Good and Evil in Greek Thought; R Guardini, Freedom, Grace, and Destiny; P Tillich, "Philosophy and Fate," in The Protestant Era, and The Courage to Be; H Ringgren, ed., Fatalistic Beliefs in Religion, Folklore, and Literature; J Den Boeft, Calcidius on Fate. WC格林,莫伊拉:命运,好的和希腊思想邪恶,R瓜尔蒂尼,自由,格雷斯和命运,P蒂利希,“哲学与命运”,在新教时代,勇于为,H Ringgren,ED。宿命论的信仰,宗教,民俗,文学,J穴Boeft,对命运Calcidius。


Catholic Information天主教信息

Fatalism is in general the view which holds that all events in the history of the world, and, in particular, the actions and incidents which make up the story of each individual life, are determined by fate.宿命论是一般的看法,认为在所有的世界历史事件,并在特别的行动和事件从而弥补了每一个人的生活故事,是由命运决定的。

The theory takes many forms, or, rather, its essential feature of an antecedent force rigidly predetermining all occurrences enters in one shape or another into many theories of the universe.该理论有很多形式,或者说,它的前身硬性预先确定出现的所有力量的本质特征在一个形状或另一个进入到宇宙的许多理论。 Sometimes in the ancient world fate was conceived as an iron necessity in the nature of things, overruling and controlling the will and power of the gods themselves.有时,在古代被视为世界的命运中的一个事物的性质铁的必要性,推翻和控制的意志和神自己的力量。Sometimes it was explained as the inexorable decree of the gods directing the course of the universe; sometimes it was personified as a particular divinity, the goddess or goddesses of destiny.有时它被解释为对指导宇宙神无情法令当然,有时它是作为一个特定的神,女神或命运女神的化身。Their function was to secure that each man's lot, "share", or part should infallibly come to him.他们的功能是确保每个人的生活,“共享”,或部分应绝对无误来找他。

Ancient Classical Fatalism古曲宿命论

The Greek tragedians frequently depict man as a helpless creature borne along by destiny.希腊tragedians经常描绘的命运承担沿着无奈生物的人。At times this destiny is a Nemesis which pursues him on account of some crime committed by his ancestors or himself; at other times it is to compensate for his excessive good fortune in order to educate and humble him.有时这是一种报应的命运,追求对他的祖先或自己犯了一些犯罪的帐户他,在其他时间它是为他的好运气过度补偿,以教育和谦逊的他。 With Æschylus it is of the nature of an unpitying destiny; with Sophocles, that of an overruling personal will.随着埃斯库罗斯它是一个unpitying命运的性质;与索福克勒斯,一个推翻的个人意志。Still, the most important feature is that the future life of each individual is so rigorously predetermined in all its details by an antecedent external agency that his own volitions or desires have no power to alter the course of events.不过,最重要的特点是,每一个人未来的生活是如此严格由先前预定的外部机构的所有细节,他自己volitions或欲望无权改变事件的进程。 The action of fate is blind, arbitrary, relentless.命运的行动是盲目的,随意的,无情的。It moves inexorably onwards, effecting the most terrible catastrophes, impressing us with a feeling of helpless consternation, and harrowing our moral sense, if we venture upon a moral judgment at all.它无情地开始移动,以进行最可怕的灾难,留下深刻印象的一种无奈的感觉我们惊愕,我们的道德意识和痛苦的,如果我们要求在所有的道德判断风险。 Fatalism in general has been inclined to overlook immediate antecedents and to dwell rather upon remote and external causes as the agency which somehow moulds the course of events.一般宿命论一直倾向于忽视立即前因和纠缠后,作为该机构的远程和外部原因,而其中某种霉菌的事件过程。

Socrates and Plato held that the human will was necessarily determined by the intellect.苏格拉底和柏拉图认为,人的意志是必然的理智决定。Though this view seems incompatible with the doctrine of free will, it is not necessarily fatalism.虽然这种观点似乎与自由意志主义不相容的,它不一定是宿命论。The mechanical theory of Democritus, which explains the universe as the outcome of the collision of material atoms, logically imposes a fatalism upon human volition.德谟克利特的机械论,这可以解释为对物质原子碰撞的结果,宇宙,人类的意志强加给逻辑a宿命论。The clinamen, or aptitude for fortuitous deviation which Epicurus introduced into the atomic theory, though essentially a chance factor, seems to have been conceived by some as acting not unlike a form of fate.该clinamen,或偶然的偏差而伊壁鸠鲁的原子论成介绍,虽然本质上是一种偶然因素,能力倾向似乎已被一些设想,没有什么不同的命运形式行事。 The Stoics, who were both pantheists and materialists, present us with a very thorough-going form of fatalism.在斯多葛,谁都是泛神论和唯物论,现在有了一个宿命论非常彻底的表格。For them the course of the universe is an iron-bound necessity.对他们来说,宇宙当然是铁结合的必要性。There is no room anywhere for chance or contingency.有没有机会或应变房间的任何地方。All changes are but the expression of unchanging law.所有的变化,但不变的法律表达。There is an eternally established providence overruling the world, but it is in every respect immutable.有一个永远成立的普罗维登斯推翻世界,但它在各方面都不可改变的。Nature is an unbreakable chain of cause and effect.大自然是一个牢不可破的因果链。

Providence is the hidden reason contained in the chain.普罗维登斯是隐情链中包含的。Destiny or fate is the external expression of this providence, or the instrumentality by which it is carried out.命运或命运是这个天意外在表现,或由其所进行的工具性。It is owing to this that the prevision of the future is possible to the gods.这是因为这是未来的预知是可能的神灵。Cicero, who had written at length on the art of divining the future, insists that if there are gods there must be beings who can foresee the future.西塞罗,谁曾在长写在占卜未来的艺术,坚持认为,如果有神灵必须有众生谁可以预见的未来。Therefore the future must be certain, and, if certain, necessary.因此,今后必须肯定,并在一定的,必要的。But the difficulty then presents itself: what is the use of divination if expiatory sacrifices and prayers cannot prevent the predestined evils?但困难再介绍自己:什么是占卜使用,如果赎罪牺牲和祷告不能防止罪恶的命中注定?The full force of the logical difficulty was felt by Cicero, and although he observes that the prayers and sacrifices might also have been foreseen by the gods and included as essential conditions of their decrees, he is not quite decided as to the true solution.该逻辑上的困难全部力量是由西塞罗认为,虽然他注意到,祈祷和牺牲,也可能已经预见到神和作为其基本条件包括法令,他并不像真正的解决方案的决定。 The importance ascribed to this problem of fatalism in the ancient world is evinced by the large number of authors who wrote treatises "De Fato", eg Chrysippus, Cicero, Plutarch, Alexander of Aphrodisias, and sundry Christian writers down to the Middle Ages.在古代世界冲高这种宿命论问题的重要性是明证了大量的作者是谁写的论文“德Fato”,例如克吕西波,西塞罗,普鲁塔克,亚历山大的Aphrodisias,及杂项基督教作家到中世纪。

Fatalism and Christianity宿命论和基督教

With the rise of Christianity the question of fatalism necessarily adopted a new form.随着基督教兴起的宿命论问题一定通过了新的形式。The pagan view of an external, inevitable force coercing and controlling all action, whether human or divine, found itself in conflict with the conception of a free, personal, infinite God.外部的,不可避免的胁迫和控制所有行动,无论是人还是神,发现在一个自由,个人的,无限的神的观念冲突本身的力量异教的看法。 Consequently several of the early Christian writers were concerned to oppose and refute the theory of fate.因此早期的基督教作家几个人有关反对和驳斥命运的理论。But, on the other hand, the doctrine of a personal God possessing an infallible foreknowledge of the future and an omnipotence regulating all events of the universe intensified some phases of the difficulty.但是,另一方面,对个人拥有了预知未来的犯错和全能调节宇宙的所有事件加剧了上帝的学说的某些困难阶段。A main feature, moreover, of the new religion was the importance of the principle of man's moral freedom and responsibility.一个主要特征,而且是新的宗教的人的道德自由和责任原则的重要性。Morality is no longer presented to us merely as a desirable good to be sought.道德不再是仅仅作为向我们提出一个理想的好得追捧。 It comes to us in an imperative form as a code of laws proceeding from the Sovereign of the universe and exacting obedience under the most serious sanctions.它涉及到我们在一个作为一个从宇宙在最严重的制裁严格服从君主的代码进行必要的法律形式。Sin is the gravest of all evils.仙是所有罪恶最严重的。Man is bound to obey the moral law; and he will receive merited punishment or reward according as he violates or observes that law.人是必须服从的道德律,他将获得值得惩罚或奖励依据,因为他违反了法律或观察到。But if so, man must have it in his power to break or keep the law.但即便如此,人必须有自己的权力,打破或保持法律。Moreover, sin cannot be ascribed to an all-holy God.此外,罪不可归因于全圣洁的神。Consequently, free will is a central fact in the Christian conception of human life; and whatever seems to conflict with this must be somehow reconciled to it.因此,自由意志是一个人的生命基督教观念中央的事实,以及任何冲突似乎与这必须以某种方式调和它。The pagan problem of fatalism thus becomes in Christian theology the problem of Divine predestination and the harmonizing of Divine prescience and providence with human liberty.异教的宿命论的问题也因此成为了神圣的宿命和神圣的预见性和静宜与人类自由的协调问题,在基督教神学。(See FREE WILL; PREDESTINATION; PROVIDENCE.)(见自由意志;宿命; PROVIDENCE)

Moslem Fatalism穆斯林宿命论

The Moslem conception of God and His government of the world, the insistence on His unity and the absoluteness of the method of this rule as well as the Oriental tendency to belittle the individuality of man, were all favourable to the development of a theory of predestination approximating towards fatalism.神和他对穆斯林世界政​​府的概念,在他的团结和本规则的方法,以及东方趋势贬低人的个性的绝对坚持,都有利的一种宿命理论的发展近似​​对宿命论。 Consequently, though there have been defenders of free will among Moslem teachers, yet the orthodox view which has prevailed most widely among the followers of the Prophet has been that all good and evil actions and events take place by the eternal decrees of God, which have been written from all eternity on the prescribed table.因此,尽管不断有穆斯林教师之间的自由意志的捍卫者,但正统的观点,已经取得了胜利之间的先知的追随者最广泛的是,所有善恶行为和事件采取的上帝永恒的法令,其中有立足之地编写从所有永恒的规定表。 The faith of the believer and all his good actions have all been decreed and approved, whilst the bad actions of the wicked though similarly decreed have not been approved.对信徒和所有信仰他的好行为均已颁布和批准,而虽然同样没有被批准颁布的恶人的坏行为。Some of the Moslem doctors sought to harmonize this fatalistic theory with man's responsibility, but the Oriental temper generally accepted with facility the fatalistic presentation of the creed; and some of their writers have appealed to this long past predestination and privation of free choice as a justification for the denial of personal responsibility.在穆斯林医生一些试图协调这与男人的责任宿命的理论,但东方的脾气通常与设施的信条宿命介绍所接受;和他们的作家都呼吁为理由这早已过去宿命和自由选择的匮乏对于个人责任的否认。 Whilst the belief in predestined lot has tended to make the Moslem nations lethargic and indolent in respect to the ordinary industries of life, it has developed a recklessness in danger which has proved a valuable element in the military character of the people.虽然在很多命中注定的信念,往往使穆斯林国家昏昏欲睡和尊重生命的一般工业好逸恶劳,它已经开发出一种危险鲁莽的证明,在人民军队性质的宝贵元素。

Modern Fatalism现代宿命论

The reformers of the sixteenth century taught a doctrine of predestination little, if at all, less rigid than the Moslem fatalism.十六世纪的改革家的宿命教义教小,如果在所有,不足的穆斯林宿命论僵化。(See CALVIN; LUTHER; FREE WILL.) With the new departure in philosophy and its separation from theology since the time of Descartes, the ancient pagan notion of an external fate, which had grown obsolete, was succeeded by or transformed into the theory of Necessarianism. (见CALVIN;路德;自由意志。)随着哲学自笛卡尔,古外部的命运,这已增长异教观念陈旧,从神学的分离时间的新的出发点,是成功的或将理论转化Necessarianism。 The study of physics, the increasing knowledge of the reign of uniform law in the world, as well as the reversion to naturalism initiated by the extreme representatives of the Renaissance, stimulated the growth of rationalism in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries and resulted in the popularization of the old objections to free will.在物理学中,在世界上在位统一法,以及由文艺复兴时期的极端代表开始回归自然增加知识,学习促进了理性主义在十七和十八世纪的发展和普及的结果对自由意志的老反对。 Certain elements in the mechanical philosophy of Descartes and in the occasionalism of his system, which his followers Malebranche and Geulinex developed, confining all real action to God obviously tend towards a fatalistic view of the universe.在笛卡儿的机械哲学和他的系统,他的追随者马勒伯朗士和Geulinex开发,围一切实际行动向上帝occasionalism某些元素明显倾向于对宇宙的宿命论观点。

Modern Pantheistic Fatalism现代泛神论宿命论

Spinoza's pantheistic necessarianism is, however, perhaps the frankest and most rigid form of fatalism advocated by any leading modern philosopher.斯宾诺莎的泛神论necessarianism不过,也许是宿命论frankest和最严格的形式,任何领先的现代哲学家所提倡的。 Starting from the idea of substance, which he so defines that there can be but one, he deduces in geometrical fashion all forms of being in the universe from this notion.开始从物质的想法,他这样定义可以有只有一个,他在几何推论宇宙中的时尚正在从这个概念的所有形式。This substance must be infinite.这种物质必须是无限的。It evolves necessarily through an infinite number of attributes into an infinity of modes.它通过一个属性演变无限一定成一个模式无穷。The seemingly individual and independent beings of the world, minds and bodies, are merely these modes of the infinite substance.世界上的看似独立的生命个体,思想和身体,仅仅是这些物质的无限模式。The whole world-process of actions and events is rigidly necessary in every detail; the notions of contingence, of possible beings other than those which exist, are purely illusory.整个世界的行动和事件的过程是必要的,硬性的每一个细节;的contingence观念比那些存在其他可能的生命,纯粹是虚幻的。 Nothing is possible except what actually is.没有什么是可能的除外究竟是怎样。There is free will in neither God nor man.有自由意志,也没有上帝的人。Human volitions and decisions flow with the same inexorable necessity from man's nature as geometrical properties from the concept of a triangle.人类volitions和决策流具有相同的人​​作为从一个三角形几何概念的本质属性的必然需要。Spinoza's critics were quick to point out that in this view man is no longer responsible if he commits a crime nor deserving of praise in recompense for his good deeds, and that God is the author of sin.斯宾诺莎的批评很快指出,在这种观点的人是不再负责,如果他犯了他的好事迹补偿犯罪的,也不值得赞美的,那上帝是罪的作者。 Spinoza's only answer was that rewards and punishments still have their use as motives, that evil is merely limitation and therefore not real, and that whatever is real is good.斯宾诺莎的唯一回答是,奖励和惩罚仍然有其使用的动机,那邪恶的仅仅是限制,因此不实,无论是真实的还是不错的。Vice, however, he holds, is as objectionable as pain or physical corruption.副,不过,他认为,就像疼痛或物理损坏反感。 The same fatalistic consequences to morality are logically involved in the various forms of recent pantheistic monism.同样的道德宿命论的后果是逻辑上参与了最近的泛神论的一元论的各种形式。

Modern Materialistic Fatalism现代唯物主义宿命论

Modern materialism, starting from the notion of matter as the sole original cause of all things, endeavours to elaborate a purely mechanical theory of the universe, in which its contents and the course of its evolution are all the necessary outcome of the original collocation of the material particles together with their chemical and physical properties and the laws of their action.现代唯物主义,从物质作为唯一的原引起的一切事物的概念出发,努力制定一个纯机械的宇宙理论,其中的内容和它的进化过程中的所有原搭配的必然结果物质粒子与它们的化学和物理性质和其行动的规律。 The more thoroughgoing advocates of the mechanical theory, such as Clifford and Huxley, frankly accept the logical consequences of this doctrine that mind cannot act upon matter, and teach that man is "a conscious automaton", and that thoughts and volitions exercise no real influence on the movements of material objects in the present world.对机械理论的更彻底的倡导者,如克利福德和赫胥黎,坦白接受这种学说的逻辑后果,头脑不能采取行动的问题,并教人是“有意识的自动机”,而思想和volitions运动没有真正的影响关于在当前世界的物质对象的运动。 Mental states are merely by-products of material changes, but in no way modify the latter.精神状态的变化仅仅是物质的产物,但在没有办法修改了后者。They are also described as subjective aspects of nervous processes, and as epiphenomena, but however conceived they are necessarily held by the disciples of the materialistic school to be incapable of interfering with the movements of matter or of entering in any way as efficient causes into the chain of events which constitute the physical history of the world.他们还描述为神经过程的主观方面,作为epiphenomena,但无论他们设想必然由唯物主义学校的弟子认为是不能作为有效的原因与物质的运动干涉或以任何方式进入到连锁事件构成了世界物理历史。 The position is in some ways more extreme than the ancient pagan fatalism.位置是在某些方面超过了古代的异教宿命论极端。 For, while the earlier writers taught that the incidents of man's life and fortune were inexorably regulated by an overwhelming power against which it was useless as well as impossible to strive, they generally held the common-sense view that our volitions do direct our immediate actions, though our destiny would in any case be realized.因为,虽然早期的作家告诉我们,人的生命和财富的事件被无情地以压倒性力量反对它是无用的,以及无法争取监管,他们普遍持有的常识性的观点,我们的volitions做指导我们立即采取行动虽然我们的命运会在任何情况下得以实现。 But the materialistic scientist is logically committed to the conclusion that while the whole series of our mental states are rigidly bound up with the nervous changes of the organism, which were all inexorably predetermined in the original collocation of the material particles of the universe, these mental states themselves can in no way alter the course of events or affect the movements of a single molecule of matter.但在逻辑上是唯物主义的科学家致力于结论,虽然我们的精神状态全系列硬性约束与生物体的神经变化,这是在对宇宙的原始物质粒子无情地搭配所有预定的,这些心理状态本身可以在任何方式改变事件的进程或影响的问题单分子的运动。

The Refutation of Fatalism of all types lies in the absurd and incredible consequences which they all entail.对所有类型的宿命论驳斥在于荒唐和不可思议的后果,他们都涉及。

(1) Ancient fatalism implied that events were determined independently of their immediate causes.(1)古代宿命论暗示事件乃独立于他们的直接原因。It denied free will, or that free will could affect the course of our lives.它否认自由意志,或者说,自由意志可能影响我们的生活中。 Logically it destroyed the basis of morality.从逻辑上讲它破坏了道德的基础。

(2) The fatalism resting on the Divine decrees (a) made man irresponsible for his acts, and (b) made God the author of sin. (2)宿命论的神圣休息法令(一)制作的人对他的行为不负责任,(b)条作出神罪的作者。

(3) The fatalism of materialistic science not only annihilates morality but, logically reasoned out, it demands belief in the incredible proposition that the thoughts and feelings of mankind have had no real influence on human history Mill distinguished: (a) Pure or Oriental fatalism which, he says, holds that our actions are not dependent on our desires, but are overruled by a superior power; (b) modified fatalism, which teaches that our actions are determined by our will, and our will by our character and the motives acting on us--our character, however, having been given to us, (c) finally determinism, which, according to him, maintains that not only our conduct, but our character, is amenable to our will: and that we can improve our character. (3)科学宿命论的唯物主义不仅歼道德,但在逻辑上推断出,它要求在令人难以置信的主张认为,人类的思想和感情,并没有对人类历史的纺织厂实际的影响力分为:(一)纯或东方宿命论其中,他说,认为我们的行动是不依赖于我们的愿望,而是由上级权力overruled;(二)修改宿命论,它教导我们,我们的行动是由我们的意志决定的,而我们通过我们的性格和动机将作用于我们 - 我们的性格,然而,被给予我们,(c)最后决定,而根据他的说法,认为不仅是我们的行为,但我们的性格,是服从我们的意志:我们可以改进和我们的性格。 In both forms of fatalism, he concludes, man is not responsible for his actions.在这两种形式的宿命论,他得出结论,男人不是为自己的行为负责。But logically, in the determinist theory, if we reason the matter out, we are driven to precisely the same conclusion.但是,从逻辑上讲,在决定论的理论,如果我们理性的事了,我们被驱动为完全相同的结论。For the volition to improve our character cannot arise unless as the necessary outcome of previous character and present motives.为意志,以改善我们的性格,除非出现不能作为以前的性格和现在的动机必然结果。Practically there may be a difference between the conduct of the professed fatalist who will be inclined to say that as his future is always inflexibly predetermined there is no use in trying to alter it, and the determinist, who may advocate the strengthening of good motives.实际上有可能是之间的自称宿命论者谁将会倾向于说,由于他的未来始终是一成不变预定有没有试图改变它的使用,以及决定论,谁可主张加强良好的动机进行区别。 In strict consistency, however, since determinism denies real initiative causality to the individual human mind, the consistent view of life and morality should be precisely the same for the determinist and the most extreme fatalist (see DETERMINISM).在严格的一致性,但是,由于决定论否认因果关系,以实际行动个别人的心灵,生活和道德一致的看法应该正是为决定论和最极端的宿命论者(见决定)​​相同。

Publication information Written by Michael Maher.出版信息的书面迈克尔马希尔。Transcribed by Rick McCarty.转录由里克麦卡蒂。The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume V. Published 1909.天主教百科全书,体积五发布1909年。New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, May 1, 1909.Nihil Obstat,1909年5月1日。Remy Lafort, Censor.人头马lafort,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰米farley,大主教纽约

Also, see:此外,见:
Determinism 宿命论
Predestination predestination

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