Filioque Controversy圣子

General Information一般资料

Protestant Perspective新教透视

Based probably on the baptismal creed of Jerusalem, the Niceno - Constantinopolitan Creed contained a fuller statement concerning Christ and the Holy Spirit than the earlier formula.根据可能对耶路撒冷,Niceno洗礼信条 - Constantinopolitan信条载有更全面的声明和关于基督比前面的公式圣灵。Its use in eucharistic worship is not much earlier than the 5th century.它在圣体崇拜的使用并不比5世纪早期。

The so - called Filioque ("and the Son") clause, expressing the double procession of the Spirit, was added at the Third Council of Toledo (589). The Nicene Creed is used by Roman Catholics, many Protestants, and the Eastern Orthodox; the last, however, reject the Filioque clause.所谓-所谓Filioque(“和子”)的条款,表达了双灵游行,被添加在托莱多(589)第三次理事会的尼西亚信经是罗马天主教徒,许多新教徒,东正教和使用;最后,然而,拒绝Filioque条款。

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Filioque Filioque

General Information一般资料

Protestant Perspective新教透视

Filioque is a combination of Latin words meaning "and from the Son," added to the Nicene Creed by the Third Council of Toledo in 589: Credo in Spiritum Sanctum qui ex patre filioque procedit ("I believe in the Holy Spirit who proceeds from the Father and Son"). It refers to the doctrine of the procession of the Holy Spirit from the Father and the Son. Although it was accepted by the Western church as a belief by the end of the 4th century, the formula was not authorized for general liturgical use before the early part of the 11th century. Filioque是一个拉丁词的意义相结合“的儿子,并补充说:”到尼西亚在589由托莱多第三届理事会: 在Spiritum圣魁恩帕特雷filioque procedit(“我相信在圣灵的信条谁收益父亲和儿子“), 它是指对来自父亲和儿子圣灵游行学说,虽然被接受为一种信念由西方教会由4世纪结束时,该公式是不授权一般礼仪使用前的11世纪初。 It was assailed vehemently by Photius, the patriarch of Constantinople (present-day Ýstanbul), in 867 and 879. The Eastern church did not accept the addition on two distinct grounds:它是由Photius强烈抨击,对君士坦丁堡宗主教(今Ýstanbul),在867和879 的东部教会不接受另外两个截然不同的理由:

The filioque clause was probably devised in response to Arianism, which denied the full divinity of the Son.该filioque条款可能是制定应对阿里乌斯教,它否定了儿子充满神性。To the Byzantines, however, the clause also appeared to compromise the primacy ("monarchy") of the Father, which according to the Eastern church is the source of deity.到了拜占庭,但是,该条款也出现妥协的父亲至上(“君主”),它根据东方教会是神的来源。An unsuccessful attempt to reconcile the two points of view was made at the Council of Ferrara-Florence in 1439.一个不成功的尝试调和两种观点的提出在费拉拉,佛罗伦萨理事会1439。The Eastern and Western churches have remained separate, and the doctrine represented by the term filioque stands as one of the primary points of difference between them.东部和西部教会仍然分开,并经长期filioque代表的学说作为它们之间的区别主要点之一立场。

Filioque Filioque

Advanced Information先进的信息

The term means "and from the Son" and refers to the phrase in the Western version of the Nicene Creed which says that the Holy Spirit proceeds from the Father and the Son. Originally this was not in the confessions agreed to at Nicaea (325) and Constantinople (381). It seems to have been first inserted at the local Council of Toledo (589) and in spite of opposition gradually established itself in the West, being officially endorsed in 1017. Photius of Constantinople denounced it in the ninth century, and it formed the main doctrinal issue in the rupture between East and West in 1054. An attempted compromise at Florence in 1439 came to nothing.这个词的意思是“从子”,指的是在尼西亚信经的说,从父亲和儿子圣灵的收益, 本来这是在口供不同意在尼西亚(325)西语版和君士坦丁堡(381),它似乎已首先在托莱多(589)当地政府和反对派尽管逐步建立在西方本身,在1017年被正式批准中。 君士坦丁堡Photius谴责它在第九世纪,并形成了在东西方之间在1054年破裂的主要理论问题。一个企图在1439年在佛罗伦萨妥协石沉大海。 Among the fathers Hilary, Jerome, Ambrose, Augustine, Epiphanius, and Cyril of Alexandria may be cited in its favor; Theodore of Mopsuestia and Theodoret against it; with the Cappadocians occupying the middle ground of "from the Father through the Son."在希拉里的父亲,杰罗姆,刘汉铨,奥古斯丁,埃皮法尼乌斯和西里尔亚历山大可引对其有利;的摩普绥提亚和反对Theodoret西奥多;“,从父亲到儿子”与Cappadocians占领的中间地带

On the Eastern side two points may be made.东侧两点可提出。First, the relevant verse in John (15:26) speaks only of a proceeding from the Father. 首先,在约翰(15:26)相关经文讲只有从父亲出发。Second, the addition never had ecumenical approval.其次,除了从未有过合一的批准。

Two points may also be made for the filioque.两点也可能作出的filioque。First, it safeguards the vital Nicene truth that the Son is consubstantial with the Father. 首先,它保障的重要尼西亚真理子与父同质。Second, the Son as well as the Father sends the Spirit in John 15:26, and by analogy with this relationship to us we are justified in inferring that the Spirit proceeds from both Father and Son in the intratrinitarian relationship. Not to say this is to divorce the Spirit from the Son in contradiction of the passages that speak of him as the Spirit of Christ (cf. Rom. 8:9; Gal. 4:6). 其次,儿子以及父亲在约翰15时26分发出的精神,并与这对中美关系的比喻,我们在推断,从父亲和儿子在intratrinitarian关系的精神收益。不是说这是合理的脱离子圣灵在他的经文,说成基督的灵矛盾(罗8时09分;。加拉太书4:6)。

GW Bromiley毛重罗米立
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 参考书目
K Barth, Church Dogmatics I / 1 12, 2; JND Kelly, Early Christian Doctrines; H Thielicke, The Evangelical Faith, II,; HB Swete, History of the Doctrine of the Procession of the Holy Spirit.K巴特,教会教义学I / 1 12 2; JND凯利,早期基督教教义,H•悌理柯,基督教信仰,第二; HB Swete,对圣灵的历史主义游行。

Filioque Filioque

General Information一般资料

Orthodox Perspective东正教透视

By the 4th century a polarity developed between the Eastern and Western Christians in their respective understandings of the Trinity.到了第四世纪的极性发展之间的三位一体的各自理解的东方和西方的基督徒。In the West God was understood primarily in terms of one essence (the Trinity of Persons being conceived as an irrational truth found in revelation); in the East the tri-personality of God was understood as the primary fact of Christian experience.在西方神的理解主要是在一个本质(三位一体的人被视为一种非理性的启示,发现真理设想)条款;在东方神三个人是作为基督徒的经验基本事实的理解。 For most of the Greek Fathers, it was not the Trinity that needed theological proof but rather God's essential unity.对于大多数的希腊教父,这不是神学三位一体,需要证明,而是神的基本统一。The Cappadocian Fathers (Gregory of Nyssa, Gregory of Nazianzus, and Basil of Caesarea) were even accused of being tri-theists because of the personalistic emphasis of their conception of God as one essence in three hypostases (the Greek term hypostasis was the equivalent of the Latin substantia and designated a concrete reality).在卡帕多西亚教父(格雷戈里的nyssa,格雷戈里的nazianzus和凯撒利亚罗勒),甚至指责,因为他们的神的概念作为一个本质personalistic重点在三个位格(希腊文原质是相当于正三有神论者拉丁substantia并指定了一个具体的现实)。 For Greek theologians, this terminology was intended to designate the concrete New Testamental revelation of the Son and the Spirit, as distinct from the Father.对于希腊神学家,这个术语是为了指定具体的新的子和圣灵,从父不同Testamental启示。

Modern Orthodox theologians tend to emphasize this personalistic approach to God; they claim that they discover in it the original biblical personalism, unadulterated in its content by later philosophical speculation.现代东正教神学家倾向于强调这personalistic方法上帝,他们声称,他们发现在它原有的圣经人格,在其内容十足的后哲学思辨。

Polarization of the Eastern and the Western concepts of the Trinity is at the root of the Filioque dispute. The Latin word Filioque ("and from the Son") was added to the Nicene Creed in Spain in the 6th century. 东部和西部的三位一体观念极化是在Filioque纠纷的根源。拉丁词Filioque(“和子”),增加了在西班牙在公元6世纪尼西亚信条。 By affirming that the Holy Spirit proceeds not only "from the Father" (as the original creed proclaimed) but also "from the Son," the Spanish councils intended to condemn Arianism by reaffirming the Son's divinity.申明,圣灵的收益不仅是“从父”(原始信条宣布),但也“从儿子,”西班牙议会打算谴责重申儿子的神阿里乌斯教。 Later, however, the addition became an anti-Greek battle cry, especially after Charlemagne (9th century) made his claim to rule the revived Roman Empire.后来,然而,除了成为反希腊的战斗口号,尤其是在查理曼(9世纪)做了他的主张复兴的罗马帝国统治。The addition was finally accepted in Rome under German pressure.加法终于在罗马接受了德国的压力下。It found justification in the framework of Western conceptions of the Trinity; the Father and the Son were viewed as one God in the act of "spiration" of the Spirit.它发现,在西方的概念框架的三位一体的理由,父亲和儿子作为一个在“spiration”的精神行事神看待。

The Byzantine theologians opposed the addition, first on the ground that the Western Church had no right to change the text of an ecumenical creed unilaterally and, second, because the Filioque clause implied the reduction of the divine persons to mere relations ("the Father and the Son are two in relation to each other, but one in relation to the Spirit"). For the Greeks the Father alone is the origin of both the Son and the Spirit. 拜占庭式的神学家反对此外,先在地面上,西方教会无权改变一个普世信条单方面,第二个文本,因为Filioque条款隐含的神圣人减少到仅仅关系(“父与儿子是两个相互关系,但相对于精神之一“),对于希腊人的父亲是两个单独的子和圣灵的起源。 Patriarch Photius (9th century) was the first Orthodox theologian to explicitly spell out the Greek opposition to the Filioque concept, but the debate continued throughout the Middle Ages.祖师Photius(9世纪)是第一个东正教神学家明确地阐明了希腊反对Filioque概念,但在整个中世纪辩论仍在继续。

Filioque Filioque

Advanced Information先进的信息

(An excerpt to our presentation regarding the Second Ecumenical Council, the First Council of Constantinople, of 381 AD, is presented here as indicating historical views on the subject.)(对我们介绍摘录关于第二大公会议,对第一届理事会君士坦丁堡381 AD,是作为历史表明关于这个问题的看法。)

Historical Excursus on the Introduction into the Creed of the Words "and the Son."历史上附记入的话信条简介“和儿子。”

The introduction into the Nicene Creed of the words "and the Son" (Filioque) has given rise to, or has been the pretext for, such bitter reviling between East and West (during which many statements unsupported by fact have become more or less commonly believed) that I think it well in this place to set forth as dispassionately as possible the real facts of the case.进的话“和子”尼西亚信经(Filioque)的推出引起,或已为借口,这种东西方之间的苦reviling(在此期间由不支持的许多事实陈述变得更多或较少相信),我认为在这个地方提出尽可能对案件事实的真实客观地做好。 I shall briefly then give the proof of the following propositions:我将简要地然后给下列命题的证明:

1. 1。That no pretence is made by the West that the words in dispute formed part of the original creed as adopted at Constantinople, or that they now form part of that Creed.没有借口是由西方的争议单词组成部分的原始信条于君士坦丁堡通过,或者说,他们现在成为该信条的一部分。

2. 2。That so far from the insertion being made by the Pope, it was made in direct opposition to his wishes and command.说了这么远不是由教皇作出的插入,它是在直接反对他的愿望和命令。

3. 3。That it never was intended by the words to assert that there were two 'Archai in the Trinity, nor in any respect on this point to differ from the teaching of the East.这是从来没有打算通过的话,断言有两个“Archai三位一体,也不不同于东教学在这一点上任何尊重。

4. 4。That it is quite possible that the words were not an intentional insertion at all.这是很有可能的话是不是有意插入的。

5. 5。And finally that the doctrine of the East as set forth by St. John Damascene is now and always has been the doctrine of the West on the procession of the Holy Spirit, however much through ecclesiastico-political contingencies this fact may have become obscured.最后认为,东方主义作为由圣约翰大马士革四是现在一直是西方对圣灵游行的学说,但多通过ecclesiastico政治突发事件这一事实可能已经变得模糊不清。

With the truth or falsity of the doctrine set forth by the Western addition to the creed this work has no concern, nor even am I called upon to treat the historical question as to when and where the expression "and the Son" was first used.随着真理或谬误的学说由西方提出的信条除了这项工作没有任何问题,甚至也不是我要求来对待,以何时何地表达“和子”是第一次使用的历史问题。 For a temperate and eminently scholarly treatment of this point from a Western point of view, I would refer the reader to Professor Swete's On the History of the Doctrine of the Procession of the Holy Spirit.对于这一点,温带和突出的学术从西方的观点对待,我想请读者教授Swete论的圣灵游行历史主义的。In JM Neale's History of the Holy Eastern Church will be found a statement from the opposite point of view.在JM尼尔的圣东方教会的历史,会发现从相反的观点陈述。The great treatises of past years I need not mention here, but may be allowed to enter a warning to the reader, that they were often written in the period of hot controversy, and make more for strife than for peace, magnifying rather than lessening differences both of thought and expression.在这里我不用说,但过去几年的伟大论文可能被允许进入一个警告给读者,他们往往在热controversy时期写的,并为冲突多于和平,而不是减少差异放大既有思想和言论自由。

Perhaps, too, I may be allowed here to remind the readers that it has been said that while "ex Patre Filioque procedens" in Latin does not necessitate a double source of the Holy Spirit, the expression ekporeuomenon ek tou patros kai ek tou Huiou does.或许,也可以允许我在这里要提醒读者,它已经表示,“当然帕特雷Filioque procedens”在拉美并不需要一个圣灵双源,表达ekporeuomenon EK头patros偕EK头Huiou不。On such a point I am not fit to give an opinion, but St. John Damascene does not use this expression.在这样的一个点,我不适合给意见,但圣约翰大马士革不使用此表达式。

1. 1。That no pretence is made by the West that the words in dispute ever formed part of the creed as adopted at Constantinople is evidently proved by the patent fact that it is printed without those words in all our Concilias and in all our histories.这是由没有任何借口的,在争议不断形成的信条的一部分,于君士坦丁堡通过的话,显然是由专利的事实,这是没有这些字印在我们所有的Concilias和我们所有的历史证明了西方。 It is true that at the Council of Florence it was asserted that the words were found in a copy of the Acts of the Seventh Ecumenical which they had, but no stress was even at that eminently Western council laid upon the point, which even if it had been the case would have shewn nothing with regard to the true reading of the Creed as adopted by the Second Synod.诚然,在佛罗伦萨会有人断言,话是在一个基督教的第七,他们已发现复制的行为,但没有压力是在后点,奠定了西方的议会甚至是突出的,即使这已经这样会shewn方面的信条没有真正读经第二次主教会议通过。 [210]On this point there never was nor can be any doubt.[210]在这一点上从来没有也不可能有任何疑问。

2. 2。The addition was not made at the will and at the bidding of the Pope.加法是没有公布的意志和在教皇竞标。It has frequently been said that it was a proof of the insufferable arrogancy of the See of Rome that it dared to tamper with the creed set forth by the authority of an Ecumenical Synod and which had been received by the world.它常常被人们说,这是一个对见罗马难以忍受arrogancy,它敢乱动设置一个基督教主教会议,并已被世界所接受的权威提出的信条的证明。 Now so far from the history of this addition to the creed being a ground of pride and complacency to the advocates of the Papal claims, it is a most marked instance of the weakness of the papal power even in the West.现在远离了这信条是一个骄傲和自满,罗马教皇的索赔主张地面除了历史,它是对的,即使在西方的罗马教皇的权力弱点最明显的实例。

"Baronius," says Dr. Pusey, "endeavours in vain to find any Pope, to whom the `formal addition' may be ascribed, and rests at last on a statement of a writer towards the end of the 12th century, writing against the Greeks. `If the Council of Constantinople added to the Nicene Creed, `in the Holy Ghost, the Lord, and Giver of life,' and the Council of Chalcedon to that of Constantinople, `perfect in Divinity and perfect in Humanity, consubstantial with the Father as touching his Godhead, consubstantial with us as touching his manhood,' and some other things as aforesaid, the Bishop of the elder Rome ought not to be calumniated, because for explanation, he added one word [that the Holy Spirit proceeds from the Son] having the consent of very many bishops and most learned Cardinals.' “Baronius博士说:”皮塞,“徒劳的努力找到任何教皇,正式向谁`除了”可能是冲高,最后取决于一个作家对12世纪结束的声明,对写作希腊人。`如果君士坦丁堡议会添加到尼西亚信条,`在圣灵,主,和生活的赐予者,“与Chalcedon委员会的君士坦丁堡,`在神完美,在人性和完善,同质同作为触摸他的神性,与我们同质的触摸他的男子气概“,并为上述其他一些东西的父亲,老罗马主教也不应该污蔑,因为解释,他说一个字[圣灵所得款项子]有很多主教的同意,并最有学问的主教。“ `For the truth of which,' says Le Quien, `be the author responsible!'`对于其中的道理,“乐Quien说,`是作者负责!” It seems to me inconceivable, that all account of any such proceeding, if it ever took place, should have been lost."在我看来不可思议,所有上述法律程序的任何账户,如果它发生了,应该已经输了。“[211][211]

We may then dismiss this point and briefly review the history of the matter.我们可以再解雇了这一点,并简要回顾了整件事的来龙​​去脉。

There seems little doubt that the words were first inserted in Spain.似乎毫无疑问,话是第一次在西班牙插入。As early as the year 400 it had been found necessary at a Council of Toledo to affirm the double procession against the Priscillianists, [212] and in 589 by the authority of the Third Council of Toledo the newly converted Goths were required to sign the creed with the addition.早在400年它被发现在托莱多安理会必须肯定对Priscillianists双游行,[212]和589由托莱多第三安理会的权威新转换的哥特人被要求签署的信条用加法。 [213]From this time it became for Spain the accepted form, and was so recited at the Eighth Council of Toledo in 653, and again in 681 at the Twelfth Council of Toledo. [213]从这个时候它成了西班牙接受的形式,并因此在背诵653托莱多在第八局,并在681再次在托莱多第十二次会议。[214][214]

But this was at first only true of Spain, and at Rome nothing of the kind was known.但是,这是在第一只真正的西班牙,并在罗马的那种什么是众所周知的。In the Gelasian Sacramentary the Creed is found in its original form.在Gelasian Sacramentary的信条被发现在其原来的形式。 [215]The same is the case with the old Gallican Sacramentary of the vii th or viii th century. [215]同样是与老高卢Sacramentary的第七或第八世纪的情况。[216][216]

However, there can be no doubt that its introduction spread very rapidly through the West and that before long it was received practically everywhere except at Rome.但是,可以毫无疑问,它的引进和传播到西方,不久收到它几乎无处不在,除了罗马非常迅速。

In 809 a council was held at Aix-la-Chapelle by Charlemagne, and from it three divines were sent to confer with the Pope, Leo III, upon the subject.在809举行的议会埃克斯 - 拉 - 礼拜堂由查理曼,从神学的三份被送往赋予与教皇利奥三世在这一问题。The Pope opposed the insertion of the Filioque on the express ground that the General Councils had forbidden any addition to be made to their formulary.教皇反对就表示地面Filioque,总议会已禁止任何必须作出自己的处方除了插入。[217]Later on, the Frankish Emperor asked his bishops what was "the meaning of the Creed according to the Latins," [218] and Fleury gives the result of the investigations to have been, "In France they continued to chant the creed with the word Filioque, and at Rome they continued not to chant it." [217]后来,法兰克皇帝问他的主教是什么“的信条按照拉丁人的意义,”[218]和弗勒里给出的调查结果已在法国“他们继续高唱的信条以单词Filioque,并在罗马,他们仍然不歌颂它。“ [219][219]

So firmly resolved was the Pope that the clause should not be introduced into the creed that he presented two silver shields to the Confessio in St. Peter's at Rome, on one of which was engraved the creed in Latin and on the other in Greek, without the addition.因此,坚定的决心,是教皇的条款不应该进入的信条,他提出了两个银盾的圣彼得在罗马的Confessio在其中一次是刻在拉丁美洲,另一方面在希腊的信条,引进,无加法。 This act the Greeks never forgot during the controversy.这种行为的希腊人从来没有忘记在争议。Photius refers to it in writing to the Patriarch of Acquileia.Photius是指以书面的Acquileia祖师。About two centuries later St. Peter Damian [220] mentions them as still in place; and about two centuries later on, Veccur, Patriarch of Constantinople, declares they hung there still.大约两个世纪后的圣彼得达米安[220]提到它们仍然到位;约两个世纪以后,Veccur,君士坦丁堡牧首,宣称他们还挂有。 [221][221]

It was not till 1014 that for the first time the interpolated creed was used at mass with the sanction of the Pope.这是直到1014不是第一次插的信条是在大规模使用的教皇制裁。In that year Benedict VIII.在这一年本笃八。acceded to the urgent request of Henry II.加入到亨利二世迫切的要求。of Germany and so the papal authority was forced to yield, and the silver shields have disappeared from St. Peter's.德国,所以罗马教皇的权威被迫屈服,和银盾从圣彼得的消失了。

3. 3。Nothing could be clearer than that the theologians of the West never had any idea of teaching a double source of the Godhead.没有什么比西方的神学家从未有过任何教学的神性双源想法更清晰。The doctrine of the Divine Monarchy was always intended to be preserved, and while in the heat of the controversy sometimes expressions highly dangerous, or at least clearly inaccurate, may have been used, yet the intention must be judged from the prevailing teaching of the approved theologians.的神圣君主制主义总是拟保留,虽然在争论有时表现非常危险的,或至少明显不准确的热量,可能已被使用,但意图必须从核定判断当时的教学神学家。 And what this was is evident from the definition of the Council of Florence, which, while indeed it was not received by the Eastern Church, and therefore cannot be accepted as an authoritative exposition of its views, yet certainly must be regarded as a true and full expression of the teaching of the West.什么这是从佛罗伦萨理事会,该理事会,而其实这也是没有收到由东区教会,因此不能作为其观点的权威论述所接受,但一定要作为一个真正把定义明显,充分表达了西方教学。 "The Greeks asserted that when they say the Holy Ghost proceeds from the Father, they do not use it because they wish to exclude the Son; but because it seemed to them, as they say, that the Latins assert the Holy Spirit to proceed from the Father and the Son, as from two principles and by two spirations, and therefore they abstain from saying that the Holy Spirit proceeds from the Father and the Son. But the Latins affirm that they have no intention when they say the Holy Ghost proceeds from the Father and the Son to deprive the Father of his prerogative of being the fountain and principle of the entire Godhead, viz. of the Son and of the Holy Ghost; nor do they deny that the very procession of the Holy Ghost from the Son, the Son derives from the Father; nor do they teach two principles or two spirations; but they assert that there is one only principle, one only spiration, as they have always asserted up to this time."他说:“希腊人宣称,当他们说,从父亲圣灵的收益,他们不使用它,因为他们想排除的儿子,而是因为它似乎给他们,正如他们所说,认为拉丁人断言圣灵要从父亲和从两个原则和两个spirations儿子,因此他们放弃说,从父亲和儿子圣灵的收益,但拉丁人肯定他们无意当他们说圣灵所得款项父亲和儿子剥夺了他的被喷泉和整个神之父的特权原则,即在子和圣灵;也不否认,从子圣灵非常游行,子来自父,也不教两个原则或两个spirations,但他们声称,有一个唯一的原则,一个只有spiration,因为他们一直宣称到这个时间“。

4. 4。It is quite possible that when these words were first used there was no knowledge on the part of those using them that there had been made any addition to the Creed.这是很可能的,当这些话是第一次使用没有就利用他们曾有过作出任何的信条除了那些部分的知识。As I have already pointed out, the year 589 is the earliest date at which we find the words actually introduced into the Creed.正如我已经指出,589年,是最早的日期,我们找到的话居然成了引进的信条。Now there can be no doubt whatever that the Council of Toledo of that year had no suspicion that the creed as they had it was not the creed exactly as adopted at Constantinople.现在不可能有​​任何疑问的是,这一年会托莱多没有的信条,因为他们的信条是不完全一样,在君士坦丁堡通过怀疑。 This is capable of the most ample proof.这是最能充分证明。

In the first place they declared, "Whosoever believes that there is any other Catholic faith and communion, besides that of the Universal Church, that Church which holds and honours the decrees of the Councils of Nice, Constantinople, I. Ephesus, and Chalcedon, let him be anathema."首先,他们宣称,“凡认为有任何其他信仰天主教和共融,除了通用的教会,这教会持有和荣誉的尼斯,君士坦丁堡,一以弗所和迦克墩的议会法令,让他被诅咒。“ After some further anathemas in the same sense they repeat "the creed published at the council of Nice," and next, "The holy faith which the 150 fathers of the Council of Constantinople explained, consonant with the great Council of Nice."后在同样的意义,他们重申了进一步anathemas“在尼斯理事会公布的信条,”和未来“的神圣信仰的君士坦丁堡会的150父亲解释说,在尼斯伟大理事会一致的。” And then lastly, "The holy faith which the translators of the council of Chalcedon explained."然后最后,他说:“神圣信仰的Chalcedon委员会的翻译解释说。”The creed of Constantinople as recited contained the words "and from the Son."在君士坦丁堡信条作为吟诵中的话“,并从儿子。” Now the fathers at Toledo were not ignorant of the decree of Ephesus forbidding the making of "another faith" (heteran pistin) for they themselves cite it, as follows from the acts of Chalcedon; "The holy and universal Synod forbids to bring forward any other faith; or to write or believe or to teach other, or be otherwise minded. But whoso shall dare either to expound or produce or deliver any other faith to those who wish to be converted etc."现在,在托莱多的父亲是不禁止的以弗所为他们的“另一种信仰”(heteran pistin)使自己举它,从迦克墩无知的行为如下法令,“神圣的和普遍的宗教会议禁止向任何提出其他信仰,或写或相信或教其他,或以其他方式志同道合但whoso应敢于要么阐述或生产或提供任何其他的信仰的那些谁愿意要转换等“。 Upon this Dr. Pusey well remarks, [222] "It is, of course, impossible to suppose that they can have believed any addition to the creed to have been forbidden by the clause, and, accepting it with its anathema, themselves to have added to the creed of Constantinople."当这个博士皮塞以及言论,[222]“这是当然,不可能的假设,认为他们有任何的信条除了已被禁止的条款,并接受其诅咒它,自己拥有添加到君士坦丁堡信条。“

But while this is the case it might be that they understood heteran of the Ephesine decree to forbid the making of contradictory and new creeds and not explanatory additions to the existing one.不过,虽然这种情况可能是他们理解的Ephesine法令禁止的矛盾和新的信条,而不是解释性补充现有的决策heteran。 Of this interpretation of the decree, which would seem without any doubt to be the only tenable one, I shall treat in its proper place.这一法令,这将毫无疑问似乎是唯一站得住脚的一种解释,我会在适当的地方治疗。

We have however further proof that the Council of Toledo thought they were using the unaltered creed of Constantinople.然而,我们进一步证明,托莱多会以为他们是利用君士坦丁堡不变的信条。In these acts we find they adopted the following; "for reverence of the most holy faith and for the strengthening of the weak minds of men, the holy Synod enacts, with the advice of our most pious and most glorious Lord, King Recarede, that through all the churches of Spain and Gallæcia, the symbol of faith of the council of Constantinople, ie of the 150 bishops, should be recited according to the form of the Eastern Church, etc."在这些行为,我们发现,他们采取了以下;“为最神圣的信仰和崇敬的男人,神圣的主教会议颁布加强的薄弱头脑,用我们最虔诚,最光荣的主,王Recarede,意见,通过所有的西班牙和Gallæcia教堂,对君士坦丁堡理事会,即150主教,信仰的象征,应根据背诵的东部教会的形式,等等。“

This seems to make the matter clear and the next question which arises is, How the words could have got into the Spanish creed?这似乎使问题清晰,下一个问题的产生是如何的话可以到西班牙信条了? I venture to suggest a possible explanation.我斗胆提出一个可能的解释。Epiphanius tells us that in the year 374 "all the orthodox bishops of the whole Catholic Church together make this address to those who come to baptism, in order that they may proclaim and say as follows."埃皮法尼乌斯告诉我们,在一年374“,所有的整个天主教东正教主教一起使这个地址那些谁前来洗礼,为了使他们宣讲和如下说。” [223]If this is to be understood literally of course Spain was included.[223]如果这是从字面上理解,当然西班牙被列入。 Now the creed thus taught the catechumens reads as follows at the point about which our interest centres:现在这样的信条教慕道内容在点左右,我们的兴趣中心如下:

Kai eis to hagion pneuma pisteuomen, ek tou patros ekporeuomenon kai ek tou Huiou lambanomenon kai pisteuomenon, eis mian katholiken ktl Now it looks to me as if the text had got corrupted and that there should be a full stop after lambanomenon, and that pisteuomenon should be pisteuomen.启EIS到hagion元气pisteuomen, EK头patros ekporeuomenon偕EK头Huiou lambanomenon偕pisteuomenon,EIS勉katholiken KTL现在看来我好像文本已被损坏了,而应该有一个句号后lambanomenon,和这pisteuomenon应pisteuomen。These emendations are not necessary however for my suggestion although they would make it more perfect, for in that case by the single omission of the word lambanomenon the Western form is obtained.这些emendations是没有必要为我的建议不过,虽然他们会使其更加完善在这种情况下,由单一的词lambanomenon遗漏西方的形式获得。 It will be noticed that this was some years before the Constantinopolitan Council and therefore nothing would be more natural than that a scribe accustomed to writing the old baptismal creed and now given the Constantinopolitan creed, so similar to it, to copy, should have gone on and added the kai ek tou Huiou, according to habit.它会注意到,这是几年前的Constantinopolitan会,因此没有什么会比这更自然书写习惯的老洗礼信条,现在由于Constantinopolitan信条,所以它类似​​,复制,抄写员应该去上并增加了偕绽出头Huiou,根据习惯。

However this is a mere suggestion, I think I have shewn that there is strong reason to believe that whatever the explanation may be, the Spanish Church was unaware that it had added to or changed the Constantinopolitan creed.然而,这只是一个建议,我想我已经shewn,有强烈的理由相信,任何可能的解释,西班牙教会并不知道,它已增加或改变了Constantinopolitan信条。

5. 5。There remains now only the last point, which is the most important of all, but which does not belong to the subject matter of this volume and which therefore I shall treat with the greatest brevity.仍有现在只有最后一点,这是最重要的,但不属于本卷的主题并因此我会用最大的简洁对待。The writings of St. John Damascene are certainly deemed entirely orthodox by the Easterns and always have been.圣约翰大马士革的著作当然视为完全正统的Easterns始终已。On the other hand their entire orthodoxy has never been disputed in the West, but a citation from Damascene is considered by St. Thomas as conclusive.另一方面他们的整个正统从来没有争议在西方,而是一种从大马士革引用由圣托马斯视为定论。Under these circumstances it seems hard to resist the conclusion that the faith of the East and the West, so far as its official setting forth is concerned, is the same and always has been.在这种情况下,似乎难以抗拒的结论是,在东方和西方的信仰,就其官方设定提出来讲,是相同的,一直是。And perhaps no better proof of the Western acceptance of the Eastern doctrine concerning the eternal procession of the Holy Spirit can be found than the fact that St. John Damascene has been in recent years raised by the pope for his followers to the rank of a Doctor of the Catholic Church.也许没有对东部关于圣灵永恒游行主义西方接受更好的证明可以找到比他的追随者提出由教皇在医生的排名的事实,圣约翰大马士革在最近几年一直天主教教会。

Perhaps I may be allowed to close with two moderate statements of the Western position, the one by the learned and pious Dr. Pusey and the other by the none less famous Bishop Pearson.也许我可能被允许关闭两个中等报表西方的立场,由学会和虔诚皮塞博士和由没有名气不大的主教皮尔逊其他之一。

Dr. Pusey says:皮塞博士说:

"Since, however, the clause, which found its way into the Creed, was, in the first instance, admitted, as being supposed to be part of the Constantinopolitan Creed, and, since after it had been rooted for 200 years, it was not uprooted, for fear of uprooting also or perplexing the faith of the people, there was no fault either in its first reception or in its subsequent retention." “但是,由于该条款,结果发现它的方式进入信条,是在一审,接纳为被认为是对Constantinopolitan信条的一部分,并且,自后,已根植于200年,它是不连根拔起,也为铲除或困扰人们的信仰恐惧,这可能是由于在第一次接收或在其以后的保留没有错。“

"The Greeks would condemn forefathers of their own, if they were to pronounce the clause to be heretical. For it would be against the principles of the Church to be in communion with an heretical body. But from the deposition of Photius, ad 886 to at least ad 1009, East and West retained their own expression of faith without schism. [224] "他说:“希腊人会谴责自己的祖先,如果他们发音的条款是异端。对于那将是对教会共融的原则,在与一个邪教组织。但从Photius,广告886沉积至少广告1009年,东,西不分裂保留自己的表达自己的信仰[224]“

"ad 1077, Theophylact did not object to the West, retaining for itself the confession of faith contained in the words, but only excepted against the insertion of the words in the Creed. [225] " “广告1077,Theophylact并不反对西方,为自己保留在单词中的信仰告白,但只对例外的话插入的信条。[225]”

And Bp.和BP。Pearson, explaining Article VIII.皮尔逊,解释第八条。of the Creed says: "Now although the addition of words to the formal Creed without the consent, and against the protestations of the Oriental Church be not justifiable; yet that which was added is nevertheless a certain truth, and may be so used in that Creed by them who believe the same to be a truth; so long as they pretend it not to be a definition of that Council, but an addition or explication inserted, and condemn not those who, out of a greater respect to such synodical determinations, will admit of no such insertions, nor speak any other language than the Scriptures and their Fathers spoke."的信条说:“现在虽然话除了正式信条未经同意,对东方教会的抗议是没有道理的,然而这不过是其中加入一定的道理,并可能因此,用来信条谁相信他们同样是一个真理,只要他们假装它不成为该理事会的定义,而是一种解释增加或插入,并谴责那些没有谁,走出了一条更加尊重这种synodical测定,将不承认这样的插入,也不讲任何比他们的父辈讲圣经和其他语言。“


[210] In fact the contention of the Latins was that the words were inserted by II. [210]事实上的争论是,拉丁文字是由二中。Nice!太好了!To this the Easterns answered most pertinently "Why did you not tell us this long ago?"对此最有针对性的Easterns回答“你为什么不告诉我们此前不久?”They were not so fortunate when they insisted that St. Thomas would have quoted it, for some scholars have thought St. Thomas but ill acquainted with the proceedings at the Seventh Synod.他们没有这么幸运,当他们坚持认为,圣托马斯将引用它,有学者认为与圣托马斯但生病在第七届世界主教会议的程序熟悉。 Vide Hefele, Concil.韦迪黑弗勒,Concil。XLVIII., § 810.48。,§ 810。[211] EB Pusey.[211] EB皮塞。On the clause "and The Son," p.在条款“和儿子,”第68.68。[212] Hefele.[212]黑弗勒。 Hist.历史。of the Councils, Vol.在议会,卷。III., p.第三,第175.175。[213] Hefele.[213]黑弗勒。 Hist.历史。Counc., Vol.Counc,第三卷。 IV., p.四,第416.416。[214] Hefele.[214]黑弗勒。 Hist.历史。Counc., Vol.Counc,第三卷。 IV., p.四,第470; Vol.470;卷。V., p.五,第208.208。[215] Muratorius.[215] Muratorius。Ord.条例。Rom., Tom.罗,汤姆。I., col.一,COL。541.541。[216] Mabillon.[216]马毕伦。 Mus.亩。Ital., Tom.Ital。汤姆。 I., p.一,第313 and p.313和第376.376。[217] Labbe and Cossart. [217]拉韦和Cossart。Concilia, Tom. Concilia,汤姆。vii., col.七,山口。1194.1194。[218] Capit.[218] Capit。 Reg.注册。Franc., Tom.法郎。汤姆。I., p.一,第483.483。[219] Fleury.[219]弗勒里。 Hist.历史。Eccl., Liv.传道书。,丽芙。xlv., chap.XLV,第二章。 48.48。[220] Pet.[220]宠物。Damian.达米安。Opusc., xxxviii. Opusc。,三十八。[221] Leo Allat.[221]狮子座Allat。Græc.Græc。Orthod., Tom.正畸。汤姆。I., p.一,第173.173。[222] EB Pusey.[222] EB皮塞。On the clause, "and the Son," p.在该条款,“和子”,第48.48。[223] Epiphanius, Ancoratus, cxx.[223]埃皮法尼乌斯,Ancoratus,CXX。[224] Peter of Antioch about ad 1054, says that he had heard the name of the Roman Pontiff recited from the Diptychs at the mass at Constantinople forty-five years before. [224]彼得有关广告1054年,安提阿说,他听到了罗马教皇的名字从Diptychs背诵在位于君士坦丁堡质量45年前。Le Quien, p.乐Quien,第 xii.十二。[225] EB Pusey.[225] EB皮塞。On the clause "and the Son," p.在条款“和子”,第72.72。

Filioque Filioque

Catholic Information天主教信息

Filioque is a theological formula of great dogmatic and historical importance. Filioque是一个具有伟大历史意义的神学教条和公式。On the one hand, it expresses the Procession of the Holy Ghost from both Father and Son as one Principle; on the other, it was the occasion of the Greek schism.一方面,它表示来自父亲和儿子作为一个原则的圣灵游行,另一方面,它是希腊分裂之际。Both aspects of the expression need further explanation.表达式的两个方面需要进一步解释。


The dogma of the double Procession of the Holy Ghost from Father and Son as one Principle is directly opposed to the error that the Holy Ghost proceeds from the Father, not from the Son.该从父亲和儿子作为一个原则圣灵双游行教条是直接反对错误,从父圣灵的收益,而不是从儿子。Neither dogma nor error created much difficulty during the course of the first four centuries.无论是教条也不是出错期间创建的第一个四百年的过程非常困难。Macedonius and his followers, the so-called Pneumatomachi, were condemned by the local Council of Alexandria (362) and by Pope St. Damasus (378) for teaching that the Holy Ghost derives His origin from the Son alone, by creation. Macedonius和他的追随者,所谓的Pneumatomachi,被谴责亚历山大(362)当地政府和教皇圣达玛斯(378)的教导,圣灵来自独子他的出身,由创作。 If the creed used by the Nestorians, which was composed probably by Theodore of Mopsuestia, and the expressions of Theodoret directed against the ninth anathema by Cyril of Alexandria, deny that the Holy Ghost derives His existence from or through the Son, they probably intend to deny only the creation of the Holy Ghost by or through the Son, inculcating at the same time His Procession from both Father and Son.如果由景教,这组成了西奥多的摩普绥提亚可能和Theodoret反对由亚历山大的西里尔第九诅咒定向表达式中使用的信条,否认圣灵来自或通过子他的存在,他们可能打算否认只由或通过子圣灵的创造,在同一时间从父亲和儿子灌输他的游行。 At any rate, if the double Procession of the Holy Ghost was discussed at all in those earlier times, the controversy was restricted to the East and was of short duration.无论如何,如果圣灵双游行是在那些较早时候都讨论过,争论仅限于东亚和持续时间短。

The first undoubted denial of the double Procession of the Holy Ghost we find in the seventh century among the heretics of Constantinople when St. Martin I (649-655), in his synodal writing against the Monothelites, employed the expression "Filioque".第一个不容置疑的拒绝了圣灵,我们发现异端之间的君士坦丁堡在第七世纪时圣马丁I(649-655),在他的主教会议对Monothelites写作,采用的表达“Filioque”双游行。 Nothing is known about the further development of this controversy; it does not seem to have assumed any serious proportions, as the question was not connected with the characteristic teaching of the Monothelites.没有人知道关于这个争论的进一步发展,它似乎并不承担任何严重的地步,因为这个问题是不符合的Mon​​othelites characteristic教学相连。

In the Western church the first controversy concerning the double Procession of the Holy Ghost was conducted with the envoys of the Emperor Constantine Copronymus, in the Synod of Gentilly near Paris, held in the time of Pepin (767).在西方教会的第一个争议有关圣灵的双重游行进行了与皇帝君士坦丁Copronymus的使者,在巴黎附近的主教会议的蒂伊在丕平(767)时间举行。 The synodal Acts and other information do not seem to exist.主教会议的法令和其他信息似乎并不存在。At the beginning of nineth century, John, a Greek monk of the monastery of St. Sabas, charged the monks of Mt.在第九世纪初,约翰,一个修道院的圣Sabas希腊修士,收取山的和尚。Olivet with heresy, they had inserted the Filioque into the Creed.与异端科特,他们插入到信条的Filioque。In the second half the same century, Photius, the successor of the unjustly deposed Ignatius, Patriarch of Constantinople (858), denied the Procession of the Holy Ghost from the Son, and opposed the insertion of the Filioque into the Constantinopolitan creed.在下半年的同一个世纪,Photius,对不公正废黜伊格,君士坦丁堡(858)主教的继任者,否定了从儿子圣灵游行,反对将Constantinopolitan信条的Filioque插入。 The same position was maintained towards the end of the tenth century by the Patriarchs Sisinnius and Sergius, and about the middle of the eleventh century by the Patriarch Michael Caerularius, who renewed and completed the Greek schism.同样的立场是保持在接近十世纪末的始祖Sisinnius和谢尔盖,以及有关的十一世纪的主教迈克尔Caerularius,谁恢复并完成了希腊的分裂中。

The rejection of the Filioque, or the double Procession of the Holy Ghost from the Father and Son, and the denial of the primacy of the Roman Pontiff constitute even today the principal errors of the Greek church.该Filioque,或从父子圣灵双游行,以及罗马教皇至高无上的拒绝甚至排斥构成今天的希腊教会的主要错误。While outside the Church doubt as to the double Procession of the Holy Ghost grew into open denial, inside the Church the doctrine of the Filioque was declared to be a dogma of faith in the Fourth Lateran Council (1215), the Second council of Lyons (1274), and the Council of Florence (1438-1445).虽然教会之外怀疑到圣灵的双重游行发展成为公开否认,教会内的Filioque学说被宣布为一个信念在第四次拉特兰会议(1215年),第二届理事会的里昂教条( 1274),和理事会的佛罗伦萨(1438年至1445年)。Thus the Church proposed in a clear and authoritative form the teaching of Sacred Scripture and tradition on the Procession of the Third Person of the Holy Trinity.因此,教会提出了一个明确而权威的形成和对圣经的三位一体的第三人游行的传统教学。

As to the Sacred Scripture, the inspired writers call the Holy Ghost the Spirit of the Son (Galatians 4:6), the Spirit of Christ (Romans 8:9), the Spirit of Jesus Christ (Philippians 1:19), just as they call Him the Spirit of the Father (Matthew 10:20) and the Spirit of God (1 Corinthians 2:11).至于圣经,灵感的作家叫圣灵圣子圣灵(加拉太书4:6),基督的灵(罗马书8:9),耶稣基督(腓1:19)精神,正如他们称他的父亲灵(马太10:20)和上帝的灵(林前2:11)。 Hence they attribute to the Holy Ghost the same relation to the Son as to the Father.因此,他们的属性,以圣灵的关系,以相同的父亲给儿子。

Again, according to Sacred Scripture, the Son sends the Holy Ghost (Luke 24:49; John 15:26; 16:7; 20:22; Acts 2:33; Titus 3:6), just as the Father sends the Son (Romans 3:3; etc.), and as the Father sends the Holy Ghost (John 14:26).再次,根据圣经,子发送圣灵(路加福音24:49;约翰15时26分,16点○七,20时22分,使徒2时33分;提多3:6),正如父亲送儿子(罗马书3时03等等),并作为父亲送的圣灵(约14:26)。

Now the "mission" or "sending" of one Divine Person by another does not mean merely that the Person said to be sent assumes a particular character, at the suggestion of Himself in the character of Sender, as the Sabellians maintained; nor does it imply any inferiority in the Person sent, as the Arians taught; but it denotes, according to the teaching of the weightier theologians and Fathers, the Procession of the Person sent from the Person Who sends.现在的“任务”或“送”一个由另一个神人并不仅​​仅意味着该人说是假设发送特定字符,在自己性格中的发件人的建议,作为Sabellians维护,也没有在发送任何暗示,因为亚利安教人自卑,但它表示,根据上更重的神学家和父亲教学,游行的人发送者发送。 Sacred Scripture never presents the Father as being sent by the Son, nor the Son as being sent by the Holy Ghost.圣经从来没有表现为被儿子送到了父亲,也不是为受圣灵送儿子。The very idea of the term "mission" implies that the person sent goes forth for a certain purpose by the power of the sender, a power exerted on the person sent by way of a physical impulse, or of a command, or of prayer, or finally of production; now, Procession, the analogy of production, is the only manner admissible in God.一词的“任务”的想法意味着该人发出去了一定的目的提出由发送者权力,对人产生了权力发出脉冲的物理方法,或命令,或祈祷,或最后的生产,现在,游行,生产的比喻,是唯一的方式,神受理。 It follows that the inspired writers present the Holy Ghost as proceeding from the Son, since they present Him as sent by the Son.由此可见,目前作家的启发,从儿子出发圣灵,因为他们现在由他的儿子发送。Finally, St. John (16:13-15) gives the words of Christ: "What things soever he [the Spirit] shall hear, he shall speak; he shall receive of mine, and shew it to you. All things whatsoever the Father hath, are mine."最后,圣约翰(16:13-15)让基督的话:“什么东西,以及接受他[圣灵]应听到,他应说, 他应接受我的,萧文给大家。任何事物的父亲祂所,是我的。“Here a double consideration is in place.在此双重考虑是否到位。First, the Son has all things that the Father hath, so that He must resemble the Father in being the Principle from which the Holy Ghost proceeds.首先,儿子已经万物的父亲祂所,所以他必须像在被原则的父亲从中圣灵收益。 Secondly, the Holy Ghost shall receive "of mine" according to the words of the Son; but Procession is the only conceivable way of receiving which does not imply dependence or inferiority.其次,应接受圣灵的“地雷”根据儿子的话,但游行是可以想象得到的唯一方式,也并不意味着依赖或自卑。In other words, the Holy Ghost proceeds from the Son.换句话说,圣灵所得款项的儿子。

The teaching of Sacred Scripture on the double Procession of the Holy Ghost was faithfully preserved in Christian tradition.而在圣灵的双重游行圣经教学,是忠实地保存在基督教传统。Even the Greek Orthodox grant that the Latin Fathers maintain the Procession of the Holy Ghost from the Son.即使是希腊东正教授予的拉丁教父保持从儿子圣灵游行。The great work on the Trinity by Petavius (Lib. VII, cc. iii sqq.) develops the proof of this contention at length.关于三位一体的Petavius​​(Lib.七,CC三SQQ)伟大的工作发展了这一论点详细的证明。Here we mention only some of the later documents in which the patristic doctrine has been clearly expressed:在这里,我们只提在其中的教父学说已经明确表示以后的一些文件:

the dogmatic letter of St. Leo I to Turribius, Bishop of Astorga, Ep.我的圣利奥教条信Turribius主教阿斯托加,EP。XV, c.第十五角i (447);我(447);

the so-called Athanasian Creed;所谓的阿他那修信经;

several councils held at Toledo in the years 447, 589 (III), 675 (XI), 693 (XVI);几个议会在托莱多举行的年447,589(III),675(十一),693(十六);

the letter of Pope Hormisdas to the Emperor Justius, Ep.教皇的信卡尔米斯达斯向皇帝Justius,EP。 lxxix (521);LXXIX(521);

St. Martin I's synodal utterance against the Monothelites, 649-655;圣马丁我的话语主教会议对Monothelites,649-655;

Pope Adrian I's answer to the Caroline Books, 772-795;教皇阿德里安我的答案,卡罗琳书籍,772-795;

the Synods of Mérida (666), Braga (675), and Hatfield (680);梅里达(666),布拉加(675),和哈特菲尔德(680)的主教会议;

the writing of Pope Leo III (d. 816) to the monks of Jerusalem;在教皇利奥三世(卒于816)到耶路撒冷的修士写作;

the letter of Pope Stephen V (d. 891) to the Moravian King Suentopolcus (Suatopluk), Ep.在教皇斯蒂芬V(D. 891)信摩拉维亚国王Suentopolcus(Suatopluk),EP。xiii;十三;

the symbol of Pope Leo IX (d. 1054);在教皇利奥九(草1054)的象征;

the Fourth Lateran Council, 1215;第四次拉特兰会议,1215;

the Second Council of Lyons, 1274; and the在里昂,1274年第二届理事会,以及

Council of Florence, 1439.理事会的佛罗伦萨,1439。

Some of the foregoing conciliar documents may be seen in Hefele, "Conciliengeschichte" (2d ed.), III, nn.上述conciliar的一些文件可能会出现在黑弗勒,“Conciliengeschichte”(2版),三,NN。109, 117, 252, 411; cf. 109,117,252,411;比照。PG XXVIII, 1557 sqq.PG XXVIII,1557 SQQ。Bessarion, speaking in the Council of Florence, inferred the tradition of the Greek Church from the teaching of the Latin; since the Greek and Latin Fathers before the ninth century were the members of the same Church, it is antecedently improbable that the Eastern Fathers should have denied a dogma firmly maintained by the Western. Bessarion,在佛罗伦萨会议上说,推断了从希腊文的拉丁教会的传统教学,因为希腊和拉丁教父的前九世纪是同一个教会的成员,它是antecedently不可能,东部父亲应坚决否认了西方保持了教条。 Moreover, there are certain considerations which form a direct proof for the belief of the Greek Fathers in the double Procession of the Holy Ghost.此外,还有构成了对希腊教父在圣灵的双重游行信念直接证明一定的考虑。

First, the Greek Fathers enumerate the Divine Persons in the same order as the Latin Fathers; they admit that the Son and the Holy Ghost are logically and ontologically connected in the same way as the Son and Father [St.首先,希腊教父枚举的顺序相同的拉丁教父的神圣的人,他们承认,圣子和圣灵在逻辑上和本体论以同样的方式连接成的儿子和父亲[圣 Basil, Ep.罗勒,EP。cxxv; Ep.cxxv; EP。xxxviii (alias xliii) ad Gregor. XXXVIII(化名四十三)广告格雷戈尔。fratrem; "Adv.Eunom.", I, xx, III, sub init.]fratrem;“。Adv.Eunom”,我,XX,三,分INIT]

Second, the Greek Fathers establish the same relation between the Son and the Holy Ghost as between the Father and the Son; as the Father is the fountain of the Son, so is the Son the fountain of the Holy Ghost (Athanasius, Ep. ad Serap. I, xix, sqq.; "De Incarn.", ix; Orat. iii, adv. Arian., 24; Basil, "Adv. Eunom.", v, in PG., XXIX, 731; cf. Greg. Naz., Orat. xliii, 9).其次,希腊教父之间建立的儿子和父亲之间的圣灵和圣子一样的关系,因为父亲是儿子的喷泉,所以是儿子的圣灵(亚他那修,EP喷泉广告。 。小型企业研究资助我,十九,SQQ;。“德Incarn ”,九; Orat三,高级阿里安,24;。罗勒,“高级Eunom ”,五,在PG,XXIX,731;比照格雷格。纳兹。,Orat。四十三,9)。

Third, passages are not wanting in the writings of the Greek Fathers in which the Procession of the Holy Ghost from the Son is clearly maintained: Greg.第三,通道不希望在希腊教父,其中从子圣灵游行显然是保持著作:格雷格。Thaumat., "Expos. fidei sec.", vers.Thaumat。“博览会。fidei秒”,VERS。saec.国家外汇管理局。IV, in Rufius, Hist.四,在Rufius,组织胺。Eccl., VII, xxv; Epiphanius, Haer., c.传道书,七,二十五;埃皮法尼乌斯,Haer角。lxii, 4; Greg. LXII,4;格雷格。Nyss. Nyss。Hom.坎。iii in orat.三,在orat。 domin.); Cyril of Alexandria, "Thes.", ass.domin);亚历山大的西里尔,“帖前 ”,屁股。xxxiv; the second canon of synod of forty bishops held in 410 at Seleucia in Mesopotamia; the Arabic versions of the Canons of St. Hippolytus; the Nestorian explanation of the Symbol.三十四,对在410举行,塞琉西亚美索不达米亚forty主教会议第二佳能;的圣希波吕托斯的大炮的阿拉伯文版本;的符号景教解释。

The only Scriptural difficulty deserving our attention is based on the words of Christ as recorded in John 15:26, that the Spirit proceeds from the Father, without mention being made of the Son.唯一值得我们注意圣经的困难是基于基督在约翰15时26记录的话,也就是从父亲没有提及圣灵的收益,即圣子做。But in the first place, it can not be shown that this omission amounts to a denial; in the second place, the omission is only apparent, as in the earlier part of the verse the Son promises to "send" the Spirit.但摆在首位,它不能被证明,这等于拒绝遗漏;在第二位,是唯一明显的遗漏,因为在前面的部分诗句的儿子承诺“送”的精神。 The Procession of the Holy Ghost from the Son is not mentioned in the Creed of Constantinople, because this Creed was directed against the Macedonian error against which it sufficed to declare the Procession of the Holy Ghost from the Father.而从子圣灵游行中没有提及的君士坦丁堡信条,因为这信条是反对马其顿错误足以对付它宣布从父的圣灵游行指挥。The ambiguous expressions found in some of the early writers of authority are explained by the principles which apply to the language of the early Fathers generally.在权威的早期作家发现的一些模棱两可的表达式解释的原则适用于一般的早期教父的语言。


It has been seen that the Creed of Constantinople at first declared only the Procession of the Holy Ghost from the Father; it was directed against the followers of Macedonius who denied the Procession of the Holy Spirit from the Father.人们看到的是,在第一次君士坦丁堡信条宣布只从父亲圣灵游行,它是对Macedonius谁剥夺了来自父亲的追随者游行圣灵指示。 In the East, the omission of Filioque did not lead to any misunderstanding.在东,Filioque遗漏并没有导致任何误解。But conditions were different in Spain after the Goths had renounced Arianism and professed the Catholic faith in the Third Synod of Toledo, 589.但条件是在西班牙不同的哥特后已放弃阿里乌斯教和自称在托莱多,589信仰天主教主教会议第三。It cannot be acertained who first added the Filioque to the Creed; but it appears to be certain that the Creed, with the addition of the Filioque, was first sung in the Spanish Church after the conversion of the Goths.它不能被查实谁首先加入了Filioque的信条,但它似乎可以肯定,随着Filioque此外信条,最早是在西班牙教会唱后哥特转换。 In 796 the Patriarch of Aquileia justified and adopted the same addition at the Synod of Friaul, and in 809 the Council of Aachen appears to have approved of it.在796的Aquileia祖师合理,并通过了在相同的Friaul主教此外,在809局的亚琛似乎有它的批准。The decrees of this last council were examined by Pope Leo III, who approved of the doctrine conveyed by the Filioque, but gave the advice to omit the expression in the Creed.这个最后的议会法令,教皇利奥三世审查,谁批准,由Filioque传达的教义,但给了意见,省略表达式的信条。The practice of adding the Filioque was retained in spite of the papal advice, and in the middle of the eleventh century it had gained a firm foothold in Rome itself.而加入Filioque做法是保留在罗马教皇的意见,尽管,在十一世纪中叶,曾在罗马赢得了自己站稳脚跟。Scholars do not agree as to the exact time of its introduction into Rome, but most assign it to the reign of Benedict VIII (1014-15).学者不同意,以将其引入到罗马的确切时间,但大部分分配给本笃八(1014年至1015年)的统治。

The Catholic doctrine was accepted by the Greek deputies who were present at the Second Council of Florence, in 1439, when the Creed was sung both in Greek and Latin, with the addition of the word Filioque.天主教教义接受了谁参加了第二届理事会的佛罗伦萨,在1439年,当信条是无论在希腊文和拉丁文唱的词Filioque此外,目前希腊的代表。 On each occasion it was hoped that the Patriarch of Constantinople and his subjects had abandoned the state of heresy and schism in which they had been living since the time of Photius, who about 870 found in the Filioque an excuse for throwing off all dependence on Rome.每次有人希望,君士坦丁堡宗主教和他的臣民已经放弃了异端和分裂状态中,他们一直以来的Photius,约870谁在Filioque找到了摆脱依赖罗马所有的时间生活的借口。 But however sincere the individual Greek bishops may have been, they failed to carry their people with them, and the breach between East and West continues to this day.但是,无论个人真诚希腊主教可能有,但他们没有携带自己的人,东方和西方之间的违约一直持续到今天。

It is a matter for surprise that so abstract a subject as the doctrine of the double Procession of the Holy Ghost should have appealed to the imagination of the multitude.这是一个奇怪的问题有这么抽象的作为圣灵的双重游行主义主题应该呼吁对众人的想象。But their national feelings had been aroused by the desire of liberation from the rule of the ancient rival of Constantinople; the occasion of lawfully obtaining their desire appeared to present itself in the addition of Filioque to the Creed of Constantinople.但他们的民族感情,引起了由解放从古老的君士坦丁堡对手统治的欲望;在合法取得的愿望之际出现了目前的Filioque除君士坦丁堡信条本身。 Had not Rome overstepped her rights by disobeying the injunction of the Third Council, of Ephesus (431), and of the Fourth, of Chalcedon (451)?没有罗马逾越的不服从第三理事会以弗所(431),强制令她的权利,以及第四,迦克墩(451)?

It is true that these councils had forbidden to introduce another faith or another Creed, and had imposed the penalty of deposition on bishops and clerics, and of excommunication on monks and laymen for transgressing this law; but the councils had not forbidden to explain the same faith or to propose the same Creed in a clearer way.诚然,这些委员会已禁止引进另一种信仰或其他信条,并已实施的主教和神职人员对沉积的惩罚,对僧侣和违反了这​​一法律外行逐出教会,但议会没有禁止同一解释信仰或提出更明确的方式在同一信条。 Besides, the conciliar decrees affected individual transgressors, as is plain from the sanction added; they did not bind the Church as a body.此外,conciliar的法令影响的个别违规者,如从平原制裁增加,他们没有约束力作为一个机构的教会。Finally, the Councils of Lyons and Florence did not require the Greeks to insert the Filioque into the Creed, but only to accept the Catholic doctrine of the double Procession of the Holy Ghost.最后,里昂和佛罗伦萨的议会没有要求希腊人插入到信条的Filioque,但只接受圣灵的双重游行天主教教义。

Publication information Written by AJ Maas.出版信息AJ马斯写。Transcribed by Mary and Joseph P. Thomas.转录由玛利亚和约瑟夫P.托马斯。In memory of Father EC Joseph The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume VI.在欧共体的父亲约瑟夫内存天主教百科全书,第六卷。Published 1909.1909年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, September 1, 1909. Nihil Obstat,1909年9月1日。Remy Lafort, Censor.人头马lafort,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰米farley,大主教纽约

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