Franciscans

Friars Minor, Gray Friars, Grey Friars, OFM男修道士未成年人,灰色男修道士,灰色男修道士,OFM

General Information一般资料

The Franciscans are members of a religious order that follows the rule of Saint Francis of Assisi.方济会是一个宗教秩序,遵循圣方济各亚西西规则的成员。The first Franciscans, called the Order of Friars Minor, followed an ideal of total poverty; they possessed nothing in common or individually.的,称为第一方济天主教方济会小订单,总跟着一个贫穷的理想,他们拥有共同或单独无关。 Forbidden to accept money, they lived from day to day by working and begging.严禁接受金钱,他们生活每一天的工作和乞讨。When they began studying and living at universities, however, they had to modify their strict ideal of poverty.当他们开始在大学学习和生活,但是,他们不得不修改他们的贫困严格的理想选择。By the time Saint Francis died (1226), the order had spread from Italy to England, the Holy Land, and all of Europe.圣弗朗西斯的时候死了(1226),订单已蔓延,从意大利到英国,圣地和欧洲。The friars were known as the people's preachers.的修士被称为人民的传教士。They wore a gray tunic with a white cord at the waist; hence, their English name Grey Friars.他们身穿带有白线在腰部灰色中山装,因此,他们的英文名字灰色男修道士。

From the beginning, there were disagreements about the direction the order would take.从一开始,有秩序的方向将采取分歧。The Franciscan minister general, Saint Bonaventure, sought a balance between the Conventuals, who wanted to adapt their poverty to the needs of the time, and the Spirituals, who wanted a strict poverty.方济部长一般,圣文德,寻求之间的Conventuals,谁想要适应他们的贫困,以当时的需要,而灵,谁想要一个严格的贫困平衡。 The quarrel intensified during the 14th century when some of the Spiritual Franciscans, known as the Fraticelli, were condemned (1317 - 18) by Pope John XXII.争吵愈演愈烈在14世纪时的精神作为Fraticelli称为济,一些被谴责(1317 - 18)由教皇约翰二十二。Disagreements about the ideal of poverty brought a permanent division in the 15th century between the Friars Minor Conventual and the Order of Friars Minor.对贫困的理想之间的分歧带来的男修道士未成年人Conventual和天主教方济会小订单15世纪的永久分裂。In the 16th century, the Order of Friars Minor Capuchin established a stricter independent branch of Franciscans.在16世纪, 天主教方济会小嘉布遣方济秩序建立了严格的独立分支。

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Preaching, teaching, foreign missions, and parish work remain the work of the Franciscans today.传道,教学,外国使团和教区的工作仍然是济今天的工作。The Poor Clares, Franciscan nuns, are the second order.穷人Clares,方济修女,是第二顺序。The Third Order comprises lay men and women who combine prayer and penance with everyday activity. 第三订单包括男性和女性谁打下结合祈祷和忏悔的日常活动。Many sisters, brothers, and priests follow the Franciscan ideal in communities affiliated with the Third Order.许多姐妹,兄弟,和祭司遵循与三阶关联方济各社区的理想。There are Franciscan communities in the Roman Catholic church and the Anglican (or Episcopalian) churches.有在罗马天主教会和圣公会(或圣公会)教堂济社区。

The English philosopher and scientist Roger Bacon was a Franciscan, as were the philosopher - theologians Duns Scotus and William of Occam.英国哲学家和科学家罗杰培根是一个济,象哲学家 - 神学家邓司各脱和奥卡姆的威廉。Other famous Franciscans include Saint Anthony of Padua; two Renaissance popes, Sixtus IV and Sixtus V; and Junipero Serra, the founder of the California missions.其他包括著名的方济各圣安东尼的帕多瓦,两个文艺复兴时期的教皇,Sixtus IV和Sixtus V;和Junipero塞拉,对加州任务的创始人。

Cyprian Davis塞浦路斯戴维斯

Bibliography 参考书目
MD Lambert, Franciscan Poverty: The Doctrine of the Absolute Poverty of Christ and the Apostles in the Franciscan Order, 1210 - 1323 (1961); JR Moorman, A History of the Franciscan Order From Its Origins to the Year 1517 (1968); W Short, The Franciscans (1989).MD,济贫困兰伯特:在基督的绝对贫困和济秩序,1210使徒教义 - 1323(1961); JR穆尔曼,阿济秩序的历史从起源至公元1517年(1968年),W总之,济(1989)。


Franciscans
Friars Minor男修道士未成年人

General Information一般资料

Franciscans or Order of Friars Minor, is a religious order founded, probably in 1208, by Saint Francis of Assisi and approved by Pope Innocent III in 1209.方济会或天主教方济会小订单,是为了创立一个宗教,大概在1208年,由圣方济各亚西西和教皇英诺森三世批准1209。 After devoting himself to a life of preaching, service, and poverty, Francis gathered around him a band of 12 disciples.经过费尽心力的说教,服务和贫困的生活,弗朗西斯聚集在他周围的12个门徒乐队。He led them from Assisi to Rome to ask for the blessing of the pope, who expressed doubt about the practicability of the way of life that the group proposed to adopt.他带领他们从阿西西到罗马要求的教宗,谁表达了对生活的方式,该小组建议采取切实可行怀疑祝福。Pope Innocent gave them his blessing, however, on condition that they become clerics and elect a superior.诺森向他们表示祝福,不过,条件是他们成为神职人员和选出一个优越。Francis was elected superior and the group returned to Assisi, where they obtained from the Benedictine abbey on Mount Subasio the use of the little chapel of Santa Maria degli Angeli, around which they constructed huts of branches.弗朗西斯被选为优越,组返回阿西西,他们获得在登上Subasio从本笃修道院的圣母小教堂使用德利阿布鲁安杰利,围绕着他们修建的分支木屋。 Then, in imitation of Christ, they began a life of itinerant preaching and voluntary poverty.然后,在基督的模仿,他们开始了巡回宣讲和自愿贫困的生活。

At this time the brotherhood lacked formal organization and a novitiate, but as the disciples increased and their teaching spread, it became obvious that the example of Francis would not suffice to enforce discipline among the friars.这时兄弟缺乏正式的组织和见习期,但作为弟子增加,他们的教学传播,很明显的是,弗朗西斯的例子不足以执行之间的修士纪律。 In 1223 Pope Honorius III issued a bull that constituted the Friars Minor a formal order and instituted a one-year novitiate.在1223年教皇挪III发出公牛构成了男修道士未成年正式订单,并开始进行为期一年的见习期。

Following the death of Francis in 1226, the convent and basilica at Assisi were built.继弗朗西斯在1226年去世后,在阿西西修道院和大教堂建成。Their magnificence disturbed some, who believed it inconsistent with Francis's ideals of poverty.他们的辉煌不安一些,谁相信它与贫困弗朗西斯的理想不一致。After much dissension, Pope Gregory IX decreed that moneys could be held by elected trustees of the order and that the building of convents was not contrary to the intentions of the founder.经过多次分裂,教皇格雷戈里九颁布法令,款项可以举行选举的命令,而受托人的修道院建筑是不违背的创始人的意图。

As time passed, the order grew, the only body of equal power being the Dominicans.随着时间的推移,订单的增长,正在多米尼加平等权力的唯一机构。The Franciscans, however, became fractionalized, and in 1517 Pope Leo X divided the order into two bodies, the Conventuals, who were allowed corporate property, as were other monastic orders, and the Observants, who sought to follow the precepts of Francis as closely as possible.济,然而,成为fractionalized,并在1517年教皇利奥十分为两个机构,Conventuals,谁被允许法人财产,因为是其他寺院的订单,Observants,谁试图遵循的戒律弗朗西斯密切的顺序如可能的。 The Observants have ever since been the larger branch, and early in the 16th century a third body, the Capuchins, was organized out of it and made independent.该Observants曾经因为得到了较大的分支,早在16世纪的第三个身, 卷尾猴,举办了出来,并作出独立的。At the end of the 19th century Leo XIII grouped these three bodies together as the First Order of Friars Minor, designating the nuns known as Poor Clares as the Second Order, and the tertiaries, men and women living in secular society without celibacy, as the Third Order.在19世纪结束分组利奥十三世这三个机构合称为天主教方济会小一阶,只要指定二阶差Clares已知的修女,和tertiaries,男人和女人在世俗社会没有独身生活,为三阶。

In addition to their preaching and charitable work, the Franciscans have been noted for their devotion to learning.除了他们的说教和慈善工作,济已经注意到他们的献身精神学习。Before the Reformation in England they held many positions in the universities, prominent among the professors being John Duns Scotus, William of Ockham, and Roger Bacon.前英格兰宗教改革他们举行了很多职位在大学,跻身被约翰邓司各脱,奥康的威廉,和罗杰培根教授突出。The order has produced four popes - Sixtus IV, Julius II, Sixtus V, and Clement XIV - and one antipope, Alexander V.该订单已经产生了四个教皇 - Sixtus IV,朱利叶斯二世,Sixtus V,和克莱门特十四 - 一对立教皇,亚历山大V.

On his first voyage to the New World, Christopher Columbus was accompanied by a group of Franciscans.在他的第一次航行到新大陆,哥伦布是伴随着济群。The first convents in America were established by Franciscans, at Santo Domingo and La Vega in what is now the Dominican Republic.在美国建立了第一个修道院的方济在圣多明各和德拉维加,在现在的多米尼加共和国。The rapid conversion of the Native Americans and the consequent enthusiasm of the missionary-minded in Spain led to the further spread of the order in the West Indies; before 1505, Ferdinand V, king of Castile, found it necessary to issue a decree that new convents should be placed at least five leagues apart.原生美国人和在西班牙传教士的态度随之而来的热情迅速转化导致了订单的进一步蔓延在西印度群岛,在1505年,费迪南德V,卡斯蒂利亚国王,认为有必要发出新的法令,修道院应放在五大联赛至少相隔。 While the Spanish Franciscans gradually spread through the southern part of the New World as far as the Pacific Ocean, the French friars, who had arrived in Canada in 1615, at the behest of the French explorer Samuel de Champlain, set up missions throughout the north.虽然西班牙方济会逐渐扩散通过新世界南部至于太平洋,法国修士,谁曾在1615年抵达加拿大在法国探险家塞缪尔德尚普兰遗志,北方各地设立任务。 Today the Franciscans conduct a university and five colleges in the US, and a seminary, in Allegheny, New York.今天,济行为在美国大学和五所学院和神学院在阿勒格尼,纽约。They also engage in regular parish work, as well as mission work among the Native Americans.他们还定期教区从事的工作,以及土著美国人之间的工作任务。

The supreme government of the order is vested in an elective general, resident at the General Motherhouse, in Rome.该命令的最高政府赋予选修一般情况下,居民在总Motherhouse在罗马。 Subordinate are the provincials, who preside over all the brethren in a province, and the custodes, or guardians (never called abbots, as are their counterparts in other orders), at the head of a single community or convent.下属是外省人,谁主持都在一个省的弟兄们,和禁军,或监护人(从来没有所谓的方丈,因为在其他订单的同行)在一个单一社区或修道院头。 These officers are elected for a period of two years.这些人员经选举产生,任期两年。

In the eary 20th century a number of Franciscan communities for both men and women were established by various Anglican churches.在eary 20世纪的男性和女性人数方济各社区设立了不同的圣公会教堂。The most prominent of these is the Society of Saint Francis in Cerne Abbas, Dorset, England, which maintains several houses in the British Isles and in New Guinea.其中最突出的是圣弗朗西斯在Cerne阿​​巴斯,多塞特,英格兰,它保持在不列颠岛和新几内亚的几所房屋协会。In 1967 a similar group in the United States was united with these English friars. 1967年在美国类似的小组,团结与这些英语修士。


Saint Francis of Assisi圣方济各

General Information一般资料

Saint Francis of Assisi (1182-1226), was an Italian mystic and preacher, who founded the Franciscans.阿西西圣(1182年至1226年)弗朗西斯,是意大利的神秘和布道者,谁创立了方济。Born in Assisi, Italy and originally named Giovanni Francesco Bernardone, he appears to have received little formal education, even though his father was a wealthy merchant.在阿西西,意大利和原名乔万尼弗朗切斯科贝尔纳多出生,他似乎已经很少得到正规教育,尽管他的父亲是一位富有的商人。 As a young man, Francis led a worldly, carefree life.作为一个年轻的男子,弗朗西斯率领一个世俗的,无忧无虑的生活。Following a battle between Assisi and Perugia, he was held captive in Perugia for over a year.继佩鲁贾和阿西西之间的战斗中,他被关押在佩鲁贾超过一年。While imprisoned, he suffered a severe illness during which he resolved to alter his way of life.虽然被囚禁,他遭受了严重的疾病在此期间,他决心改变自己的生活方式。Back in Assisi in 1205, he performed charities among the lepers and began working on the restoration of dilapidated churches. Francis's change of character and his expenditures for charity angered his father, who legally disinherited him. Francis then discarded his rich garments for a bishop's cloak and devoted the next three years to the care of outcasts and lepers in the woods of Mount Subasio.早在阿西西在1205年,他演出中的麻风病人慈善机构,并开始在破旧的教堂修复工作。 弗朗西斯的性格和他的支出变更为慈善激怒了他的父亲,谁依法剥夺继承权他。弗朗西斯然后丢弃了主教的斗篷他丰富的服装并致力于在未来三年的弃儿和Subasio山的树林麻风病人护理。

For his devotions on Mount Subasio, Francis restored the ruined chapel of Santa Maria degli Angeli. In 1208, one day during Mass, he heard a call telling him to go out into the world and, according to the text of Matthew 10:5-14, to possess nothing, but to do good everywhere. Upon returning to Assisi that same year, Francis began preaching.对于他在登上Subasio奉献,弗朗西斯恢复了圣玛丽亚德利阿布鲁安杰利毁教堂在1208年,有一天在地下,他听到一个电话,告诉他去外面的世界,并根据文本马太10时05分- 14,拥有什么,而要做好无处不在。回国后到阿西西同年,弗朗西斯开始说教。He gathered round him the 12 disciples who became the original brothers of his order, later called the First Order; they elected Francis superior.他聚集在他周围的12个弟子谁成为他的命令原兄弟,后来被称为一阶,他们选出的弗朗西斯优越。In 1212 he received a young, well-born nun of Assisi, Clare, into Franciscan fellowship; through her was established the Order of the Poor Ladies (the Poor Clares), later the Second Order of Franciscans.在1212年他获得了年轻,阿西西,克莱尔以及出生的尼姑,到济金,通过她建立了穷人的女士们订购(穷人Clares),后来的济二阶。 It was probably later in 1212 that Francis set out for the Holy Land, but a shipwreck forced him to return.这可能是后来在1212年,弗朗西斯为圣地了,但沉船强迫他返回。Other difficulties prevented him from accomplishing much missionary work when he went to Spain to preach to the Moors.其他困难无法完成大宣教工作,当他前往西班牙的摩尔人宣讲他。In 1219 he was in Egypt, where he succeeded in preaching to, but not in converting, the sultan.在1219他在埃及,他在成功地说教,而不是在转换,苏丹。Francis then went on to the Holy Land, staying there until 1220. He wished to be martyred and rejoiced upon hearing that five Franciscan friars had been killed in Morocco while carrying out their duties. On his return home he found dissension in the ranks of the friars and resigned as superior, spending the next few years in planning what became the Third Order of Franciscans, the tertiaries.弗朗西斯接着的圣地,有住,直到1220, 他希望成为烈士,并听到有五个方济会修士曾在摩洛哥死亡,而履行其职责欢欣鼓舞。在他回家,他发现在队伍纠纷修士和辞去优越,消费在规划未来几年什么成为了济三令,tertiaries。

In September 1224, after 40 days of fasting, Francis was praying upon Monte Alverno when he felt pain mingled with joy, and the marks of the crucifixion of Christ, the stigmata, appeared on his body. Accounts of the appearance of these marks differ, but it seems probable that they were knobby protuberances of the flesh, resembling the heads of nails. 在1224年9月,经过40天的禁食,祈祷后,弗朗西斯蒙Alverno当他感到痛苦与喜悦交织,和基督的圣痕,受难的痕迹在他身上出现了。对这些商标的外观帐户不同,但它似乎有可能,他们的肉体诺比突起,类似指甲的负责人。 Francis was carried back to Assisi, where his remaining years were marked by physical pain and almost total blindness.弗朗西斯被抬回阿西西,他的晚年是由身体的疼痛几乎完全失明标记。He was canonized in 1228. 1228年他被册封。In 1980, Pope John Paul II proclaimed him the patron saint of ecologists. 1980年,教皇约翰保禄二世宣布他的生态学家的守护神。In art, the emblems of St. Francis are the wolf, the lamb, the fish, birds, and the stigmata.在艺术上,圣弗朗西斯的标志是狼,羊肉,鱼,鸟,和圣痕。His feast day is October 4.他的宗教节日是10月4日。

Rev. Theodore M. Hesburgh牧师西奥多M. Hesburgh


Franciscan Order济秩序

Advanced Information先进的信息

The Franciscan Order is one of four thirteenth century orders of mendicant (begging) friars (Franciscan, Dominican, Carmelite, Augustinian) established to meet the urgent challenge of spiritual decline, urban growth, and the rapid spread of heresy (especially in southern France and northern Italy).济秩序是四个第十三乞讨(乞讨)修士成立是为了满足的精神衰落,城市发展,并迅速蔓延的异端(特别是在法国南部的紧迫挑战(济,多米尼加,圣衣,奥古斯丁)和世纪订单之一意大利北部)。 It was founded by Francis of Assisi and formally approved by Innocent III in 1210.它是由阿西西的弗朗西斯和正式批准由诺森三世在1210。Unlike earlier monasticism, the friars lived active lives within the world as preachers and ministers to the needy.不像先前修道,修士住在世界的传教士和向有需要的部长们积极的生活。

Francis' deep suspicion of formal organization and learning and his extreme view of proverty (even physical contact with money was to be avoided) became the center of bitter conflicts within the Order.弗朗西斯“的正式组织和学习他的极端观点的proverty深表怀疑(甚至用金钱身体接触是避免)成为在订购的激烈冲突的中心。 Early on, tension arose between the Zealots, who advocated strict observance of the founder's rule, and those factions (the Laxists, the Community) who favored various accommodations to reality.在早期,出现紧张的狂热者之间,谁主张创始人的规则得到严格遵守,这些派别(即Laxists,社区)谁主张各种住宿现实。 Under papal auspices the Order was fully organized by 1240 as one international body with only clerics eligible for office (another departure from the spirit of Francis, who favored laity), and provision was made for property to be held in trusteeship to get around the prohibition against ownership.在罗马教皇的主持下订单完全由1240年作为一个与办公室(另一个从弗朗西斯,他赞同俗人精神出发)的资格只有神职人员的国际机构,并规定作出的财产将在托管举行绕过禁令对所有权。 During the years 1257-74 tensions abated under the conciliatory minister general Bonaventure, who established a moderate balance between structure and vitality.在年1257年至1274年的紧张局势的调解下减弱部长一般文德,谁建立了结构与活力温和的平衡。As an outstanding scholar, he also represented the increasing influx of Franciscans into the world of learning within the urban-based universities.作为一位杰出的学者,他也代表进入城市内的大学学习世界济不断涌入。

Following the death of Bonaventure a bitter debate ensued over the nature of apostolic proverty.继文德死亡激烈的辩论在随后的使徒proverty性质。The extreme view of the Spirituals (formerly the Zealots) was rejected by Pope John XXII, who in 1322 officially approved corporate ownership of property, arguing that Christ and the apostles as leaders of the church had owned property.该灵极端的观点(原狂热者)拒绝了教皇约翰二十二,谁在1322年正式批准企业的财产所有权,认为基督和教会的领导人的使徒曾拥有的财产。 Spirituals who fled became known as Fraticelli.灵谁逃离出名作为Fraticelli闻名。Even outstanding figures such as the minister general Michael of Cesena and William of Ockham went into exile and denounced the pope.如部长迈克尔的切塞纳和威廉奥康即使杰出人物走进流亡和谴责教皇。

Difficult conditions of plague, warfare, and papal schism during the century and a half before the Reformation led to a general decline within the Order, but another movement for restoration of the strict rule emerged, the Observants.艰苦的条件下鼠疫,战争,并在本世纪前半的改革教皇的分裂导致了普遍下降,在该命令,但另一种规则的严格恢复运动出现,Observants。 They were opposed by the more moderate Conventuals, who preferred urban residence to remote hermitages.他们反对由较温和Conventuals,谁的首选城市居住偏远秘境。Failure to unite these factions led Pope Leo X in 1517 to officially separate the Order into two independent branches, the Friars Minor of the Regular Observants (strict) and the Friars Minor Conventuals (moderate).不团结,这些派别在1517年带领教皇利奥十,正式分成两个独立的分支,男修道士的正常Observants(严格)和男修道士(中度)小Conventuals小订单。 Given their reforming instincts, the Observants soon divided into several factions, Discalced (shoeless), Rocollects, Reformed, and Capuchins (pointed cowl).鉴于其改革的本能,在Observants很快分成几个派别,Discalced(shoeless),Rocollects,改革,卷尾猴(指罩)。 The latter played a significant role in the Counter-Reformation and by 1619 had gained complete autonomy.后者起到了反宗教改革重要作用和1619年曾获得完全的自主权。Again, internal division and the external challenge of the Enlightenment and revolutionary Europe weakened the Order until mounting pressure led Pope Leo XIII in 1897 to unite all Observant branches (except the Capuchins, who retained their independence).再次,内部分工和启蒙运动和革命削弱了欧洲的外部挑战越来越大的压力导致订单直到1897年教皇利奥十三团结一切(除了卷尾猴,谁保留了他们的独立性)细心的分支机构。

Alongside the Order of Friars Minor, with the three independent branches of Observants, Conventuals, and Capuchins, there emerged two other Franciscan Orders, the Second Order of nuns (Poor Clares), founded by Francis and his follower Clare in 1212, and the Third Order (Tertiaries) of mainly lay persons.除了小的男修道士与三个Observants,Conventuals,独立和卷尾猴科,订单,就出现两个济订单,修女二阶(差Clares),由弗朗西斯和他的追随者克莱尔成立于1212年,和第三令(Tertiaries)主要非法律专业人士。

The Franciscans, along with their rivals the Dominicans, represented a new spiritual force within the thirteenth century church.济,再加上他们的对手多米尼加,代表了十三世纪的教堂内的新的精神力量。 As advocates of the simpler apostolic life of poverty and preaching, they struck a responsive chord among the growing number of townspeople who had become alienated from the monastic and hierarchical establishment.作为简单的说教使徒生活贫困和倡导者,他们之间达成的乡民谁已成为从寺院和层次建立一个负责任的疏远,越来越多的共鸣。 Nonetheless, instead of becoming rebellious heretics, the friars were obedient servants of the established church.然而,而不是成为叛逆异端的修士都是既定的教堂听话的仆人。Like the town, the university became a major focus of their activity as they sought to prepare intellectually for their worldwide mission, confronting infidel, heretic, and indifferent alike with the truth of Christianity.像镇,大学成了他们活动的主要焦点,因为他们准备寻求其全球使命智力,面临着基督教的真理异教徒,邪教,和漠不关心的一致好评。 Virtually every outstanding scholar of that age was a friar, including Bonaventure, John Duns Scotus, and William of Ockham among the Franciscans.几乎每一个优秀的学者,年龄是个修士,包括文德,约翰邓司各脱,奥康和威廉之间的方济。Contrary to the spirit of Francis, however, the Order became aggressively associated with the repressive Inquisition and the anti-Jewish activities of the Western church during its effort to consolidate Christian society.相反,弗朗西斯的精神,但是,该命令成为积极与镇压宗教裁判所和西方教会的反犹太人活动相关的努力,以巩固其在基督教社会。

RK Bishop RK主教
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary)(Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 参考书目
R. Brooke, The Coming of the Friars; J. Cohen, The Friars and the Jews; L. Little, Religious Poverty and the Profit Economy in Medieval Europe; J. Moorman, A History of the Franciscan Order from Its Origin to the Year 1517.R.布鲁克的男修道士来了; J.科恩的修士和犹太人; L.小,宗教在中世纪欧洲的贫困和经济利润的J.穆尔曼,阿济秩序的历史,从它的起源到年1517。


Francis of Assisi方济各

Advanced Information先进的信息

(1182-1226)(1182年至1226年)

Francis of Assisi was the universally admired founder of the Order of Friars Minor (Franciscans).阿西西的弗朗西斯是该未成年人天主教方济会(济)令举世推崇的创始人。Born Francesco Bernardone, son of a wealthy cloth merchant from Assisi, he was a popular, high-spirited youth, much inspired by chivalric ideals of the troubador and the knight.出生弗朗切斯科贝尔纳多,一个富裕的布从阿西西商人的儿子,他是一个普遍的,意气风发的青年,更由troubador和行侠仗义的骑士理想的启发。 In his early twenties he experienced a gradual but profound religious conversion, expressed in a number of dramatic gestures such as the exchanging of clothes with a beggar and kissing the diseased hand of a leper.在他二十出头的他经历了一个渐进而深刻的宗教转换,在诸如交换与乞丐的衣服,亲吻了一个麻疯病手戏剧性的手势数字表示。 After he had sold family merchandise in order to rebuild a local church, his enraged father, disgusted by the son's unworldly instincts, brought him to judgment before the bishop's court.之后,他出售了家族商品,以重建当地的教堂,他愤怒的父亲,在儿子的unworldly本能反感,带他到判决前主教法庭。 Here Francis freely renounced his inheritance and, in a memorable act, stripped off his clothes as well to signify total abandonment to God.弗朗西斯在这里自由地放弃他的继承,并在一个难忘的行为,剥夺了他的衣服,以及以表示彻底放弃上帝。

Francis spent the next several years living as a hermit in the vicinity of Assisi, ministering to the needy, repairing churches, and attracting a small band of followers to his simple rule.弗朗西斯在接下来的几年作为在阿西西附近的隐士生活,服事有需要的人士,修复教堂,并吸引了小乐队的追随者,他简单的规则。 Pope Innocent III's approval of the fledgling order in 1210 was a major triumph; rather than being rejected as yet another threatening, heretical movement, the "little brothers" were embraced as a powerful current of reform within the established church.教皇英诺森三世的羽翼未丰的订单批准在1210是一个重大的胜利,而不是作为又一个威胁,拒绝邪教活动,“小兄弟”被作为改革的教堂内建立强大的电流相互辉映。

Following a preaching mission in the Islamic East (including a remarkable audience with the sultan in Egypt), Francis returned home in 1219 to face a crisis.继在伊斯兰地区(包括与苏丹在埃及显着观众)传道的使命,弗朗西斯在1219年回到主场面对的危机。The movement now numbered some five thousand adherents, and pressure was mounting to establish a more formal organization.该运动现在编号为5000的一些信徒和压力是安装到建立一个更正式的组织。Distressed by this drift away from earlier spontaneity and simplicity, Francis increasingly withdrew to live out his mission by personal example.这个渐行渐远从早期的自发性和简单心疼,弗朗西斯越来越撤回活出个人的例子由他的使命。Intense meditation on the suffering of Christ led to the famous experience of the stigmata, signs in his own flesh of the wounds of his Master.在基督的苦难激烈冥想导致了著名的圣痕的经验,他对他的主人的伤口割肉的迹象。 And although he was more a preacher than a writer, in 1223 he completed a second rule (adapted as the official Rule of the Order) and about 1224 his most famous piece, "Canticle of the Sun," a paean of praise for God and his creation.虽然他更是一个比一个作家牧师,他在1223年完成了第二个规则(如该命令的正式规则修改),约1224年他最著名的作品,“太阳颂歌”,对神的赞歌的赞美和他的创作。 Ill and nearly blind, he was finally brought back to Assisi from his remote hermitage and died on October 3, 1226.病患者和几乎失明,他终于带回阿西西从他的远程隐居和1226年10月3日死亡。He was canonized by his friend Gregory IX in 1228, and his body was soon moved to the newly constructed basilica bearing his name.他被册封由他的朋友格雷戈里九在1228年,他的身体很快就被转移到新建成的教堂他的名字命名。

The key to Francis's life was his uncompromising attempt to imitate Christ of the Gospels through absolute poverty, humility, and simplicity.对弗朗西斯的生活的关键是他不妥协的企图模仿的福音,通过绝对贫困,谦逊,和简单基督。He loved nature as God's good handiwork and had a deep respect for women (such as his beloved mother and Clare, his follower).他爱作为上帝的好手艺性质,并为妇女深深的敬意(如他心爱的母亲和克莱尔,他的追随者)。At the same time, his willing obedience to the papacy and the priesthood allowed them to embrace this otherwise radical reformer and saint.与此同时,他愿意服从教宗和神职人员让他们接受这一否则激进改革者和圣人。

RK Bishop RK主教
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary)(Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 参考书目
M. Bishop, St. Francis of Assisi; L. Cunningham, St. Francis of Assisi; O. Englebert, Saint Francis of Assisi; A. Fortini, Francis of Assisi; JH Smith, Francis of Assisi.M.主教,圣方济各亚西西; L.坎宁安,圣方济各亚西西; O.昂格勒贝,圣方济各亚西西; A. Fortini,阿西西的弗朗西斯; JH史密斯,方济各亚西西。


St. Francis of Assisi圣方济各

Catholic Information天主教信息

Founder of the Franciscan Order, born at Assisi in Umbria, in 1181 or 1182 -- the exact year is uncertain; died there, 3 October, 1226.济秩序的出生在阿西西在翁布里亚在1181或1182,方正 - 确切今年是不确定的;死在那里,1226年10月3日。His father, Pietro Bernardone, was a wealthy Assisian cloth merchant.他的父亲,彼得贝尔纳多,是一个富有Assisian布商人。 Of his mother, Pica, little is known, but she is said to have belonged to a noble family of Provence.他的母亲,皮卡,很少有人知道,但她说已经属于一个普罗旺斯的贵族家庭。Francis was one of several children.弗朗西斯是几个孩子中的一个。The legend that he was born in a stable dates from the fifteenth century only, and appears to have originated in the desire of certain writers to make his life resemble that of Christ.在他出生于十五世纪才从一个稳定的日期,和传说似乎在某些作家的愿望,使他的生活像基督的起源。At baptism the saint received the name of Giovanni, which his father afterwards altered to Francesco, through fondness it would seem for France, whither business had led him at the time of his son's birth.在洗礼圣得到了乔瓦尼的名字,他的父亲后来改为弗朗切斯科,通过它似乎偏爱法国,往那业务,导致在他的儿子出生时他。 In any case, since the child was renamed in infancy, the change can hardly have had anything to do with his aptitude for learning French, as some have thought.在任何情况下,由于孩子在婴儿期更名,变更很难有什么与他的性向做学习法语,如一些人所想。

Francis received some elementary instruction from the priests of St. George's at Assisi, though he learned more perhaps in the school of the Troubadours, who were just then making for refinement in Italy.弗朗西斯收到圣乔治在阿西西的祭司一些基本指令,但他得知在抒情诗人,谁刚才在意大利的细化使学校更可能。However this may be, he was not very studious, and his literary education remained incomplete.但是这可能是,他不是很用功,他的文学教育仍然不完整。Although associated with his father in trade, he showed little liking for a merchant's career, and his parents seemed to have indulged his every whim.尽管与他的父亲在贸易相关的,他表现出了小商人的职业喜好,他的父母似乎都沉迷他的每一个心血来潮。Thomas of Celano, his first biographer, speaks in very severe terms of Francis's youth.在切拉诺,他的第一个传记作家,托马斯在谈到弗朗西斯的青年非常严厉。Certain it is that the saint's early life gave no presage of the golden years that were to come.某些那就是圣人的生命早期没有透露被认为预示着今后的黄金年。No one loved pleasure more than Francis; he had a ready wit, sang merrily, delighted in fine clothes and showy display.没有人比弗朗西斯更爱快乐,他有一个现成的机智,欢快地唱着,在漂亮的衣服和华丽的显示非常高兴。Handsome, gay, gallant, and courteous, he soon became the prime favourite among the young nobles of Assisi, the foremost in every feat of arms, the leader of the civil revels, the very king of frolic.英俊,同性恋,勇敢,礼貌,他很快成为了阿西西之间的年轻贵族首要的喜爱,在每个武器的壮举,对民间狂欢的领导者,最重要的嬉闹非常之王。 But even at this time Francis showed an instinctive sympathy with the poor, and though he spent money lavishly, it still flowed in such channels as to attest a princely magnanimity of spirit.但即使在这个时候弗朗西斯则有本能的同情与穷人,虽然他花的钱大肆挥霍,它仍然在这样的渠道流入,以证明王侯的精神气度。 When about twenty, Francis went out with the townsmen to fight the Perugians in one of the petty skirmishes so frequent at that time between the rival cities.在谈到二十,弗朗西斯又与同乡出来打在如此频繁的小小冲突一个在城市之间的竞争时Perugians。The Assisians were defeated on this occasion, and Francis, being among those taken prisoners, was held captive for more than a year in Perugia.被打败的Assisians在这个场合,和弗朗西斯,在这些囚犯被采取举行,超过了佩鲁贾一年多的俘虏。A low fever which he there contracted appears to have turned his thoughts to the things of eternity; at least the emptiness of the life he had been leading came to him during that long illness.低发热,他有合同似乎已经把他的想法,以永恒的东西,至少他的生命已经在该领导来到空虚久病他。With returning health, however, Francis's eagerness after glory reawakened and his fancy wandered in search of victories; at length he resolved to embrace a military career, and circumstances seemed to favour his aspirations.随着回归健康,但是,弗朗西斯的渴望唤醒后的荣耀和他看中的胜利搜索徘徊,最后他决心接受了军事生涯,情况似乎有利于他的愿望。 A knight of Assisi was about to join "the gentle count", Walter of Brienne, who was then in arms in the Neapolitan States against the emperor, and Francis arranged to accompany him.骑士的阿西西是即将加入“温柔的计数”,​​对Brienne沃尔特,谁是在那不勒斯的国家武器反对皇帝的话,和弗朗西斯安排陪他。 His biographers tell us that the night before Francis set forth he had a strange dream, in which he saw a vast hall hung with armour all marked with the Cross.他的传记作者告诉我们,前弗朗西斯晚上他提出了一个奇怪的梦,他在其中看到了一个巨大的大厅,所有与十字架标记装甲挂。 "These", said a voice, "are for you and your soldiers."“这些”,一个声音说,“是为你和你的士兵。”"I know I shall be a great prince", exclaimed Francis exultingly, as he started for Apulia. “我知道我会成为一个伟大的王子”​​,惊呼弗朗西斯exultingly,因为他的普利亚开始。But a second illness arrested his course at Spoleto.但第二个疾病逮捕了斯波莱托他的课程。There, we are told, Francis had another dream in which the same voice bade him turn back to Assisi.在那里,我们被告知,弗朗西斯还有另外一个梦想,即同一声音叫他回头阿西西。He did so at once.他这样做一次。 This was in 1205.这是在1205。

Although Francis still joined at times in the noisy revels of his former comrades, his changed demeanour plainly showed that his heart was no longer with them; a yearning for the life of the spirit had already possessed it.虽然弗朗西斯仍然时常加入了他的前同志的嘈杂陶醉,他的言行举止明显改变表明,他的心是与他们已不再,为生活的向往的精神已经拥有它。 His companions twitted Francis on his absent-mindedness and asked if he were minded to be married.他的同伴twitted他心不在焉弗朗西斯,问他是有意要结婚了。"Yes", he replied, "I am about to take a wife of surpassing fairness."“是的”,他回答说:“我将要采取的超越公平的妻子。”She was no other than Lady Poverty whom Dante and Giotto have wedded to his name, and whom even now he had begun to love.她并不比女人贫穷人但丁和乔托有执着于他的名字,甚至现在他已经开始爱上其他人。After a short period of uncertainty he began to seek in prayer and solitude the answer to his call; he had already given up his gay attire and wasteful ways.经过短时期的不确定性,他开始寻求在祈祷和孤独对他的电话回答,他已经放弃了他的同性恋装束和浪费的方法。One day, while crossing the Umbrian plain on horseback, Francis unexpectedly drew near a poor leper.一天,当过马背上的翁布里亚平原,弗朗西斯竟然吸引了附近的贫困麻风病人。The sudden appearance of this repulsive object filled him with disgust and he instinctively retreated, but presently controlling his natural aversion he dismounted, embraced the unfortunate man, and gave him all the money he had.这种令人厌恶的对象突然出现充满了厌恶他,他本能地后退,但目前控制他的自然厌恶他翻身下马,接受了不幸的人,并给了他所有的钱他。 About the same time Francis made a pilgrimage to Rome.大约在同一时间弗朗西斯作出了朝圣罗马。Pained at the miserly offerings he saw at the tomb of St. Peter, he emptied his purse thereon.在他在圣彼得墓看到吝啬产品心疼,他掏空自己的钱包有关情况。Then, as if to put his fastidious nature to the test, he exchanged clothes with a tattered mendicant and stood for the rest of the day fasting among the horde of beggars at the door of the basilica.然后,仿佛把他的挑剔性的测试,与他交换衣服破烂的乞丐和当天禁食休息站之间的乞丐在大殿门口部落。

Not long after his return to Assisi, whilst Francis was praying before an ancient crucifix in the forsaken wayside chapel of St. Damian's below the town, he heard a voice saying: "Go, Francis, and repair my house, which as you see is falling into ruin."不久后,他返回阿西西,而弗朗西斯是在之前的圣达米安低于城市的遗弃路边小教堂古十字架祈祷,​​他听到一个声音说:“去吧,弗朗西斯和修复我的房子,正如你看到的是成废墟下降。“ Taking this behest literally, as referring to the ruinous church wherein he knelt, Francis went to his father's shop, impulsively bundled together a load of coloured drapery, and mounting his horse hastened to Foligno, then a mart of some importance, and there sold both horse and stuff to procure the money needful for the restoration of St. Damian's.采取这一遗志字面上看,它是指以毁灭性的教会其中他跪下,弗朗西斯到他父亲的店,冲动地捆绑在一起的彩色布料负荷,安装他的马赶紧福利尼奥,然后是一些重要的集市,有卖两马和材料采购为圣达米安的恢复钱needful。 When, however, the poor priest who officiated there refused to receive the gold thus gotten, Francis flung it from him disdainfully.但是,当穷人牧师谁主持有拒绝接受这样得到的金牌,弗朗西斯扔它从他轻蔑。The elder Bernardone, a most niggardly man, was incensed beyond measure at his son's conduct, and Francis, to avert his father's wrath, hid himself in a cave near St. Damian's for a whole month.老贝尔纳多,最吝啬的人,被激怒了无可估量他儿子的行为,和弗朗西斯,为了避免父亲的愤怒,藏在附近圣达米安了整整一个月的洞穴自己。 When he emerged from this place of concealment and returned to the town, emaciated with hunger and squalid with dirt, Francis was followed by a hooting rabble, pelted with mud and stones, and otherwise mocked as a madman.当他走出这个隐蔽的地方,回到镇上,与饥饿和肮脏的污垢消瘦,弗朗西斯之后是倒彩乌合之众,用泥和石块投掷,否则作为一个疯子嘲笑。 Finally, he was dragged home by his father, beaten, bound, and locked in a dark closet.最后,他拖家由他的父亲,殴打,装订​​成册,在黑暗的壁橱锁定。

Freed by his mother during Bernardone's absence, Francis returned at once to St. Damian's, where he found a shelter with the officiating priest, but he was soon cited before the city consuls by his father.由他的母亲在贝尔纳多释放的情况下,弗朗西斯立刻返回圣达米安的,在那里他发现了一个与主礼牧师住所,但他很快就在城市的领事援引他的父亲。 The latter, not content with having recovered the scattered gold from St. Damian's, sought also to force his son to forego his inheritance.后者不具有恢复从圣达米安的分散的含金量,也试图迫使他放弃他的儿子继承。This Francis was only too eager to do; he declared, however, that since he had entered the service of God he was no longer under civil jurisdiction.这弗朗西斯只是太急于做的,他宣布,但是,因为他已经进入了神服务,他是根据民事管辖权不再。Having therefore been taken before the bishop, Francis stripped himself of the very clothes he wore, and gave them to his father, saying: "Hitherto I have called you my father on earth; henceforth I desire to say only 'Our Father who art in Heaven.'" Then and there, as Dante sings, were solemnized Francis's nuptials with his beloved spouse, the Lady Poverty, under which name, in the mystical language afterwards so familiar to him, he comprehended the total surrender of all worldly goods, honours, and privileges.因此经前已采取主教,弗朗西斯剥夺了他穿的衣服很自己,并给了他的父亲,他说:“迄今我叫你在地球上有我的父亲,我希望从今以后只说'我们的父亲谁的艺术天堂'。“再有,但丁唱,是举行婚礼与他心爱的配偶,夫人贫困,其下的名字,在神秘的语言之后再熟悉他,他理解了所有世俗的商品整体投降,荣誉弗朗西斯的婚礼和特权。 And now Francis wandered forth into the hills behind Assisi, improvising hymns of praise as he went.现在弗朗西斯游荡到后面阿西西丘陵,即兴的赞美,他提出了赞美诗。"I am the herald of the great King", he declared in answer to some robbers, who thereupon despoiled him of all he had and threw him scornfully in a snow drift. “我是国王的伟大先驱”,他宣称在回答一些劫匪,谁所有,他于是掠夺了他,扔在雪堆他轻蔑地。Naked and half frozen, Francis crawled to a neighbouring monastery and there worked for a time as a scullion.裸体和半冻结,弗朗西斯检索到邻近的寺院,有一段时间担任scullion。At Gubbio, whither he went next, Francis obtained from a friend the cloak, girdle, and staff of a pilgrim as an alms.在古比奥,他去往那下,弗朗西斯获得朋友的外衣,腰带,和一个作为施舍朝圣者的工作人员。Returning to Assisi, he traversed the city begging stones for the restoration of St. Damian's.回到阿西西,他所走过的城市行乞为圣达米安的恢复石块。These he carried to the old chapel, set in place himself, and so at length rebuilt it.这些他抬到老教堂,在地方自己定,所以在长度重建它。In the same way Francis afterwards restored two other deserted chapels, St. Peter's, some distance from the city, and St. Mary of the Angels, in the plain below it, at a spot called the Porziuncola.以同样的方式弗朗西斯之后恢复其他两个冷清的教堂,圣彼得,一些城市的距离,和圣玛利亚的天使,在它下面的平原,在现场被称为Porziunco​​la。 Meantime he redoubled his zeal in works of charity, more especially in nursing the lepers.与此同时,他加倍的慈善工作的热情,更特别是在护理麻风病人。

On a certain morning in 1208, probably 24 February, Francis was hearing Mass in the chapel of St. Mary of the Angels, near which he had then built himself a hut; the Gospel of the day told how the disciples of Christ were to possess neither gold nor silver, nor scrip for their journey, nor two coats, nor shoes, nor a staff, and that they were to exhort sinners to repentance and announce the Kingdom of God.一名在1208年,大概2月24日某日上午,弗朗西斯是听证会的圣天使,不久,他当时曾建立自己的一间小屋玛丽教堂弥撒,当天的福音告诉如何基督的门徒拥有没有黄金和白银,也为他们的旅程以股代息,也不两件衣服,鞋子也没有,也没有工作人员,他们要叮咛罪人悔改,并宣布上帝的王国。 Francis took these words as if spoken directly to himself, and so soon as Mass was over threw away the poor fragment left him of the world's goods, his shoes, cloak, pilgrim staff, and empty wallet.弗朗西斯把这些话好像说直接自己,所以一旦质量超过扔掉贫困片段离开世界的商品他,他的鞋子,披风,朝圣者的工作人员,和空的钱包。 At last he had found his vocation.最后他找到了自己的使命。Having obtained a coarse woolen tunic of "beast colour", the dress then worn by the poorest Umbrian peasants, and tied it round him with a knotted rope, Francis went forth at once exhorting the people of the country-side to penance, brotherly love, and peace.在获得粗的“兽色”呢子中山装,穿的礼服则是最贫困的翁布里亚农民,它圆了绑绳索打结他,弗朗西斯又提出一次劝告该国端人民忏悔,兄弟般的爱与和平。 The Assisians had already ceased to scoff at Francis; they now paused in wonderment; his example even drew others to him.该Assisians已经停止在弗朗西斯嗤之以鼻,他们现在在惊叹暂停,他的榜样,甚至吸引了别人给他。Bernard of Quintavalle, a magnate of the town, was the first to join Francis, and he was soon followed by Peter of Cattaneo, a well-known canon of the cathedral.伯纳德的昆塔瓦莱,一个镇的巨头,是第一个加入弗朗西斯,他很快就被彼得郭居静,一大教堂著名的佳能之后。In true spirit of religious enthusiasm, Francis repaired to the church of St. Nicholas and sought to learn God's will in their regard by thrice opening at random the book of the Gospels on the altar.在宗教热情的真正精神,弗朗西斯修复到圣尼古拉教堂,并要求通过学习三次随机坛上的开放的福音书神在他们方面的意愿。 Each time it opened at passages where Christ told His disciples to leave all things and follow Him.每次它打开了通道,那里有基督告诉他的弟子离开一切事物和追随他。"This shall be our rule of life", exclaimed Francis, and led his companions to the public square, where they forthwith gave away all their belongings to the poor. “这应是我们生活的规则”,惊呼弗朗西斯,带领他的同伴到市民广场,在那里他们立即离开了他们所有的财产给穷人。After this they procured rough habits like that of Francis, and built themselves small huts near his at the Porziuncola.在此之后,他们采购的像弗朗西斯,粗糙的习惯,并建有自己的小茅屋Porziunco​​la靠近他。A few days later Giles, afterwards the great ecstatic and sayer of "good words", became the third follower of Francis.几天后贾尔斯,事后的伟大欣喜若狂和“好话”SAYER,成为弗朗西斯第三追随者。The little band divided and went about, two and two, making such an impression by their words and behaviour that before long several other disciples grouped themselves round Francis eager to share his poverty, among them being Sabatinus, vir bonus et justus, Moricus, who had belonged to the Crucigeri, John of Capella, who afterwards fell away, Philip "the Long", and four others of whom we know only the names.小乐队分,前往约,两个和两个,使得他们的言论和行为这样的印象,不久其他几个弟子分组本身一轮弗朗西斯渴望分享其中他的贫穷,被Sabatinus,VIR奖金等贾斯特斯,Moricus,谁已经属于Crucigeri,五车约翰,谁离开之后下跌,菲利普“龙”,另外4人,其中我们只知道名字。 When the number of his companions had increased to eleven, Francis found it expedient to draw up a written rule for them.当他的同伴数量已增至十一,弗朗西斯发现它的权宜之计制订为他们写的规则。This first rule, as it is called, of the Friars Minor has not come down to us in its original form, but it appears to have been very short and simple, a mere adaptation of the Gospel precepts already selected by Francis for the guidance of his first companions, and which he desired to practice in all their perfection.这第一条规则,因为它是所谓的男修道士未成年人,并没有下降到我们在其原来的形式,但它似乎已经很短,简单,弗朗西斯已经选择的指导福音戒律仅仅适应他的第一个同伴,而他渴望在所有的完美实践。 When this rule was ready the Penitents of Assisi, as Francis and his followers styled themselves, set out for Rome to seek the approval of the Holy See, although as yet no such approbation was obligatory.当这个规则准备的阿西西悔罪者的弗朗西斯和他的追随者,称呼自己,为罗马出寻求罗马教廷的批准,虽然还没有这样的认可是强制性的。 There are differing accounts of Francis's reception by Innocent III.有弗朗西斯的由诺森三世接待不同的帐户。It seems, however, that Guido, Bishop of Assisi, who was then in Rome, commended Francis to Cardinal John of St. Paul, and that at the instance of the latter, the pope recalled the saint whose first overtures he had, as it appears, somewhat rudely rejected.看来,不过,圭多主教阿西斯,谁当时在罗马,赞扬弗朗西斯以枢机主教约翰圣保罗,并在后一种情况下,教宗回顾了圣的他第一次序曲,因为它看来,有些粗暴地拒绝。 Moreover, in site of the sinister predictions of others in the Sacred College, who regarded the mode of life proposed by Francis as unsafe and impracticable, Innocent, moved it is said by a dream in which he beheld the Poor Man of Assisi upholding the tottering Lateran, gave a verbal sanction to the rule submitted by Francis and granted the saint and his companions leave to preach repentance everywhere.此外,在其他人在神圣的大学,谁把生活模式弗朗西斯提出的不安全和不切实际的预测网站险恶,天真,感动它是由一个梦想,他看见了阿西西可怜的人坚持说摇摇欲坠拉特兰作了口头制裁由弗朗西斯提交的规则和授予圣和他的同伴离开鼓吹悔罪无处不在。 Before leaving Rome they all received the ecclesiastical tonsure, Francis himself being ordained deacon later on.临走时他们都收到了罗马教会剃度,弗朗西斯自己被祝圣执事以后。After their return to Assisi, the Friars Minor -- for thus Francis had named his brethren, either after the minores, or lower classes, as some think, or as others believe, with reference to the Gospel (Matthew 25:40-45), and as a perpetual reminder of their humility -- found shelter in a deserted hut at Rivo Torto in the plain below the city, but were forced to abandon this poor abode by a rough peasant who drove in his ass upon them.之后他们返回阿西西,小的修士 - 弗朗西斯已经对如此命名了他的弟兄们,无论是后minores,或下层,像有些人认为,或有人认为,参照福音(马太25:40-45) ,并作为他们的谦卑永远提醒 - 发现在Rivo Torto在低于城市普通冷清的小屋住,但被迫放弃了一个粗略的农民谁在他的屁股后,他们开着这个可怜的居留权。About 1211 they obtained a permanent foothold near Assisi, through the generosity of the Benedictines of Monte Subasio, who gave them the little chapel of St. Mary of the Angels or the Porziuncola.关于1211年他们获得了近阿西西永久的立足点,通过对蒙Subasio,谁给了他们的圣玛丽的天使小教堂或Porziunco​​la本笃慷慨。 Adjoining this humble sanctuary, already dear to Francis, the first Franciscan convent was formed by the erection of a few small huts or cells of wattle, straw, and mud, and enclosed by a hedge.毗邻这个不起眼的庇护,已经亲爱的弗朗西斯,第一方济修道院所形成的一些小茅屋或枝条细胞,秸秆和泥勃起,并以对冲封闭。 From this settlement, which became the cradle of the Franciscan Order (Caput et Mater Ordinis) and the central spot in the life of St. Francis, the Friars Minor went forth two by two exhorting the people of the surrounding country.从这个解决,这成为了济秩序(按位津贴等脑膜Ordinis)和在圣弗朗西斯生活的中心位置的摇篮,男修道士未成年人提出了两个劝告周围国家的人民两个。 Like children "careless of the day", they wandered from place to place singing in their joy, and calling themselves the Lord's minstrels.像儿童“不小心的一天”,他们从一个地方游荡到地方唱自己的喜悦,并自称为上帝的吟游诗人。 The wide world was their cloister; sleeping in haylofts, grottos, or church porches, they toiled with the labourers in the fields, and when none gave them work they would beg.广阔的世界是他们的修道院,在haylofts,洞穴,或教堂门廊睡觉,他们在田里辛勤的劳动者,并没有给他们的工作时,他们会乞求。 In a short while Francis and his companions gained an immense influence, and men of different grades of life and ways of thought flocked to the order.一时间,弗朗西斯和他的同伴获得了巨大的影响,以及对生活和思想方式不同档次的男子络绎不绝,订单。Among the new recruits made about this time by Francis were the famous Three Companions, who afterwards wrote his life, namely: Angelus Tancredi, a noble cavalier; Leo, the saint's secretary and confessor; and Rufinus, a cousin of St. Clare; besides Juniper, "the renowned jester of the Lord".在这个时间由弗朗西斯新兵是著名的三个同伴,谁写了他的生活之后,即:三钟经坦克雷迪,高尚的骑士;,圣人的秘书和忏悔狮子座;和Rufinus,表姐的圣克莱尔;除了杜松,“主的著名小丑”。

During the Lent of 1212, a new joy, great as it was unexpected, came to Francis.在1212封斋期,一个新的喜悦,伟大的,因为它是意外,来到了弗朗西斯。Clare, a young heiress of Assisi, moved by the saint's preaching at the church of St. George, sought him out, and begged to be allowed to embrace the new manner of life he had founded.克莱尔的阿西西年轻的女继承人,感动了圣人的说教在圣乔治教堂,寻求他出来,恳求被允许去拥抱新的生活态度,他一手创办。 By his advice, Clare, who was then but eighteen, secretly left her father's house on the night following Palm Sunday, and with two companions went to the Porziuncola, where the friars met her in procession, carrying lighted torches.根据他的意见,克莱尔,谁当时但十八岁,晚上偷偷留在她父亲的房子下面的Palm星期日,与两名同伴来到Porziunco​​la,那里的修士在游行会见她,携带燃着的火把。 Then Francis, having cut off her hair, clothed her in the Minorite habit and thus received her to a life of poverty, penance, and seclusion.然后弗朗西斯,有切断她的头发,穿在她的Minorite习惯,从而收到了她给了贫困,苦修,和隐居生活。Clare stayed provisionally with some Benedictine nuns near Assisi, until Francis could provide a suitable retreat for her, and for St. Agnes, her sister, and the other pious maidens who had joined her.克莱尔暂时停留的近阿西西一些本笃会修女,直到弗朗西斯可以提供一个适合她退却,和圣阿格尼斯,她的妹妹,和谁加入了她的其他虔诚的少女。 He eventually established them at St. Damian's, in a dwelling adjoining the chapel he had rebuilt with his own hands, which was now given to the saint by the Benedictines as domicile for his spiritual daughters, and which thus became the first monastery of the Second Franciscan Order of Poor Ladies, now known as Poor Clares.他最终确定在圣达米安的他们,在一个毗邻的,他用自己的双手重建,这是现在给予圣本笃的女儿为他的精神住所,并因此成为第一个修道院教堂的第二居所济秩序欠佳Clares目前已知的可怜女子。

In the autumn of the same year (1212) Francis's burning desire for the conversion of the Saracens led him to embark for Syria, but having been shipwrecked on the coast of Slavonia, he had to return to Ancona.在同年(1212)弗朗西斯的燃烧的撒拉逊人的欲望转化秋促使他走上了叙利亚,但被对斯拉沃尼亚海岸遇船难者,他不得不返回安科纳。 The following spring he devoted himself to evangelizing Central Italy.第二年春天,他致力于福传意大利中部。About this time (1213) Francis received from Count Orlando of Chiusi the mountain of La Verna, an isolated peak among the Tuscan Apennines, rising some 4000 feet above the valley of the Casentino, as a retreat, "especially favourable for contemplation", to which he might retire from time to time for prayer and rest.大约在这个时候(1213)弗朗西斯收到计数丘西的La贝尔纳,一个孤立的亚平宁山脉之间的托斯卡纳高峰山奥兰多,大约4000英尺以上的Casentino山谷上升,作为撤退“,特别是有利的沉思”,以他可能退役时为祈祷和休息时间。 For Francis never altogether separated the contemplative from the active life, as the several hermitages associated with his memory, and the quaint regulations he wrote for those living in them bear witness.对于弗朗西斯从来没有完全分开,积极的生活沉思,与他的记忆有关的几个秘境,和他对那些生活在其中写道古雅法规的见证。 At one time, indeed, a strong desire to give himself wholly to a life of contemplation seems to have possessed the saint.有一段时间,的确是一个强烈的愿望,让自己完全以一个沉思的生活似乎已经具备了圣人。During the next year (1214) Francis set out for Morocco, in another attempt to reach the infidels and, if needs be, to shed his blood for the Gospel, but while yet in Spain was overtaken by so severe an illness that he was compelled to turn back to Italy once more.在接下来的一年(1214年)弗朗西斯载摩洛哥,在另一个企图达到异教徒,如果需要的话,摆脱了他的血液福音,但同时却在西班牙是如此严重,他不得不an疾病取代回头意大利一次。

Authentic details are unfortunately lacking of Francis's journey to Spain and sojourn there.不幸的是正宗的细节缺乏弗朗西斯的旅程西班牙和旅居那里。It probably took place in the winter of 1214-1215.它可能发生在1214年至1215年冬天的地方。After his return to Umbria he received several noble and learned men into his order, including his future biographer Thomas of Celano.在他的回归到翁布里亚,他接收到他的命令几个贵族和有学问的人,包括他未来的传记作者托马斯切拉诺。 The next eighteen months comprise, perhaps, the most obscure period of the saint's life.包括在未来18个月,也许,对圣人的一生中最不起眼的时期。That he took part in the Lateran Council of 1215 may well be, but it is not certain; we know from Eccleston, however, that Francis was present at the death of Innocent III, which took place at Perugia, in July 1216.他参加了1215年拉特兰安理会的可能是,但现在还不能确定,我们从埃克莱斯顿知道,不过,弗朗西斯在诺森三世,其中发生在佩鲁贾发生在1216年7月,目前死亡。 Shortly afterwards, ie very early in the pontificate of Honorius III, is placed the concession of the famous Porziuncola Indulgence.不久之后,即非常的挪三教皇早期,是摆著名的Porziunco​​la放纵让步。 It is related that once, while Francis was praying at the Porziuncola, Christ appeared to him and offered him whatever favour he might desire.据相关的一次,而弗朗西斯是在Porziunco​​la祈祷,基督向他显现,并为他提供一切可能支持他的愿望。The salvation of souls was ever the burden of Francis's prayers, and wishing moreover, to make his beloved Porziuncola a sanctuary where many might be saved, he begged a plenary Indulgence for all who, having confessed their sins, should visit the little chapel.得救的灵魂永远是弗朗西斯的祈祷的负担,并希望此外,为了让自己心爱的Porziunco​​la一个许多可能被保存避难所,他央求为所有谁,有交待他们的罪行全体会议放纵,应该访问的小教堂。 Our Lord acceded to this request on condition that the pope should ratify the Indulgence.我们的主同意了这一请求,条件是教宗应批准的放纵。Francis thereupon set out for Perugia, with Brother Masseo, to find Honorius III.弗朗西斯随即订出佩鲁贾,与兄弟Masseo,找到挪留三世。The latter, notwithstanding some opposition from the Curia at such an unheard-of favour, granted the Indulgence, restricting it, however, to one day yearly.后者,尽管一些在教廷反对这样一个前所未闻的青睐,授予放纵,限制它,但是,每年到一天。He subsequently fixed 2 August in perpetuity, as the day for gaining this Porziuncola Indulgence, commonly known in Italy as il perdono d'Assisi.他随后在永久固定8月2日,作为获得这一Porziunco​​la放纵,通常在意大利被称为IL perdono D'阿西西的一天。Such is the traditional account.这就是传统的帐户。The fact that there is no record of this Indulgence in either the papal or diocesan archives and no allusion to it in the earliest biographies of Francis or other contemporary documents has led some writers to reject the whole story.事实上,没有这种放纵记录无论是在教皇或教区档案和没有提到的弗朗西斯或其他当代的文件最早传记,它已导致一些作家拒绝整个故事。 This argumentum ex silentio has, however, been met by M. Paul Sabatier, who in his critical edition of the "Tractatus de Indulgentia" of Fra Bartholi has adduced all the really credible evidence in its favour.这argumentum前silentio了,但一直由M.保罗萨巴蒂尔,谁在他的“逻辑哲学论德Indulgentia”法兰克福机场Bartholi关键版已援引所有对它有利的真正可信的证据。 But even those who regard the granting of this Indulgence as traditionally believed to be an established fact of history, admit that its early history is uncertain.但即使那些认为这个放纵授予作为传统上认为是一个既定的历史事实,承认它的早期历史是不确定的。(See PORTIUNCULA.) (见PORTIUNCULA。)

The first general chapter of the Friars Minor was held in May, 1217, at Porziuncola, the order being divided into provinces, and an apportionment made of the Christian world into so many Franciscan missions.第一的男修道士未成年人一般一章5月举行,1217年,在Porziunco​​la,被划分到省的顺序,和基督教世界做成这么多的济任务的分摊。 Tuscany, Lombardy, Provence, Spain, and Germany were assigned to five of Francis's principal followers; for himself the saint reserved France, and he actually set out for that kingdom, but on arriving at Florence, was dissuaded from going further by Cardinal Ugolino, who had been made protector of the order in 1216.托斯卡纳,伦巴第,普罗旺斯,西班牙和德国被分配到弗朗西斯的主要追随者五个;为自己的圣预留法国,他居然为这个王国了,但在佛罗伦萨到达,从去由枢机主教Ugolino进一步劝阻,谁曾在1216订单的保护者。 He therefore sent in his stead Brother Pacificus, who in the world had been renowned as a poet, together with Brother Agnellus, who later on established the Friars Minor in England.因此,他派他的兄弟Pacificus代替,谁在世界上已作为一个诗人而闻名,加上兄弟Agnellus,谁后来成立于英国的男修道士未成年人。 Although success came indeed to Francis and his friars, with it came also opposition, and it was with a view to allaying any prejudices the Curia might have imbibed against their methods that Francis, at the instance of Cardinal Ugolino, went to Rome and preached before the pope and cardinals in the Lateran.虽然成功来确实弗朗西斯和他的修士,还用它来反对,并以纾缓任何教廷可能有吸胀对他们的方法,弗朗西斯,在枢机主教Ugolino实例,去了罗马和鼓吹前偏见的看法是教皇在拉特兰枢机主教。 This visit to the Eternal City, which took place 1217-18, was apparently the occasion of Francis's memorable meeting with St. Dominic.这种对永恒之城,从而发生1217至1218年,访问显然是弗朗西斯与玫瑰难忘的会议之际。The year 1218 Francis devoted to missionary tours in Italy, which were a continual triumph for him.这一年1218年弗朗西斯致力于传教团在意大利,这是对他不断的胜利。He usually preached out of doors, in the market-places, from church steps, from the walls of castle court-yards.他平时鼓吹出来的门,在市场的地方,从教堂的步骤,从城堡法庭码的墙壁。Allured by the magic spell of his presence, admiring crowds, unused for the rest to anything like popular preaching in the vernacular, followed Francis from place to place hanging on his lips; church bells rang at his approach; processions of clergy and people advanced to meet him with music and singing; they brought the sick to him to bless and heal, and kissed the very ground on which he trod, and even sought to cut away pieces of his tunic.赞叹不已由他的存在紧箍咒,慕名而来的人群,对其余未使用的像在白话流行的说教什么,随后因地挂在他的嘴唇弗朗西斯;教堂的钟声响起时他的方法;游行的僧侣和人民,以先进满足他的音乐和歌声,他们带来的病给他祝福和愈合,并亲吻非常地面上,他踩,甚至试图切掉他的中山装件。 The extraordinary enthusiasm with which the saint was everywhere welcomed was equalled only by the immediate and visible result of his preaching.非凡的热情与该圣人到处都是欢迎的相当于只能由他的说教立即可见的结果。His exhortations of the people, for sermons they can hardly be called, short, homely, affectionate, and pathetic, touched even the hardest and most frivolous, and Francis became in sooth a very conqueror of souls.他叮嘱的人,对布道也很难被称为短,亲切,深情,又可悲,甚至触及最难和最轻薄,在舒缓和弗朗西斯成为了灵魂非常征服者。 Thus it happened, on one occasion, while the saint was preaching at Camara, a small village near Assisi, that the whole congregation were so moved by his "words of spirit and life" that they presented themselves to him in a body and begged to be admitted into his order.因此,它发生了,有一次,而圣人的说教在卡马拉,阿西西附近的一个小村庄,整个教会被感动了他的“字的精神和生活”,他们提出了自己的身体向他恳求被录取到他的命令。 It was to accede, so far as might be, to like requests that Francis devised his Third Order, as it is now called, of the Brothers and Sisters of Penance, which he intended as a sort of middle state between the world and the cloister for those who could not leave their home or desert their wonted avocations in order to enter either the First Order of Friars Minor or the Second Order of Poor Ladies.这是加入,就可能是,喜欢他的设计要求,弗朗西斯三阶,因为它是现在所谓的兄弟姐妹们的忏悔,这是他作为一个世界之间的中间状态排序打算和修道院,对于那些谁不能离开他们的家或沙漠的惯例的avocations才能进入无论是天主教方济会小一阶或二阶差女士。 That Francis prescribed particular duties for these tertiaries is beyond question.弗朗西斯订明这些tertiaries特别职责是毫无疑问的。They were not to carry arms, or take oaths, or engage in lawsuits, etc. It is also said that he drew up a formal rule for them, but it is clear that the rule, confirmed by Nicholas IV in 1289, does not, at least in the form in which it has come down to us, represent the original rule of the Brothers and Sisters of Penance.他们没有携带武器,或采取宣誓,或从事诉讼等,这也是说,他起草了一份为他们正式的规则,但很显然,规则,由尼古拉四证实在1289年,不,至少在其中已回落到我们的形式,代表着兄弟姐妹们的忏悔和原始规则。 In any event, it is customary to assign 1221 as the year of the foundation of this third order, but the date is not certain.无论如何,这是习惯分配作为本三阶基础年1221,但日期不能确定。

At the second general chapter (May, 1219) Francis, bent on realizing his project of evangelizing the infidels, assigned a separate mission to each of his foremost disciples, himself selecting the seat of war between the crusaders and the Saracens.在第二章一般(5月,1219)弗朗西斯,执意要实现他的计划的传福音的异教徒,分配一个单独的首要任务,他的每一个弟子,自己选择之间的十字军和撒拉逊人的战争席位。 With eleven companions, including Brother Illuminato and Peter of Cattaneo, Francis set sail from Ancona on 21 June, for Saint-Jean d'Acre, and he was present at the siege and taking of Damietta.与11同伴,包括兄弟Illuminato和彼得郭居静,弗朗西斯21集从安科纳航行6月,圣让 - 英亩,他出席了围困和达米埃塔服用。After preaching there to the assembled Christian forces, Francis fearlessly passed over to the infidel camp, where he was taken prisoner and led before the sultan.经过说教那里组装基督教势力,弗朗西斯无畏地传递到异教徒的营地,在那里他被俘前苏丹领导。According to the testimony of Jacques de Vitry, who was with the crusaders at Damietta, the sultan received Francis with courtesy, but beyond obtaining a promise from this ruler of more indulgent treatment for the Christian captives, the saint's preaching seems to have effected little.据雅克德维特里,谁与十字军是在达米埃塔证词,苏丹收到礼貌弗朗西斯,但超出获得从这个多为基督教俘虏姑息治疗统治者的承诺,圣人的说教似乎影响不大。

Before returning to Europe, the saint is believed to have visited Palestine and there obtained for the friars the foothold they still retain as guardians of the holy places.在返回欧洲,圣相信已访问了巴勒斯坦和那里的修士取得立足之地,他们仍然作为圣地监护人保留。What is certain is that Francis was compelled to hasten back to Italy because of various troubles that had arisen there during his absence.可以肯定的是,弗朗西斯不得不加速回来,因为那已经出现在他离港期间出现的各种麻烦意大利。News had reached him in the East that Matthew of Narni and Gregory of Naples, the two vicars-general whom he had left in charge of the order, had summoned a chapter which, among other innovations, sought to impose new fasts upon the friars, more severe than the rule required.新闻已达到他在东方的Narni和格雷戈里的那不勒斯马修,两个教区牧师,他在一般人的订单剩余电量,已经传唤了一章,其中除其他创新,力求强加于修士新斋戒,更严重的比所需的规则。 Moreover, Cardinal Ugolino had conferred on the Poor Ladies a written rule which was practically that of the Benedictine nuns, and Brother Philip, whom Francis had charged with their interests, had accepted it.此外,枢机Ugolino已经赋予了书面规则,实际上是在本笃会修女,和兄弟菲利普,其中弗朗西斯曾被控与他们的利益,已经接受了它那个可怜的女子。 To make matters worse, John of Capella, one of the saint's first companions, had assembled a large number of lepers, both men and women, with a view to forming them into a new religious order, and had set out for Rome to seek approval for the rule he had drawn up for these unfortunates.更糟糕的是,五车,对圣人的第一个同伴之一,约翰汇集了麻风病人大量男性和女性,以形成为一个新的宗教秩序他们的意见,已为罗马出,以寻求批准规则的制定,他为这些不幸。 Finally a rumour had been spread abroad that Francis was dead, so that when the saint returned to Italy with Brother Elias -- he appeared to have arrived at Venice in July, 1220 -- a general feeling of unrest prevailed among the friars.最后一个传闻已流传国外,弗朗西斯已经死了,所以,当圣返回意大利与兄弟埃利亚斯 - 他似乎已抵达威尼斯七月,1220 - 一种不安的感觉之中,一般修士占了上风。

Apart from these difficulties, the order was then passing through a period of transition.除了这些困难,令当时经历一个过渡时期。It had become evident that the simple, familiar, and unceremonious ways which had marked the Franciscan movement at its beginning were gradually disappearing, and that the heroic poverty practiced by Francis and his companions at the outset became less easy as the friars with amazing rapidity increased in number.它已成为明显的是简单,熟悉,和粗鲁这标志着其开始在济运动方式逐渐消失,而英勇贫困弗朗西斯和他的同伴在一开始就实行变得不那么容易,因为以惊人的速度增加的修士在数量上。 And this Francis could not help seeing on his return.而这种弗朗西斯忍不住看到他的回归。Cardinal Ugolino had already undertaken the task "of reconciling inspirations so unstudied and so free with an order of things they had outgrown."枢机Ugolino已经开展的“未得到研究和协调,以便使他们有一个东西长得快索取免费的启示。”任务This remarkable man, who afterwards ascended the papal throne as Gregory IX, was deeply attached to Francis, whom he venerated as a saint and also, some writers tell us, managed as an enthusiast.这个了不起的人,谁后来登上了教皇宝座的格雷戈里九,是相亲弗朗西斯,被他视为圣人,也崇敬,一些作家告诉我们,作为一个发烧友管理。

That Cardinal Ugolino had no small share in bringing Francis's lofty ideals "within range and compass" seems beyond dispute, and it is not difficult to recognize his hand in the important changes made in the organization of the order in the so-called Chapter of Mats.这枢机Ugolino已引进来“范围内和指南针”弗朗西斯的崇高理想不小的份额似乎不争的事实,这是不难识别的顺序组织作出的垫所谓本章的重要变化他的手。 At this famous assembly, held at Porziuncola at Whitsuntide, 1220 or 1221 (there is seemingly much room for doubt as to the exact date and number of the early chapters), about 5000 friars are said to have been present, besides some 500 applicants for admission to the order.在这个著名的集会在Porziunco​​la举行Whitsuntide,1220或1221,(有作为的确切日期和初章数量看似很大怀疑的余地),约5000修士据说已经存在,除了约500名申请人,入场的顺序。 Huts of wattle and mud afforded shelter for this multitude.的枝条和泥屋给予这个众多栖身之所。Francis had purposely made no provision for them, but the charity of the neighbouring towns supplied them with food, while knights and nobles waited upon them gladly.弗朗西斯曾特意为他们并没有规定,但对邻近城镇的慈善机构提供它们的食物,而骑士和贵族在他们等待乐意。It was on this occasion that Francis, harassed no doubt and disheartened at the tendency betrayed by a large number of the friars to relax the rigours of the rule, according to the promptings of human prudence, and feeling, perhaps unfitted for a place which now called largely for organizing abilities, relinquished his position as general of the order in favour of Peter of Cattaneo.正是在这个场合,弗朗西斯,骚扰毫无疑问,并在由大量的修士背叛放宽规则的严酷的倾向心灰意冷,根据人体谨慎的promptings,感觉,或许换一个地方现在unfitted主要是组织能力的要求,放弃了他作为总的立场是在彼得的郭居静赞成秩序。 But the latter died in less than a year, being succeeded as vicar-general by the unhappy Brother Elias, who continued in that office until the death of Francis.但后者死在不到一年的时间,被作为副主教一般成功的不满兄弟埃利亚斯,谁在那个办公室一直持续到弗朗西斯死亡。

The saint, meanwhile, during the few years that remained in him, sought to impress on the friars by the silent teaching of personal example of what sort he would fain have them to be.圣,同时,在这几年中他仍,力求通过对修士留下深刻印象的是什么样,他会fain有他们个人的例子是无声教学。Already, while passing through Bologna on his return from the East, Francis had refused to enter the convent there because he had heard it called the "House of the Friars" and because a studium had been instituted there.目前,同时通过博洛尼亚传递他从东方返回,弗朗西斯拒绝进入修道院那里,因为他听说它叫“的男修道士之家”,因为studium已提起那里。 He moreover bade all the friars, even those who were ill, quit it at once, and it was only some time after, when Cardinal Ugolino had publicly declared the house to be his own property, that Francis suffered his brethren to re-enter it.此外,他吩咐所有的修士,即使是那些谁生病,立刻退出它,它只是一段时间后,当枢机Ugolino曾公开宣布房子是他自己的财产,受他的弟兄们,弗朗西斯再次进入它。 Yet strong and definite as the saint's convictions were, and determinedly as his line was taken, he was never a slave to a theory in regard to the observances of poverty or anything else; about him indeed, there was nothing narrow or fanatical.然而,强烈和明确的圣人的信仰者,并毅然采取了作为他的路线,他从来就不是一个奴隶,在考虑到贫困或其他任何理论的纪念活动,约他的确没有什么狭窄或狂热。 As for his attitude towards study, Francis desiderated for his friars only such theological knowledge as was conformable to the mission of the order, which was before all else a mission of example.至于他对待学习的态度,为他的修道士弗朗西斯desiderated神学知识,只有这样的顺应性的订单,这是之前一切的例子使命任务。 Hence he regarded the accumulation of books as being at variance with the poverty his friars professed, and he resisted the eager desire for mere book-learning, so prevalent in his time, in so far as it struck at the roots of that simplicity which entered so largely into the essence of his life and ideal and threatened to stifle the spirit of prayer, which he accounted preferable to all the rest.因此,他认为在他的修士与贫困自称方差作为书籍的积累,他顶住了单纯的书本学习迫切愿望,因此,在他那个时代流行,因为它在迄今为止在这一简单的输入袭击的根源所以在很大程度上威胁到他的生活和理想的本质,扼杀了祈祷的精神,这是他最好占全部休息。 In 1221, so some writers tell us, Francis drew up a new rule for the Friars Minor.在1221,因此有些作家告诉我们,弗朗西斯制定了未成年人的男修道士新规则。Others regard this so-called Rule of 1221 not as a new rule, but as the first one which Innocent had orally approved; not, indeed, its original form, which we do not possess, but with such additions and modifications as it has suffered during the course of twelve years.其他方面这1221作为一个新的规则没有所谓的规则,但作为第一位的是无辜的曾口头批准,不,事实上,它的原始形态,这是我们所不具备的,但这样的补充和修改,因为它受到在十二年中。 However this may be, the composition called by some the Rule of 1221 is very unlike any conventional rule ever made.然而,这可能是由一些所谓的1221规则的组成是非常不像做过任何传统规则。It was too lengthy and unprecise to become a formal rule, and two years later Francis retired to Fonte Colombo, a hermitage near Rieti, and rewrote the rule in more compendious form.这是太冗长,unprecise成为一个正式的规则,并在两年后弗朗西斯退休Fonte酒店科伦坡附近列蒂草庵,并改写了规则更简明的形式。 This revised draft he entrusted to Brother Elias, who not long after declared he had lost it through negligence.这个修订草案,他委托给兄弟埃利亚斯,谁后不久宣布他已经失去了它通过疏忽。Francis thereupon returned to the solitude of Fonte Colombo, and recast the rule on the same lines as before, its twenty-three chapters being reduced to twelve and some of its precepts being modified in certain details at the instance of Cardinal Ugolino.弗朗西斯于是回到了Fonte酒店科伦坡孤独,并重新塑造上与以前相同的线路规则,其23章被减少到十二和它的一些戒律被在红衣主教Ugolino例如某些细节进行修改。 In this form the rule was solemnly approved by Honorius III, 29 November, 1223 (Litt. "Solet annuere").在这种形式的规则郑重批准挪三,1223年11月29日(Litt.“Solet annuere”)。This Second Rule, as it is usually called or Regula Bullata of the Friars Minor, is the one ever since professed throughout the First Order of St. Francis (see RULE OF SAINT FRANCIS).这第二个规则,因为它通常被称为或雷古拉​​的男修道士未成年Bullata,是整个圣弗朗西斯一阶(见圣弗朗西斯规则)一个自称至今。 It is based on the three vows of obedience, poverty, and chastity, special stress however being laid on poverty, which Francis sought to make the special characteristic of his order, and which became the sign to be contradicted.正是基于这三个基础誓言服从,贫穷和贞洁,但特别强调是在贫困下岗,其中弗朗西斯力求使他的命令的特点,并要成为矛盾的迹象。 This vow of absolute poverty in the first and second orders and the reconciliation of the religious with the secular state in the Third Order of Penance are the chief novelties introduced by Francis in monastic regulation.这绝对贫困中的第一和第二的订单以及与在忏悔三阶世俗国家宗教和解誓言是主要的新奇介绍弗朗西斯在寺院的监管。

It was during Christmastide of this year (1223) that the saint conceived the idea of celebrating the Nativity "in a new manner", by reproducing in a church at Greccio the praesepio of Bethlehem, and he has thus come to be regarded as having inaugurated the popular devotion of the Crib.正是在今年Christmastide(1223)表示,圣构思庆祝耶稣诞生“在一个新的方式”在一个Greccio的praesepio伯利恒教堂音响,想法,他也因此逐渐被视为为具有开幕婴儿床流行的奉献。 Christmas appears indeed to have been the favourite feast of Francis, and he wished to persuade the emperor to make a special law that men should then provide well for the birds and the beasts, as well as for the poor, so that all might have occasion to rejoice in the Lord.圣诞节似乎确实一直是弗朗西斯最喜欢的盛宴,他希望说服皇帝,使一个特殊的法律,男人应该再为鸟类和兽类,以及为穷人好,让所有可能的场合以飘柔的主。

Early in August, 1224, Francis retired with three companions to "that rugged rock 'twixt Tiber and Arno", as Dante called La Verna, there to keep a forty days fast in preparation for Michaelmas. 8月初,1224年,弗朗西斯退休与三个同伴“的坚固岩石”twixt台伯和阿诺“,但丁称为香格里拉贝尔纳,也可把在作准备40天快速的米迦勒。 During this retreat the sufferings of Christ became more than ever the burden of his meditations; into few souls, perhaps, had the full meaning of the Passion so deeply entered.在此撤退基督的苦难变得比以往任何时候更多的是他的冥想负担;成数的灵魂,也许,有如此深深进入了充满激情的含义。 It was on or about the feast of the Exaltation of the Cross (14 September) while praying on the mountainside, that he beheld the marvellous vision of the seraph, as a sequel of which there appeared on his body the visible marks of the five wounds of the Crucified which, says an early writer, had long since been impressed upon his heart.正是在或对十字架的超升(14日)盛宴,而在山坡上祈祷,他看见了奇妙的六翼天使的视野,作为续集,其中有对他的身体出现了五个伤口的明显痕迹其中的十字架说,早期的作家,早已在他的心被打动。 Brother Leo, who was with St. Francis when he received the stigmata, has left us in his note to the saint's autograph blessing, preserved at Assisi, a clear and simple account of the miracle, which for the rest is better attested than many another historical fact.兄弟利奥,谁与圣弗朗西斯是,当他接到圣痕,留下了他的说明我们在圣人的签名祝福,在阿西西保存,一个奇迹简单明了的帐户,这对于剩下的就是更好的证明比许多其他历史事实。 The saint's right side is described as bearing on open wound which looked as if made by a lance, while through his hands and feet were black nails of flesh, the points of which were bent backward.圣人的右侧被描述为开放的伤口看上去犹如长矛自制,而通过他的手和脚都是黑色的指甲肉,其中的要点是向后弯曲。 After the reception of the stigmata, Francis suffered increasing pains throughout his frail body, already broken by continual mortification.后的圣痕接待,弗朗西斯在他虚弱的身体遭受的痛苦增加,已连续屈辱打破。For, condescending as the saint always was to the weaknesses of others, he was ever so unsparing towards himself that at the last he felt constrained to ask pardon of "Brother Ass", as he called his body, for having treated it so harshly.因为,居高临下的圣人始终是别人的弱点,他曾经这样对自己不留情,在上次问他觉得约束的“兄弟驴”赦免,因为他叫他的身体因处理这么严厉。 Worn out, moreover, as Francis now was by eighteen years of unremitting toil, his strength gave way completely, and at times his eyesight so far failed him that he was almost wholly blind.累死了,而且,由于弗朗西斯现在十八岁了不懈的辛劳,他的实力完全让位,有时他的视力至今没有他,他几乎完全失明。

During an access of anguish, Francis paid a last visit to St. Clare at St. Damian's, and it was in a little hut of reeds, made for him in the garden there, that the saint composed that "Canticle of the Sun", in which his poetic genius expands itself so gloriously.在一个痛苦的访问,拜访了圣弗朗西斯克莱尔在圣达米安上次访问的,它在为他在花园里的芦苇,有一点是小屋,那圣组成的“颂歌的太阳”,其中他的诗的天才扩大本身如此光荣。 This was in September, 1225.这是在九月,1225。Not long afterwards Francis, at the urgent instance of Brother Elias, underwent an unsuccessful operation for the eyes, at Rieti.不久弗朗西斯,在兄弟埃利亚斯紧急实例,对眼睛接受了失败的操作,在蒂。He seems to have passed the winter 1225-26 at Siena, whither he had been taken for further medical treatment.他似乎已经通过了在锡耶纳,往那冬季1225年至1226年他一直采取进一步的治疗。In April, 1226, during an interval of improvement, Francis was moved to Cortona, and it is believed to have been while resting at the hermitage of the Celle there, that the saint dictated his testament, which he describes as a "reminder, a warning, and an exhortation".今年四月,1226年,在间隔的改善,弗朗西斯被转移到科尔托纳,它被认为是已同时在策勒有修道院休息,他说,圣口授遗嘱,他作为一个“提醒说明,一个警告和劝告“。 In this touching document Francis, writing from the fullness of his heart, urges anew with the simple eloquence, the few, but clearly defined, principles that were to guide his followers, implicit obedience to superiors as holding the place of God, literal observance of the rule "without gloss", especially as regards poverty, and the duty of manual labor, being solemnly enjoined on all the friars.在这感人的文件弗朗西斯,从他的心丰满写作,要求重新与简单的口才,为数不多,但明确的规定,指导原则,要为持有神的地方,文字遵守他的追随者,隐服从上级“没有光泽”的规则,特别是关于贫穷和手工劳动的责任,责成被庄严地对所有的修士。

Meanwhile alarming dropsical symptoms had developed, and it was in a dying condition that Francis set out for Assisi.同时令人担忧的臌症状已经发展起来的,它在一个垂死的状态,弗朗西斯为阿西西出来了。A roundabout route was taken by the little caravan that escorted him, for it was feared to follow the direct road lest the saucy Perugians should attempt to carry Francis off by force so that he might die in their city, which would thus enter into possession of his coveted relics.一种迂回的路线是由小商队的护送他,因为人们担心遵循的直接道路以免俏皮Perugians应该试图用武力进行弗朗西斯关闭,因此他可能会死在自己的城市,这将由此进入藏他梦寐以求的文物。 It was therefore under a strong guard that Francis, in July, 1226, was finally borne in safety to the bishop's palace in his native city amid the enthusiastic rejoicings of the entire populace.正是在强大的后​​卫弗朗西斯因此,在七月,1226,最后被证明在他的家乡城市安全的主教的宫殿中,整个民众的热情rejoicings。 In the early autumn Francis, feeling the hand of death upon him, was carried to his beloved Porziuncola, that he might breathe his last sigh where his vocation had been revealed to him and whence his order had struggled into sight.在初秋的弗朗西斯,感觉在他死亡的手,被抬到他心爱的Porziunco​​la,他可能会呼吸他的最后一声叹息,他的使命已经透露,他和他的命令从那里挣扎了进入人们的视线。 On the way thither he asked to be set down, and with painful effort he invoked a beautiful blessing on Assisi, which, however, his eyes could no longer discern.在路上,到那里,他打听到定了下来,并与痛苦的努力,他援引有关阿西西,其中,然而,他的眼睛再也无法辨别美好的祝福。 The saint's last days were passed at the Porziuncola in a tiny hut, near the chapel, that served as an infirmary.圣人的最后几天是在Porziunco​​la通过在一个小棚屋附近的教堂,即担任疗养院。The arrival there about this time of the Lady Jacoba of Settesoli, who had come with her two sons and a great retinue to bid Francis farewell, caused some consternation, since women were forbidden to enter the friary.关于这个的Settesoli夫人雅各巴,谁曾与她的两个儿子和一个伟大的随从申办弗朗西斯告别来了,有时间的到来造成了一定的恐慌,因为妇女被禁止进入修道院。 But Francis in his tender gratitude to this Roman noblewoman, made an exception in her favour, and "Brother Jacoba", as Francis had named her on account of her fortitude, remained to the last.但弗朗西斯在他的投标感谢这罗马贵妇,作出了有利于她的异常,“兄弟雅各巴”,因为弗朗西斯已经命名了她的刚毅帐户,保持到最后。

On the eve of his death, the saint, in imitation of his Divine Master, had bread brought to him and broken.在他去世前夕,圣人,在他的神圣法师的模仿,已经给他带来的面包和碎。This he distributed among those present, blessing Bernard of Quintaville, his first companion, Elias, his vicar, and all the others in order.这分布在他在场的人,祝福的Bernard Quintaville,他的第一个同伴,埃利亚斯,他的牧师,以及所有为了他人。"I have done my part," he said next, "may Christ teach you to do yours."“我做了我的一部分,”他说未来,“可能基督教你做你的。” Then wishing to give a last token of detachment and to show he no longer had anything in common with the world, Francis removed his poor habit and lay down on the bare ground, covered with a borrowed cloth, rejoicing that he was able to keep faith with his Lady Poverty to the end.然后,希望给人一种超脱的最后一个标记,并表明他不再有与世界共同的东西,弗朗西斯脱下穷人的习惯和躺在光秃秃的地上,用借来的布覆盖,值得庆幸,他能够保持信心与他的夫人贫穷到最后。 After a while he asked to have read to him the Passion according to St. John, and then in faltering tones he himself intoned Psalm 141.过了一会儿,他要求给他看过的激情根据圣约翰,然后在他自己摇摇欲坠的音调吟诵诗篇141。 At the concluding verse, "Bring my soul out of prison", Francis was led away from earth by "Sister Death", in whose praise he had shortly before added a new strophe to his "Canticle of the Sun".在最后的诗句,“把我的灵魂的监狱去”,弗朗西斯被“姐妹死亡”导致远离地球,在其称赞他前不久增添了新的strophe他的“太阳颂歌”。 It was Saturday evening, 3 October, 1226, Francis being then in the forty-fifth year of his age, and the twentieth from his perfect conversion to Christ.这是星期六晚上,1226年10月3日,弗朗西斯是在他41岁第五年以后,并从他的完美转换基督二十。

The saint had, in his humility, it is said, expressed a wish to be buried on the Colle d'Inferno, a despised hill without Assisi, where criminals were executed.圣人了,在他的谦逊,这是说,表示希望要在科尔D'地狱,一个没有阿西西鄙视山,在那里埋葬罪犯被处决。However this may be, his body was, on 4 October, borne in triumphant procession to the city, a halt being made at St. Damian's, that St. Clare and her companions might venerate the sacred stigmata now visible to all, and it was placed provisionally in the church of St. George (now within the enclosure of the monastery of St. Clare), where the saint had learned to read and had first preached.然而,这可能是,他的身体是,10月4日在胜利游行承担的城市,正在圣达米安的作出了暂停,即圣克莱尔和她的同伴可能供奉神圣的圣痕现在大家有目共睹的,它是暂时放置在圣乔治(现内的圣克莱尔修道院圈地),其中圣学会了阅读,并首先教会讲道。 Many miracles are recorded to have taken place at his tomb.许多奇迹被记录到已在他的墓的地方。Francis was canonized at St. George's by Gregory IX, 16 July, 1228.弗朗西斯被册封在圣乔治由格雷戈里九,1228年7月16日。On that day following the pope laid the first stone of the great double church of St. Francis, erected in honour of the new saint, and thither on 25 May, 1230, Francis's remains were secretly transferred by Brother Elias and buried far down under the high altar in the lower church.在那一天之后,教宗奠定了伟大的圣弗朗西斯教堂双石首,在新圣荣誉拔地而起,上去就1230年5月25日,弗朗西斯的遗体被秘密转移由兄弟埃利亚斯和被埋在远了高坛在较低的教堂。 Here, after lying hidden for six centuries, like that of St. Clare's, Francis's coffin was found, 12 December, 1818, as a result of a toilsome search lasting fifty-two nights.在这里,躺在后隐藏的六个世纪像圣嘉勒说,弗朗西斯的棺木被发现,12作为一个辛苦搜寻持久五十二晚的结果十二月,1818。 This discovery of the saint's body is commemorated in the order by a special office on 12 December, and that of his translation by another on 25 May.这是圣人的身体发现是为了纪念在12月12日由专门的办公室,和他的另一个翻译5月25日的。His feast is kept throughout the Church on 4 October, and the impression of the stigmata on his body is celebrated on 17 September.他的盛宴,是保持整个教会10月4日,和他身上的印记的印象是9月17日庆祝。

It has been said with pardonable warmth that Francis entered into glory in his lifetime, and that he is the one saint whom all succeeding generations have agreed in canonizing.有人说,难怪温暖,弗朗西斯进入荣耀在他的一生,他是一个圣人谁所有后代都在封为同意。Certain it is that those also who care little about the order he founded, and who have but scant sympathy with the Church to which he ever gave his devout allegiance, even those who know that Christianity to be Divine, find themselves, instinctively as it were, looking across the ages for guidance to the wonderful Umbrian Poverello, and invoking his name in grateful remembrance.一定是那些还谁在乎他创立的小订单,谁拥有,但与教会,他曾经给了他的虔诚的效忠,即使是那些谁知道基督教是神圣的缺乏同情,发现自己,因为它是本能,看着窗外为指导,以精彩的翁布里亚Poverello的年龄,并调用在感谢纪念他的名字。 This unique position Francis doubtless owes in no small measure to his singularly lovable and winsome personality.这种独特的地位弗朗西斯无疑归功于他的奇异可爱和迷人的个性不小的措施。Few saints ever exhaled "the good odour of Christ" to such a degree as he.以往很少有圣人呼出“基督的好气味”,以他这样一个程度。 There was about Francis, moreover, a chivalry and a poetry which gave to his other-worldliness a quite romantic charm and beauty.有关于弗朗西斯,此外,骑士和诗歌这给他的其他 - 世俗一个相当浪漫的魅力和美感。Other saints have seemed entirely dead to the world around them, but Francis was ever thoroughly in touch with the spirit of the age.其他圣人都似乎完全死他们周围的世界,但弗朗西斯曾经与时代精神的深入接触。He delighted in the songs of Provence, rejoiced in the new-born freedom of his native city, and cherished what Dante calls the pleasant sound of his dear land.他很高兴在普罗旺斯的歌曲,在他的家乡城市的新出生的自由欢欣鼓舞,珍视什么但丁调用了他亲爱的土地愉快的声音。And this exquisite human element in Francis's character was the key to that far-reaching, all-embracing sympathy, which may be almost called his characteristic gift.而这种精致在弗朗西斯的性格人的因素是该深远的,全方位的同情,主要可差点叫他特有的礼物。In his heart, as an old chronicler puts it, the whole world found refuge, the poor, the sick and the fallen being the objects of his solicitude in a more special manner.在他的心里,作为一个老编年史所说的那样,全世界发现的避难所,穷人,病人和更特殊的方式倒下的是他关心的对象。

Heedless as Francis ever was of the world's judgments in his own regard, it was always his constant care to respect the opinions of all and to wound the feelings of none.作为曾经不顾弗朗西斯在他自己的关于世界的判断是,它一直是他经常注意尊重所有的意见,并没有任何伤口的感情。Wherefore he admonishes the friars to use only low and mean tables, so that "if a beggar were to come to sit down near them he might believe that he was but with his equals and need not blush on account of his poverty."人哪,他告诫的修士只使用低和平均表,因此,“如果一个乞丐都来坐近他们失望,他可能相信他,但他的平等相待,不必脸红的帐户是他的贫穷。” One night, we are told, the friary was aroused by the cry "I am dying."一天晚上,我们被告知,该修道院是引起了哭泣:“我死。”"Who are you", exclaimed Francis arising, "and why are dying?"“你是谁”,惊呼弗朗西斯产生的,“为什么是死?”"I am dying of hunger", answered the voice of one who had been too prone to fasting. “我饿死”,回答了一个谁太容易禁食的声音。Whereupon Francis had a table laid out and sat down beside the famished friar, and lest the latter might be ashamed to eat alone, ordered all the other brethren to join in the repast.于是弗朗西斯已经制定了一个表,坐在旁边的饥饿弗莱尔下来,以免后者可能是羞于单独吃,下令所有其他兄弟加入,就餐。 Francis's devotedness in consoling the afflicted made him so condescending that he shrank not from abiding with the lepers in their loathly lazar-houses and from eating with them out of the same platter.弗朗西斯在安慰受灾devotedness使他如此居高临下,他从守法不缩减在loathly拉扎尔 - 房屋的麻风病人和从饮食与他们相同的盘片了。

But above all it is his dealings with the erring that reveal the truly Christian spirit of his charity.但最重要的是与犯错误,揭示了他的慈善事业真正的基督教精神,他的交易。"Saintlier than any of the saint", writes Celano, "among sinners he was as one of themselves". “比任何Saintlier圣人”,写切拉诺,“罪人中他作为自己一人”。Writing to a certain minister in the order, Francis says: "Should there be a brother anywhere in the world who has sinned, no matter how great soever his fault may be, let him not go away after he has once seen thy face without showing pity towards him; and if he seek not mercy, ask him if he does not desire it. And by this I will know if you love God and me."写作中的,以一定的部长弗朗西斯说:“如果有一个弟弟在任何地方谁犯了罪的世界,无论多么伟大,以及接受他的错的可能,让他不要走开后,他曾经看到你的脸没有显示可惜对他,如果他不寻求怜悯,问他,如果他不希望它和本我就知道如果你爱上帝和我“。 Again, to medieval notions of justice the evil-doer was beyond the law and there was no need to keep faith with him.再次,中世纪的正义观念的罪恶,实干家是超越法律,也没有必要与他保持信心。But according to Francis, not only was justice due even to evil-doers, but justice must be preceded by courtesy as by a herald.但据弗朗西斯,不仅是由于司法甚至恶人,但正义必须由礼之前作为一个先驱。Courtesy, indeed, in the saint's quaint concept, was the younger sister of charity and one of the qualities of God Himself, Who "of His courtesy", he declares, "gives His sun and His rain to the just and the unjust".礼貌,事实上,在圣人的古朴的概念,是慈善机构和妹妹的神自己的素质,谁“他的礼貌”,他宣称,“给他的太阳和他的雨的公正和不公正的”之一。 This habit of courtesy Francis ever sought to enjoin on his disciples.这种礼貌弗朗西斯习惯不断寻求责成对他的弟子。"Whoever may come to us", he writes, "whether a friend or a foe, a thief or a robber, let him be kindly received", and the feast which he spread for the starving brigands in the forest at Monte Casale sufficed to show that "as he taught so he wrought". “谁可以到我们这里来”,他写道,“无论是朋友还是敌人,一个小偷或强盗,让他被好心收到”,而盛宴,他对在森林挨饿山贼在蒙地卡萨莱蔓延足以解决表明,“他教,因此他造成”。

The very animals found in Francis a tender friend and protector; thus we find him pleading with the people of Gubbio to feed the fierce wolf that had ravished their flocks, because through hunger "Brother Wolf" had done this wrong.动物中发现的非常弗朗西斯投标的朋友和保护者,因此我们发现他与古比奥的人恳求饲料激烈的狼奸污了他们的羊群,因为通过饥饿“兄弟狼”做了这个错误。 And the early legends have left us many an idyllic picture of how beasts and birds alike susceptible to the charm of Francis's gentle ways, entered into loving companionship with him; how the hunted leveret sought to attract his notice; how the half-frozen bees crawled towards him in the winter to be fed; how the wild falcon fluttered around him; how the nightingale sang with him in sweetest content in the ilex grove at the Carceri, and how his "little brethren the birds" listened so devoutly to his sermon by the roadside near Bevagna that Francis chided himself for not having thought of preaching to them before.和早期的传​​说给我们留下了许多关于如何兽类和鸟类都容易受到弗朗西斯的温柔方式的魅力,与他的爱陪伴进入田园诗般的画面;如何猎杀leveret设法吸引他的注意,如何半冻结蜜蜂爬对他在冬季要喂;如何野生猎鹰他周围飘扬,如何与他的夜莺唱甜蜜的冬青树丛在Carceri内容,以及如何他的“小兄弟鸟”听他这么虔诚的布道不久贝瓦尼亚路边,弗朗西斯没有责怪他们的说教之前以为自己。 Francis's love of nature also stands out in bold relief in the world he moved in. He delighted to commune with the wild flowers, the crystal spring, and the friendly fire, and to greet the sun as it rose upon the fair Umbrian vale.弗朗西斯对大自然的热爱也矗立在大胆救济在世界他搬了进去,他高兴地公社的野花,水晶春天,友好火,迎接太阳,因为它根据公平翁布里亚谷上涨。 In this respect, indeed, St. Francis's "gift of sympathy" seems to have been wider even than St. Paul's, for we find no evidence in the great Apostle of a love for nature or for animals.在这方面,事实上,圣弗朗西斯的“同情礼物”似乎已被广泛甚至比圣保罗的,因为我们没有发现在一个自然或动物的爱伟大的使徒的证据。

Hardly less engaging than his boundless sense of fellow-feeling was Francis's downright sincerity and artless simplicity.几乎不到他的同胞感到无限的意识参与了弗朗西斯的彻头彻尾的诚意和烂漫的简便性。"Dearly beloved," he once began a sermon following upon a severe illness, "I have to confess to God and you that during this Lent I have eaten cakes made with lard." “心疼心爱的”,他开始了一次布道时严重的疾病后,“我不得不承认上帝和你,在今年的四旬期我吃过用猪油做蛋糕。”And when the guardian insisted for the sake of warmth upon Francis having a fox skin sewn under his worn-out tunic, the saint consented only upon condition that another skin of the same size be sewn outside.而当监护人为弗朗西斯后皮肤有一只狐狸在他破旧的中山装缝制温暖而坚持,圣人同意后,条件只有另一个同样大小的皮肤被缝外。 For it was his singular study never to hide from men that which known to God.因为它是他的奇异的研究从来没有隐瞒这里面已知的神人。 "What a man is in the sight of God," he was wont to repeat, "so much he is and no more" -- a saying which passed into the "Imitation", and has been often quoted. “我一个人在神面前,”他是惯于重复,“这么多,他并没有更多” - 一种说法是把“模仿”获得通过,并已被经常引用。

Another winning trait of Francis which inspires the deepest affection was his unswerving directness of purpose and unfaltering following after an ideal.弗朗西斯获胜的另一个特点是激发感情最深的是他坚定不移的目标和坚定的理想后,下面的直接作用。"His dearest desire so long as he lived", Celano tells us, "was ever to seek among wise and simple, perfect and imperfect, the means to walk in the way of truth." “他最亲爱的愿望,只要他活着”,切拉诺告诉我们,“是有史以来争取明智和简单,健全和不完善,手段走在真理的道路。”To Francis love was the truest of all truths; hence his deep sense of personal responsibility towards his fellows.弗朗西斯的爱是最真实的一切真理,因此他的个人责任意识深处对他的同伴。The love of Christ and Him Crucified permeated the whole life and character of Francis, and he placed the chief hope of redemption and redress for a suffering humanity in the literal imitation of his Divine Master.基督和祂钉在十字架上的爱贯穿整个生命的弗朗西斯和性格,他把主要希望,赎回和补救,在他的神圣法师字面模仿人类的​​痛苦。 The saint imitated the example of Christ as literally as it was in him to do so; barefoot, and in absolute poverty, he proclaimed the reign of love.圣模仿基督的例子,因为它在字面上他是这样做;赤脚,并在绝对贫困中,他宣布了爱的统治。This heroic imitation of Christ's poverty was perhaps the distinctive mark of Francis's vocation, and he was undoubtedly, as Bossuet expresses it, the most ardent, enthusiastic, and desperate lover of poverty the world has yet seen.这基督的贫穷英雄模仿也许是弗朗西斯的职业鲜明的印记,他毫无疑问,作为波舒哀表示它,贫困的最热心,热情,和绝望的情人世界还没有看到。 After money Francis most detested discord and divisions.弗朗西斯最讨厌钱后不和分裂。Peace, therefore, became his watchword, and the pathetic reconciliation he effected in his last days between the Bishop and Potesta of Assisi is bit one instance out of many of his power to quell the storms of passion and restore tranquility to hearts torn asunder by civil strife.和平,因此,成了他的口号,而他可怜和解之间的主教和Potesta阿西西的影响是他最后的日子位的一个实例他的力量平息了许多激情的风暴和恢复安宁民间四分五裂的心撕裂冲突。 The duty of a servant of God, Francis declared, was to lift up the hearts of men and move them to spiritual gladness.一个神的仆人的职责,弗朗西斯宣布,被解除了人们的心中,并将它们移到精神感到高兴。Hence it was not "from monastic stalls or with the careful irresponsibility of the enclosed student" that the saint and his followers addressed the people; "they dwelt among them and grappled with the evils of the system under which the people groaned".因此,它是不是“从寺院摊位或与封闭的学生小心不负责任”,认为圣人和他的追随者发表讲话的人,“他们住其中,并与该系统所带来的弊端,根据该人的呻吟拼杀”。 They worked in return for their fare, doing for the lowest the most menial labour, and speaking to the poorest words of hope such as the world had not heard for many a day.他们曾在他们的票价回报,做的是最低的最粗重劳动​​,讲的希望最贫穷的词,如世界上没有很多天听到。In this wise Francis bridged the chasm between an aristocratic clergy and the common people, and though he taught no new doctrine, he so far repopularized the old one given on the Mount that the Gospel took on a new life and called forth a new love.在这种明智的弗朗西斯弥补了僧侣和贵族之间的老百姓,和他教的鸿沟虽然没有新的学说,他至今repopularized旧的山,福音了一个新的生命,并要求提出了新的爱情定。

Such in briefest outline are some of the salient features which render the figure of Francis one of such supreme attraction that all manner of men feel themselves drawn towards him, with a sense of personal attachment.这些都是在最短的轮廓呈现的是弗朗西斯等最高景点,所有的男人觉得自己画的方式向他的个人依附感,一个数字的一​​些显着特征。 Few, however, of those who feel the charm of Francis's personality may follow the saint to his lonely height of rapt communion with God.很少,但是,这些谁感受到了弗朗西斯的人格魅力可能跟随神的圣他全神贯注的共融寂寞的高度。 For, however engaging a "minstrel of the Lord", Francis was none the less a profound mystic in the truest sense of the word.因为,然而搞一个“主游吟诗人”,弗朗西斯没有少一个词的真正意义上的深刻的神秘。The whole world was to him one luminous ladder, mounting upon the rungs of which he approached and beheld God.整个世界是他一个发光的阶梯,经梯级,其中他接触和看见神的安装。It is very misleading, however, to portray Francis as living "at a height where dogma ceases to exist", and still further from the truth to represent the trend of his teaching as one in which orthodoxy is made subservient to "humanitarianism".这是非常误导的,但是,把自己塑造成生活“在一个高度地方教条不再存在”弗朗西斯,仍然不符合事实进一步代表了他的教学中,作为一个正统是屈从于“人道”的趋势。 A very cursory inquiry into Francis's religious belief suffices to show that it embraced the entire Catholic dogma, nothing more or less.一到弗朗西斯的宗教信仰非常粗略的调查,足以表明它拥抱整个天主教教条,没有更多或更少。 If then the saint's sermons were on the whole moral rather than doctrinal, it was less because he preached to meet the wants of his day, and those whom he addressed had not strayed from dogmatic truth; they were still "hearers", if not "doers", of the Word.如果那么圣人的说教上,而不是教条整个道德人,这是少,因为他鼓吹,以满足想要他的日子,那些人,他解决了不能从教条式的真理误入,他们仍然是“听众”,如果不是“实干家“,这个词。 For this reason Francis set aside all questions more theoretical than practical, and returned to the Gospel.出于这个原因弗朗西斯放下所有的问题多于实际的理论,并返回到福音。Again, to see in Francis only the loving friend of all God's creatures, the joyous singer of nature, is to overlook altogether that aspect of his work which is the explanation of all the rest -- its supernatural side.再次,看在弗朗西斯只有所有上帝的爱动物的朋友,自然欢乐的歌手,是完全忽略,他的工作的方面,是所有其他的解释 - 它的超自然的一面。Few lives have been more wholly imbued with the supernatural, as even Renan admits.很少有生命有更完全充满了超自然的,因为即使勒南承认。Nowhere, perhaps, can there be found a keener insight into the innermost world of spirit, yet so closely were the supernatural and the natural blended in Francis, that his very asceticism was often clothed in the guide of romance, as witness his wooing the Lady Poverty, in a sense that almost ceased to be figurative.任何地方,或许,才会有发现到内心世界的精神激烈的洞察力,却又如此紧密地是超自然的和自然的融合在弗朗西斯,他非常禁欲主义往往是在浪漫的穿衣指南,作为证人他拉拢夫人贫困,从某种意义上说,几乎不再是形象化。 For Francis's singularly vivid imagination was impregnate with the imagery of the chanson de geste, and owing to his markedly dramatic tendency, he delighted in suiting his action to his thought.对于弗朗西斯的奇异生动的想象力是浸渍与香颂德geste图像,而且由于他的显着剧烈的倾向,他很高兴在他的西装他的思想行动。 So, too, the saint's native turn for the picturesque led him to unite religion and nature.因此,太,圣人对风景如画的本土又导致他团结和宗教性质。He found in all created things, however trivial, some reflection of the Divine perfection, and he loved to admire in them the beauty, power, wisdom, and goodness of their Creator.他发现,在所有创造的东西,但是琐碎,有些神圣的完美体现,他喜欢在他们欣赏美,力量,智慧,善良和他们的创造者。 And so it came to pass that he saw sermons even in stones, and good in everything.因此过了,他看到,即使在石头布道,并在一切都很好。Moreover, Francis's simple, childlike nature fastened on the thought, that if all are from one Father then all are real kin.此外,弗朗西斯很简单,孩子般的自然系的思想,即如果所有从一个父亲是那么所有的都是真实的亲属。Hence his custom of claiming brotherhood with all manner of animate and inanimate objects.因此,他声称所有的生命和无生命物体的方式兄弟的习俗。The personification, therefore, of the elements in the "Canticle of the Sun" is something more than a mere literary figure.的人格化,因此,在“太阳颂歌”中的元素是值得不仅仅是一个文学人物更多。Francis's love of creatures was not simply the offspring of a soft or sentimental disposition; it arose rather from that deep and abiding sense of the presence of God, which underlay all he said and did.弗朗西斯对动物的爱是不是单纯的软或感性的处置后代,它源于那神的存在深刻和守法意识,这衬底所有他的言行相当。 Even so, Francis's habitual cheerfulness was not that of a careless nature, or of one untouched by sorrow.即便如此,弗朗西斯的习惯性快乐是,一个不小心的性质,或由一个没有悲伤不变。None witnessed Francis's hidden struggles, his long agonies of tears, or his secret wrestlings in prayer.没有看到弗朗西斯在祈祷的隐蔽斗争,他长期痛苦的泪水,或他的秘密wrestlings。And if we meet him making dumb-show of music, by playing a couple of sticks like a violin to give vent to his glee, we also find him heart-sore with foreboding at the dire dissensions in the order which threatened to make shipwreck of his ideal.如果我们满足了他做的像小提琴演奏来宣泄自己的得意的枝哑夫妇的音乐出现,我们也发现在该秩序的威胁,使沉船的严重纠纷与他预感心疮他的理想。 Nor were temptations or other weakening maladies of the soul wanting to the saint at any time.也被诱惑或其他削弱了想随时圣魂弊端。

Francis's lightsomeness had its source in that entire surrender of everything present and passing, in which he had found the interior liberty of the children of God; it drew its strength from his intimate union with Jesus in the Holy Communion.弗朗西斯的lightsomeness曾在这一切现在和传球,他在其中发现了神的孩子全交出其内部自由的来源,它引起了他的圣餐与耶稣的亲密联盟的实力。 The mystery of the Holy Eucharist, being an extension of the Passion, held a preponderant place in the life of Francis, and he had nothing more at heart than all that concerned the cultus of the Blessed Sacrament.圣体圣事的奥秘,是一个激情的延伸,举行了弗朗西斯的生命占优势的地方,他心里没有超过所有有关的圣体礼拜。 Hence we not only hear of Francis conjuring the clergy to show befitting respect for everything connected with the Sacrifice of the Mass, but we also see him sweeping out poor churches, questing sacred vessels for them, and providing them with altar-breads made by himself.因此,我们不仅听到弗朗西斯变戏法神职人员,以显示与连接的群众牺牲一切合适的尊重,但我们也看到他扫出穷人的教会,探路他们神圣的船只,并提供祭坛 - 面包他们由自己。So great, indeed, was Francis's reverence for the priesthood, because of its relation to the Adorable Sacrament, that in his humility he never dared to aspire to that dignity.如此之大,的确是弗朗西斯的崇敬的圣职,因为它关系到可爱的圣事,在他的谦逊,他从来不敢向往的尊严。

Humility was, no doubt, the saint's ruling virtue.谦卑是,毫无疑问,圣人的统治美德。The idol of an enthusiastic popular devotion, he ever truly believed himself less than the least.一个流行的奉献热情的偶像,他真的相信自己永远小于最小。Equally admirable was Francis's prompt and docile obedience to the voice of grace within him, even in the early days of his ill-defined ambition, when the spirit of interpretation failed him.同样令人钦佩的是弗朗西斯的迅速和温顺服从的宽限期内他的声音,甚至在他的界限不清的野心,当他失败的解释精神的初期。Later on, the saint, with as clear as a sense of his message as any prophet ever had, yielded ungrudging submission to what constituted ecclesiastical authority.后来,与像他的任何消息圣人先知意识清楚,曾经有,取得了ungrudging提交什么构成教会的权威。No reformer, moreover, was ever, less aggressive than Francis.没有改革者,而且,是以往任何时候都小于弗朗西斯侵略性。His apostolate embodied the very noblest spirit of reform; he strove to correct abuses by holding up an ideal.他的使徒体现了改革精神非常高贵,他力图纠正举办了一个理想的弊端。He stretched out his arms in yearning towards those who longed for the "better gifts".他伸出的向往对那些谁在为“更好的礼物”渴望他的怀抱。The others he left alone.他单独留在家中的其他人。

And thus, without strife or schism, God's Poor Little Man of Assisi became the means of renewing the youth of the Church and of imitating the most potent and popular religious movement since the beginnings of Christianity.因而,没有冲突或分裂,神的​​穷人的阿西西小文成为革新教会青年和模仿的最有力的和流行的开端,因为基督教的宗教运动的手段。 No doubt this movement had its social as well as its religious side.毫无疑问,这个运动有其社会和宗教的一面。That the Third Order of St. Francis went far towards re-Christianizing medieval society is a matter of history.这是圣弗朗西斯三阶了对重远中世纪基督教化社会是一个历史问题。However, Francis's foremost aim was a religious one.不过,弗朗西斯的首要目的是宗教之一。To rekindle the love of God in the world and reanimate the life of the spirit in the hearts of men -- such was his mission.重新点燃在世界的神的爱和复活在人们的心中的精神生命 - 这是他的使命。But because St. Francis sought first the Kingdom of God and His justice, many other things were added unto him.但由于圣弗朗西斯先寻求神的公义和他的王国,还有许多其他事情对他说。And his own exquisite Franciscan spirit, as it is called, passing out into the wide world, became an abiding source of inspiration.而他自己的精湛济的精神,因为它被调用时,传递到广大的世界出来,成为一个奉公守法的灵感来源。Perhaps it savours of exaggeration to say, as has been said, that "all the threads of civilization in the subsequent centuries seem to hark back to Francis", and that since his day "the character of the whole Roman Catholic Church is visibly Umbrian".也许是品味的夸张地说,正如人们所说,“所有在随后的几个世纪的文明主题似乎可以追溯到弗朗西斯”,而因为他的一天“整个罗马天主教会明显特征是翁布里亚” 。

It would be difficult, none the less, to overestimate the effect produced by Francis upon the mind of his time, or the quickening power he wielded on the generations which have succeeded him.这将是困难的,没有少,高估了弗朗西斯产生后,他的时代精神,还是他在加快电源已成功地挥起他世代的效果。To mention two aspects only of his all-pervading influence, Francis must surely be reckoned among those to whom the world of art and letters is deeply indebted.提出两项只是他普及的影响力方面,弗朗西斯肯定不可忽视的那些人的艺术和信件的世界深深感激。Prose, as Arnold observes, could not satisfy the saint's ardent soul, so he made poetry.散文,如阿诺德指出,不能满足圣人的殷切的灵魂,所以他做了诗。He was, indeed, too little versed in the laws of composition to advance far in that direction.他确实太少精通组成推动迄今在这一方向的法律。But his was the first cry of a nascent poetry which found its highest expression in the "Divine Comedy"; wherefore Francis has been styled the precursor of Dante.但他是一个新生的诗歌从而发现其最高的“神曲”的表情第一次哭;何故弗朗西斯一直风格的但丁的前兆。What the saint did was to teach a people "accustomed to the artificial versification of courtly Latin and Provencal poets, the use of their native tongue in simple spontaneous hymns, which became even more popular with the Laudi and Cantici of his poet-follower Jacopone of Todi".什么圣所做的是教人“习惯了宫廷拉丁美洲和普罗旺斯诗人人工韵律学,他们的母语简单自发的赞美诗,成为更具有Laudi和Cantici流行他的诗人跟随Jacopone使用托迪“。 In so far, moreover, as Francis's repraesentatio, as Salimbene calls it, of the stable at Bethlehem is the first mystery-play we hear of in Italy, he is said to have borne a part in the revival of the drama.在到目前为止,此外,弗朗西斯的repraesentatio,作为Salimbene调用它的稳定,在伯利恒是第一谜,发挥我们听到在意大利,他说已经承担了在戏剧复兴的一部分。 However this may be, if Francis's love of song called forth the beginnings of Italian verse, his life no less brought about the birth of Italian art.但是这可能是,如果弗朗西斯的爱歌来回称为意大利诗的开端,他的生活不低于带动了意大利艺术的诞生。His story, says Ruskin, became a passionate tradition painted everywhere with delight.他的故事,拉斯金说,成为一个充满激情与喜悦的传统画随处可见。Full of colour, dramatic possibilities, and human interest, the early Franciscan legend afforded the most popular material for painters since the life of Christ.色彩,戏剧性的可能性,与人类充满兴趣,早期的方济各的传说给予了自基督的生命画家最流行的材料。No sooner, indeed did Francis's figure make an appearance in art than it became at once a favourite subject, especially with the mystical Umbrian School.没有快,确实没有弗朗西斯的身影出现在艺术上做出比在一次喜欢的话题成为了,尤其是神秘的翁布里亚学校。So true is this that it has been said we might by following his familiar figure "construct a history of Christian art, from the predecessors of Cimabue down to Guido Reni, Rubens, and Van Dyck".所以,真正的是这个,它已经说过,我们会按照他所熟悉的人物“构造的契马布埃下降前人的基督教艺术史,圭多雷尼,鲁本斯,凡戴克和”。

Probably the oldest likeness of Francis that has come down to us is that preserved in the Sacro Speco at Subiaco.可能是最古老的肖像弗朗西斯已下降到我们是在苏比亚科保留在骶Speco。It is said that it was painted by a Benedictine monk during the saint's visit there, which may have been in 1218.有人说,它是由本笃会修士画在圣人的访问存在,这可能在1218年被。The absence of the stigmata, halo, and title of saint in this fresco form its chief claim to be considered a contemporary picture; it is not, however, a real portrait in the modern sense of the word, and we are dependent for the traditional presentment of Francis rather on artists' ideals, like the Della Robbia statue at the Porziuncola, which is surely the saint's vera effigies, as no Byzantine so-called portrait can ever be, and the graphic description of Francis given by Celano (Vita Prima, c. lxxxiii).的圣痕,晕了,标题圣在这壁画的情况下形成的行政声称被视为当代的照片,它不是,但是,在现代意义上的真正的肖像,我们对传统的依赖出示的弗朗西斯,而在艺术家的理想,像德拉Robbia雕像在Porziunco​​la,这肯定是圣人的芦荟肖像,因为没有拜占庭所谓的肖像都不能有,而弗朗西斯图形的描述切拉诺(VITA厦华给出, C.捌拾叁)。Of less than middle height, we are told, and frail in form, Francis had a long yet cheerful face and soft but strong voice, small brilliant black eyes, dark brown hair, and a sparse beard.在中层以上的高度少,我们被告知,在形式和年老体弱,但弗朗西斯有一个长期面对和软,但欢快的强烈呼声,小辉煌的黑眼睛,黑褐色的头发,稀疏的胡子。 His person was in no way imposing, yet there was about the saint a delicacy, grace, and distinction which made him most attractive.他的人是没有办法实施,尚未有关于圣美味佳肴,优雅,并区分这使他最有吸引力的。

The literary materials for the history of St. Francis are more than usually copious and authentic.对于历史的圣弗朗西斯的文学材料比通常更加丰富和真实的。There are indeed few if any medieval lives more thoroughly documented.如果确实有一些中世纪的生活更彻底的任何记载。We have in the first place the saint's own writings.我们在首位圣人自己的著作。These are not voluminous and were never written with a view to setting forth his ideas systematically, yet they bear the stamp of his personality and are marked by the same unvarying features of his preaching.这些都不是大量并没有以设置系统观点提出自己的想法写的,但他们承受着他的个性邮票,是由他的说教一样不变的特征明显。 A few leading thoughts taken "from the words of the Lord" seemed to him all sufficing, and these he repeats again and again, adapting them to the needs of the different persons whom he addresses.采取一些领导的思想“,从主的话:”他看来,所有sufficing,而这些他重复一遍又一遍,使其适应的人,他的地址不同人士的需要。 Short, simple, and informal, Francis's writings breathe the unstudied love of the Gospel and enforce the same practical morality, while they abound in allegories and personification and reveal an intimate interweaving of Biblical phraseology.短,简单,非正式的,弗朗西斯的著作呼吸着爱的福音未得到研究和实施相同的实际道德,而他们在寓言和人格化比比皆是,并揭示了圣经用语亲切的交织。

Not all the saint's writings have come down to us, and not a few of these formerly attributed to him are now with greater likelihood ascribed to others.不是所有的圣人的著作已回落到我们,而不是以前归因于他的这几个与归因于他人的可能性更大了。The extant and authentic opuscula of Francis comprise, besides the rule of the Friars Minor and some fragments of the other Seraphic legislation, several letters, including one addressed "to all the Christians who dwell in the whole world," a series of spiritual counsels addressed to his disciples, the "Laudes Creaturarum" or "Canticle of the Sun", and some lesser praises, an Office of the Passion compiled for his own use, and few other orisons which show us Francis even as Celano saw him, "not so much a man's praying as prayer itself".弗朗西斯现存的和真实的opuscula包括除对未成年人的修士和其他Seraphic立法的一些片断,几个字母,包括一个规则,解决“所有的基督徒谁住在整个世界,”一种精神系列律师处理他的弟子,“Laudes Creaturarum”或“太阳颂歌”,以及一些较次要的赞誉,一个为自己所用编制的激情办公室,和其他一些orisons,显示我们弗朗西斯甚至切拉诺看到他,“不那么多一个人的祈祷,祈祷本身“。 In addition to the saint's writings the sources of the history of Francis include a number of early papal bulls and some other diplomatic documents, as they are called, bearing upon his life and work.除了圣人的著作对弗朗西斯的历史来源包括早期教皇公牛和一些其他外交文件的数量,因为他们是所谓的,在他的生活和工作的影响。 Then come the biographies properly so called.然后,来妥善所谓的传记。These include the lives written 1229-1247 by Thomas of Celano, one of Francis's followers; a joint narrative of his life compiled by Leo, Rufinus, and Angelus, intimate companions of the saint, in 1246; and the celebrated legend of St. Bonaventure, which appeared about 1263; besides a somewhat more polemic legend called the "Speculum Perfectionis", attributed to Brother Leo, the state of which is a matter of controversy.这些措施包括书面的切拉诺托马斯1229年至1247年的生活,弗朗西斯的追随者之一,他的生命联合叙事由Leo,Rufinus编译,奉告祈祷,亲密的同伴在1246年的圣,以及著名的圣文德传说,从而出现约1263;除了一个较为论战的传说被称为“窥器Perfectionis”,归因于兄弟利奥,国家这是一个有争议的问题。 There are also several important thirteenth-century chronicles of the order, like those of Jordan, Eccleston, and Bernard of Besse, and not a few later works, such as the "Chronica XXIV. Generalium" and the "Liber de Conformitate", which are in some sort a continuation of them.还有几个重要的第十三世纪编年史的顺序,像乔丹,埃克莱斯顿和伯纳德的贝斯的,而不是少数后期作品如“Chronica XXIV。Generalium”和“LIBER DE Con​​formitate”,这在某种是其中的延续。It is upon these works that all the later biographies of Francis's life are based.这是所有的弗朗西斯的生活后的传记,是根据这些作品。

Recent years have witnessed a truly remarkable upgrowth of interest in the life and work of St. Francis, more especially among non-Catholics, and Assisi has become in consequence the goal of a new race of pilgrims.近年来,在生活和工作的圣弗朗西斯的利益真正了不起的发育,更特别是在非天主教徒,和阿西西在结果成为一个新的种族的朝圣者的目标。 This interest, for the most part literary and academic, is centered mainly in the study of the primitive documents relating to the saint's history and the beginnings of the Franciscan Order.这种兴趣,大部分的文学和学术,是主要集中在有关圣人的历史和济秩序的开始研究的原始文件。Although inaugurated some years earlier, this movement received its greatest impulse from the publication in 1894 of Paul Sabatier's "Vie de S. François", a work which was almost simultaneously crowned by the French Academy and place upon the Index.虽然成立几年前,这一运动得到了保罗萨巴蒂尔出版的“Vie的DE S.弗朗索瓦”,这一几乎是同时由法国科学院,并呼吁该指数1894年工作的地方荣登其最大的冲动。In spite of the author's entire lack of sympathy with the saint's religious standpoint, his biography of Francis bespeaks vast erudition, deep research, and rare critical insight, and it has opened up a new era in the study of Franciscan resources.在作者的与圣人的宗教立场的同情整个缺乏尽管如此,他的传记弗朗西斯四起广大博学,深入研究,并不多见关键的洞察力,它开辟了在济资源研究的新时代。 To further this study an International Society of Franciscan Studies was founded at Assisi in 1902, the aim of which is to collect a complete library of works on Franciscan history and to compile a catalogue of scattered Franciscan manuscripts; several periodicals, devoted to Franciscan documents and discussions exclusively, have moreover been established in different countries.为了进一步研究的济研究国际学会是在阿西西成立于1902年,其目的是收集了关于济史著作完整的图书馆,并编制一份散济手稿目录;几种期刊,专门济的文件和专门讨论,而且已经建立了在不同的国家。

Although a large literature has grown up around the figure of the Poverello within a short time, nothing new of essential value has been added to what was already known of the saint.虽然大型文学成长围绕Poverello在短时间内数字了,没有什么新的基本价值已被添加到了什么已经是圣人闻名。The energetic research work of recent years has resulted in the recovery of several important early texts, and has called forth many really fine critical studies dealing with the sources, but the most welcome feature of the modern interest in Franciscan origins has been the careful re-editing and translating of Francis's own writings and of nearly all the contemporary manuscript authorities bearing on his life.近年来的充满活力的研究工作造成了一些重要的早期文本恢复,并呼吁提出了许多非常优秀的批判性研究与处理的来源,但在济起源现代兴趣最欢迎的功能已被细心的重新编辑和弗朗西斯自己的著作和几乎所有的当代手稿当局对他的生活影响翻译。 Not a few of the controverted questions connected therewith are of considerable import, even to those not especially students of the Franciscan legend, but they could not be made intelligible within the limits of the present article.不是与此有关的几个问题的controverted是相当大的进口,甚至那些没有传说中的济特别是学生,但他们无法作出内本文章的范围理解。 It must suffice, moreover, to indicate only some of the chief works on the life of St. Francis.它必须足够,而且,只显示了一些主要的圣弗朗西斯生活的作品。

The writings of St. Francis have been published in "Opuscula SP Francisci Assisiensis" (Quaracchi, 1904); Böhmer, "Analekten zur Geschichte des Franciscus von Assisi" (Tübingen, 1904); U. d'Alençon, "Les Opuscules de S. François d' Assise" (Paris, 1905); Robinson, "The Writings of St. Francis of Assisi" (Philadelphia, 1906).圣弗朗西斯的著作已出版了“Opuscula SP Francisci Assisiensis”(Quaracchi,1904年); Böhmer,“Analekten楚宫济冯阿西西历史馆”(图宾根,1904);美国D'阿朗松,“莱斯Opuscules DE S 。弗朗索瓦D'Assise“(巴黎,1905年),罗宾逊,”阿西西的圣弗朗西斯的著作“(费城,1906年)。

Publication information Written by Paschal Robinson.出版信息写逾越节罗宾逊。The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume VI.天主教百科全书,第六卷。Published 1909.1909年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, September 1, 1909. Nihil Obstat,1909年9月1日。Remy Lafort, Censor.人头马lafort,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰米farley,大主教纽约


Franciscan Order济秩序

Catholic Information天主教信息

A term commonly used to designate the members of the various foundations of religious, whether men or women, professing to observe the Rule of St. Francis of Assisi in some one of its several forms.通常用于指定的宗教的各种基金会的成员,不论男女,自称来观察它的一些几种形式之一的圣方济各亚西西第一个任期。The aim of the present article is to indicate briefly the origin and relationship of these different foundations.本文章的目的是为了表明短暂的起源和这些不同基础的关系。

ORIGIN OF THE THREE ORDERS该3项命令的起源

It is customary to say that St. Francis founded three orders, as we read in the Office for 4 October:这是习惯性地说,圣弗朗西斯成立三个命令,就像我们在办公室阅读10月4日:

Tres ordines hic ordinat: primumque Fratrum nominat Minorum: pauperumque fit Dominarum medius: sed Poenitentium tertius sexum capit utrumque.特雷斯ordines HIC ordinat:primumque Fratrum nominat Minorum:pauperumque适合Dominarum中肌:SED Poenitentium特尔蒂乌斯sexum capit ​​utrumque。(Brev. Rom. Serap., in Solem. SP Fran., ant. 3, ad Laudes)(Brev.罗小型企业研究资助,在Solem。SP弗兰。,蚂蚁3,广告Laudes)

These three orders -- the Friars Minor, the Poor Ladies or Clares, and the Brothers and Sisters of Penance -- are generally referred to as the First, Second, and Third Orders of St. Francis.这三个命令 - 小的修士,穷人的仕女或Clares,和兄弟姐妹们的忏悔 - 通常被称为圣弗朗西斯的第一,第二和第三的订单。

First Order一阶

The existence of the Friars Minor or first order properly dates from 1209, in which year St. Francis obtained from Innocent III an unwritten approbation of the simple rule he had composed for the guidance of his first companions.对未成年人的修士或一阶的存在正确的日期从1209年中圣弗朗西斯从诺森三世获得一个简单的规则,他曾经为他的第一个同伴指导组成的不成文的认可。 This rule has not come down to us in its original form; it was subsequently rewritten by the saint and solemnly confirmed by Honorius III, 29 Nov., 1223 (Litt. "Solet Annuere").这条规则还没有下降到我们在其原始形式,它是后来重写的圣人和庄严挪三,1223年11月29日(Litt.“Solet Annuere”)的确认。This second rule, as it is usually called, of the Friars Minor is the one at present professed throughout the whole First Order of St. Francis (see RULE OF SAINT FRANCIS).这第二个规则,因为它通常是所谓的男修道士未成年人,是在目前,一,在整个一阶的圣弗朗西斯宣称(见圣弗朗西斯规则)。

Second Order二阶

The foundation of the Poor Ladies or second order may be said to have been laid in 1212.穷人的女士们或第二秩序的基础,可以说已在1212敷设。In that year St. Clare who had besought St. Francis to be allowed to embrace the new manner of life he had instituted, was established by him at St. Damian's near Assisi, together with several other pious maidens who had joined her.在这一年圣克莱尔谁曾央求圣弗朗西斯被允许去拥抱新的生活态度,他已经制定,成立由他在圣达米安的近阿西西,连同其他几个谁加入了她虔诚的少女。 It is erroneous to suppose that St. Francis ever drew up a formal rule for these Poor ladies and no mention of such a document is found in any of the early authorities.这是错误的假设,圣弗朗西斯曾经制定了这些可怜的女士们的正式规则,并没有这样的文件提的是在早期当局任何发现。 The rule imposed upon the Poor Ladies at St. Damian's about 1219 by Cardinal Ugolino, afterwards Gregory IX, was recast by St. Clare towards the end of her life, with the assistance of Cardinal Rinaldo, afterwards Alexander IV, and in this revised form was approved by Innocent IV, 9 Aug., 1253 (Litt. "Solet Annuere").后在圣达米安穷人女士们施加的规则的有关由枢机主教Ugolino,事后格雷戈里九1219年,被改写的圣克莱尔对她生命的尽头,与枢机主教里纳尔多援助,事后亚历山大四,在这修订形式批准了无辜四,1253年8月9日(Litt.“Solet Annuere”)。(See POOR CLARES).(见POOR CLARES)。

Third Order三阶

Tradition assigns the year 1221 as the date of the foundation of the Brothers and Sisters of Penance, now known as tertiaries.传统分配作为的兄弟姐妹们的忏悔现在tertiaries称,1221年的基础日期。This third order was devised by St. Francis as a sort of middle state between the cloister and the world for those who, wishing to follow in the saint's footsteps, were debarred by marriage or other ties from entering either the first or second order.这第三个命令是由圣弗朗西斯设计作为一种中间状态之间的回廊并为那些谁,希望按照圣人的脚步声,是由婚姻或进入第一或第二秩序的其他关系被禁的世界排序。 There has been some difference of opinion as to how far the saint composed a rule for these tertiaries.出现了以多远圣组成的,这些tertiaries规则有些不同的意见。It is generally admitted, however, that the rule approved by Nicholas IV, 18 Aug., 1289 (Litt. "Supra Montem") does not represent the original rule of the third order.人们普遍承认,但是,由尼古拉四,1289年8月18日(Litt.“跨Montem”)批准的规则并不代表三阶原规则。

Some recent writers have tried to show that the third order, as we now call it, was really the starting point of the whole Franciscan Order.最近的一些作家都试图表明,第三顺序,因为我们现在称呼它,是真正的全济秩序的起点。They assert that the Second and Third Orders of St. Francis were not added to the First, but that the three branches, the Friars Minor, Poor ladies, and Brother and Sisters of Penance, grew out of the lay confraternity of penance which was St. Francis's first and original intention, and were separated from it into different groups by Cardinal Ugolino, the protector of the order, during St. Francis's absence in the East (1219-21).他们断言,圣弗朗西斯第二和第三订单没有添加到第一,但是,这三个分支,男修道士未成年人,可怜的女士们,和兄弟姐妹和忏悔,忏悔的增长奠定了帮会这是圣弗朗西斯的第一和初衷,并从它分离成不同的群体由枢机主教Ugolino,订单的保护,在圣弗朗西斯的在东(1219年至1221年)的情况下。 This interesting, if somewhat arbitrary, theory is not without importance for the early history of all three orders, but it is not yet sufficiently proven to preclude the more usual account given above, according to which the Franciscan Order developed into three distinct branches, namely, the first, second, and third orders, by process of addition and not by process of division, and this is still the view generally received.这个有趣的,如果有点武断,理论也不是没有为所有三个命令早期历史的重要性,但尚未得到充分的证明,以排除上述更常见的​​帐户,根据该济秩序发展到三个不同的分支,即,第一,第二和第三的订单,通过添加过程,而不是由进程的分工,这仍然是普遍接受的观点。

PRESENT ORGANIZATION OF THE THREE ORDERS现时的组织的3项命令

First Order一阶

Coming next to the present organization of the Franciscan Order, the Friars Minor, or first order, now comprises three separate bodies, namely: the Friars Minor properly so called, or parent stem, founded, as has been said in 1209; the Friars Minor Conventuals, and the Friars Minor Capuchins, both of which grew out of the parent stem, and were constituted independent orders in 1517 and 1619 respectively.即将旁边的济秩序存在的组织,男修道士未成年人,或一阶,目前包括三个独立的机构,即:男修道士未成年人所谓正确,或家长干,成立后,作为已在1209年说,未成年人的修士Conventuals,和男修道士小卷尾猴,它们都脱胎于母公司干,并分别在1517年和1619年组成独立的订单分别。

All three orders profess the rule of the Friars Minor approved by Honorius III in 1223, but each one has its particular constitutions and its own minister general.所有这三个命令信奉的男修道士未成年人统治挪留三世批准的1223,但每一个都有其特定的宪法和自己的部长一般。 The various lesser foundations of Franciscan friars following the rule of the first order, which once enjoyed a separate or quasi-separate existence, are now either extinct, like the Clareni, Coletani, and Celestines, or have become amalgamated with the Friars Minor, as in the case of the Observants, Reformati, Recollects, Alcantarines, etc. (On all these lesser foundations, now extinct, see FRIARS MINOR)下列的各种较小的一阶,曾经享有独立或半独立的存在规则济修士基础,现在要么灭绝,像Clareni,Coletani和Celestines,或已成为未成年人的男修道士合并,作为在Observants,Reformati,回忆,Alcantarines等情况(在所有这些较小的基础,现在已经灭绝,看到天主教方济MINOR)

Second Order二阶

As regards the Second Order, of Poor ladies, now commonly called Poor Clares, this order includes all the different monasteries of cloistered nuns professing the Rule of St. Clare approved by Innocent IV in 1253, whether they observe the same in all its original strictness or according to the dispensations granted by Urban IV, 18 Oct., 1263 (Litt. "Beata Clara") or the constitutions drawn up by St. Colette (d. 1447) and approved by Pius II, 18 March, 1458 (Litt. "Etsi").至于第二秩序,可怜的女士,现在俗称差Clares,这个订单包括所有信奉的圣克莱尔第与世隔绝的修女不同寺院批准无辜IV于1253年,他们是否遵守其所有原始严格相同或根据城市IV,126​​3年10月18日(Litt.“贝娅塔克拉拉”),或制订了圣科莱特(卒于1447)和庇护二世批准了宪法,1458年3月18日(Litt.授予特许“ETSI”)。 The Sisters of the Annunciation and the Conceptionists are in some sense offshoots of the second order, but they now follow different rules from that of the Poor Ladies.圣母领报和Conceptionists的姐妹们都在二阶某种意义上分支,但他们现在跟随从穷人女士们不同的规则。

Third Order三阶

In connection with the Brothers and Sisters of Penance or Third order of St. Francis, it is necessary to distinguish between the third order secular and the third order regular.在与兄弟的忏悔或三阶的圣弗朗西斯修女连接,有必要区分三阶世俗和三阶定期。

Secular.世俗。The third order secular was founded, as we have seen, by St. Francis about 1221 and embraces devout persons of both sexes living in the world and following a rule of life approved by Nicholas IV in 1289, and modified by Leo XIII, 30 May, 1883 (Constit. "Misericors").三阶世俗成立,正如我们所看到的,由圣弗朗西斯约1221和拥抱的男女虔诚的人生活在世界后的生活规则批准尼古拉四在1289年,由利奥十三世修改5月30日1883年(Constit.“Misericors”)。 It includes not only members who form part of logical fraternities, but also isolated tertiaries, hermits, pilgrims, etc.它不仅包括成员谁形式逻辑兄弟组成部分,也是孤立tertiaries,隐士,朝圣者,等等。

Regular.定期。The early history of the third order regular is uncertain and is susceptible of controversy.第三个定期早期历史顺序是不确定的,是敏感的争议。Some attribute its foundation to St. Elizabeth of Hungary in 1228, others to Blessed Angelina of Marsciano in 1395.有些属性的基础,圣伊丽莎白匈牙利1228年,别人祝福Marsciano安吉丽娜于1395。The latter is said to have established at Foligno the first Franciscan monastery of enclosed tertiary nuns in Italy.后者据说在福利尼奥第一次在意大利方济修道院封闭大专修女成立。It is certain that early in the fifteenth century tertiary communities of men and women existed in different parts of Europe and that the Italian friars of the third order regular were recognized as a mendicant order by the Holy See.可以肯定的是,早在15世纪男女在欧洲不同地区存在的社会和高等教育的妇女的三阶经常被作为一个乞丐为了认可的意大利修道士圣见。 Since about 1458 the latter body has been governed by own minister general and its members take solemn vows.由于约1458后身体一直受自己的部长一般及其成员采取的庄严誓言。

New Foundations.新的基础。In addition to this third order regular, properly so called, and quite independently of it, a very large number of Franciscan tertiary congregations -- both of men and women -- have been founded, more especially since the beginning of the ninteenth century.除了这个三阶定期,妥善所谓,和相当独立的它,方济众大专院校数量非常大 - 男女双方 - 已经成立,自十九世纪初,特别是更多。These new foundations have taken as a basis of their institutes a special rule for members of the third order living in community approved by Leo X. 20 Jan., 1521 (Bull "Inter").这些新的基金会已为他们的机构为基础的社区三阶由利奥十,1521年1月20日(牛“跨”)批准的居住成员的特殊规则。 Although this rule is a greatly modified by their particular constitution which, for the rest, differ widely according to the end of each foundation.虽然这个规则是一个深受其特定的宪法,为休息,大相径庭根据每个基金会结束修改。These various congregations of regular tertiaries are either autonomous or under episcopal jurisdiction, and for the most part they are Franciscan in name only, not a few of them having abandoned the habit and even the traditional cord of the order.经常tertiaries这些不同的教会要么自主或主教管辖下,并在大多数情况下它们在名称济而已,不是他们几个有放弃的习惯,甚至订单的传统线。

Publication information Written by Paschal Robinson.出版信息写逾越节罗宾逊。Transcribed by Beth Ste-Marie.转录由贝丝STE - 玛丽。The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume VI.天主教百科全书,第六卷。Published 1909.1909年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, September 1, 1909. Nihil Obstat,1909年9月1日。Remy Lafort, Censor.人头马lafort,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰米farley,大主教纽约

Bibliography参考书目

For the vexed question of the origin and evolution of the third orders, see MÜLLER, Die Anfange des Minoritenordens und der Bussbruderschaften (Freiburg, 1885), 33 sqq; EHRLE in Zeitschr, jk Theol., XI, 743 sqq; MANDONNET, Les regles et le gouvernement de l Ordo de Paeniltentia au XIII siccle in Opuscules de critique historique, vol.对于的起源和演化的第三订单棘手的问题,看到穆勒,模具Anfange DES Minoritenordens UND DER Bussbruderschaften(弗赖堡,1885年),33 SQQ,在Zeitschr EHRLE,JK Theol,第十一,743 SQQ;芒多内,莱斯regles ET LE gouvernement德升奥德Paeniltentia AU第十三siccle在Opuscules去批判historique,第一卷。l.fasc.FASC。IV (Paris, 1902); LEMMENS in Rom.四(巴黎,1902年),在罗LEMMENS。Quartalschrift, XVI, 93 sqq; VAN ORTROY in Analecta Bollandiana, XVIII, 294 sqq.Quartalschrift,十六,93 SQQ; VAN在Analecta Bollandiana,第十八,294 SQQ ORTROY。XXIV, 415 sqq; D'ALENCON in Etudes Franciscaines, II, 646 sq; GOETZ in Zeitschrift for Kirchengeschichte, XXIII, 97-107.XXIV,415 SQQ;德在练习曲Franciscaines,二,646平方米ALENCON,在(杂志)GOETZ为Kirchengeschichte,二十三,97-107。 The rules of the three orders are printed in Seraphicae Legislationis Textus originates (Quaracchi, 1897).这三个命令的规则印在Seraphicae Legislationis Textus起源(Quaracchi,1897)。 A general conspectus of the Franciscan Order and its various branches is given in HOLZ-APPEL, Manuale, Historia, OFM (Freiburg, 1909); HEIM-BUCHER, Die Orden und Kongregationen (Paderborn, 1907); II, 307-533; also PATREM, Tableau synoptique de tout l Ordre Seraphique (Paris, 1879): and CUSACK, St. Francis and the Franciscans (New York, 1867).阿的济秩序及其各分支机构一般概论给出HOLZ - APPEL,Manuale,Historia,OFM(弗赖堡,1909年);海姆- BUCHER,模具勋章UND Kongregationen(帕德博恩,1907年); II,307-533;也PATREM,形表synoptique去兜售升勋章Seraphique(巴黎,1879年):和库萨克,圣弗朗西斯和方济会(纽约,1867年)。


Order of Friars Minor天主教方济会小

Catholic Information天主教信息

(Also known as FRANCISCANS.) This subject may be conveniently considered under the following heads:(也称为济)这个问题可以很方便地根据以下元首认为:

I. General History of the Order;一,一般的历史订单;

A. First Period (1209-1517);答:第一期(1209至1517年);

B. Second Period (1517-1909);B.第二期(1517至1909年);

II. II。The Reform Parties;缔约方的改革;

A. First Period (1226-1517);答:第一期(1226年至1517年);

B. Second Period (1517-1897);B.第二期(1517年至1897年);

(1) The Discalced;(1)Discalced;

(2) The Reformanti;(2)Reformanti;

(3) The Recollects, including a survey of the history of the Franciscans (3)回忆,包括对历史的济调查

in the North, especially in Great Britain and Ireland (America is treated in a separate article);在北方,尤其是在英国和爱尔兰(美国是在一个单独的文章处理);

III. III。Statistics of the Order (1260-1909);统计的订单(1260至1909年);

IV. IV。The Various Names of the Friars Minor;在男修道士未成年人的各种名称;

V. The Habit;五,习惯;

VI. VI。The Constitution of the Order;该命令的宪法;

VII.七。General Sphere of the Order's Activity;一般球的秩序的活动;

VIII.第八。The Preaching Activity of the Order;该命令的宣讲活动;

IX. IX。Influence of the Order on the Liturgy and Religious Devotions;影响上的礼仪和宗教灵修订购;

X. Franciscan Missions;十方济代表团;

XI.十一。Cultivation of the Sciences;栽培的科学;

XII.十二。Saints and Beati of the Order.圣徒和订单Beati。

I. GENERAL HISTORY OF THE ORDER一,一般的历史订单

A. First Period (1209-1517)答:第一期(1209至1517年)

Having gathered about twelve disciples around him (1207-08), St. Francis of Assisi appeared before Innocent III, who, after some hesitation, gave verbal sanction to the Franciscan Rule.拥有约十二身边(1207年至1208年)的弟子云集,圣方济各亚西西出现在英诺森三世,谁后,有些犹豫,给予口头制裁的方济规则。 Thus was legally founded the Order of Friars Minor (Ordo Fratrum Minorum), the precise date being, according to an ancient tradition in the order, 16 April, 1209.因此,在法律上成立了未成年人天主教方济会(奥Fratrum Minorum),精确的日期为令,根据一个的顺序,1209年4月16号古老的传统。His friars having rapidly increased in number and spread over various districts of Italy, St. Francis appointed, in 1217, provincial ministers (ministri provinciales), and sent his disciples farther afield.他的修士有迅速的数量和对意大利各地区的传播增加,圣弗朗西斯任命,在1217年,(ministri provinciales)省部长,并派他的弟子更远的地方。At the general chapter of 1219 these missions were renewed and other friars dispatched to the East, to Hungary, to France, and to Spain.在一般章1219这些任务是更新和其他修士派出东,匈牙利,法国和西班牙。Francis himself visited Egypt and the East, but the innovations introduced during his absence by some of the friars caused his speedy return in 1220.弗朗西斯本人先后访问了埃及和东,但在他缺席的修士介绍一些创新导致了他在1220年迅速返回。In the same year he resigned the office of general of the order, which he entrusted first to Peter of Cattaneo, on whose early death (10 March, 1221) he appointed Elias of Cortona.同年,他辞去了一般的秩序办公室,他委托第一至郭居静彼得,在其早期死亡(1221年3月10日)他获委任为科尔托纳埃利亚斯。 Francis, however, retained a certain supreme direction of the order until his death on 3 October, 1226.弗朗西斯,但是,保留,直到他在1226年10月3日死亡的顺序一定至高无上的方向。

Elias of Cortona, as the vicar of Francis, summoned the regular Pentecost chapter for the following year, and on 29 May, 1227, Giovanni Parenti, a jurist, was chosen as first successor of St. Francis and first minister-general.埃利亚斯的科尔托纳,作为副主教的弗朗西斯,召见下一年的定期五旬章,并于1227年5月29日,乔瓦尼帕伦蒂,法学家,是作为圣弗朗西斯和第一部长的第一次选择的继任者。 He has often been regarded as a native of Florence, but probably came from the neighbourhood of Rome.他经常被看作是佛罗伦萨人,但可能是由罗马附近来了。Gregory IX employed the new general on political missions at Florence and Rome, authorized the Minorites to lay out their own cemeteries (26 July, 1227), and charged them with the direction and maintenance of the Poor Clares (1 December, 1227).格雷戈里九雇用在佛罗伦萨和罗马的政治任务的新的一般授权Minorites奠定了他们(1227年7月26日)自己的墓地,并担负着指导和穷人Clares维护(1227年12月1日)他们。 In 1228 and the succeeding years, Elias of Cortona laboured zealously at the construction of a church to be dedicated to Francis of Assisi, who was canonized by Gregory IX on 16 July, 1228. 1228年和随后的几年,科尔托纳埃利亚斯辛劳在一个教堂建筑热忱竭诚为方济各,谁是由格雷戈里九册封于1228年7月16日。On the day following the pope himself laid the foundation stone of this church at Assisi destined to receive the body of St. Francis, and he shortly afterwards entrusted to Thomas of Celano the task of writing the biography of the saint, which he confirmed on 25 February, 1229.在接下来的一天,教宗自己奠定在阿西西注定要接受的圣弗朗西斯身上的这个教会的基石,他不久委托托马斯切拉诺的写作任务的圣人传记,他于25确认二月,1229。 The translation of the saint's body from the church of San Giorgio to the new basilica took place on 22 May, 1230, three days before the appointed time, and Elias of Cortona, possibly fearing some disturbance, took possession of the body, with the assistance of the civic authorities, and buried it in the church, where it was discovered in 1818.而圣人的身体翻译从圣乔治教堂新教堂发生在22日日,1230年,前三天约定时间,和Elias的科尔托纳,可能是怕一些干扰,采取了与援助的身体占有,对公民当局,埋在教堂里,它是在1818年发现的。 Elias was censured and punished for this action in the Bull of 16 June, 1230.埃利亚斯被谴责和惩罚这一行动在1230年6月16号公牛。The usual general chapter was held about the same date, and on 28 September, 1230, the Bull "Quo elongati" was issued, dealing with the Testament of St. Francis and certain points in the Rule of 1223.通常一般章举行了关于同一日期,并于1230年9月28日,公牛“利国elongati”发行时,与圣弗朗西斯和某些点的约1223条处理。 Elias meanwhile devoted all his energy to the completion of the magnificent church (or rather double church) of S. Francesco, which stands on the slope of a hill in the western portion of Assisi, and of the adjacent monastery with its massive pillars and arcades.埃利亚斯同时他倾注了全部精力的宏伟教堂S.弗朗切斯科,这对一个在阿西西西部部分山坡看台(或者说双教堂)完成,并以其巨大的柱子和商场附近修道院。 His election as general in1232 gave him freer scope, and enabled him to realize the successful issue of his plans.他作为一般in1232选举给了他自由的范围,使他能够实现他的计划成功发行。As a politicain, Elias certainly possessed genius.作为politicain,埃利亚斯当然拥有天才。His character, however, was too ostentatious and worldly, and, though under his rule the order developed externally and its missions and studies were promoted, still in consequence of his absolutism, exercised now with haughty bearing and again through reckless visitors, there arose in the order an antagonism to his government, in which the Parisian masters of theology and the German and English provinces played the most prominent part.他的性格,但是,过于招摇和世俗的,而且,尽管在他的统治秩序外,其开发任务和研究,推动仍处在行使他的专制与傲慢轴承现在再次通过鲁莽游客,因此,有出现在该命令对他的政府对抗,其中神学和德语和英语省份的巴黎大师所扮演的最突出的部分。 Unable to stem this opposition, Elias was deposed, with Gregory IX's approval, by the Chapter of Rome (1239), and the hitherto undefined rights and almost absolute authority of the general in matters of income and legislation for the order were considerably restricted.无法阻止这种对立,埃利亚斯被废黜,与格雷戈里九批准,由罗马(1239)章,并迄今未定义几乎绝对的权利和在收入和订单一般授权立法事项都大大限制。 Elias threw in his lot with Frederick II (Hohenstaufen), was excommunicated in consequence, and died on 22 April, 1253.埃利亚斯扔在他与腓特烈二世(霍亨斯陶芬)很多,在后果驱逐,并于1253年4月22日死亡。Albert of Pisa, who had previously been provincial of Germany and Hungary, was chosen at the chapter of 1239 to succeed Elias, but died shortly afterwards (23 January, 1240).阿尔贝比萨,谁以前的德国和匈牙利省,被选择在1239年章成功埃利亚斯,但不久后去世(1240年1月23日)。On All Saints' Day, 1240, the chapter again met and elected Haymo of Faversham, a learned and zealous English Franciscan, who had been sent by Gregory IX (1234) to Constantinople to promote the reunion of the Schismatic Greeks with the Apostolic See.在万圣节,1240,章再次开会选出Haymo的Faversham,一个教训和热心的英语济,谁是由格雷戈里九(1234)发送到君士坦丁堡,以促进与使徒见分裂希腊人团聚。 Haymo, who, with Alexander of Hales had taken part in the movement against Elias, was zealous in his visitation of the various houses of the order. Haymo,谁与亚历山大的黑尔斯,采取了在打击埃利亚斯运动的一部分,是在他的热心的秩​​序的各种房屋探视。He held the Provincial Chapter of Saxonia at Aldenburg on 29 September, 1242, and, at the request of Gregory IX, revised the rubrics to the Roman Breviary and the Missal.他曾在Aldenburg的SAXONIA省章在1242年9月29日,并在格雷戈里九的要求,修订了评鉴指标,以罗马祈祷书和Missal。

After Haymo's death in 1244 the General Chapter of Genoa elected Crescenzio Grizzi of Jesi (1245-47) to succeed him.经过Haymo在1244死亡的总章热那亚当选Crescenzio的JESI(1245年至1247年)Grizzi来接替他。 Crescenzio instituted an investigation of the life and miracles of St. Francis and other Minorites, and authorized Thomas of Celano to write the "Legenda secunda S. Francisci", based on the information (Legenda trium Sociorum) supplied to the general by three companions of the saint (Tres Socii, ie Leo, Angelus, and Rufinus). Crescenzio提起的生活和圣弗朗西斯和其他Minorites奇迹调查,并授权切拉诺托马斯写的“Legenda塞康达S. Francisci”上提供的三个同伴的一般资料(Legenda TRIUM Sociorum)为基础圣人(特雷斯Socii,即狮子座,三钟经,并Rufinus)。From this period also dates the "Dialogus de vistis Sanctorum Fratrum Minorum."从这一时期还日期的“Dialogus DE vistis Sanctorum Fratrum Minorum。”This general also opposed vigorously the separationist and particularistric tendencies of some seventy-two of the brothers.这一般也反对一些积极的兄弟72的separationist和particularistric倾向。The town of Assisi asked for him as its bishop, but the request was not granted by Innocent IV, who, on 29 April, 1252, appointed him Bishop of jesi, in the John of Parma, who succeeded to the generallship (1247-57), belonged to the more rigorous party in the order.阿西西镇的要求他作为其主教,但要求没有给予无辜四,谁,在1252年4月29日,任命JESI他在帕尔马主教约翰,谁继承了generallship,(1247年至1257年),都属于在订单更严格的党。 He was most diligent in visiting in person the various houses of the order.他是最有亲身到访的顺序各种房屋勤奋。it was during this period that Thomas of Celano wrote his "Tractatus de Miraculis".正是在这一时期的切拉诺托马斯写了他的“逻辑哲学论德Miraculis”。On 11 August, 1253, Clare of Assisi died, and was canonized by Alexander IV on 26 September, 1255.在1253年8月11日,克莱尔的阿西西死了,被亚历山大四册封9月26日1255。On 25 May, 1253, a month after the death of the excommunicated Elias, Innocent consecrated the upper church of S. Francesco, John of Parma unfortunately shared the apocalyptic views and fancies of the Joachimites, or followers of Jeachim of Floris, who had many votaries in the order, and was consequently not a little compromised when Alexander IV (4 November, 1255) solemnly condemned the "Liber introductorius", a collection of the writings of Joachim of Floris with an extravagant introduction, which had been published at Paris.月25日,1253年,之后的一个月逐出教会埃利亚斯死亡,无辜的奉献上的S.弗朗切斯科教堂,帕尔马约翰不幸共享的启示意见和Joachimites,或Jeachim的弗洛里,有许多追随者谁望梅止渴在订单votaries,并因此受到损害时,没有一点亚历山大IV(1255年11月4日)严正谴责“LIBER introductorius”,一个与一个奢侈的介绍,这已在巴黎出版的著作收集约阿希姆的佛洛里斯。This work has often been falsely ascribed to the general himself.这项工作经常被错误地归因于一般自己。its real author was Gerardo di Borgo S.-Donnino, who thus furnished a very dangerous weapon against the order to the professors of the secular clergy, jealous of the success of the Minorites at the University of Paris.它的真正作者是赫拉尔多迪博尔戈S. - Donnino,从而提供对谁的顺序非常危险的武器,以世俗的神职人员教授,对Minorites在巴黎大学成功的嫉妒。The chapter convened in the Ara Coeli monastery at Rome forced John of Parma to abdicate his office (1257) and, on his recommendation, chose as his successor St. Bonaventure from Bagnorea.本章召开的阿糖胞苷Coeli修道院在罗马被迫约翰帕尔马退位他的办公室(1257),并在他的建议,作为他的继任者圣文德选择从Bagnorea。 John was then summoned to answer for his Joachimism before a court presided over by the new general and the cardinal-protector, and would have been condemned but for the letter of Cardinal Ottoboni, afterwards Adrian V. He subsequently withdrew to the hermitage of Greccio, left it (1289) at the command of the pope to proceed to Greece, but died an aged broken man at Camerino on 20 March, 1289.约翰当时传唤他Joachimism回答在法院主持下的新的一般和红衣主教保护了过来,并且会受到谴责,但为枢机奥托博尼信,后来阿德里安五,他随后撤回到Greccio归隐,留在教皇的命令着手希腊它(1289),但死在卡梅里诺于1289年3月20日账龄打破男子。

St. Bonaventure, learned and zealous religious, devoted all his energy to the government of the order.圣文德,教训和热心的宗教,他倾注了全部精力用在政府的命令。He strenuously advocated the manifold duties thrust upon the order during its historical development -- the labour in the care of souls, learned pursuits, employment of friars in the service of the popes and temporal rulers, the institution of large monasteries, and the preservation of the privileges of the order -- being convinced that such a direction of the activities of the members would prove most beneficial to the Church and the cause of Christianity.他极力主张以多方面的职责后,在其历史发展的推力 - 在灵魂护理劳动,学会了追求,在教皇和时间的统治者,大修道院修士就业服务机构,及保留该命令的权限 - 被确信,这样的成员的活动方向,将被证明最有利于教会和基督教的原因。The Spirituals accused Bonaventure of laxity; yet he laboured earnestly to secure the exact observance of the rule, and energetically denounced the abuses which had crept into the order, condemning them repeatedly in his encyclical letters.在灵指责松弛文德,但他吃力切实确保规则的准确遵守,并大力谴责装置已进入以蹑手蹑脚的滥用,在他的通谕信谴责他们多次。 In accordance with the rule, he held a general chapter every three years: at Narbonne in 1260, at Pisa in 1263, at Paris in 1266, at Assisi in 1269, and at Lyons in 1274, on the occasion of the general council.按照规则规定,他认为一般每三年章:在纳博讷在1260年,在比萨在1263,在巴黎在1266年,在阿西西在1269年,在里昂和在1274年,在总理事会之际。 He made most of the visitations to the different convents in person, and was a zealous preacher.他提出的探视大部分在人的不同修道院,并且是一个热心的布道者。The Chapter of Narbonne (1260) promulgated the statutes of the order known as the "Constitutiones Narbonenses", the letter and spirit of which exercised a deep and enduring influence on the Fransican Order.该纳博讷章(1260)颁布了作为“Constitutiones Narbonenses”的文字和精神的行使上Fransican订购了深刻而持久的影响力称为秩序的法规。Although the entire code did not remain long in force, many of the provisions were retained and served as a model for the later constitutions.虽然整个代码没有留在部队长,许多条款被保留,并作为以后的宪法典范。

Even before the death of Bonaventure, during one of the sessions of the council (15 July, 1274), the Chapter of Lyons had chosen as his successor Jerome of Ascoli, who was expected by the council with the ambassadors of the Greek Church.即使在死亡的文德在理事会(1274年7月15日)的会议之一,在里昂章选择了作为他的继任者杰罗姆的阿斯科利,谁是由教会与希腊大使理事会预期。 He arrived, and the reunion of the churches was effected.他到了,团圆的教会开始生效。Jerome was sent back by Innocent V as nuncio to Constantinople In May, 1276, but had only reached Ancona when the pope died (21 July, 1276).杰罗姆被送回了无辜V作为教廷大使向君士坦丁堡今年五月,1276年,但只达到了安科纳当教宗去世(1276年7月21日)。 John XXI (1276-77) employed Jerome (October, 1276) and John of Vercelli, General of the Dominicans, as mediators in the war between Philip III of France and Alfonso X of Castile.约翰XXI(1276年至1277年)受聘为中菲之间的法国和阿方索的卡斯蒂利亚X III战争调解员杰罗姆(10月,1276年)的维切利和约翰,多米尼加一般。This embassy occupied both genrals till March, 1279, although Jerome was preferred to the cardinalate on 12 march, 1278.这使馆被占领至三月,1279年双方genrals,虽然杰罗姆是首选在1278年3月12日对cardinalate。 When Jerome departed on the embassy to the Greeks, he had appointed Bonagratia of S. Giovanni in Persiceto to represent him at the General Chapter of Padua in 1276.当杰罗姆在去希腊使馆离开,他已委任S.乔瓦尼Bonagratia在Persiceto代表大会在帕多瓦1276章他。 On 20 May, 1279, he convened the General Chapter of Assisi, at which Bonagratia was elected general.月20日,1279年,他召集了阿西西总章,在这Bonagratia当选为一般。Jerome later occupied the Chair of Peter as Nicholas IV (15 February, 1288-4 April, 1292).杰罗姆后占领的尼古拉四(2月15日1288-4四月,1292)的主席彼得。bonagratia conducted a deputation from the chapter before Nicholas III, who was then staying at Soriano, and petitioned for a cardinal-protector. bonagratia进行从A章代表尼古拉斯三世之前,谁当时住在索里亚诺,并为基数,保护请愿。The pope, who had himself been protector, appointed his nephew Matteo Orsini.教皇,谁自己被保护者,任命他的侄子马特奥奥尔西尼。The general also asked for a definition of the rule, which the pope, after personal consultation with cardinals and the theologians of the order, issued in the "Exiit qui seminat" of 14 August, 1279.一般还要求对规则的定义,其中教皇,枢机主教后的顺序和神学家,在“Exiit魁seminat的”1279年8月14日发放的个人咨询。 In this the order's complete renunciation of property in communi was again confirmed, and all property given to the brothers was vested in the Holy See, unless the donor wished to retain his title.在这种秩序的完全放弃在通信财产再次被确认,并提供给兄弟所有财产归属于罗马教廷,除非捐赠者希望保留他的冠军称号。 All moneys were to be held in trust by the nuntii, or spiritual friends, for the friars, who could however raise no claim to them.所有款项都将举行信任的nuntii,或精神的朋友的修士,不过谁可以向他们提出任何要求。The purchase of goods could take place only through procurators appointed by the pope, or by the cardinal-protector in his name.购买商品可以只需要通过由教皇任命检察官的地方,或由他的名字在大是大非,保护者。

The Bull of Martin IV "Ad fructus uberes" (13 December, 1281) defined the relations of the mendicants to the secular clergy.而马丁IV“广告枳壳uberes”(1281年12月13日)通报定义的乞丐关系到世俗的神职人员。The mendicant orders had long been exempt from the jurisdiction of the bishop, and enjoyed (as distinguished from the secular clergy) unrestricted freedom to preach and hear confessions in the churches connected with their monasteries.在乞讨的订单早已从主教管辖豁免,并享有(从世俗的神职人员区分)不受限制的自由传教和听到他们的寺院与教堂相连的口供。 This had led to endless friction and open quarrels between the two divisions of the clergy, and, although Martin IV granted no new privileges to the mendicants, the strife now broke out with increased violence, chiefly in France and in a particular manner at Paris.这导致了无休止的摩擦和神职人员之间的公开争吵的两个部门,而且,虽然没有新的马丁四授予权限的乞丐,现在爆发的冲突与暴力事件增多,主要是在法国和在巴黎的特殊方式。 Boniface VIII adjusted their relations in the Bull "Super cathedram" of 18 February, 1300, granting the mendicants freedom to preach in their own churches and in public places, but not at the time when the prelate of the district was preaching.波尼法爵八世调整在牛市“超级cathedram”的1300年2月18号的关系,给予乞丐自由地宣扬自己的教堂,并在公共场所,而不是在当时的区主教的说教。 For the hearing of confessions, the mendicants were to submit suitable candidates to the bishop in office, and obtain his anction.对于听证会的供述,乞丐被提交到合适的人选主教在办公室,并获得他的anction。The faithful were left free in regard to funerals, but, should they take place in the church of a cloister, the quarta funerum was to be given to the parish priest.此外,教友们就被留在葬礼免费的,但是,他们应该采取的一个修道院教堂的地方,quarta funerum是给予教区神父。 Benedict XI abrogated this Bull, but Clement V reintroduced it (1312).本笃十一废止这个牛市,但它重新克莱门特V(1312)。Especially conspicuous among the later contentions over the privileges of the mendicants were those caused by John of Poliaco, a master of theology of Paris (1320) and by Richard Fitzralph, Archbishop of Armagh (1349).特别是以上的乞丐的特权后来争论突出被约翰Poliaco,神学的巴黎(1320)船长和理查德Fitzralph,阿马大主教(1349)引起的。 In 1516 the Fifth Council of the Lateran dealt with this question, which was definitively settled by the Council of Trent.在1516年的拉特兰第五届理事会处理了这个问题,这是明确由理事会特伦特解决。

In the Bull "Exultantes" of 18 January, 1283, Martin IV instituted the syndici Apostolici.在牛市“Exultantes”的1283年1月18日,马丁四提起的syndici Apostolici。 This was the name given to the men appointed by the ministers and custodians to receive in the name of the Holy See the alms given to the Franciscans, and to pay it out again at their request.这是给由部长和保管人在接受任命的圣名方济请给予的施舍,并支付出来的请求再次男人的名字。The syndici consequently replaced the nuntii and procurators.该syndici因此取代了nuntii和检察官。All these regulations were necessary in consequence of the rule of poverty, the literal and unconditional observance of which was rendered impossible by the great expansion of the order, by its pursuit of learning, and the accumulated property of the large cloisters in the towns.所有这些规定在贫困必要规则的结果,其文字和无条件的遵守是不可能提供的订单的大幅扩展,其学习的追求,以及在城镇的大修道院积累的财产。 The appointment of these trustees, however, was neither subversive of nor an evasion of the rule, but rather the proper observance of its precepts under the altered conditions of the ime.这些委任受托人,但既不是颠覆性的,也不是逃避规则,而是根据输入法的修改情况适当遵守其戒律。Under Bonagratia (1279-83) and his immediate successors Arlotto da Prato (1285-86), and Matthew of Acquasparta (1287-89), a learned theologian and philosopher who became cardinal in 1288 and rendered notable service to the Church, the Spiritual movement broke out in the Province of Ancona, under the leadership of Pietro Giovanni Olivi, who, after the General Chapter of Strasburg (1282), caused the order considerable trouble.根据Bonagratia(1279年至1283年)和他的继任Arlotto达普拉托(1285年至1286年),和Acquasparta(1287年至1289年),马修,一个有学问的神学家和哲学家谁成为枢机主教在1288和呈现显着的服务,教会,灵运动爆发的安科纳省,下彼得乔瓦尼Olivi酒店,谁后的斯特拉斯堡(1282)总章,引起了相当大的麻烦秩序领导。 The general, Raimondo Gaufredi (Geoffrey) of Provence (1289-95), favoured the Spirituals and denounced the lax interpretations of the Community, ie the majority of the order who opposed the minority, termed Spirituals or Zelanti.在一般情况下,雷蒙Gaufredi普罗旺斯(1289年至1295年)(贺),赞成灵和谴责共同体的宽松解释,即该命令谁反对少数人居多,被称为灵或Zelanti。 Raimondo even ventured to revise the genral constitutions at the General Chapter of Paris in 1292, whereupon, having refused the Bishopric of Padua offered him by Boniface VIII, he was compelled by the pope to resign his office.雷蒙甚至大胆修改在巴黎总章1292的genral宪法,于是,在拒绝了帕多瓦主教提供的博尼法斯八他,他被迫辞职,由教皇他的办公室。 Giovanni Minio of Muravalle, in the theology, was elected general by the Chapter of Anangi (1294), and although created Cardinal-Bishop of Porto (Portuensis) in 1302, continued to govern the order until Gonzalves of Valleboa (1304-13), Provincial of Santiago, Spain, was elected to succeed him by the Chaper of Assisi.乔瓦尼的Muravalle Minio,在神学,被选为一般由Anangi(1294)章,虽然创建于1302波尔图枢机主教,主教(Portuensis),继续执政,直到Valleboa(1304至1313年)Gonzalves秩序,圣地亚哥,西班牙,省当选接替由阿西西Chaper他。

In his encyclical of 1302, Giovanni Minio had inculcated the rule of poverty, and forbidden both the accumulation of property and vested incomes.他在1302谕,乔瓦尼Minio了灌输的贫困规则,禁止双方积累的财产和收入的归属。Gonzálvez followed the same policy (12 February, 1310), and the Chapter of Padua (1310) made the precept still more rigorous by enoining the "simple use" (usus pauper) and withdrawing the right of voting at the chapter from convents which did not adopt it. Gonzálvez遵循同样的政策(1310年2月12号),以及章帕多瓦(1310)由enoining“简单使用”(usus穷光蛋)和撤销在该章从修道院没有投票权的更加严格的戒律不采纳。 The usus pauper had indeed been a source of contention from 1290, especially in Provence, where some denied that it was binding on the order.美国的信用卡穷光蛋确实已经从1290争议的来源,尤其是在普罗旺斯,一些否认它是在订单上具有约束力。These dissensions led to the Magna Disputatio at Avignon (1310-12), to which Clement V summoned the leaders of the Spirituals and of the Community or Relaxati.这些纠纷导致了麦格纳Disputatio在阿维尼翁(1310年至1312年),这是克莱门特V召唤的灵和社区或Relaxati的领导人。 Clement laid the strife by his bull and Decretal "Exivi di Paradiso", issued at the third and last session of the Council of Vienne, 5 May, 1312.克莱门特奠定了他的公牛和法令的“Exivi二天堂”的斗争,在理事会的维埃纳省,1312年5月5日第三次和最后一次会议上发出的。 The prescriptions contained in the Franciscan Rule were divided into those which bound under pain of mortal, and those which bound under pain of venial sin.在方济各条所载的药方分为那些痛下凡间的约束,以及那些根据venial单疼痛的约束。those enjoining the renunciation of property and the adoption of poverty were retained: the Franciscans were entitled only to the usus (use) of goods given to them, and wherever the rule prescibed it, only to the usus pauper or arctus (simple use).这些责令财产和贫困通过放弃被保留:济均有权只对给他们货物usus(使用),何地规则prescibed它,只有美国的信用卡穷光蛋或arctus(简单使用)。 All matters concerning the Franciscan habit, and all the storehouses and cellars allowed in cases of necessity, were referred to the discretion of the superiors of the order.所有事宜济的习惯,所有的仓库和在必要情况下允许的地窖,被提到了该命令的上级决定。

The Spirituals of Provence and Tuscany, however, were not yet placated.普罗旺斯和托斯卡纳的灵,但是,尚未安抚。At the General Chapter of Barcelona (1313), a Parisian master of theology, Alexander of Alessandria (Lombardy), was chosen to succeed Gonzálvez, but died in October, 1314.在巴塞罗那(1313),巴黎大师的神学总章,亚历山德里亚(伦巴第)亚历山大,被选为接替Gonzálvez,但在10月,1314年去世。 The General Chapter of Naples (1316) elected Michael of Cesena, a moderate Conventual.那不勒斯的通则(1316)当选迈克尔切塞纳,适度Conventual。The commission appointed by this chapter altered the general statutes of the rule of poverty.通过本章任命的委员会改变了贫困的一般规则章程。The Spirituals immediately afterwards rekindled the property strife, but John XXIII interdicted and suppressed their peculiar notions by the Constitution "Quorumdam exigit" (7 October, 1317), thus completely restoring the official unity of the order.随即燃起的灵的财产纷争,但约翰二十三世停职和抑制宪法“Quorumdam exigit”(1317年10月7日),其独特的概念,从而完全恢复的命令正式统一。In 1321, however, the so-called theoretical discussion on poverty broke out, the inquisitor, John of Belna, a Dominican, having taked exception to the statement that Christ and the Apostles possessed property neither in communi nor in speciali (ie neither in common nor individually).In 1321,however,the so - called on poverty theoretical discussion broke out,the of Belna,a多明尼加inquisitor,约翰,having to the statement taked exception that Christ及the Apostles possessed neither in communi nor in speciali property(ie neither in common也不是个别)。The ensuing strife degenerated into a fierce scholastic disputation between the Franciscans and the Dominicans, and, as the pope favoured the views of the latter, a very dangerous crisis seemed to threated the Minorites.随之而来的激烈争斗沦为之间的方济和多米尼加学术争论,而且,作为教皇的青睐,后者的意见,一个非常危险的危机似乎threated的Minorites。 By the Constitution "Ad conditorem canonum" (8 December, 1322) John XXII renounced the title of the Church to all the possessions of the friars Minor, and restored the ownership to ther order.受宪法“广告conditorem canonum”(1322年12月8日)约翰二十二放弃了教会标题所有的修士小的财产,并恢复了所有权有秩序。This action, contrary to the practice and expressed sentiments of his predecessors, placed the Minorites on exactly the same footing as the other orders, and was a harsh provision for an order which had laboured so untiringly in the interests of the Church.这个动作,他的前任相反的做法,并表示感情,放在完全一样的其他命令的Minorites同等的地位,并且是为它辛苦在教会的利益,为了不懈苛刻的规定。 In many other ways, however, John fostered the order.在其他许多方面,但是,约翰促进了订单。It will thus be readily understood why the members inclined to laxity joined the diaffected party, leaving but few advocated of John's regulations.因此,它将很容易理解为什么倾向于松弛的成员加入了diaffected党,但很少离开约翰的规定主张。 To the dissenting party belonged Gerardus Odonis (1329-42), the general, whose election at Paris in 1329 John had secured in the place of his powerful opponent Michael of Cesena.要持反对意见的一方属于Gerardus Odonis(1329年至1342年),在一般情况下,其选举于巴黎1329约翰在他的切塞纳强大的对手迈克尔地方保护。Odonis, however, was supported only by the minority of the order in his efforts to effect the abolition of the rule of poverty.Odonis,然而,仅支持的命令在他的努力,切实的贫困规则取消少数。The deposed general and his followers, the Michaelites (cf. FRATICELLI), were disavowed by the General Chapter of Paris, and the order remained faithful to the Holy See.被废黜的一般和他的追随者,Michaelites(参见FRATICELLI),分别否认由巴黎总章,而为了保持忠于罗马教廷。 The constitutions prescribed by Benedict XII, John's successor, in his Bull of 28 November, 1336, and the name "Constitutiones Catarcenses" or "Benedictinae"), contained not a single reference tot he rule of poverty.该宪法规定的本笃十二,约翰的接班人,在他的1336年11月28日通报,并命名为“Constitutiones Catarcenses”或“Benedictinae”),它不包含参考TOT他贫困的规则。Benedict died in 1342, and on the preferment of Gerardus Odonis to the Patriarchate of Antioch, Fortanerio Vassalli was chosen general (1343-47).本笃死在1342,并在向安提阿主教Gerardus Odonis升迁,Fortanerio Vassalli被选为总(1343年至1347年)。

Under Guilllaume Farinier (1348-57) the Chapter of Marseilles resolved to revive the old statues, a purpose which was realized in the general constitutions promulgated by the General Chapter of Assisi in 1354 ("Constitutiones Farineriae or guilemi").根据Guilllaume法里尼耶(1348年至1357年)的决心振兴老塑像马赛章,这是由1354年的阿西西(“Constitutiones Farineriae或guilemi”)通则颁布的一般宪法实现的目的。This code was based on the "Constitutioners Narboneses" (1260), and the Bulls "Exiit" and "Exivi", but the edicts of John XXII, being promulgated by the pope over and above the chapter, still continued in force.此代码是基于“Constitutioners Narboneses”(1260),和公牛“Exiit”和“Exivi”,但约翰XXII被教皇颁布了以上的章节,该法令仍继续有效。The great majority of the friars accomodated themselves to these regulations and undertook the care and proprietorship of their goods, which they entrusted to fratres procuratores elected from among themselves.而绝大多数的修士容纳自己这些法规,并承诺照顾和独资企业的商品,他们委托fratres procuratores从互选。The protracted strife of the deposed general (Michael of Cesna) with the pope, in which the general was supported with conspicuous learning by some of the leading members of the order and encouraged by the German emperor Louis IV (the Bavarian), for reasons of secular and ecclesiastical polity, gave great and irresistible impulse to laxity in the order, and prejudiced the founder's ideal.被废黜的一般(迈克尔的Cesna)与教皇,其中一般的支持与突出学习由该命令的一些领导成员,由德国皇帝路易四世(巴伐利亚)鼓励长期纷争的原因世俗和宗教政体,给予了极大的和不可抗拒的冲动松弛的秩序,损害创始人的理想。 It was John XXII who had introduced Conventualism is the later sense of the workd, that is, community of goods, income and property as in other religious orders, in contradiction to Observantism or the strict observance of the rule, a movement now strong within the order, acrding to which the members were to hold no property in communi and renounce all vested incomes and accumulation of goods.这是约翰二十二谁曾推出Conventualism是workd后感,也就是商品,收入和其他宗教团体的财产社会矛盾Observantism或规则的严格遵守,内部的运动现在强,秩序,acrding哪个成员要举行通信没有放弃所有的财产和收入归属和货物的积累。 The Bull "Ad conditorem", so significant in the history of the order, was only withdrawn 1 November, 1428, by Martin V.公牛“广告conditorem”,所以在重要的历史顺序,只有撤回马丁1428年11月1日,V.

Meanwhile the development of Conventualism had been fostered in many ways.同时,对Conventualism发展已培育出在许多方面。In 1348 the Black Death swept devastatingly over Euope, empting town and cloister.在1348年黑死病席卷毁灭性超过Euope,防患未然镇和修道院。The wealth of the order increaded rapidly, and thousands of new brothers were admitted without sufficiently close examination into their eligibility.该increaded迅速秩序财富,成千上万的新兄弟被录取到他们没有足够密切的资格考试。The liverality of the faithful was also, if not a source of danger for the Minorites, at least a constant incitement ot depart to some extent from the rule of poverty.的忠实liverality也是,如果不是为Minorites源的危险,至少OT离开不断煽动从贫穷规则在一定程度上。 This liberality showed itself mainly in gifts of real property, for example in endowments for prayers for the dead, which were then usually founded with real estate.这主要表现出慷慨的不动产礼物本身,在为死者祈祷,然后将其通常与房地产成立禀赋的例子。In the fourteenth century also began the land wars and feuds (eg the Hundred Years War in France), which relaxed every bond of discipline and good order.在十四世纪也开始了土地的战争和仇恨(如在法国百年战争),其中每一个宽松的纪律和良好秩序的纽带。The current feelings of anarchic irresponsibility were also encouraged by the Great Wester Schism, during which men quarreled not only concerning obedience to the papacy, to which there were three claimants since the Council of Pisa, but also concerning obedience to the generals of the order, whose number tallied with the number of the popes.不负责任的无政府主义目前感情还鼓励大韦斯特分裂,其间男子吵架,不仅关于服从教皇,对此有三种自比萨局索赔,但也涉及服从将军的命令,其数目相吻合与教皇的数量。

Guillaume Farinier was named cardinal in 1356, but continued to govern the order until the election of Jean Bouchier (de Buco) in 1357.纪尧姆法里尼耶被命名为枢机主教在1356年,但继续执政,直到让Bouchier(DE Buco)在1357年选举的秩序。 John having died in 1358, mark of Viterbo was chosen to succeed him (1359-66), it being deemed desirable to elect an italian, the preceding four generals having been French, Mark was raised to the cardinalate in 1366, and was succeeded by Thomas of Farignano (1367-72), who became Patriarch of Grado in 1372, and cardinal in 1378.约翰已在1358年去世后,马克的维泰博被选为接替他(1359年至1366年),它被视为最好选一个意大利人,前四个将领已被法国,马克提高到了对cardinalate在1366年,是成功的托马斯Farignano(1367年至1372年),谁成为格拉多祖师在1372和1378大是大非。 Leonardo Rossi of Giffone (1373-78) succeeded Thomas as general, and supported Clemens VII during the schism.莱昂纳多的Giffone罗西(1373年至1378年)继任一般托马斯,并支持分裂克莱门斯在第七。This action gave umbrage to Urban VI, who deposed him and named Ludovico Donato his successor.这个动作给了不快市区六,谁废黜他和他的继任者命名卢多维科多纳托。Ludovico was also chosen in 1379 by the General Chapter of Gran in Hungary at which, however, only twelve provinces were represented, was named cardinal in 1381, but was executed in 1385 with some other cardinals for participating in a conspiracy against Urban VI.卢多维科也选择在1379年由花岗岩在匈牙利通则在其中,但是,只有十二个省派代表,在1381年被任命为枢机主教,但执行的是1385年在对市区六阴谋参与一些其他枢机主教。 His third successor, Enrico Alfieri (1387-1405), could only bewail the privileges subversive of discipline, by means of which the claimants to the papacy sought to bind their supporters more closely to themselves.他的第三个接班人,恩里科Alfieri(1387至1405年),只能哀叹纪律特权颠覆,通过它向教皇索赔人及其支持者更加紧密地结合到自己。 Alfieri's successor, Antonio de Pireto (1405-21), gave his allegiance to the Council of Pisa and Alexander V (1409-15), a man of no great importance. Alfieri的继任者,安东尼Pireto(1405年至1421年),给了他效忠的比萨和亚历山大V(1409至1415年),是没有人会重视。 With the election of Martin V (1417-31) by the Council of Constance, unity was restored in the order, which was then in a state of the greatest confusion.随着马丁V(1417年至1431年)由康斯会选举中,团结是恢复了秩序,这是在一个最伟大的混乱状态,然后。

The Observance (Regularis Observantia) had meanwhile prepared the ground for a regeneration of the order.纪念活动(Regularis Observantia)已同时编制了该命令再生地面。At first no uniform movements, but varying in different lands, it was given a definite character by St. Bernardine of Siena and St. John Capistran.起初,没有统一的动作,但在不同的土地不同,它被赋予了由圣伯纳迪恩锡耶纳和圣约翰Capistran明确的字符。 In Italy as early as 1334 Giovanni de Valle had begun at San Bartolomeo de Brugliano, near Forligno, to live in exact accordance with the rule but without that exemption from the order, which was later forbidden by Clement VI in 1343.如1334年在意大利乔万尼德山谷早已经开始在新巴托洛梅奥DE Brugliano近Forligno,住在与该规则的规定,但没有确切的,从订单,后来被禁止的克莱门特六世在1343年豁免。It is worthy of notice that Clement, in 1350, granted this exemption to the lay brother Gentile da Spoleto, a companion of Giovanni, but Gentile gathered together such a disorderly rabble, including some of the heretical Fraticelli, that the privilege was withdrawn (1354), he was expelled from the order (1355), and cast into prison.这是克莱门特注意到,在1350年,获得这项豁免向奠定兄弟詹蒂莱大斯波莱托,同伴的乔瓦尼,但詹蒂莱聚集如此无序的乌合之众,其中包括一些邪教Fraticelli,即特权被撤销(1354值得),他被开除的命令(1355),并关进监狱演员。 Amongst his faithful adherents was Paoluccio Vagnozzi of Trinci, who was allowed by the general to return to Brugliano in 1368.他的忠实信徒当中是Paoluccio Vagnozzi的Trinci,谁被允许返回的一般在1368至Brugliano。As a protection against the snakes so numerous in the district, wooden slippers (calepodia, zoccoli) were worn by the brothers, and, as their use continued in the order the Observants were long known as the Zoccolanti or lignipedes.为防止在区,木拖鞋(calepodia,zoccoli)蛇如此众多的保护人所穿的兄弟,和,因为他们使用的是Observants是只要Zoccolanti或lignipedes已知顺序继续进行。 In 1373 Paoluccio's followers occcupied ten small houses in ubria, to which was soon added San Damiano at Assisi.在1373 Paoluccio的追随者occcupied在ubria十个小房子,这很快就被添加在阿西西圣达米亚诺。 They were supported by Gregory XI, and also, after some hesitation, by the superiors of the order.他们支持格雷戈里席,而且,经过一番犹豫,由该命令的上级。In 1388, Enrico Alfineri, the general appointed Paoluccio commissary general of his followers, whom he allowed to be sent into all the districts of italy as an incentive to the rest of the order.在1388年,恩里科Alfineri,一般任命Paoluccio他的追随者小卖部一般,被他获准进入所有作为该命令的其余部分奖励意大利地区发送。 Paoluccio died on 17 September, 1390, and was succeeded by John of Stroncone (d. 1418). Paoluccio死于1390年9月17日,并通过Stroncone约翰(卒于1418)成功。In 1414, this reform possessed thirty-four houses, to which the Porziuncola was added in 1514.在1414年,这项改革拥有34家,对此Porziunco​​la是1514年加入。In the fourteenth centry there were three Spanish provinces: that of Portugal (also called Santiago), that of Castile, and that of Aragon.在第十四centry有三个西班牙语省份:葡萄牙(也称为圣地亚哥),这是卡斯蒂利亚和阿拉贡的。Although houses of the reformers in which the rule was rididly observed existed in each of these provinces about 1400, there does not appear to have been any connection between the reforms of each province -- much less between these reforms and the Italian Observance -- and consquently the part played by Peter of Villacreces in Silos and Aguilera has been greatly exaggerated.虽然在该规则ridid​​ly观察到大约1400在这些省份的每个存在的改革者的房子,似乎没有任何已在每个省的改革连接 - 在这些改革和意大利遵守少得多 - 和consquently部分所起Villacreces彼得在发射井和阿奎莱拉已大大夸大了。

Independent also was the Reform or Observance in France, which had its inception in 1358 (or more accuratley in 1388) in the cloister at Mirabeau in the province of Touraine, and thence spread through Burgundy, Touraine, and Franconia.独立也是改革或遵守在法国,曾在在米拉波桥在都兰省修道院在1358年成立以来(1388 accuratley或以上),并从那里通过勃艮第,海纳,和弗兰肯蔓延。In 1407 Benedict XIII exempted them from all jurisdiction of the provincials, and on 13 May, 1408, gave them a vicar-general in the person of Thomas de Curte.在1407年本笃十三免除所有的外省人管辖他们,并在1408年5月13日,给了他们中的托马斯de Curte某人副主教一般。In 1414 about two hundred of their number addressed a petition to the Council fo Constance, which thereupon granted to the friars of the stricta observantia regularis a special provincial vicar in every province, and a vicar-general over all, Nicholas Rodolphe being the first to fill the last-mentioned office.在1414年约两年的人数百讨论了请愿书,为康斯理事会,于是授予本STRICTA observantia regularis特别在每个省省级教区牧师的修士,和副主教一般超过所有,尼古拉斯鲁道夫的第一个填补最后提到的办公室。Angelo Salvetti, general of the order (1421-24), viewed these changes with marked disfavour, but Martin V's protection prevented him from taking any steps to defeat their aim.安杰洛Salvetti,一般的顺序(1421年至1424年),请以明显失宠这些变化,但马丁V的保护无法采取任何措施来战胜他们的目的了。 Far more opposed was Salvetti's successor, Antonio de Masso (1424-30).更反对是Salvetti的继任者,安东尼Masso(1424年至1430年)。The ranks of the Observants increased rapidly in France and Spain in consequence of the exemption.在Observants队伍增加了法国和西班牙迅速在豁免的后果。The Italian branch, however, refused to avail themselves of any exemption from the usual superiors, the provincial and the general.意大利的分支,但是,拒绝利用任何豁免从平时的上司,省和一般自己。

In Germany the Observance appeared about 1420 in the province of Cologne at the monastery of Gouda (1418), in the province of Saxony in the Mark of Brandenburg (1425); in the upper German province first at the Heidelberg monastery (1426).在德国,遵守有关1420年出现在科隆省在豪达(1418)寺院,在萨克森州的勃兰登堡马克(1425)省,在省上在德国海德堡修道院(1426)第一次。 Cloisters of the Observants already existed in Bosnia, Russia, Hungary, and even in Tatary.在Observants修道院已经存在在波斯尼亚,俄罗斯,匈牙利,甚至在Tatary。In 1430 Martin V (1417-31) summoned the whole order, Observants and Conventuals, to the general Chapter of Assisi (1430), "in order that our desire for a general reform of the order may be fulfilled."马丁在1430 V(1417年至1431年)召见整个秩序,Observants和Conventuals,到阿西西(1430)的一般分会,“为了使我们的订单一般改革的愿望可能无法实现。” William of Casale (1430-42) was elected general, but the intellectual leader of Assisi was St. John Capistran.的卡萨莱(1430至1442年)威廉当选一般,但智力领导人阿西西圣约翰Capistran。The statues promulgated by this chapter are called the "Constitutiones Martinianae" from the name of the pope.通过本章颁布的雕像被称为“Constitutiones Martinianae”从教宗的名字。They cancelled the offices of general and provincial vicars of the Observants and introduced a scheme for the general reform of the order.他们取消了一般的Observants和省级教区牧师的办公室,并介绍了该命令的全面改革计划。 All present at the chapter had bound themselves on oath to carry out its decisions, but six weeks later (27 July, 1430) the general was released from his oath and obtained from Martin V the Brief "Ad statum" (23 August, 1430), which allowed the Conventuals to hold property like all other orders.所有在该章目前已拥有一定宣誓履行自己的决定,但六个星期后(1430年7月27日),一般被释放他的誓言和马丁V的简介“广告statum”获得(1430年8月23日) ,这使得Conventuals持有像所有其他订单的财产。This Brief constituted the Magna Charta of the Conventuals, and henceforth any reform of the order on the lines of the rule was out of the question.这份简短的构成了Conventuals大宪章,从今以后任何秩序规则的线条改革是无从谈起。

The strife between the Observants and the Conventuals now broke out with such increased fury that even St. John Capistran laboured for a division of the order which was however still longer opposed by St. Bernadine of Siena.之间的Observants和Conventuals冲突现在爆发了这样的愤怒,甚至增加圣约翰Capistran针对这是由圣但仍然较长锡耶纳伯娜丁为了反对分裂吃力。 Additional bitterness was lent to the strife when in many instance princes and towns forcibly withdrew the ancient Fraciscan monasteries from the Conventuals and turned them over to the Observants.额外的痛苦是借给冲突时,在许多实例王子和城镇强行退出了Conventuals古老的寺庙和转Fraciscan他们送交Observants。 In 1438 the general of the order named St. Bernardine of Siena, first Vicar-General of the Italian Observants, an office in which Bernardine was succeeded by St. John Capistran in 1441.在1438名为圣锡耶纳,首先是意大利Observants副主教秘书长,在这个伯纳迪恩是由圣约翰Capistran成功地在1441办公室伯纳迪恩的顺序一般。 At the General Chapter of Padua (1443), Albert Berdini of Sarteano, an Observant, would have been chosen general in accordance with the papa; wish had not his election been opposed by St. Bernardine.在帕多瓦(1443),阿尔伯特贝尔迪尼的萨尔泰阿诺,一个细心的总章,一般会被选择在与爸爸的规定,希望他的当选并没有被圣伯纳迪恩反对。 Antonio de Rusconibus (1443-50) was accordingly elected, and, until the separation in 1517, no Observant held the office of general.安东尼Rusconibus(1443至1450年)为相应的当选,而且,直到在1517年的分离,没有细心举行了办公厅。 In 1443 Antonio appointed two vicars-general to direct the Observants -- for the cismontane family (ie for Italy, the East, Austria-Hungary, and Poland) St. John Capistran, and for the ultramontane (all other countries, including afterwards America) jean Perioche of Maubert.1443年安东尼奥委任两名副主教向大会直接Observants - 为cismontane家庭(即意大利,东,奥地利,匈牙利和波兰)圣约翰Capistran,和(所有其他国家,包括后来美国的ultramontane )牛仔Perioche的Maubert。By the so-called Separation bull of Eugene IV, "Ut sacra ordinis minorum" (11 January, 1446), outlined by St. John Capistran, the office of the vicar-general of the Observants was declared permanent, and made practically independent of the minister general of the order, but the Observants might not hold a general chapter seperate from the rest of the order.到了尤金四所谓的分离牛市,“UT萨克拉ordinis minorum”(1446年1月11日),由圣约翰Capistran介绍,在对Observants副主教办公厅宣布永久性的,并提出切实独立订单的部长一般,但Observants可能不举行一般性章从秩序的其余部分分开。 After the canonization in 1450 of Bernardine of Siena (d. 1444), the first saint of the Observants, John Capistran with the assistance of the zealous cardinal Nicholas of Cusa (d. 1464), extended the Observance so greatly in Germany, that he could henceforth disregard the attacks of the lax and time-serving sections of the order.后在伯纳迪恩1450锡耶纳(草1444),对Observants先圣,约翰与热心的库萨枢机主教尼古拉斯(四1464)援助Capistran,册封遵守所以大大延长了在德国,他今后可以无视该命令的松懈和时间提供服务部分的攻击。 At the Chapter of Barcelona, in 1451, the so-called "Statuta Barchnionensia" were promulgated.在巴塞罗那分会,在1451年,所谓的“Statuta Barchnionensia”颁布实施。Though somewhat modifies these continued in force for centuries in the ultramontane family.虽然有些修改为在ultramontane世纪迫使这些家庭继续。

The compromise essayed by St. James of the March in 1455 was inherently hopeless, although it granted to the vicars of the Observants active voting power at the general chapters.由圣三月份詹姆斯essayed在1455妥协是天生无望,虽然它授予的一般章节的Observants积极投票权的教区牧师。 On this compromise was based the "Bulla concordiae" of Callistus III (2 February, 1456), which Pius II withdrew (11 October, 1458).在此基础上妥协“泡concordiae”的卡利斯图斯III(1456年2月2日),这比约二撤回(1458年10月11日)。 The Chapter of Perugia (1464) elected as general Francesco della rovere (1464-69), who was elevated to the cardinalate in 1468, and later elected pope under the title of Sixtus IV (1471-84).而佩鲁贾(1464)第一章一般弗朗切斯科当选为德拉rovere(1464年至1469年),谁是在1468年升高了对cardinalate,后来当选下Sixtus IV(1471年至1484年)的标题教皇。Sixtus granted various privileges to the Fransicans in his Bull "Mare magnum" (1474) and his "Bulla aurea" (1479), but was rather more kindly disposed towards the Conventuals, to whome he had belonged. Sixtus授予不同权限,在他的公牛“母马大酒瓶”(1474)和他的“泡忽地笑”(1479)的Fransicans,但较为亲切朝Conventuals处置,以whome属于他。 The generals Francesco Nanni (1475-99), to whom Sixtus gave the sobriquet of Samson to signalize his victory in a disputation on the Immaculate Conception, and Egidio Delfini (1500-06) displayed a strong bias in favour of the reform of the Conventuals, Edigio using as his pleas the so-called "Constitutiones Alexandrinae" sanctioned by Alexander VI in 1501.将军弗朗切斯科南尼(1475年至1499年),向谁Sixtus给了参孙绰号为signalize在上圣母无原罪争论他的胜利,Egidio Delfini(1500年至1506年)显示在该Conventuals赞成改革强烈的偏见,Edigio用他的认罪所谓的“Constitutiones Alexandrinae”的亚历山大六世批准于1501年。His zeal was far surpassed in Spain by that of the powerful Minorite, Francisco Ximenes de los Cisneros, who expelled from the cloisters all Conventuals opposed to the reform.他的热情远远超过了西班牙的强大的Minorite,旧金山希梅内斯德洛斯西斯内罗斯,谁从所有Conventuals反对改革修道院开除了。 At Paris, Delfini won the large house of studies to the side of the reformers.在巴黎,Delfini赢得了大量研究房子的改革者的一面。The Capitulum generalissimum at Rome in 1506 was expected to bring about the union of the various branches, but the proposed plan did not find acceptance, and the statutes, drawn up by the chapter and published in 1508 under the title "Statuta Iulii II", could not bridge the chasm separating the parties.而在1506年在罗马头状花序generalissimum预期带来的各分支工会,但建议的计划没有找到接受和法规,制订了一章,并在1508年发表的题为“Statuta Iulii II”无法弥合的鸿沟隔开双方。After long deliberations had taken place under generals Rainaldo Graziani (1506-09), Philip of Bagnacavallo (1509-11), and Bernardino Prato da Chieri (1513-17), the last general of the united order, Leo X summoned on 11 July, 1516, a capitulum generalissimum to meet at rone onf the feast of Pentecost (31 May), 1517.经过长时间的讨论已采取下将军Rainaldo格拉齐亚尼(1506年至1509年),菲利普的Bagnacavallo(1509至1511年)和圣贝纳迪诺普拉托大Chieri(1513年至1517年),是美国为了最后一般的地方,利奥x传唤7月11日,1516,一个花序generalissimum到在酮ONF满足圣灵降临节(5月31日),1517盛宴。 This chapter first suppressed all the reformed congregations and annexed them to the Observants; declared the Observants an independent order, the true Order of St. Francis, and separated them completely from the Conventuals.本章首先抑制所有的改革教会和所附给Observants;宣布Observants一个独立的秩序,圣弗朗西斯真实订单,分开Conventuals他们完全。 The General of the Observants received the title of Minister Generalis totius ordinis Fratrum Minorum, with or without the addition regularis Observantiae, and was entrusted with the ancient seal of the order.该Observants秘书长收到了部长Generalis totius ordinis Fratrum Minorum标题,不管有没有另外regularis Observantiae,并与订单的古玺委托。His period of office was limited to six years, and he was to be chosen alternately from the familia cismontana and the familia ultramontana -- a regulation which has not not been observed.他的任期是有限的,六年了,他是选择从福美来cismontana和福美来ultramontana交替 - 一项已经没有未得到遵守规定。For the other family a Commissarius generalis is always elected.对于其他家人Commissarius generalis总是当选。In processions, etc., the Observants take precedence of the Conventuals.在游行等,Observants利用Conventuals优先。

B. Second period (1517-1909)B.第二期(1517至1909年)

Christoforo Numai of Friuli was elected first General of the Reformed Order of Franciscans (Ordo Fratrum Minorum), but was raised a month later to the cardinalate. Christoforo的弗留利Numai当选首任方济(奥Fratrum Minorum)改革令一般,但一个月后提出了对cardinalate。 Francesco Lichetto (1518-20) was chosen as his successor by the Chapter of Lyons (1518), where the deliberations centered around the necessary rearrangement of the order in provinces and the promulgation of new general constitutions, which were based on the statutes of Barcelona (1451, cf. supra).弗朗切斯科Lichetto(1518至20年)被选定为他的继任者由里昂(1518),其中审议围绕必要重排顺序在省和新宪法的颁布一般,这是在巴塞罗那的中心章程第一章(1451,比照段)。 Lichetto and his successors -- Paul of Soncino (1520-23), who died in 1523, and Francisco de Angelis Quiñones (1523-28), a Spaniards, diligently devoted themselves to establishing the Observance on a firm basis.Lichetto和他的继任者 - 保罗Soncino(1520至1523年),谁在1523年去世,和弗朗西斯安吉利斯醌(1523年至1528年),一个西班牙人,努力投身于建立在牢固的基础上遵守。 Quinones was named cardinal in 1528, and the new general, Paolo Pisotti (1529-33), unfortunately disregarding the ideal of his predecessors and failing entirely to grasp the significance of the reforms afoot at the time (for example that of the Capuchins), was deposed in 1533.凯诺内斯在1528年被任命为枢机主教,而新的一般,保罗Pisotti(1529年至1533年),可惜不顾理想和他的前任未能完全把握了当时的改革意义在进行中(例如,该卷尾猴), 1533年被废黜。In 1547 the Chapter of Assisi prescribed gray as the colour of the Franciscan habit, in accordance with the custom of the Observants and forbade the wearing in beards.在1547年的阿西西本章规定作为方济各的习惯色灰白,在与Observants习俗,并禁止穿在胡须。At the General Chapter of Salamanca (1554), Clemente Dolera of Moneglia, the general in office promulgated new statutes for the cismontane family.在萨拉曼卡(1554)总章,克莱门特Dolera的Moneglia,一般在办公室颁布了cismontane家族的新法规。 On the preferment of clemente to the cardinalate in 1557, Francesco Zamora, his successor (1559-65), defended at the Council of Trent the order's rule of poverty, which was then sanctioned by the council for the Observants and Capuchins.论克莱门特于1557年升任了对cardinalate,弗朗切斯科萨莫拉,他的继任者(1559年至1565年),在捍卫安理会的遄达秩序的规则贫困,这是当时由卷尾猴的Observants和议会的批准。 Under Luigi Pozzo (Puteus), the next general (1565-71), the Spanish Conventuals were united with the Observants by command of the pope, and a general reunion of the separated branches of the order seemed imminent.在路易吉波佐(Puteus),下届(1565年至1571年),西班牙Conventuals是团结的Observants由教皇的命令,该命令的分离分支机构一般团聚似乎一触即发。 The two succeeding generals, Christophe de Cheffontaines, a Frenchman (1571-79), and Francisco Gonzaga (1579-87), laboured industriously for the rigorous observance and the rule of poverty, which was rather loosely interpreted, especially in France.这两个成功的将领,克里斯多夫德Cheffontaines,法国人(1571年至1579年),和Francisco冈萨加(1579年至1587年),辛勤劳苦的严格遵守和贫困的规则,这是相当松散的解释,特别是在法国。 Gonzaga reformed the great convent of studies at Paris and, in 1581, was appointed, in opposition to his wishes, Bishop of Cefalù (Sicily) and afterwards of Mantua, where he died in the odour of sanctity, in 1620.冈萨加改革在巴黎大修道院的研究,并于1581年,被任命为反对他的愿望,切法卢(西西里岛)的主教和曼图亚,他死在了圣洁的气味在1620年,后来,。 The process for his beatification is pending at Rome.对于他的赐福进程正在等待在罗马。Francis of Toulouse (1587-93) and Bonaventura Secusi of Caltagirone (Sicily, 1593-1600) were employed frequently on embassies by the popes, and revised the constitutions of the order, in which however, the alterations were too frequent.弗朗西斯图卢兹(1587年至1593年)和波纳文图拉的卡尔塔吉罗Secusi(西西里岛,1693至00年)受雇于经常对使馆由教皇,并修改了订单,其中不过,改动过于频繁的宪法。 Finally at the Chapter of Segovia in 1621, the minister general, Benignus of Genoa (1618-25), approved the "Statuta Segoviensia" for the ultramontane family, with suitable additions both for the French and for the German-Belgian nation.终于在1621年塞戈维亚章,部长一般,热那亚(1618年至1625年)Benignus,同时批准为法国和德国,比利时国家适当增加为ultramontane家庭“Statuta Segoviensia”。Thereafter the latter nation adhered most perseveringly to the principles of these statutes; that their consistency in this respect has proved a source of prosperity, vigour, and inner strength is universally known.此后,后者坚持民族最持之以恒的这些法规的原则;他们在这方面的一致性证明了繁荣,活力和内在的力量是举世皆知的来源。

About this period the so-called Counter-Reformation was bursting into vigorous life in the North and the order entered on a new period of strenuous vitality.关于这一时期的所谓的反宗教改革爆破成积极生活在北方和活力的艰苦时期进入了新的秩序。The Reformation had dealt a terrible blow to the Franciscans in these parts, annihilating in many instances entire provinces.宗教改革已经处理了可怕的打击,在这些部位济,在许多情况下消灭整个省份。Supported now by the emperor and the Catholic princes, they advance to regain their old position and to found new cloisters, from which they could minister to their flocks.支持皇帝和天主教诸侯现在,他们提前恢复旧的立场,并找到了新的回廊,从中他们可以部长他们的羊群。To bring into subjection the four rather lax French provinces which were known as the Provinciae confaederatae and were thenceforward always too much inclined to shelter themselves behind the government, the general, Bernardine of Sena (Portugal, 1625-33), obtained from Urban VIII the Bull of 1 October, 1625.进入隶属带来四个比较松其中被称为Provinciae confaederatae并从那时起一直过分倾向于支持政府自己的住房,一般,伯纳迪恩的塞纳(葡萄牙,1625年至1633年),从城市第八获得法国省份公牛的1625年10月1日。 The French, indeed, justly complained that the general of the order was always chosen from Italy or from Spain.法国,事实上,公正抱怨说,该命令一般总是从意大利或西班牙的选择。The privilege unsurped by the Spanish kings, of exerting a certain influence in the election and indeed securing that the general should be alternately a Spaniards and an Italian (but one from the Crown lands of Spain), was in contradiciton to all Fraciscan statutes and laws. unsurped由西班牙国王施加在选举中确实有一定的影响和保护,一般应交替a西班牙人和意大利(但来自西班牙官地之一),特权,在contradiciton所有Fraciscan法规和法律。 The Spanish generals, furthermore resided usually at Madrid, instead of at Rome, and most of the higher offices were occupied by Spaniards -- an anomalous situation which aroused great resentment amongst the friars of other nations, especially France and in Italy, and continued until 1834.西班牙将军,而且通常居住在马德里,而不是在罗马,以及上级检察院大部分西班牙人占领了 - 一个反常情况,引起了其他国家之间,尤其是法国和意大利的修士极大的反感,并一直持续到1834。This introduction of national politics into the government of the oder proved as noxious to the interests of the Friars Minor as the established churches of the eighteenth century did to the cause of Christianity.这进入了国家政治奥德政府出台的证明作为有毒的男修道士未成年人作为十八世纪建立的教堂也为基督教事业的利益。

Generals Juan Merinero of Madrid (1639-45), Giovanni Mazzara of Naples (1645-48), and Pedro Mancro (1651-55) tried without success to give definite statutes to the cismontane family, while the "Constitutiones Sambucanae", drawn up by General Michele Buongiorno of Sambuca (1658-64) at the order of the general chapter, did not remain long in force.将军胡安Merinero马德里(1639年至1645年),乔瓦尼那不勒斯Mazzara(1645年至1648年)和佩德罗Mancro(1651年至1655年)尝试没有成功给予明确的法规对cismontane家庭,而“Constitutiones Sambucanae”,制定了米歇尔将军Buongiorno公司的独步青云在一般章节顺序(1658年至1664年),没有保持长期有效。Ildefonso Salizanes (1664-70) and Francesco Maria Rhini (1670-74) were both raised to the espiscopate.埃尔德枫索Salizanes(1664年至1670年)和Francesco玛丽亚Rhini(1670年至1674年)均提高到espiscopate。 José Ximenes Samaniego (1676-82) zealously eradicated abuses which had crept into the order especially in Spain and France, and died as Bishop of Placencia in Spain (1692).何塞希梅内斯Samaniego(1676年至1682年)热忱根除它已经悄悄进入秩序,特别是在西班牙和法国的弊端,在主教和西班牙(1692)的珀拉什奇亚死亡。 Ildefonso Biezma (1702-16) and José García (1717-23) were appointed by papal Briefs.埃尔德枫索Biezma(1702年至1716年)和何塞加西亚(1717年至1723年)被任命由教皇简报。The next general was the famous Lorenzo Cozza (1723-27) who, as Custos of the Holy Land, had obviated a schism of the Maronites.接下来一般是著名的洛伦佐科扎(1723年至1727年)谁,作为圣地保管人,省却了一个分裂的马龙派教徒。 He was created cardinal by Benedict XIII.他被创造了本笃十三大是大非。At the Chapter of Milan (1729), Juan Soto was elected general (1729-36), and during his period of office had the statutes of the order collected, rearranged, and then published in 1734.在米兰(1729)第二章,胡索托当选为一般(1729年至1736年),并在他的任期内已收集,重新排列顺序的章程,然后在1734年出版。 Raffaello de Rossi (1744-50) gave the province (otherwise known as the custody) of the Holy Land its definitive constitution.拉斐尔德罗西(1744至1750年)给出了明确的圣地其宪法省(也称为保管)。From 1700 to 1723 no general chapter could be held in consequence of the continuous state of unrest caused by the wars and other dissensions.从1700年至1723年没有一般章可举行的由战争和其他纠纷引起的骚乱持续状态的结果。

These disputes made their appearance even in the order itself, and were fanned to a flame by the rivalry between the nations and between the different reform branches, the most heated contention being between the Observants and the Reformanti.即使在这些纠纷作出的命令本身的外观,并煽动之间由国家和分支机构之间的不同的改革,最激烈的争论之间的Observants和Reformanti被竞争到火焰。 The domestic discipline of the order thus became very slack in certain districts, although the personale of the friars Minor was at this time unusually high.该命令的家法从而变得非常松弛,在某些地区,虽然修士小personale此时异常的高了。Benedict XIII vainly endeavoured in 1727 to cement a union between the various branches (Observants, Reformanti, Recollects, and Discalced).本笃十三徒劳地努力在1727年水泥之间的(Observants,Reformanti,回忆和Discalced)各部门工会。 The general chapter of 1750, at which Benedict XIV presided and warmly praised the order, elected Pedro Joannetio of Molina (1750-56) -- the only Discalced who has been general.一般章节的1750,在这本笃十四主持和热情赞扬的顺序,当选佩德罗莫利纳(1750年至1756年)Joannetio - 唯一Discalced谁一直一般。Clemente Guignoni of Palemo followed (1756-62), and then Joannetio was elected general for the second time (1762-68), this occurrence being absolutly unique in the history of the order.克莱门特的Palemo Guignoni之后(1756年至1762年),然后Joannetio当选一般第二次(1762年至1768年),这是absolutly发生在历史上独一无二的秩序。 Paschale Frosconi (1768-91) of Milan tried in vain on several occasions to hold a general chapter.Paschale Frosconi(1768年至1791年)米兰试图多次举行一般性章徒劳的。

During his long period of office, the Spaniards endeavoured to break away from the order (1774), and the evil effect of Gallicanism and Febronianism were being already universally felt, kings and princes suppressing many of the cloisters or forbidding intercourse with Rome.在他的任期长,西班牙人努力摆脱以(1774)以外,和Gallicanism和Febronianism邪恶影响已经被普遍认为,国王和王子的回​​廊或抑制与罗马禁止性交许多。 In 1766 Louis XV established in France the Commission des Reguliers, which, presided over by Cardinal de Brienne and conducted with the greatest perfidy, brought about in 1771 a union between the Conventuals and the French Observants.1766年成立于法国路易十五委员会DES Reguliers,其中,由枢机主教主持,并与德Brienne最大的背信弃义进行,带来了在1771之间的Conventuals和法国Observants工会的问题。 The former had but three provinces with forty-eight monasteries, while the latter had seven provinces and 287 monasteries.前者曾与48寺庙,但三省,而后者则有7个省,287修道院。The French Observants, however, were always somewhat inclined towards laxity, particularly in regard to the rule of poverty, and had obtained in 1673 and 1745 a papal Brief, which allowed them to retain real estate and vested incomes.法国Observants,但是,总是有些倾向于松弛,尤其是在关于贫困的规则,并在1673年和1745年罗马教皇简报,使他们能够保留房地产取得的收入和归属。 The French Revolution brought about the annihilation of the order in France.法国大革命带来的秩序在法国湮没。

In Bavaria (1769) and many other German principalities, spiritual and secular, the order was suppressed, but nowhere more thoroughly than in the Austrian and Belgian states of Joseph II and in the Kingdom of the two Sicilies (1788) then ruled by Ferdinand IV.在巴伐利亚州(1769)和许多其他德国执政的,精神的和世俗的,订单被镇压,但更彻底地无处比在约瑟夫二世奥地利和比利时州和两个西西里(1788)英国统治费迪南德四则。 On the death of Pasquale (1791) Pius VI appointed as general a Spaniards, Joachim Compan;y (1792-1806).关于帕斯夸莱(1791)死亡庇护六世任命为一般一个西班牙人,约阿希姆Compan; Y(1792年至1806年)。In 1804, the Spanish Franciscans effected, with the assistance of the King of Spain, their complete separation from the order, although the semblances of unity was still retained by the provision of Pius VII, that the general should be chosen alternately from the Spaniards and the other nation, and that, during his term of office, the other division of the order should be governed by an autonomous vicar-general. 1804年,西班牙方济影响,在西班牙,他们从订单完全分离国王的协助下,虽然统一semblances仍然由比约七规定保留,一般应选择交替从西班牙人其他国家,而且,在他的任期内,该命令的其他部门应当由一个独立的副主教一般。 During 1793 and 1794 the order was extinct in France and Belgium; and from 1803 in most districts in Germany; from 1775 on, it was sadly reduced in Austria, and also in Italy, where it was suppressed in 1810.在1793年和1794年为了在法国和比利时的灭绝,以及从1803年在德国大部分地区,从1775年起,这是可悲的奥地利减少,以及在意大利,它是在1810年镇压。 The devastation of the order and the confusion consequent on it were deplorable.该订单上的混乱和由此产生的破坏是可悲的。 The generals appointed by the pope, Ilario Cervelli (1806-14), Gaudenzio Patrignani (1814-17), Cirillo Almeda y Brea (1817-24), and Giovanni Tecca of Capistrano (1824-30), ruled over but a faction of the order, even though prospects were somewhat brighter about this period.由教皇,Ilario Cervelli(1806年至1814年),Gaudenzio Patrignani(1814年至1817年),奇里洛Almeda Ÿ布雷亚(1817年至1824年)和乔瓦尼的斯特拉努(1824年至1830年)Tecca委任的将军,统治不过是派一声令下,即使前景有点有关这一时期更亮。 In 1827, Tecca published the statutes which had been drawn up in 1768.1827年,Tecca公布已被1768年制定了法规。Under the Spanish general, Luis Iglesias (1830-34), the formal separation of Spanish Fraciscans from the main body of the order was completed (1832), but in 1833 most of their monasteries were destroyed during the Peasants' War and the revolution.在西班牙一般,路易斯西亚斯(1830至1834年),在西班牙Fraciscans从订单主体正式分离完成(1832),但在1833年的寺庙大多是在农民战争和革命的破坏。 The general Bartolomé Altemir (1834-38) was banished from Spain, and died at Bordeaux in 1843, Giuseppe Maria Maniscalco of Alessandira (1838-44) being named his successor by Gregory XVI.一般巴托阿尔特米尔(1834年至1838年)被贬来自西班牙,并在波尔多死于1843年,朱塞佩玛丽亚Alessandira Maniscalco(1838年至1844年)被命名为格雷戈里十六世继任者。The pope also appointed the two succeeding generals, Luigi di Loreta (1844-50) and two succeeding generals, Luigi di Loreta (1844-50) and Venanzio di Celano (1850-56).教宗还任命了两个成功的将领,路易吉迪Loreta(1844至1850年)和两个成功的将领,路易吉迪Loreta(1844年至1850年)和Venanzio二切拉诺(1850至1856年)。 The former, in 1849, named Giuseppe Aréso Commissary of the Holy Land.前者于1849年,一个名为朱塞佩的圣地Aréso小卖部。 In 1851, Aréso opened the first monastery at Saint-Palais.1851年,Aréso开幕圣宫第一寺院。

About this period Benigno da Valbona introduced the Reformati into France, and in 1852 founded their first monastery at Avignon, while Venanzio as general laboured indefatigably for the resucitation of the Observants in the same country, founding new missions and raising the standard of studies.关于这一时期Benigno达Valbona引入法国Reformati,并于1852年成立于阿维尼翁他们的第一个寺院,而作为一般Venanzio不懈的辛劳,在同一个国家的Observants resucitation,成立新的任务,提高研究的水平。In Russia and Poland, however, many monasteries were suppressed in 1831 and 1842, a general strangulation being afterwards effected by the ukase of 1864.在俄罗斯和波兰,然而,许多寺庙都在1831年和1842年镇压,一般被扼杀之后影响由1864年ukase。In 1856, at the general chapter in the Ara Coceli at Rome, under the personal presidency of Pope Pius IX, Bernardino Trionfetti of Montefranco was elected general (1856-62). 1856年,在中阿糖胞苷Coceli在罗马,在教皇庇护九世的个人主席一般章,圣贝纳迪诺的Montefranco Trionfetti当选为一般(1856年至1862年)。The monasteries of Italy were suppressed by the Piedmontese in 1866, during the generalship of Raffaello Lippi of Ponticulo (1862-69) and in 1873 their fate was shared by the houses of the previously immune Roman province.意大利的修道院受到打压由1866年皮埃蒙特,在里皮的Ponticulo的拉斐尔(1862至1869年),并在1873年他们的命运是由以前免疫罗马省的房屋共用大将。 Bowed with grief and years, the general abdicated (1869), and, as a general chapter was impossible, Pius IX preferred one of the Reformanti Bernardino del Vago of Portogruaro (Portu Romatino) to the generalship (1869-89).悲伤的岁月,一般退位(1869年),并鞠躬作为一般章是不可能的,碧岳九首选的Reformanti圣贝纳迪诺德尔Portogruaro瓦戈(Portu Romatino)一到大将(1869年至1889年)。This general did much to raise the status of the order, and founded, in 1880, an official organ for the whole order (the "Acta Ordinis Minorum"), which contains the official decrees, decision, and ppublications and also many works on canon law and ascetic theology for the discipline of the order.这是一般的做了很多,提高订单的状态,并创办,于1880年,为整个顺序(“文献Ordinis Minorum”),其中包含正式法令,决定,并ppublications和佳能也有不少作品官方机构法律和秩序的纪律苦修神学。During his term of office the Prussian Kulturkampf expedded the majority of the German Franciscans (1875), most of whom settled in North America, and the French monasteries were suppressed (1880), the scattered Franciscans reassembling in Italy.在他任期内普鲁士文化之expedded的德国济(1875),其中大部分在北美大部分定居,而法国寺院受到打压(1880年),在意大利重组散济。 The Ara Coeli monastery, the ancient seat of the general's curia, having been sized by the Italian Government to make room for the national monument of Victor Emmanuel, the general was obliged to establish a new mother-house.该阿糖胞苷Coeli修道院,一般的教廷所在地古,被意大利政府规模,以弥补国家纪念碑胜者Emmanuel房间,一般是必须建立一个新的母亲的房子。 The new Collegio di S. Antonio near the Lateran was made the seat of the minister general; it is also an international college for the training of missionaries and lectors (ie professors for the schools of the order).新Collegio迪S.安东尼奥附近的拉特兰被做了一般的部长席位,它也是一个对传教士和讲师(为订单的学校即教授)国际培训学院。 Bernardino also founded the Collegio di S. Bonaventura at Quaracchi, near Florence, which contains the printing press of the order, and is principally intended for the publication of the writings of the great Franciscan scholars, and other learned works.圣贝纳迪诺还创办了Collegio迪在Quaracchi S.波纳文图拉,佛罗伦萨附近,其中包含的命令印刷机,并主要负责对伟大济学者和其他学习作品的著作出版之意。On the retirement of Bernardino in 1889, Luigi Canali of Parma was elected general (1889-97) and prepared the way for the union of the four reform branches of the order at the General Chapter of Assisi in 1895.在1889年退休的圣贝纳迪诺,路易吉帕尔马肯娜妮当选为一般(1889年至1897年),并准备为四个秩序的改革分行在阿西西在1895年总章工会的方式。 The reunion is based on the constitutions which were drawn up under the presidency of Aloysius Lauer and approved on 15 May, 1897.该团聚是基于其中制定下Aloysius劳尔主席并于1897年5月15日批准宪法。 Leo XIII completed the union by his Bull "Felicitate quâdam" of 4 October, which removed every distinction between the branches, even the difference of name, and consequently there exists today one single, undivided Order of Friars Minor (Ordo Fratrum Minorum, OFM).利奥十三世完成了他的公牛“祝贺quâdam”10月4日,撤消之间的每个分支的区别,甚至是名称上的差异,因此今天存在一个单一的,不可分割的天主教方济会小订单(奥Fratrum Minorum,OFM)工会。On the resignation of Canali as general, Leo XIII, appointed Aloysius Lauer (4 Oct., 1897) of Katholisch-Willenroth (province of Kassel, Prussia), who introduced the principles of the union gradually but firmly, as it involved many changes, especially in Italy and Austria.关于肯娜妮一般,利奥十三世,辞职任命Aloysius劳尔(1897年10月4日)的Katholisch - Willenroth(省卡塞尔,普鲁士),谁介绍了联盟的原则逐步但坚定地,因为它涉及了许多变化,特别是在意大利和奥地利。On his death (21 August, 1901) Aloysius was succeeded as vicar-general by David Fleming, an Irish friar attached to the English province.在他的死亡(1901年8月21日)Aloysius是接替副主教秘书长大卫弗莱明,爱尔兰修道士附着在英语省。 At the general chapter of 1903, Dionysius Schuler, of Schlatt, in Hobenzollern, who belonged, like Father Lauer, to the province of Fulda (Thuringia) and had laboured in the United States from 1875, was elected general.在1903年总章,狄奥尼修斯舒勒,对Schlatt,在Hobenzollern,属于谁,像父亲劳尔,到了富尔达(图林根州)省,并已在美国辛劳从1875年,当选为一般。 He also devoted himself to the complete establishment of the union, and prepared the way for the general reunion of the Spanish Franciscans with the order.他还投身于建立完整的联盟,并准备了与西班牙方济秩序的一般团聚的方式。At the General Chapter (or more correctly speaking the Congregatio media) of Assisi on 29 May, 1909, the order celebrated the seventh centenary of its glorious foundation.在一般阿西西章(或更正确地讲Congregatio媒体)5月29日,1909年,订单庆祝其百年辉煌的基础第七。

At present (1909) the order of Friars Minor includes among its members:(1) two cardinals: José Sebastiao Neto, Patriarch of Lisbon; created in 1883 (resigned in 1907); Gregorio Aguirre y García, Archbishop of Burgos, created in 1907; (2) six archbishops, including Burgos, created in 1907; (2) six archbishops, including Monsignor Diomede Falconio, apostolic Delegate to the United States since 1907; (3) thirty-two bishops and one prelate nullius (of Santarem in Brazil); (4) three prefects Apostolic.目前(1909年)的天主​​教方济会小订单包括其成员之间的:(1)两个枢机主教:何塞塞巴斯蒂昂内托,里斯本主教,在1883年创建(1907年辞任);格雷戈里奥阿吉雷Ÿ加西亚,布尔戈斯主教,于1907年创建(2)六大主教,包括布尔戈斯,创建于1907年(2)六大主教,包括主教Diomede,使徒代表对自1907年美国Falconio;(3)32枢机主教和一个无主地(在巴西的圣塔伦)(4)三个省长使徒。

II. II。THE REFORM PARTIES各方的改革

A. First Period (1226-1517)答:第一期(1226年至1517年)

All Franciscan reforms outside of the Observants were ordered to be suppressed by papal decree in 1506, and again in 1517, but not with complete success.以外的Observants所有济改革责令被压制在1506年罗马教皇的法令,并再次在1517年,但不完全成功。 The Clareni are dealt with under ANGELO CLARENO DA CINGULI; the Fraticelli and Spirituals under their respective headings.是的Clareni下处理ANGELO CLARENO DA CINGULI;的Fraticelli并在其各自的标题灵。The so-called Caesarines, or followers of Caesar of Speyer (c. 1230-37), never existed as a separate congregation.所谓Caesarines,或凯撒施派尔(C. 1230至1237年),根本不存在的追随者作为一个单独的会众。The Amadeans wee founded by pedro João Mendez (also called Amadeus), a Portuguese nobleman, who laboured in Lombardy.该Amadeans凌晨创办的佩德罗门德斯若昂(也称为艾玛迪斯),葡萄牙贵族,谁在伦巴第吃力。When he died, in 1482, his congregation had twenty-eight houses but was afterwards suppressed by Pius V. The Caperolani, founded also in Lombardy by the renowned preacher Pietro Caperolo returned in 1480 to the ranks of the Observants.当他去世后,在1482年,他的会众有28家,但后来被庇护五,Caperolani压制,伦巴第大区还建立了由著名牧师彼得Caperolo在1480年回到了Observants的行列。 The Spiritual followers of Anthony of Castelgiovanni and Matthias of Tivoli flourished during the period 1470-1490; some of their ideas resembled those of Kaspar Waler in the province of Strasburg, which were immediately repressed by the authorities.对Castelgiovanni和马提亚的Tivoli安东尼追随者的精神蓬勃发展1470年至1490年期间,他们的一些想法相似的斯特拉斯堡,它立即被当局镇压省卡斯帕Waler的。 Among the reforms in Spain were that of Pedro de Villacreces (1420) and the sect called della Capucciola of Felipe Berbegal (1430), suppressed in 1434.其中在西班牙的佩德罗 - 德 - 改革Villacreces(1420),并呼吁德拉的费利佩Berbegal(1430)在1434压制,Capucciola该教派的。More important ws the reform of Juan de la Puebla (1480), whose pupil Juan de Guadalupe increased the severities of the reform.更重要的是胡德拉普埃布拉(1480),其瞳孔胡安德瓜达卢佩增加了改革的严重程度的改革。His adherents were known as Guadalupenses, Discalced, Capuciati, or Fratres de S. Evangelio, and to them belonged Juan Zumárraga, the first Bishop of Mexico (1530-48), and St. Peter of Alcántara (d. 1562 cf. below).他的追随者被称为Guadalupenses,Discalced,Capuciati,或Fratres DE S. Evangelio,并把它们属于胡安苏马拉加,墨西哥(1530年至1548年)的第一位主教,和圣彼得的阿尔坎塔拉(四1562比照下) 。 The Neutrales were wavering Conventuals in Italy who accepted the Observance only in appearance.被动摇的Neutrales在意大利Conventuals谁只接受在外观上与遵守。Founded in 1463, they were suppressed in 1467.在1463年成立以来,他们在1467年受到打压。This middle position between the Observants and Conventuals was also taken by the Matinianists, or Martinians, and the Reformati (Observants) sub ministris or de Communiate.这之间的Observants和Conventuals中间位置还采取Matinianists,或Martinians和Reformati(Observants)子ministris或取消Communiate。 These took as their basis the decrees of the Chapter of Assisi (1430), but wished to live under provincial ministers.这些花作为他们的基础上的阿西西(1430)第二章法令,但希望生活在省部长。They existed mostly in Germany and France, and in the latter country were called Coletani, for what reason it is not quite clear (cf. SAINT COLETTE).他们存在的主要在德国和法国,并在后者的国家被称为Coletani,什么原因,它是不太清楚(参见SAINT科莱特)。 To this party belonged Boniface of Ceva, a sturdy opponent of the separation of the Conventuals from the Observants.为了这个党属于博尼法斯的CEVA,一对从Observants的Conventuals分离坚固的对手。

B. Second Period (1517-1897)B.第二期(1517年至1897年)

Even within the pale of the Regular Observance, which constituted from 1517 the main body of the order, there existed plenty of room for various interpretations without prejudicing the rule itself, although the debatable area had been considerably restricted by the definition of its fundamental requirements and prescriptions.即使在正常范围内的遵守,这是从1517年的订单主体构成苍白,存在着对规则本身无阻碍各种解释空间很大,虽然有争议的地区已相当由它的定义,基本要求和限制处方。 The Franciscan Order as such had never evaded the main principles of the rule, has never had them abrogated or been dispensed from them by the pope.在这样的济秩序从来没有回避规则的主要原则,他们从来没有被废止或免除他们的教皇。The reforms since 1517, therefore, have neither been in any sense a return to the rule, since the Order of Friars Minor has never deviated from it, nor have they been a protest against a universal lax interpretation of the rule on the part of the order, as was that of the Observants against the Conventuals.自1517年的改革,因此,既没有在任何意义上的规则的回报,因为天主教方济会小订单从来没有从它背离,也没有得到对部分对普遍规则的宽松解释抗议秩序,是对Conventuals的Observants的。 The later reforms may be more truly described as repeated attempts to draw nearer to the exalted ideal of St. Francis.后来的改革可能是更真实地描述为反复尝试得出更接近崇高的圣弗朗西斯的理想选择。Frequently, it is true, these reforms dealt only with externals -- outward exercises of piety, austerities in the rule of life, etc., and these were in many cases gradually recast, mitigated, had even entirely disappeared, and by 1897 nothing was left but the name.通常,这是事实,这些改革只涉及外部 - 外演习的虔诚,在生活规律苦行等,而这些在许多情况下逐渐被改写,减轻,甚至完全消失,到1897年什么也没有左但名字。The Capuchins are treated in a separate article; the other leading reforms within the Observance are the Discalced, the Reformati, and the Recollects. The卷尾猴被视为一个单独的文章,其他领导在遵守改革是Discalced的Reformati和回忆。The Observants are designated by the simple addition of regularis observantiae while these reformed branches add to the general title strictoris observantiae, that is, "of the stricter Observance."该Observants被指定由regularis observantiae的简单相加,而这些改革分支添加到总标题strictoris observantiae,那就是“严格遵守的。”

(1) The Discalced(1)Discalced

Juan de la Puebla has been regarded as the founder of the Discalced friars Minor, since the province of the Holy Angels (de los Angelos), composed of his followers, has ever remained a province of the Observants.胡德拉普埃布拉一直被视为该未成年人Discalced修士的创始人,自圣天使(德洛斯安耶洛斯)他的追随者组成,省,从来仍是Observants省。 The Discalced owe their origin rather to Juan de Guadelupe (cf. above).该Discalced欠他们的起源,而到胡安德Guadelupe(见上文)。He belonged indeed to the reform of Juan de la Puebla, but not for long, as he received permission from Alexander VI, in 1496, to found a hermitage with six brothers in the district of Granada, to wear the Franciscan habit in its original form, and to preach wherever he wished.他确实是属于胡德拉普埃布拉改革,但时间不长,因为他接到亚历山大六世的许可,在1496年,对发现有六兄弟的隐居在格拉纳达区,穿在其原始形式的方济各的习惯,并鼓吹只要他想。 These privileges were renewed in 1499, but the Spanish kings, influenced by the Observants of the province, obtained their withdrawal.这些特权被恢复在1499年,但西班牙国王,由全省Observants的影响,得到了他们的撤退。 They were again conferred, however, by a papal Brief in 1503, annulled in 1507, while in 1515 these friars were able to establish the custody of Estremadura.他们再次赋予的,然而,由1503年罗马教皇的简介1507年废止,而在1515年这些修士们能够树立埃斯特雷马杜拉省保管。 The union of 1517 again put an end to their separate existence, but in 1520 the province of St. Gabriel was formed from this custody, and as early as 1518 the houses of the Discalced friars in Portugal constituted the province de la Pietade.对1517年联盟再次制止他们的独立存在,但在1520年的圣盖博省从这个保管形成,早在1518年在葡萄牙Discalced修士的房屋构成了省德拉Pietade。 The dogged pertinacity of Juan Pasqual, who belonged now to the Observants and now to the Conventuals, according to the facilities afforded him to pursue the ideas of the old Egyptian hermits, withstood every attempt at repression.而胡安帕斯奎尔,现在属于谁的Observants现在到Conventuals,根据设施顽强顽固使他追求的古埃及隐士的思想,经受住了每一个在镇压企图。 After much difficulty he obtained a papal Brief in 1541, authorizing him to collect companions, whereupon he founded the custody of Sts.经过很大的困难,他获得1541年罗马教皇简介,授权他收集的同伴,于是他创办了STS的监护权。 Simon and Jude, or custody of the Paschalites (abolished in 1583), and a custody of St. Joseph.西蒙和裘德,或Paschalites(于1583年废除),以及圣若瑟保管保管。The Paschalites won a strong champion in St. Peter of Alcántara, the minister of the province of St. Gabriel, who in 1557 joined the Conventuals.该Paschalites赢得了圣阿尔坎塔拉,对圣盖博,谁于1557年加入了Conventuals省部长彼得强冠军。 As successor of Juan Pasqual and Commissary General of the Reformed Conventual Friars in Spain, Peter founded the poor and diminutive hermitage of Pedroso in Spain, and in 1559 raised the custody of St. Joseph to the dignity of a province.由于胡安帕斯奎尔和职工在西班牙改革Conventual男修道士一般的继任者彼得创立于西班牙的佩德罗索穷人和身材矮小的草庵,并在1559年提出了圣若瑟保管到一个省的尊严。 He forbade even sandals to be worn on the feet, prescribed complete abstinence from meat, prohibited libraries, in all of which measures he far exceeded the intentions of St. Francis of Assisi.他甚至禁止凉鞋穿在脚上,规定从肉完全禁欲,严禁库在所有这些措施远​​远超出他的阿西西的圣弗朗西斯的意图。From him is derived the name Alcantarines, which is often given to the Discalced Friars Minor.从他派生的名称Alcantarines,这往往给小额Discalced男修道士。Peter died in October, 562, at a house of the Observants, with whom all the Spanish reforms had entered into union in the preceding spring.彼得死在十月,562,在对Observants房子,谁所有,西班牙的改革已经进入到工会在前面的春天。The province of St. Joseph, old peculiariities.而圣若瑟省,老peculiariities。In 1572 the members were first called in papal documents Discalceati or Excalceati, and 1578 they were named Fratres Capucini de Observantiâ.在1572第一次调用的成员在罗马教皇的文件Discalceati或Excalceati,和1578年它们分别命名为Fratres Capucini DE Observantiâ。Soon other provinces followed their example and in 1604 the Discalced friars petitioned for a vicar-general, a definitor general, although many were opposed to the appointment.随后不久,其他省份的例子,在1604年的Discalced修士请愿为副主教一般情况下,definitor一般,虽然有许多人反对这一任命。 On Gregory's death (8 July, 1623) his concessions to the Discalced friars were reversed by Urban VIII, who, however, in 1642 recognized their province as interdependent.在格雷戈里的死亡(1623年7月8日)他让步的Discalced修士被逆转城市第八,谁,但是,在1642年确认为相互依存的省份。 They were not under the juridiction of the ultramontane commissary general, and received in 1703 their own procurator general, who was afterwards chosen (alternately) for them and the Recollects.他们不是根据本ultramontane小卖部一般juridiction,并在1703年自己的检察长,谁是事后选择(交替)收到他们的回忆。 They never had general statutes, and, when such were prepared in 1761, by Joannetio, a general from their own branch, the provinces refused to accept them.他们从未遇到了一般章程,而且,当这种准备在1761年由Joannetio,从他们自己的分支,一般来说,各省拒绝接受。 The Discalced gradually established houses in numerous provinces in Spain, America, the Philippines, the East Indies and the Kingdom of Naples, which was at this period under Spanish rule.该Discalced在西班牙,美国,菲律宾许多省份逐步建立房屋,东印度和英国的那不勒斯,这在这个时期是西班牙统治下。 The first houses established in Naples were handed over by Sixtus V to the Reformed Conventuals in 1589.在那不勒斯建立了第一家被移交由Sixtus v过要在1589年的改革Conventuals。In addition to the above, a house in Tuscany and another in London must be mentioned.除上述外,在托斯卡纳和另一个在伦敦的房子必须被提及。This branch was suppressed in 1897.这个分支在1897年被镇压。

(2) The Reformati(2)Reformati

The proceeding of the general Pisotti against the houses of the Italian Recollects led some of the friars of the Stricter Observance under the leadership of Francis of Jesi and Bernardine of Asti to approach Clement VII, who by the Bull "In suprema" (1532) authorized them to go completely barefoort and granted them a separate custody under the provincial.广大Pisotti对意大利进行回忆的房子率领下,弗朗西斯的JESI和伯纳迪恩的阿斯蒂领导的严格遵守的修士一些接近克莱门特七世,由“在suprema”公牛(1532)谁授权他们去完全barefoort并授予他们根据省单独保管。 Both these leaders joined the Capuchins in 1535.这些领导人都参加了1535卷尾猴。The Reformati ate cooked food only twice in the week, scourged themselves frequently, and recited daily, in addition to the universally prescribed choir-service, the Office of the Dead, the Office of the Blessed Virgin, the Seven Penitential Psalms, etc., which far exceeded the Rule of St. Francis, and could not be maintained for long.吃熟食的Reformati只有两次在本周,鞭打自己频繁,每天背诵除了普遍规定的合唱团服务,死者的办公室,圣母,七悔罪诗篇等办公室,这远远超过了圣弗朗西斯规则,而不能长期维持。 In 1579 Gregory XIII released them entirely from the jurisdiction of the provincials and almost completely from that of the general, while in Rome they were given the renowned monastery of S. Francesco a Ripa. 1579年格雷戈里十三释放了他们完全从外省人管辖和几乎完全不同于一般的,而在罗马,他们被赋予了S.弗朗切斯科a马国贤著名寺院。In the same year (1579), however, the general, Gonzaga, obtained the suspension of the decree, and the new Constitutions promelgated by Bonaventure of Caltagirone, general in 1595, ensured their affiliation with the provinces of the order.同年(1579),但是,一般情况下,冈萨加,得到了该法令暂停,而新的由卡尔塔吉罗,一般文德promelgated在1595年宪法,以确保该命令其所属的省份。 Although Clement VIII approved these statutes in 1595, it did not deter him, in 1596, from reissuing Gregory XIII's Brief of 1579, and granting the Reformati their own procurator.虽然克莱门特八世在1595年批准这些法规,它并没有阻止他,在1596年,从补发格雷戈里十三的1579简介,并给予Reformati自己的检察官。 At the suit of two lay brothers, in 1621, Gregory XV not only confirmed this concession, but gave the Reformati their own vicar-general, general chapter, and definitors general.在两兄弟在1621年铺设,西装,格雷戈里十五,不仅证实了这一点让步,但给了Reformati自己的副主教一般,一般章节和definitors一般。 Fortunately for the order, these concessions were revoked in 1624 by Urban VIII, who, however, by his Bull "Injuncti nobis" of 1639 raised all the custodies of the Reformati in Italy and Poland to the dignity of provinces.幸运的是顺序,这些优惠被取消在1624年由市区第八,谁,但是,他的公牛“Injuncti nobis”提出的1639年所有在意大利和波兰的Reformati custodies到省的尊严。In 1642 the Reformati drew up their own statutes; these were naturally composed in Italian, since Italy was always the home of this branch of the Friars Minor. 1642年的Reformati制定了自己的章程,这些人自然组成,在意大利,因为意大利一直是这个分支的男修道士小家。In 1620 Antonio Arrigoni a Galbatio was sent by the Reformati into Bavaria, and, despite the opposition of the local Observants, succeeded in 1625 in uniting into one province of the Reformati the monasteries of the Archduchy of Bavaria, which belonged to the Upper German (Strasburg) province.1620年安东尼奥Arrigoni a Galbatio被送往由Reformati到巴伐利亚,尽管当地1625年成功地为一个省的Reformati团结Observants,反对,在巴伐利亚,这属于上德语大公寺院(斯特拉斯堡)省。 The new province thenceforth belonged to the cismontane family.新的省此后属于cismontane家庭。Arrigoni also introduced in 1628 the reform into the province of St. Leopold in the Tyrol, into Austria in 1632, and into Bohemia in 1660, and succeeded in winning these countries entirely over to his branch, Carinthia following in 1688. Arrigoni还推出了1628年的改革进入了圣利奥波德在蒂罗尔州,奥地利将在1632年,并在1660年波希米亚,并在赢得这些国家完全交给他的分支,克恩顿州在1688年后成功。 After many disappointments, the two Polish custodies were raised to the status of provinces of the Reformati in 1639.经过多次的失望,两个波兰custodies提高到了1639年的Reformati省的地位。In the course of time, the proximity of houses of the Reformati and the Observants gave rise to unedifying contentions and the rivalry, especially in Italy.在时间的过程中,对Reformati和Observants房子附近产生了未意识到争论和竞争,特别是在意大利。Among the heroic figures of the Reformati, St. Pacificus of San Severino calls for special mention.其中的Reformati的英雄人物,圣圣塞韦里诺Pacificus需要特别提及。St. Benedict of San Fidelfo cannot be reckoned among the Reformati, as he died in a retreat of the Recollects; nor should St. Leonard of Port Maurice, who belonged rather to the so-called Riformella, introduced into the Roman Province by Bl.圣本笃圣Fidelfo不能忽视其中的Reformati,因为他在死亡的回忆退却,也不应圣港口莫里斯,属于谁的,而所谓​​的Riformella,到罗马省推出的BL伦纳德。 Bonaventure of Barcelona in 1662.1662年巴塞罗那文德。The principal house of the Riformella was that of S. Bonaventura on the Palatine.该Riformella主要房子是S.波纳文图拉上腭。St. Leonard founded two similar monasteries in Tuscany, one of which was that of Incontro near Florence.圣伦纳德在托斯卡纳建立了两个类似的寺院,其中之一是佛罗伦萨附近的Incontro的。These were to serve as places of religious recollection and spiritual refreshment for priests engaged in mission-work among the people.这些都是作为宗教和精神小食地回忆在任务从事的工作在人民群众中的祭司。 Like the Discalced, the Reformati ceased to have a separate existence in 1897.像Discalced的Reformati不再有1897年独立存在。

(3) The Recollects (Recollecti)(3)回忆(Recollecti)

(a) The foundation of "recollection-houses" in France, where they were badly needed even by the Observants, was perhaps due to Spanish influence. (一)“回忆会址”在法国,在那里他们受到了严重甚至由Observants需要,基础也许是由于西班牙的影响。After the bloody religious wars, which exercised an an enervating effect on the life of the cloister, one house of this description was founded at Cluys in 1570, but was soon discontinued.经过血腥的宗教战争,行使对修道院生活的一个AN enervating效果,一本介绍房子是1570年成立于Cluys,但很快就停产了。The general of the order, Gonzaga, undertook the establishment of such houses, but it was Franz Dozieck, a former Capuchin, who first set them on a firm basis.该订单,冈萨加,一般承担了建立这样的房子,但它是弗朗茨Dozieck,前卷尾,谁第一个设置在牢固的基础。He was the first custos of these houses, among which that of Rabastein was the most conspicuous.他是这些房子的第一保管人,其中,Rabastein这是最突出。Italian Reformanti had meanwhile been invited to nevers, but had to retire owing to the antipathy of the population.意大利Reformanti已同时被邀请到讷韦尔,但由于退休人口的反感。In 1595 Bonaventure of Caltagirone, as general of the order, published special statutes for these French houses, but with the assistance of the Government, which favoured the reforming party, the houses obtained in 1601 the appointment of a special commissary Apostolic.在1595文德的卡尔塔吉罗,一般出版的法国房子的这些特殊的法律秩序,与政府的援助,这有利于党的改革,在1601年的一个特殊的小卖部使徒的任命得到了房子,但。 The members were called the Récollets -- since Réformés was the name given by the French to the Calvinists -- and also the Cordeliers, the ancient name for both the Observants and Conventuals.成员被称为Récollets - 因为Réformés是由法国提供给加尔文教派的名字 - 也是Cordeliers,为双方Observants和Conventuals古老的名称。As regards the interpretation of the rule, there were rather important differences between the Cordelier-Observants and the Récollets, the interpretation of the latter being much stricter.至于规则的解释,有很重要的分歧科尔德利耶- Observants和Récollets,对后者的解释是要严格得多。 From 1606 the Récollets had their own provinces, amongst them being that of St-Denis (Dionysinus) a very important province which undertook the missions in Canada and Mozambique.从1606年Récollets有自己的省份,他们中间是圣但尼(Dionysinus)一个非常重要的省,在加拿大和莫桑比克进行的任务的。 They were also the chaplains in the French army and won renown as preachers.他们也是在法国军队的牧师,赢得了著名的传教士。 The French kings, beginning with Henry IV, honoured and esteemed them, but kept them in too close dependence on the throne.法国国王亨利四世开始的,尊重和尊敬他们,但保存在过于接近宝座上的依赖。Thus the notorious Commission des Réguliers (1771) allowed the Récollets to remain in France without amalgamating with the Conventuals.因此,臭名昭著的委员会DES Réguliers(1771)允许Récollets在法国仍然没有与Conventuals合并。At this period the Récollets had 11 provinces with 2534 cloisters, but all were suppressed by the Revolution (1791).在此期间,曾与2534回廊Récollets 11个省,但都被革命(1791年)镇压。

(b) Recollection-houses are, strictly speaking, those monasteries to which friars desirous of devoting themselves to prayer and penance can withdarw to consecrate their lives to spiritual recollection. (二)回忆,房子,严格来说,这些寺院的修士的献身祈祷和忏悔渴望能withdarw奉献自己的生命精神的回忆。From the very inception of the roder the so-called hermitages for which St. Francis made special provision servd for this object.从罗得一开始所谓的秘境圣弗朗西斯为此作出特别规定servd此对象。These always existed in the order and were naturally the first clositers of which reformers sought to obtain possession.这些总是存在于自然的秩序和人,其中改革者寻求获得占有第一clositers。This policy was followed by the Spanish Discalced, for example in the province of S. Antonio in Portugal (1639).这项政策其次是西班牙Discalced,在S的安东尼奥在葡萄牙(1639)省的例子。They had vainly endeavoured (1581) to make themselves masters of the recollection-houses of the province of Tarragona, where their purpose was defeated by Angelo do Paz Martial Bouchier had in 1502 prescribed the institution of these houses in every province of the Spanish Observants, they were found everywhere, and from them issued the Capuchins, the Reformati, and the Recollects.他们妄图努力(1581),以使自己的的塔拉戈纳,他们的目的是由安杰洛击败全省回忆,房子的主人做拉巴斯武术Bouchier曾在1502年规定的每一个省的西班牙Observants这些房屋的机构,他们随处可见,并从他们发出的卷尾猴的Reformati和回忆。 The specific nature of these convents was opposed to their inclusion in any province, since even the care of souls tended to defeat their main object of seclusion and sequestration from the world.这些修道院的具体性质是反对将其列入在任何省份,因为即使是灵魂的关怀往往打败他们的隐居和世界隔离的主要对象。The general chapter of 1676 ordained the foundation of three or four such convents in every province -- a prescript which was repeated in 1758.在1676年总章晋三,四等在每个省修道院的基础 - 一个这是在1758年重复法令。The ritiri (ritiro, a house in which one lives in retirement), intorduced into the Roman Province of the Observants towards the end of the seventeenth century, were also of this class, and even today such houses are to be found among Franciscan monasteries.The ritiri(ritiro,在其中一个住在退休的房子),进入了对十七世纪末Observants罗马省intorduced,都是这个类也,而​​即使在今天这样的房子是要找到之间的方济修道院。

(c) The Recollects of the so-called German-Belgian nation have nothing in common with any of the above-mentioned reforms. (三)所谓的德国和比利时的民族的回忆都与上述改革的任何毫无共同之处。The province of St. Joseph in Flanders was the only one constituted of several recollection-houses (1629).在圣若瑟在佛兰德省是唯一一个几个回忆会址(1629)组成。In 1517 the old Saxon province (Saxonia), embracing over 100 monasteries, was divided into the Saxon province of the Observants (Saxonia S. Curcis) and the Saxon province of the Conventuals (Saxonia S. Johannis Baptistae).在1517年的老萨克森省(SAXONIA),100多个寺院拥抱,被分成了Observants萨克森省(SAXONIA S. Curcis)和Conventuals萨克森省(SAXONIA S. Johannis Baptistae)。The province of Cologne (Colonia) and the Upper German or Strasburg (Argentia) province were also similary divided betwen the Observants and the Conventuals.在科隆(科洛尼亚)和上德语或斯特拉斯堡(阿根廷)省省也类似地分为betwen的Observants和Conventuals。 The proposed erection of a Thuringian province (Thuringia) had to be relinquished in consequence of the outbreak of the Reformation.图林根州的一个省提出的勃起(图林根州),必须在对宗教改革爆发后果放弃。The Saxon province was subsequently reduced to the single monastery of Halberstadt, which contained in 1628 but one priest.萨克森省随后减少到哈尔伯施塔特,其中包含一个修道院于1628年,但一个牧师。The province of Cologne then took over the Saxon province, whereupon both took on a rapid and vigourous growth, and the foundation of the Thuringian Province (Fulda) became possible in 1633.在科隆省则接管了萨克森省,于是都在迅猛增长了,而在图林根省(富尔达)基金会于1633年成为可能。In 1762 the last-named province was divided into the Upper and the Lower Thuringian provinces.在1762的最后命名省被分为上,下图林根省。In 1621 the Cologne province had adopted the statutes of the recollection-houses for all its monasteries, although it was not until 1646 that the friars adopted the name Recollecti.在1621年的科隆省通过了对所有寺庙的回忆,房屋的法规,但直到1646年通过的不就是修士的名字Recollecti。 This example was followed by the other provinces of this nation and in 1682 this evolution in Germany, Belgium, Holland, England, and Ireland, all of which belonged to this nation, was completed without any essential changes in the Franciscan rule of life.这个例子其次为这个国家的其他省市在1682年这个在德国,比利时,荷兰,英国,爱尔兰,所有这些都属于这个民族,进化是无规则的生活济任何本质的变化完成。 The Recollects preserved in general very strict discipline.在回忆保存在一般非常严格的纪律。The charge is often unjustly brought against them that they have produced no saints, but his is true only of canonized saints.这项收费往往是不公正提起他们,他们没有产生任何圣人,但他是真正的唯一的册封圣人。That therehave been numerous saints amongst the friars of this branch of the Franciscan Order is certain, although they have never been distinguished by canonization -- a fact due partly to the sceptical and fervourless character of the population amongst which they lived and partly to the strict discipline of the order, which forbade and repressed all that singles out for attention the individual friar.这therehave被这当中的济秩序分支众多的修士圣人是肯定的,虽然他们从来没有被册封杰出的 - 事实部分原因是人口的怀疑和fervourless人物,他们当中的部分生活和严格的纪律的秩序,禁止和压抑的注意个别修士所有单打出来。The German-Belgian nation had a special commissary general, and from 1703 a general procurator at Rome, who represented also the Discalced.德国和比利时的国家有一个特殊的小卖部一般,从1703在罗马,谁也Discalced代表总检察长。They also frequently maintained a special agent at Rome.他们还经常保持在罗马一个特殊的代理。When Benedict XIII sanctioned their national statutes in 1729, he demanded the relinquishment of the name of Recollects and certain minor peculiarities in their habit, but in 1731 the Recollects obtained from Clement XII the withdrawal of these injunctions.当本笃十三世在1729年批准的国家法规,要求他的回忆,在他们的习惯一定特殊性名未成年人放弃,但在1731年的回忆从克莱门特第十二获得了这些禁令撤销。 In consequence of the effects of the French Revolution on Germany and the Imperial Delegates' Enactment (1803), the province of Cologne was completely suppressed and the Thuringian (Fulda) reduced tot wo monasteries.在考虑到对德国和帝国代表“颁布(1803)法国大革命的影响,因此,在科隆省被完全压制和图林根(富尔达)减少TOT窝寺庙。 The Bavarian and Saxon provinces afterwards developed rapidly, and their cloisters, in spite of the Kulturkampf, which drove most of the Prussian Franciscans to America, where rich harvest awaited their labours, bore such fruit that the Saxon province (whose cloisters are, however mostly situated in Rheinland and Westphalia), although it has founded three new provinces in North America and Brazil, and the custody of Silesia was separated from it in 1902, is still numerically the strongest province of the order, with 615 members.巴伐利亚和萨克森省后发展迅速,他们的回廊,在文化之,这带动了普鲁士济最美国,在那里等待他们的劳动收获丰富,尽管孔的水果,如萨克森省(其回廊的,但大多坐落在莱茵威斯特伐利亚和),虽然它成立于北美和巴西三个新的省份,而西里西亚保管从它在1902年分开,仍然是数字的秩序最强的省份,615成员。 In 1894 the custody of Fulda was elevated to the rank of a province.1894年的富尔达监护权提升到一个省的排名。The Belgian province was re-erected in 1844, after the Dutch had been already some time in existence.比利时省被重新竖立在1844年后,荷兰已经有一些已经存在的时间。The separate existence of the Recollects also ceased in 1897.而独立存在的回忆也停止在1897年。

Great Britain and Ireland.--The Franciscans came to England for the first time in 1224 under Blessed Agnellus of Pisa, but numbers of Englishmen had already entered the order.英国和爱尔兰.--方济会来到英格兰,在1224年在比萨有福Agnellus第一次,但英国人的数字就已经进入了秩序。 By their strict and cheerful devotion to their rule, the first Franciscans became conspicuous figures in the religious life of the country, developed rapidly their order and enjoyed the highest prestige at court, among the nobility, and among the people.通过他们的严格和欢快的奉献自己的统治,成为第一个方济会在该国的宗教生活的突出人物,发展迅速,其在法庭秩序和享有最高声望的贵族之间,并在人民群众中。 Without relaxing in any way the rule of poverty, they devoted themselves most zealously to study, especially at Oxford, where the renowned Robert Grosseteste displayed towards them a fatherly interest, and where they attained the highest reputation as teachers of philosophy and theology.不以任何方式放宽贫困规则,他们潜心研究最热忱,特别是在牛津,其中著名的罗伯特格罗斯泰斯特对他们表现出父爱的兴趣,他们达到了作为哲学和神学教师的最高声誉。 Their establishments in London and Oxford date from 1224.在伦敦和牛津大学从1224日期的场所。As early as 1230 the Franciscan houses of Ireland were united into a separate province.早在1230年爱尔兰济房屋被统一到一个单独的省份。In 1272, the English province had 7 custodies, the Irish 5.在1272年,英国全省有7 custodies,爱尔兰5。In 1282, the former (Provincia Angliae) had 58 convents, the later (Provincia Hiberniae) 57.在1282年,前(省府Angliae)有58修道院,后来(省府Hiberniae)57。In 1316 the 7 English custodies still contained 58 convents, while in Ireland the custodies were reduced to 4 and the convents to 30.在1316年7英语custodies仍含有58修道院,而在爱尔兰custodies减少到4和修道院30。In 1340, the number of custodies and houses in ireland were 5 and 32 respectively; about 1385, 5 and 31.在1340年,在custodies和房屋在爱尔兰数分别为5和32分别为约1385年,5和31。In 1340 and 1385, there were still 7 custodies in England; in 1340 the number of monasteries had fallen to 52, but rose to 60 by 1385.在1340和1385年,仍有7个英格兰custodies,在1340年的寺院数量已经下降到52,但1385年上升到60。 Under Elias of Cortona (1232-39) Scotland (Scotia) was separated from England and raised to the dignity of a province, but in 1239 it was again annexed to the English province.根据科尔托纳埃利亚斯(1232年至1239年),苏格兰(舍)分离来自英格兰和提升到一个省的尊严,但它在1239年又被附于英语省。

When again separated in 1329, Scotland received with its six cloisters only the title of vicaria.当在1329年再次分离,苏格兰收到六个修道院只有vicaria称号。At the request of James I of Scotland, the first Observants from the province of Cologne came to the country about 1447, under the leadership of Cornelius von Ziriksee, and founded seven houses.在詹姆斯的苏格兰我的要求,从科隆省第一Observants来到了国家关于1447年,下科尼利厄斯冯Ziriksee领导,成立7所房屋。 About 1482 the Observants settled in England and founded their first convent at Greenwich.关于1482的Observants定居在英格兰和成立于格林威治他们的第一个修道院。It was the Observants who opposed most courageously the Reformation in England, where they suffered the loss of all their provinces.这是Observants谁最反对的大胆改革,在英格兰,在那里他们受到了他们的所有省份的损失。 The Irish province still continued officially but its houses were situated on the Continent at Louvain, Rome, Prague, etc. where fearless missionaries and eminent scholars were trained and the province was re-established in spite of the inhuman oppression of the government of England.爱尔兰省仍然继续,但其房屋被正式在大陆位于鲁汶,罗马,布拉格等地方无畏传教士和著名学者进行了培训和省在对英国政府的不人道的压迫,尽管重新建立。 By the decision of the general chapter of 1625, the direction of the friars was carried on from Douai, where the English Franciscans had a convent, but in 1629 it was entrusted to the general of the order.到了1625年总章决定,对修士方向是从杜埃进行,其中英语济有一个修道院,但1629年它被赋予的顺序一般。 The first chapter assembled at Brussels on 1 December, 1630.第一章聚集在布鲁塞尔12月1日1630。

John Gennings was chosen first provincial, but the then bruited proposal to re-establish the Scottish convents could not be realized.约翰Gennings被选为第一个省,但当时的bruited建议,重新建立苏格兰修道院无法实现。The new province in England, which, like the Irish, belonged to the Recollects, gave many glorious and intrepid martyrs to the order and the Church.在英国的新省,其中,像爱尔兰,属于回忆,给了许多光荣而勇敢的烈士的秩序和教会。In 1838, the English province contained only 9 friars, and on its dissolution in 1840, the Belgian Recollects began the foundation of new houses in England and one at Killarney in Ireland. 1838年,全省中英文只有9修士,并就其在1840年解散后,比利时的回忆开始在基拉尼的新房地基在英格兰和爱尔兰的一个。On 15 August, 1887, the English houses were declared an independent custody, and on 12 February, 1891, a province of the order.8月15日,1887年,英国宣布独立的房屋被拘留,并于1891年2月12日,该命令的省。At the present day (1909) the English province comprises in England and Scotland 11 convents with 145 friars, their 11 parishes containing some 40,000 Catholics; the Irish Province comprises 15 convents with 139 brothers.在今天(1909年)的英语省包括在英格兰和苏格兰11 145修士,他们的11教区天主教修道院内有约40000;爱尔兰省共有15 139兄弟修道院。

III. III。STATISTICS OF THE ORDER (1260-1909)该命令的情况(1260至1909年)

The Order of St. Francis spread with a rapidity unexpected as it was unprecedented.在圣弗朗西斯令传播速度与意外,因为它是前所未有的。At the general chapter 1221, where for the last time all members without distinction could appear, 3000 friars were present.在一般章1221,其中最后一次不分可能出现的所有成员,3000修士人出席。The order still continued its rapid developement, and Elias of Cortona (1232-39) divided it into 72 provinces.该命令仍继续快速发展论坛,和科尔托纳埃利亚斯(1232年至1239年)分为72个省的。On the removal of Elias the number was fixed at 32; by 1274 it had risen to 34, and it remained stable during the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries.在拆除的埃利亚斯人数定为32;由1274年它已经上升到34,它仍然在第十四和第十五世纪的稳定。To this period belongs the institution of the vicariae, which, with the exception of that of Scotland, lay in the Balkans, Russia, and the Far East.这个时期属于对vicariae机构,其中,随着苏格兰的例外,在巴尔干地区铺设,俄罗斯和远东地区。It has been often stated that about 1300 the Franciscans numbered 200,000 but his is certainly an exaggeration.据经常说,约1300方济编号为200000,但他肯定是夸张。Although it is not possible to arrive at the exact figure, there can scarcely have been more than 60,000 to 90,000 friars at this period.虽然这是不可能得出确切的数字,可以有几乎已经在此期间超过60,000至90,​​000修士。In 1282 the cloisters were about 1583 in number.在1282年的回廊数量大约在1583年。In 1316 the 34 provinces contained 197 custodies and 1408 convents; in 1340, 211 custodies and 1422 convents; in 1384, 254 coustodies and 1639 convents.在1316年的34个省份中197 custodies和1408修道院,在1340年,211 custodies和1422修道院,1​​384年,254 coustodies和1639修道院。The Observants completely altered the conformation of the order.该Observants完全改变了顺序结构。In 1455 they alone numbered over 20,000; in 1493, over 22,400 with more than 1200 convents.他们在1455单独编号20000;在1493年超过22400,超过1200修道院。At the division of the order, in 1517, they formed the great majority of the friars, numbering 30,000 with some 1300 houses.在该命令的划分,在1517年,他们成立了绝大多数的修士,编号从大约1300家30,000。In 1520 the Conventuals were reckoned at 20,000 to 25,000.在1520 Conventuals人估计在20000到25000。The division brought about a complete alteration in the strength and the territories of the various provinces.该部门带来了在实力和各省的领土完整的改变。In 1517 the Conventuals still retained the 34 provinces as before, but many of them were enfeebled and attenuated.在1517年的Conventuals仍保留前34个省,但其中许多人衰弱和衰减。The Observants, on the other hand, founded 26 new provinces in 1517, retaining in some cases the old names, in other cases dividing the old territory into several provinces.该Observants,另一方面,成立于1517年26个新省份,在某些情况下,旧名称保留,在分成几个省的旧领土的其他情形。

The Reformation and the missionary activity of the Minorites in the Old, and especially in the New, World soon necesitated wide changes in the distribution, number, and extent, of the provinces.宗教改革和Minorites在旧的传教活动,特别是在新的世界变化很快necesitated广泛的分布,数量和范围,各省。 The confusion was soon increased by the inauguration of the three great reformed branches, the Discalced, the Reformati, and the Recollects, and, as these, while remaining under the one general, formed separate provinces, the number of provinces increased enormously.的混乱很快就增加了三个伟大的改革分行就职时,Discalced的Reformati和回忆,而且,因为这些,而在一个普通其余,形成独立的省份,一些省份增加了不少。 They were often situated in the same geographical or political districts, and were, except in the Northern lands, telescoped into one another in a most bewildering manner -- a condition aggravated in the south (especially in Italy and Spain) by an insatiate desire to found as many provinces as possible.他们往往位于同一地理或政治区域,并分别,除了在北部的土地,成为一个最令人困惑的方式相互伸缩 - 在南方(特别是在意大利和西班牙)加剧由馋的欲望的条件发现尽可能多的省份。The French Revolution (1789-95), with its ensuing wars and other disturbances, made great changes in the conformation of the order by the suppression of a number of provinces, and furthur changes were due to the secularization and suppression of monasteries which went on during the nineteenth centry.法国大革命(1789年至1795年),其随之而来的战争和其他干扰,取得了很大的变化构象的顺序由一个省份抑制,furthur变化的原因是寺院的世俗化和抑制其继续在十九centry。 The union of 1897 still furthur reduced the number of provinces, by amalgamation all the convents of the same district into one province.该工会还furthur 1897年减少了一些省份,由合并成一个省同一地区的所有修道院。

The whole order is now divided into twelve circumscriptions, each of which embraces several provinces, districts, or countries.整个顺序分为十二个circumscriptions现在,每一个拥抱几个省,区,或国家。

The first circumscription includes Rome, Umbria, the convents, and 1443 friars.第一个界限,包括罗马,翁布里亚,修道院,修士和1443。The second embraces Tuscany and Northern italy and contains 8 provinces, 138 convents, and 2038 religious.第二拥抱托斯卡纳和意大利北部,包含8个省,138修道院,和2038年的宗教。The third comprises Southern Italy and Naples (except Calabria), with 4 provinces, 93 convents, and 1063 religious.第三个包括意大利南部那不勒斯和4个省,93修道院,宗教和1063(除卡拉布里亚)。The fourth includes Sicily, Calabria, and Malta, and has 7 provinces, 85 convents, and 1045 religious.第四,包括西西里,卡拉布里亚,和马耳他,并有7个省,85个修道院,和1045宗教。The fifth embraces the Tyrol, Carinthia, Dalmatia, Bosnia, Albania, and the Holy Land, with 9 provinces, 282 convents and 1792 religious.第五拥抱蒂罗尔州,克恩顿州,达尔马提亚,波斯尼亚,阿尔巴尼亚和圣地,与9个省,282修道院和1792年的宗教。 The sixth comprises Vienna, Hungary, Transylvania, Croatia, Galicia, and Bohemia, with 7 provinces, 160 convents, and 1458 friars.第六包括维也纳,匈牙利,特兰西瓦尼亚,克罗地亚,加利西亚和波西米亚,与7个省,160个修道院,修士和1458。 The seventh, which in numerically the strongest, includes Germany, Holland, and Belgium, with 7 provinces, 129 convents and 2553 religious.第七,在数值上最强的,包括德国,荷兰和比利时,与7个省,129修道院和2553宗教。The eighth comprises France, Corsica, Great Britain, and Canada, with 7 provinces, 63 convents, and 975 religious.第八包括法国,科西嘉岛,英国,加拿大等7个省,63修道院,宗教和975。The ninth comprises Portugal and Northern Spain with 5 provinces, 39 convents, and 1124 religious.第九届包括葡萄牙与5个省,39个修道院,和1124年宗教和西班牙北部。The tenth embraces Southern Spain and the Philippines, with 4 provinces, 48 houses, and 910 religious.第十拥抱西班牙南部和菲律宾,有4个省,48家,和910名宗教。The eleventh includes Central and South America, with 12 provinces, 97 convents, and 1298 members.第十包括中央和12个省,9​​7修道院,1​​298成员南美。The twelfth comprises Mexico and the United States, with 7 provinces (including the Polish commissariate at Pulaski, Wisconsin), 167 convents, and 1195 religious.第十二届包括墨西哥和美国7个省(包括在普拉斯基,波兰commissariate威斯康星州),167修道院,和1195年的宗教。

The total figures for the order are consequently (4 October, 1908), 81 provinces 1413 convents and 16,894 Franciscans.订单的总数字是因此(1908年10月4日),81个省的1413和16894方济会修道院。 In 1905 the Franciscans numbered 16,842 and their convents 1373.1905年方济会修道院编号为16842和1373号决议。For the second last decade of the nineteenth century the lowest figures are recorded, the figures announced at the general chapter of 1889 being: Observants 6228, Reformati 5733, Recollects 1621, Discalced 858 -- that is a total of 14,440 Franciscans.对于第二十九世纪最后十年的最低数字记录,在1889年被公布的数字,一般章:Observants 6228,Reformati 5733,回忆1621年,Discalced 858 - 这是一个总的14,440济。That only the Recollects had increased since 1862 may be seen from the figures for that year: Observants 10,200, Reformati, 9889, Recollects and Discalced together 1813 -- a total of 21,902 Minorites.只有回忆起1862年增加了可从该年的数字可见:Observants 10200,Reformati,9889,一起回忆和Discalced 1813 - 总的21902 Minorites。The year 1768 gives the highest figures -- about 77,000 in 167 provinces.这一年1768年给出了最高数字 - 约77000在167省。 In 1762, the Observants had 87 provinces, 2330 convents, and 39,900 members; the Reformati 19,000 members with 37 provinces and 800 convents; the Recollects 11,000 members, 490 convents; 22 provinces; the Disclaced 7000 members 430 convents, 20 provinces. 1762年,有87个省的Observants,2330年修道院,和39,900名成员;与37个省和800修道院Reformati 19000名;的回忆11000成员,490修道院,22个省;的Disclaced 7000成员430修道院,20个省。Total, 76,900 Minorites, 4050 cloisters, 166 provinces.共计76,900 Minorites,4050回廊,166个省。In 1700 the total was 63,400 Minorites, 3880 convents, and 154 provinces; about 1680, 60,000 Minorites, 3420 convents, and 151 provinces.在1700年的总额为63400 Minorites,3880修道院,和154个省,约1680年,60000 Minorites,3420修道院,和151个省。

IV. IV。THE VARIOUS NAMES OF THE FRIARS MINOR本天主教方济未成年人的各种名称

The official name, Fratres Minores (Ordo Fratrum Minorum -- OFM), or Friars Minor, was variously translated into the popular speech of the Middle Ages.这位负责人的姓名,Fratres Minores(奥Fratrum Minorum - OFM),或男修道士未成年人,被不同地翻译成中世纪流行的讲话。In England the Friars Minor were commonly known as the Grey Friars from the colour of their habit.在英国,男修道士未成年人被俗称为从他们习惯的颜色灰色男修道士。This name corresponds to the Grabrodrene of Denmark and Scandinavia.此名称对应于丹麦和斯堪的纳维亚Grabrodrene。 In Germany they were usually known as the Baarfüsser (Baarfuozzen, Barvuzen, Barvoten, Barfüzzen, etc.), that is, Barefooted (wearing only sandals).在德国,他们通常被称为Baarfüsser(Baarfuozzen,Barvuzen,Barvoten,Barfüzzen等),也就是赤脚(只穿着凉鞋)。 In France they were usually called the Cordeliers from their rope-girdle (corde, cordelle) but were also known as the Frères Menous (from Fratres Minores).在法国,他们通常被称为从他们绳腰带(协和客机,cordelle)的Cordeliers而且还为Frères的Menous(从Fratres Minores)闻名。After the fifteenth century the term was applied to both the Conventuals and the Observants, but more seldom to the Récollets (Recollects).经过15世纪的长期被同时适用于Conventuals和Observants,但更很少向Récollets(回忆)。 Their popular name in Italy was the Frati Minori or simply the Frati.他们在意大利流行的名字是Frati米诺利或简单的Frati。 The Observants were long known in that country as the Zoccolanti, from their foot-wear.该Observants早就知道了在该国的Zoccolanti,从他们的脚磨损。

V. THE HABIT五习惯

The habit has been gradually changed in colour and certain other details.的习惯已经逐渐改变了颜色和其他一些细节。Its coulour, which was at first grey or a medium brown, is now a dark brown.其coulour,起初灰色或中等褐色的,现在是深褐色。 The dress, which consists of a loose sleeved gown, is confined about the loins by a white cord, from which is hung, since the fifteenth century, the Seraphic rosary with its seven decades.礼服,其中包括一个松散的长袖长衫,是关于一个白色线腰,从中挂密闭,自十五世纪以来,以其七十年Seraphic念珠。 A long or short under-habit of the same or a different colour and trousers are also worn.长或短的相同​​或不同的颜色和裤子不足的习惯也磨损。Shoes are forbidden by the rule, and may be worn only in case of necessity; for these sandals are substituted, and the feet are bre.鞋是禁止的规则,可能只有在必要的情况下磨损;这些凉鞋被替换,而脚是BRE。Around the neck and over the shoulders hangs the cowl, quite separate from the habit, and under it is the shoulder-cape or mozetta, which is round in front and terminates in a point at the back.在脖子和肩膀挂在车辕,完全不同于单独的习惯,并根据它的肩斗篷或mozetta,这是前一轮和终止点在后面。The Franciscans wear no head-dress, and have the great tonsure, so that only about three finger-breadths of hair remain, the rest of the scalp being shaved.方济会穿无头饰,并有很大的剃度,因此只有约三发手指breadths仍然存在,其余的头皮被剃光。In winter they wear about their necks between the cowl and the habit the round mantle which almost reaches the knees.在冬天,穿约之间的整流罩和习惯一轮地幔几乎达到膝盖的脖子。

VI. VI。THE CONSTITUTION OF THE ORDER该命令章程

(See RULE OF ST. FRANCIS).(见圣弗朗西斯规则)。

During the lifetime of St. Fracis of Assisi, everything was directed and influenced by his transcendent personality.在阿西西的圣Fracis一生,一切都是受他的指导和超越的个性。The duration of offices was not defined, and consequently the constitution was at first juridically speaking, absolute.该办公室的时间是没有定义的,因而,宪法是在第一次法律上来说,绝对的。From 1239, that is after the experiences of the order under Elias of Cortona, the order gradually developed a monarchical constitution.从1239年,之后的下科尔托纳埃利亚斯秩序的经验是,为了逐步形成了君主制宪法。 The chapter of definitors for the whole order (thirteenth century), the chapter of custodies in each province, the discretus sent by the subordinate convents to the provincial chapter, etc. are institutions which have long ceased to exist.而对于整个秩序definitors章(13世纪),在每个省custodies章,discretus由下属修道院发送到省章等都是它早已不复存在机构。 To the past also belongs the custody in the sense of a union of several convents whithin a province.过去也属于在一个whithin省几个修道院工会意识保管。Today a custody signifies a few cloisters constituting a province which has not yet been canonically erected.今天,保管标志着构成一个省,还没有标准地竖立几个回廊。

The present constitution is as follows: The whole order is directed by the minister general, elected by the provincial ministers at the general chapter, whcih meets every twelve years.目前的宪法是如下:整个顺序是由一般由部长在总章,满足每十二年当选的省部长,指示。At first his term of office was indefinite, that is, it was for life; in 1517 it was fixed at six years; in 1571, at eight; in 1587, again at six; and finally the twelve-year period of office was settled on by Pius IX in 1862.起初,他的任期是无限期的,也就是说,它的生活,在1517年它被定为六年;在1571年,在八,在1587年,又在六,最后的办公十二年期结算由庇护九世于1862年。 The general resides at the Collegio S. Antonio, Via Merulana, Rome.一般驻留在Collegio S.安东尼奥,通过Merulana,罗马。 The order is divided into provinces (that is, associations of the convents in one country or district), which prescribe and define the sphere of activity of the various friars within their sphere of jurisdiction.顺序分为省(即,在修道院协会在一个国家或地区),其中规定,并确定了其管辖范围内各个领域的修士活动范围。 Several provinces togethers form a circumscription of which there are twelve in the order.聚会的几个省份形成了界限,其中有在订单十二。Each circumscription sends one definitor general, taken in turn from each province, to Rome as one of the counsellors to the minister general.每个界限发送一个definitor一般情况下,采取作为一个辅导员依次从每个省,罗马,部长一般。These definitors are elected for six years at the general chapter and at the congregatio intermedia (also called frequently, by an abuse of the term, a general chapter), summoned by the general six years after his election.这些definitors当选六年的总章,并在congregatio中间(也称为经常滥用的术语,一般章),由一般6年当选后召见。 The general chapter and the congregatio intermedia may be convened by the general in any place.一般章节和congregatio中间可召开由在任何地方一般。The provinces of the order are governed by the provincials (ministri provinciales), who are elected every three years at the Provincial chapter and constitute the general chapter.该命令的省份是受外省人(ministri provinciales),谁当选每三年在省章,构成一般的篇章。 Their term of office, like that of the general, was first undefined; from 1517 to 1547 it was three years; from 1547 to 1571, six years; from 1571 to 1587, four years; since 1587, three years.他们的任期内,如一般认为,最早是不确定的,1517年至1547年是三年; 1547年至1571年,六年; 1571年至1587年,四年;自1587年,三年。While in office, the provincial holds every year (or every and a half) the intermediate chapter (capitulum intermedium), at which the heads of all the convents of the province are chosen for a year or a year and a half.而在办公室,省举行每年(或每半)中间章(头状花序中间),在其中所有的省修道院的头一年或一年半的选择。The local superiors of houses (conventus) which contain at least six religious, are called guardians (earlier wardens); otherwise they receive the title praeses or superior.房屋当地上级(conventus),其中至少包含六个宗教,被称为监护人(先前督导员),否则他们会收到标题praeses或上级。 The provincial has to visit his own province and watch over the observance of the rule; the general has to visit the whole order, either personally or by means of visitors specially appointed by him (vistatores generales).全省已访问他自己的省,对规则的遵守观看;一般具有访问整个秩序,亲自或通过他的特别(vistatores generales)任命游客的手段。The individual convents consist of the Fathers (Patres), ie the regular priests, the clerics studying for the priesthood (fratres clerici) and the lay brothers engaged in the regular service of the house (fratres laici).个人修道院的神父(Patres)组成,即定期祭司,神职人员的圣职(fratres clerici)和奠定兄弟在房子(fratres莱茨)定期服务,从事研究。Newly received candidates must first make a year's novitiate in a convent specially intended for this end.新收到的候选人必须先在专门为此目的修道院一年的见习期。Convents, which serve certain definite purposes are called colleges (collegia).修道院,它服务于某些明确的目的,被称为学院(collegia)。These must not, however, be confounded with the Seraphic colleges, which are to be found in modern times in most of the provinces, and are devoted to the instruction of youthful candidates in the humanities, as a preparation for the novitiate, where the students first reeive the habit of the order.这些不绝,不过,混淆与Seraphic学院,这是在近代发现的大部分省份,并致力于在人文年轻候选人的指令,以此为见习期的准备,这里的学生第一reeive订单的习惯。 No friar, convent, or even the order itself can possess any real property.没有修士,修女,甚至为了自己能够拥有任何不动产。 (Cf. RULE OF ST. FRANCIS.) (参见圣弗朗西斯的规则。)

The duties of the individual Fathers vary; according as they hold offices in the order, or are engaged as lectors (professors) of the different sciences, as preachers, in giving missions or in other occupations within or, with the permission of the superiors, without the order.个别父亲的职责有所不同,根据他们持有的顺序办事处,或作为讲师(教授)的不同科学的传教士,从事飞行任务,或给予其他职业或内,在上级的许可,没有订单。 The cardinal-protector, introduced in the order by St. Francis himself, exercises the office and rights of a protector at the Roman Curia, but has no power over the order itself.在大是大非保护器,在该命令圣弗朗西斯本人介绍,演习的办公室和在罗马教廷保护的权利,但没有在命令本身的力量。

VII.七。GENERAL SPHERE OF THE ORDER'S ACTIVITY一般SPHERE的顺序活动

As a religious order in the service of the Catholic Church, and under her care and protection, the Franciscans were, according to the express wish of their founder, not only to devote themselves to their own personal sanctification, but also to make their apostolate fruitful of salvation to the people in the world.作为一个在天主教教会服务,并在她的照顾和保护宗教秩序,济人,根据表达祝愿他们的创始人,不仅要致力于自己的个人成圣,但也使他们的使徒卓有成效拯救在世界人民。 That the former of these objects has been fulfilled is clearly indicated by the number of Friars Minor who have been canonized and beatified by the Church. ,这些对象前已经履行的明确表示由天主教方济会小数目谁被册封由教会享福。To these must be added the army of friars who have in the stillness of retirement led a life of virtue, known it its fullnes to God alone, a mere fraction of whose names fill such volumes at the "Martyrologium Fraciscanum" of Father Arthur do Monstier (Paris, 1638 and 1653) and the Menologium trium ordinum SP Fracisci of Fortunatus Hüber (Munich, 1688), containing the names of the thousands of martyrs who have laid down their lives for the Faith in Europe and elsewhere under the heathen and heretic.这些必须补充的修士谁在寂静已退休领导的军队生活的美德,已知它的fullnes只有上帝,只有一小部分的名字填在“Martyrologium Fraciscanum”的父亲亚瑟这样做Monstier卷(巴黎,1638年和1653年)和Menologium TRIUM ordinum SP Fracisci的Fortunatus胡贝尔(慕尼黑,1688),载有烈士谁放下在欧洲和其他地方的生命为信念下的异教徒和异端数千名。

Like all human institutions, the order at times fell below its first perfection.像所有的人的机构,有时为了首次跌破完善。Such a multitude of men, with their human infirmities and ever-changing duties, could never perfectly translate into action the exalted ideals of St. Francis, as the more supernatural and sublime the ideas, the ruder is their collision with reality and the more allowance must made for the feebleness of man.如此众多的男性,他们的人的软弱和不断变化的工作,不可能完全转化为行动的圣弗朗西斯的崇高理想,为更多的超自然和崇高的思想,是他们的粗鲁与现实的碰撞和更多的津贴必须为人类的软弱了。 That an aspiration after the fundamental glorious ideal of their founder has ever distinguished the order is patent from the reforms ever arising in its midst, and especially from the history of the Observance, inaugurated and established in the face of such seemingly overwhelming odds.后一个根本的创始人曾经辉煌的理想抱负杰出专利的顺序是从改革中不断产生的中间,特别是从遵守历史,开创并在这种看似压倒性优势面临成立。 The order was established to minister to all classes, and the Franciscans have in every age discharged the spiritual offices of confessor and preacher in the palaces of sovereigns and in the huts of the poor.该命令是建立部长向所有类,方济在出院的君主的宫殿和穷人的茅屋的忏悔和布道者的精神办事处,每个时代有。 Under popes, emperors, and kings they have served as ambassadors and mediators.在教皇,皇帝,国王和他们担任大使和调解员。 One hundred have already been nominated to the Sacred College of Cardinals, and the number of Franciscans who have been appointed patriarchs, archbishops, and bishops, is at least 3,000. 100名已被提名的主教神圣的大学,而济谁被任命始祖,大主教和主教人数,至少是3000元。The popes elected from the Observants are: Nicholas IV (1288-92); Alexander V (1409-10).从Observants当选的教皇是:尼古拉四(1288年至1292年),亚历山大V(1409至1410年)。 Sixtus IV (1471-84) was a Conventual of the period before the division of the order.Sixtus IV(1471年至1484年)是在之前的时间顺序划分Conventual。Sixtus V (1585-90) and Clement XIV (1769-74) were chosen from the Conventuals after the division.Sixtus V(1585至1590年)和克莱门特十四(1769年至1774年)被选为从Conventuals后的分工。The popes have often employed the Minorites as legates and nuncios, eg to pave the way for and carry through the reunion of the Greeks, Tatars, Armenians, Maronites, and other schismatics of the East.教皇经常受聘为使节和nuncios,例如铺平了道路和贯彻的希腊人,鞑靼人,亚美尼亚人,马龙派教徒,和东方其他schismatics团聚的Minorites。 Many Minorites have also been appointed grand penitentiaries, that is, directors of the papal penitentiaries, and have served and still servi in Rome as Apostolic penitentiareis and as confessors to the pope himself or in the principal basilicas of the city.许多Minorites也被任命为盛大的监狱,也就是教皇监狱董事,并曾经和仍然在罗马servi作为使徒penitentiareis和忏悔自己的教皇或在城市的主要大教堂。 Thus the Observants are in charg eof the lateran Basilica in Rome.因此,Observants在临时代办EOF在罗马拉特兰大教堂。As inquisitors against heresy, the Franciscans were in the immediate service of the Apostolic See.由于调查者反对邪教,济人的使徒见即时服务。

Observing a much stricter rule of poverty and renunciation of the world than all other orders, the Franciscans exercised during the Middle Ages a most salutary social influence over the enslaved and unprivileged classes of the population.观察一个比所有其他命令,在最有益以上的人口被奴役和非特权阶级的社会影响力中世纪行使济贫困和世界放弃更严格的规则。 The constant model of a practical poverty was at once consoling and elevating.一个实用的贫困常数模型是在一次安慰和提升。 The vast contributions of their monasteries touards the maintenance of the very poor cannot be indicated in rows of figures, nor can their similar contributions of today.他们的寺院,广大的贡献touards的非常差的维护,不能在数字行表示,今天他们也可以类似的贡献。They also exerted a wide social influence through their third order (see THIRD ORDER).他们还通过其产生的三阶(见三阶)广泛的社会影响力。They tended the lepers, especially in Germany; the constantly recurring pests and epidemics found them ever at their post, and thousands of their number sacrificed their lives in the service of the plague-stricken populace.他们往往在麻风病人,特别是在德国的经常性有害生物和疫病不断发现他们曾经在自己的岗位,他们的人数成千上万牺牲在鼠疫灾区民众的生活服务。 They erected infirmaries and founding hospitals.他们竖立疗养院和建国医院。The Observants performed most meritorious social work especially in Italy by the institution of montes pietatis (monti de Pieta), in the fiteenth century, conspicious in this work being Bl.该Observants执行,特别是在意大利由蒙特斯pietatis(蒙蒂德圣母怜子图)的机构,在fiteenth世纪,在这个被BL工作conspicious最有功的社会工作。 Bernardine of Feltre with the renowned preacher.伯纳迪恩的Feltre与著名的传教士。In England they fought with Simon de Montfort for the liberty of the people and the ideal of universal brotherhood, which St. Francis had inculcated in sermon and verse, and to thier influence may be partly traced the birth of the idea of popular government in Italy and elsewhere in Europe.在英国,他们打了西蒙de Montfort为人民的自由和世界大同,其中圣弗朗西斯曾在讲道和诗歌灌输的理想,他们的影响可能部分追溯到意大利的流行政府的想法诞生和欧洲其他地方。

VIII.第八。THE PREACHING ACTIVITY OF THE ORDER该命令的说教活动

St. Francis exercised great influence through his preaching, and his example has been zealously followed by his order throughout the centuries with conspicucous success, evident not only in popular applause but in the profound effects produced on the lives of the people.圣弗朗西斯行使很大的影响力,通过他的说教,他的例子是为了他的热心与conspicucous之后整个的成功,不仅在流行的掌声,但在对人的生活产生了深远的影响明显的世纪。 At first all the friars were allowed to deliver simple exhortations and, with the permission of St. Francis, dogmatic and penitential sermons.起初,所有的修士被允许提供与圣弗朗西斯,教条式的说教和悔罪简单的嘱托和权限。 This privilege was restricted in 1221, and still further in 1223, after which year only specially trained and tested friars were allowed to preach.此权限只限于在1221年和1223年还进一步,之后每年只受过专门训练和测试的修士被允许言行一致。The Franciscans have always been eminently popular preachers, eg Berthold of Ratisbon, a German who died in 1272; St. Anthony of Padua (d.1231); Gilbert of Tournai (d. about 1280); Eudes Rigauld, Archbishop of Rouen (d. 1275); Leo Valvassori of Perego, afterwards Bishop of Milan (1263); Bonaventure of Jesi (d. about 1270); Conrad of Saxony (or of Brunswick) (d. 1279); Louis, the so-called Greculus (c.1300); Haymo of Faversham (d. 1244); Ralph of Rosa (c.1250).方济会一直突出的流行传教士,如贝特霍尔德的拉蒂斯邦,德国谁在1272年去世;圣安东尼的帕多瓦(d.1231),吉尔伯特的图尔奈(约1280 D.); Eudes Rigauld,鲁昂大主教(D ,1275);狮子座Valvassori的佩雷戈,后来主教米兰(1263);的JESI文德(约1270 D.);康拉德萨克森(或不伦瑞克)(卒于1279年),路易斯,所谓的Greculus(C 0.1300); Haymo的Faversham(草1244);罗莎拉尔夫(c.1250)。The acme of Franciscan preaching was reached by the Observants in the fifteenth century, especially in Italy and Germany.方济各传教的极致达成了在15世纪的Observants,特别是在意大利和德国。Of the many illustrious preachers, it will be sufficient to mention St. Bernadine of Siena 9d.在众多杰出的传教士,这将足以提圣锡耶纳9D伯娜丁。1444); St. John Capistran (d. 1456); St. James of the March (d. 1476); Bl. 1444);圣约翰Capistran(卒于1456),圣三月份詹姆斯(四1476); BL。Albert Berdini of Sarteano (d. 1450); Anthony of Rimini (d.1450); Michael of Carcano (Milan) (d.1485); Bl.何俊仁贝尔迪尼的萨尔泰阿诺(四1450),里米尼(d.1450),安东尼;的卡尔卡诺(AC米兰)(d.1485)迈克尔; BL。Pacificus of Ceredano (d. 1482); Bl.Pacificus的Ceredano(卒于1482); BL。Bernardine of Feltre (d.1494); Bernardine of Busti (d.1500); Bl.伯纳迪恩的Feltre(d.1494);伯纳迪恩的Busti(d.1500); BL。Angelo Carletti di Chivasso (d. 1495); Andrew of Faenza (d. 1507).安杰洛Carletti二Chivasso(卒于1495年);的法恩莎安德鲁(四1507)。In Germany we find: John of Minden (d.1413); Henry of Werl (d.1463); John of Werden (d.1437); author of the renowned collection of sermons "Dormi secure"; John Brugman (d.1473); Dietrich Coelde of Münster (d.1515); Johann Kannermann (d. about 1470); a preacher on the Passion; Johann Kannegieser, "the trumpet of Truth" (d. about 1500); Johann Gritasch (d. about 1410); Johann Mader; Johann Pauli (d. about 1530); whose work Schimpf und Ernst was a long favourite among the German people; Heinrich Kastner; Stephan Fridolin (d.1498).在德国,我们发现:约翰明登(d.1413),亨利Werl(d.1463);的Werden约翰(d.1437)的布道“Dormi安全的”收藏品而闻名的作者;约翰布鲁格曼(d.1473 );迪特里希Coelde明斯特(d.1515)约翰Kannermann(约1470 D.),一个牧师的激情,“小号真理”(约1500 D.)约翰Kannegieser;约翰Gritasch(约1410 D. );约翰马德,约翰保利(约1530 D.);其工作Schimpf UND恩斯特是德国人之间的长期喜爱,海因里希卡斯特纳;斯蒂芬弗里多林(d.1498)。In Hungary: Pelbart of Temesvar (d. about 1490).在匈牙利:Temesvar Pelbart(约1490 D.)。In Poland: Bl.在波兰:BL。 Simon of Lipnica (d. 1482); Bl.西蒙Lipnica(四1482); BL。John of Dukla (d. 1484); Bl.约翰杜克拉(四1484); BL。Ladislaus of Gienlnow (d. 1505).对Gienlnow拉迪斯劳斯(四1505年)。In France: Oliver Maillard (d. 1502); Michel Minot (d. about 1522); Thomas surnamed Illyricus (d. 1529); Jean Tisserand (d. 1494); Etienne Brulefer (d. about 1507).在法国:奥利弗美拉德(卒于1502);米歇尔迈诺特(约1522 D.);托马斯姓Illyricus(卒于1529年);让蒂塞朗(卒于1494年);艾蒂安Brulefer(约1507 D.)。The following illustrious Spanish theologians and preachers of the sixteenth century wee Friars Minor: Alphonsus de Castro (d. 1558); Didacus de Estella (d. 1575); Luis de Carvajeal (d. about 1500); John of Carthagena (d. 1617); St. Peter of Alcántara (d. 1562).以下杰出的西班牙神学家和传教士在十六世纪凌晨男修道士未成年人:阿方德卡斯特罗(卒于1558年); Didacus DE特拉(卒于1575年);路易斯德Carvajeal(约1500 D.);的Carthagena约翰(卒于1617年),圣彼得(四1562)的阿尔坎塔拉。Renowned Italian Franciscans were: Saluthio (d. about 1630); St. Leonard of Port Maurice (d. 1751); Bl.著名的意大利方济是:Saluthio(约1630 D.);圣伦纳德港口莫里斯(D. 1751年); BL。Leopold of Gaiches (d. 1815); Luigi Parmentieri of Casovia (d. 1855); Luigi Arrigoni (d. 1875), Archbishop of Lucca, etc. Other well-known French Franciscans were Michel Vivien (seventeenth century), Zacharie Laselve etc, and of the Germans mention may be made of Heinrich Sedulius (d. 1621), Fortunatus huever (d. 1706) and Franz Ampferle (d. 1646).利奥波德的Gaiches(四1815年);路易吉Parmentieri的Casovia(卒于1855年);路易吉Arrigoni(卒于1875年),卢卡大主教等其他著名的法国人米歇尔济费雯丽(十七世纪),Zacharie Laselve等和德国人提到可能是由海因里希Sedulius(卒于1621年),Fortunatus huever(卒于1706年)和Franz Ampferle(卒于1646)。Even today the Friars Minor have amongst their number many illustrious preachers, especially in Italy.即使在今天,男修道士未成年人当中有他们的人数众多杰出的传教士,特别是在意大利。

IX. IX。INFLUENCE OF THE ORDER ON THE LITURGY AND RELIGIOUS DEVOTIONS该命令影响的礼仪和宗教灵修

St. Francis prescribed for his order the abridged Breviary then reserved for the Roman Curia.圣弗朗西斯为他规定的顺序删节祈祷书然后罗马教廷保留。As this and the Missal were revised by the general, Haymo of Faversham, at the command of Gregory IX, and these liturgical books have by degrees, since the time of Nicholas III (1277-80), been universally prescribed or adopted, the order in this alone has exercised a great influence.由于这与Missal是由一般情况下,Haymo的Faversham,在格雷戈里九命令,这些礼仪的书籍已被修订度,因为尼古拉斯三世(1277至80年)的时间,被普遍规定或通过命令在此就有行使很大的影响。 The Breviary of General Quiñonez (1523-28) enjoyed a much shorter vogue.将军Quiñonez(1523年至1528年)祈祷书享有一个更短的时尚。To the Franciscan Order the Church is also indebted for the feast of St. Joseph (19 March) and that of the Blessed Trinity.到了济秩序的教会也感谢为圣若瑟(19日)和保佑的三位一体的盛宴。The activity of the Franciscans in promoting devotion to the Immaculate Conception, since Scotus (d. 1308) defended this doctrine, is well known.该方济促进奉献给圣母无原罪,因为司各脱(四1308)捍卫本主义活动,是众所周知的。St. Francis himself laboured earnestly to promote the adoration of Our Lord in the Blessed Eucharist, and Cherubino of Spoleto founded a sodality to accompany the Blessed Sacrament to the houses of the sick.圣弗朗西斯自己辛劳切实促进在祝福我们的主的圣体崇拜,和斯波莱托Cherubino成立了一个联谊会陪同圣体的病人的房子。 In 1897 Leo XIII declared Paschal Baylon (d. 1592) patron of eucharistic leagues. 1897年利奥十三世宣布逾越节Baylon(草1592)的圣体联赛的赞助人。The Christmas crib was introduced and popularized by the order to which -- especially to St. Leonard of Port Maurice (d. 1751) -- is also due the spreading of the devotion known as "the Stations of the Cross."圣诞婴儿床引进和推广了以这 - 特别是圣伦纳德港口莫里斯(卒于1751年) - “十字架的车站”也因在被称为传播的奉献The ringing of the Angelus morning, noon, and evening, was also inaugurated by the Franciscans, especially by St. Bonaventure and Bl.三钟经的早晨,中午,晚上响起,还成立了济,特别是由圣文德和BL。Benedict of Alrezzo (d. about 1520).本笃的Alrezzo(约1520 D.)。

X. FRANCISCAN MISSIONS十方济各传教

St. Francis devoted himself to missionary labours from 1219 to 1221, and devoted in his rule a special chapter (xii) to missions.圣弗朗西斯献身传教劳动力1219至1221年,在他统治专章(十二)以专门任务。In every part of the world, the Franciscans have laboured with the greatest devotion, self-sacrifice, enthusiasm and success, even though, as the result of persecutions and wars, the result of their toil has not always been permanent.在世界的每一个部分,方济有辛劳与最大的奉献,自我牺牲,积极性和成功,即使作为迫害和战争的结果,他们辛劳的结果并不总是永久性的。 The four friars sent to Morocco in 1219 under Berard of Carbio were martyred in 1220.这四派在1219年摩洛哥根据Carbio贝拉尔修士是烈属,在1220年。Electus soon shared their fate, and in 1227 Daniel with six companions was put to death at Ceuta. Electus很快分享了他们的命运,在1227年有六个同伴丹尼尔,并于休达死刑。The bishops of Morocco were mostly Franciscans or Dominicans.摩洛哥的主教大多济或多米尼加。In 1420 the Observants founded a convent at Ceuta, and here St. John of Prado died at the stake in 1632.于1420年成立的Observants在休达修道院,这里圣普拉多约翰在1632年的股权死亡。This mission was entrusted to the province of S. Diego in 1641, and to the province of Santiago (Galicia, Spain) om 1860, after it had been constituted a prefecture Apostolic in 1859.这个任务委托给S的迭戈在1641年省,到圣地亚哥(加利西亚,西班牙)OM 1860年,省后,已构成一个地在1859年使徒。 In Oran, Libya, Tunis, Algiers, as well as throughout Egypt, Franciscans have laboured since the thirteenth century, and signalized their exertions by a glorious array of martyrs in 1288, 1345, 1358, 1370, 1373, etc. this mission was under the jurisdiction of that in the Holy Land.在奥兰,利比亚,突尼斯,阿尔及尔,以及整个埃及,济劳苦自十三世纪,灯号由烈士光荣阵列1288,1345,1358,1370,1373,等他们exertions这次访问是根据在圣地的管辖权。 In 1686 Upper Egypt was separated, and became in 1697 an independent prefecture Apostolic.上埃及在1686年被分离,并在1697年成为独立的县使徒。Lower Egypt continued its connection with the Holy Land until 1839, when both (with Aden,which was again separated in 1889) were formed into a vicariate Apostolic, in which state they still remain.下埃及一直持续到1839年其与圣地的连接,当两个(与亚丁,这是在1889年再次分离)的成代牧区宗座,在这种状态,他们仍然成立。 In Lower Egypt there are now sixteen monasteries, controlling parishes and schools.在较低的埃及现在有sixteen寺庙,控制教区和学校。In Upper Egypt, from which the Copts were separated in 1892, are eight monasteries with parishes connected.在上埃及,从中分离科普特人在1892年,是连接八个教区修道院。

In 1630 the Congregation of Propaganda sent Fathers Mark of Scalvo and Edward of Bergamo to Tripoli, and in 1643 appointed Paschal Canto, a Frenchman, Prefect Apostolic of Barbary -- an office which still exists.在1630年的宣传众派父亲的Scalvo和爱德华贝加莫马克的黎波里,并于1643年任命的逾越节粤语,一个法国人,知府巴贝里使徒 - 办公室仍然存在。The activity of this mission, like the others in these countries, is not so much directed to the conversion of Mohammedans as to the support and help of the Catholic settlers.这项任务的活动,如在这些国家的人,与其说是针对以的支持和帮助天主教定居的伊斯兰教徒的转换。Abyssinia (Ethiopia, Habech) was first visited by John of Montecorvino (c. 1280).阿比西尼亚(埃塞俄比亚,Habech)是首先参观由Montecorvino约翰(约1280)。Later, Bl.后来,BL。Thomas of Florence was sent thither by Albert of Sarteano, and Sixtus IV, after the other missions had failed, sent Girolamo Tornielli.佛罗伦萨的托马斯被送到由萨尔泰阿诺阿尔伯特上去,和Sixtus IV后,其他任务失败了,送吉罗拉莫Tornielli。Many missionaries were put to death, and in 1687 a special prefecture was instituted for the conversion of the Copts.许多传教士被处死,并在1687年是一个特殊的县为科普特人提起的转换。This was reinstituted in 1815, and in 1895 a special hierarchy was erected for the same object.这是再提起,在1815年和1895年是一个特殊的层次结构为同一对象架设。In 1700 Father Krump undertook the foundation of a new mission in Ethiopia, when in 1718 three missionaries were stoned to death.在1700年父亲Krump承担了在埃塞俄比亚新的使命的基础,当1718 three传教士用石头打死。

The two Genoese ships which circumnavigated Africa in 1291 had two Minorites on board.这两个热那亚船舶,绕行在1291非洲有两个上Minorites。Others accompanied Vasco da Gama.达伽马等陪同。In 1446 the Franciscans visited Cape Verde where Roger, a Frenchman, zealously preached the Gospel. 1446年方济访问佛得角在罗杰,法国人,热心传福音。In 1459 they reached Guinea, of which Alphonsus of Bolano was named Prefect Apostolic in 1472.在1459年他们到达几内亚,其中博拉诺阿方在1472年被任命为省长使徒。They thence proceeded to the Congo, where they baptized a king.他们从那里前往刚果,他们在那里受洗国王。In 1500 they went to Mozambique under Alvarez of Coimbra.他们在1500到莫桑比克下科英布拉阿尔瓦雷斯。The French Recollects laboured here during the seventeenth century, but since 1898 the Portuguese Franciscans have had charge of the mission.法国回忆在这里辛勤十七世纪,但自1898年以来,葡萄牙济有过的使命负责。 At the beginning of the sixteenth century Friars Minor settled in Melinda and on the Island of Socotra near Aden.在十六世纪初落户天主教方济会小梅林达并在亚丁附近的索科特拉岛。In 1245 John of Plano Carpinis (Piano di Carpine) was sent by Innocent IV to the Great Khan in Tatary and penetrated thence into Mongolia.在1245(钢琴迪卡尔皮内)普莱诺Carpinis约翰被送到了无辜四中Tatary大可汗蒙古和渗透到那里。 By order of Louis IX William of Rubruck (Rubruquis) proceeded thence through Armenia and Central asia to Karakoram.由路易九威廉Rubruck顺序(Rubruquis)进行通过亚美尼亚和中亚再至喀喇昆仑。

The accounts of the travels of the last-mentioned historical and geopgraphical renown.对最后提到的历史和著名的旅游geopgraphical的帐户。In 1279 Nicholas III sent five Franciscans to China, among them John of Montercorvino, who prached on the outward journey in Armenia, Persia, and Ethiopia and on his return journey in the same countries and in India. 1279年尼古拉斯三世派出5名方济会到中国,其中的Montercorvino,谁对在亚美尼亚,波斯,埃塞俄比亚向外的旅程,在他的回归之旅prached在同一个国家和印度的约翰。 Having converted thousands and translated the New Testament and the Psalms into Chinese, he completed in 1299 a beautiful church in Peking.经数千转换和翻译的新约,并进入中国诗篇,他在1299年完成在北京美丽的教堂。 In 1307 Clement V appointed him Archbishop of Cambalue and primaate of the Far East and gave him six suffragan bishops, only three of whom reached Peking (1308).在1307克莱门特V任命他Cambalue和primaate远东的大主教和主教给他6副主教,只有三个,其中到达北京(1308)。 (See CHINA, Vol. III, 669-70.) From 1320 to 1325 Odoric of Pordenone laboured in Persia, India, Sumatra, Java, Borneo, Canton, Tibet, and China. (见中国,第三卷,669-70。)从1320至1325年的波代诺内Odoric辛劳在波斯,印度,苏门答腊,爪哇,婆罗洲,广东,西藏和中国。 In 1333 John XXII dispatched twenty-seven Franciscans to China, Giovanni Marignola of Florence following them in 1342.在1333年约翰二十二派出27济,以中国,乔瓦尼佛罗伦萨Marignola他们在1342以下。In 1370 William of Prato was sent as archbishop to Peking with twenty fellow-Minorites.在1370年的威廉被送到普拉托作为大主​​教到北京与二十同胞Minorites。The appearance of the Ming dynasty in 1368 brought about the ruin of all the missions.而明朝在1368外观带来的所有任务废墟。On 21 June, 1579, Franciscans from the Philippines penetrated to China once more, but the real founder of the new mission in China was Antonio de S. Maria (d.1669), who was sent to China in 1633, and later laboured in Cochin-China and Korea. 6月21日1579年,来自菲律宾的方济会渗透到中国一次,但在中国新的使命的真正创始人是安东尼S.玛丽亚(d.1669),谁被送往中国于1633年,后来在吃力科钦,中国和韩国。

China was also visited in 1661 by Bonaventura Ibañez (d. 1691) with eight friars.中国还参观了波纳文图拉瓦涅斯(草1691)与八个修士在1661年。Henceforward Franciscan missions to China were constant.从此以后济向中国派出了不变。In 1684 came the Italian fathers under the renowned Bernardino della Chiesa (d.1739), including Basilio Rollo da Gemona (d. 1704) and Carlo Orazio da Castorano. 1684年受到著名圣贝纳迪诺德拉基耶萨(d.1739)意大利父亲,包括巴西利奥罗洛大Gemona(卒于1704年)和卡罗奥拉齐奥达Castorano。 At the beginning of the eighteenth century the Italian Franciscans began missions in the interior of China -- first in Shen-si, then in Shan-si, Shan-tung, etc.; numbers were martyred, particularly towards the close of the century.在十八世纪初,意大利方济开始在中国内地使命 - 在深市第一,然后在山市,山东等;数字分别为烈属,特别是对本世纪结束。Despite the edict of persecution, Ludovico Besi began in 1839 a new mission to Shan-tung.尽管迫害诏书,卢多维科BESI开始于1839年以单彤新的使命。The Franciscans continued to work persistently in most of the districts in China, where, in spite of persecution, they now hold nine of the thirty-eight vicariates.方济会继续工作,在大部分地区持续在中国,在那里,在迫害尽管如此,他们现在持有的38 vicariates九岁。 Every land, almost every province, of Europe and many divisions of America are represtented in China by one or more missionaries.每一块土地,几乎每个省,欧洲和美国的许多部门都represtented在中国由一个或多个传教士。 Of the 222 Franciscans at present (beginning of 1909) labouring there, 77 are Italians, 27 Dutch, 25 Germans, 25 Belgians, 16 French.在目前(1909年开始)的劳动有222济,77顷意大利人,27荷兰,25德国,25比利时人,法国16。

The first missionaries reached the Philippines in 1577 and founded the province of St. Gregory.第一个传教士到达菲律宾于1577年创立的圣格雷戈里省。Their leaders were Pedro de Alfaro (1576-79), Pablo a Jesu (1580-83), and St. Peter Baptist (1586-91), the first Franciscan martyr in Japan.他们的领导人佩德罗 - 德 - 阿尔法罗(1576年至1579年),巴勃罗a Jesu(1580至1583年),和圣彼得浸信会(1586年至1591年),第一次在日本济烈士。From the Philippines they extended their field of labour to China, Siam, Formosa, Japan, Borneo.来自菲律宾,他们扩大了他们的劳动领域的中国,泰国,台湾,日本,婆罗洲。In the Philippines their activity was tireless; they founded convents, town, and hospitals; instructed the natives in manual labour -- the planting of coffee and cocoa, the breeding of silk-worms, weaving; and planned streets, bridges, canals, aqueducts, etc. Among the best known Fraciscan architects may be included Lorenzo S. Maria (d. 1585), Macimo Rico (d. 1780), and a Joseph Balaguer (d. 1850).在菲律宾的活动是不知疲倦,他们成立了修道院,镇,医院,指示在手工劳动的当地人 - 咖啡和可可种植,丝绸虫养殖,编织和计划的街道,桥梁,运河,沟渠,其中最有名的Fraciscan建筑师等可包括洛伦佐S.玛丽亚(卒于1585年),Macimo波多黎各(卒于1780年),和约瑟夫巴拉格尔(卒于1850年)。 Here as elsewhere they studied the languages and dialects of the natives, and even to the present day continue to compile much sought after and highly prized grammars, dictionaries, etc. The occupation of the Philippines by the United States brought many alterations, but the missions are still under the province of S. Gregorio in Spain.这里与其他地方一样,他们研究了当地人的语言和方言,甚至到今天继续进行编译多的追捧和如获至宝文法,字典等。菲律宾由美国占领带来了许多改变,但任务仍在西班牙的S.格雷戈里奥省。

On 26 May, 1592, St. Peter Baptist set out from Manila for Japan with some associates, erected in 1594 a church and convent in Meaco, but on 5 February, 1597, suffered martyrdom on the cross with twenty five companions, of whom three were Jesuits.在1592年5月26日,圣彼得浸会列出从马尼拉日本与一些同伙,在1594年的教堂和修道院竖立在Meaco,但在1597年2月5日,在十字架上遭受殉难与25同伴,其中三名是耶稣会士。 The missions of the Franciscans were thus interrupted for a time, but were repeatedly renewed from the Philippines, and as often the list of martyrs added to (eg in 1616, 1622, 1628, 1634, etc.).方济会的任务是因此而中断了一段时间,但多次被来自菲律宾的更新,并作为经常的烈士名单增加(如在1616年,1622年,1628,1634等)。 In 1907 some Franciscans again settled at Sappora on the Island of Yezo, thus forming a connecting link with the traditions of the past.1907年一些济再次收于Sappora对Yezo岛,从而形成了与过去的传统承上启下。

In 1680 Australia was visited by Italian Franciscans, who also preached in New Zealand, but in 1878 the missions were transferred to the Irish Franciscans. 1680年澳大利亚访问了意大利方济各,谁也鼓吹在新西兰,但在1878年的任务被转移到爱尔兰济。From 1859 to 1864, Patrick Bonaventure Geoghegan was Bishop of Adelaide, and was succeeded by another Franciscan, Luke Bonaventure Sheil (1864-72).从1859年至1864年,帕特里克文德纪勤是阿德莱德的主教,以及由另一济,卢克文德Sheil(1864年至1872年)成功。 In Northern Europe, which in the thirteenth century was not yet completely converted to Christianity, the Franciscans established missions in Lithuania, whee thirty-six were butchered in 1325.在北欧,这是在十三世纪尚未完全转换为基督教,方济会成立于立陶宛,whee 36是在1325年屠杀任务。The first Bishop of Lithuania was Andreas Vazilo.立陶宛的第一个主教安德烈亚斯Vazilo。During the fifteenth century John, surnamed "the Small", and Blessed Ladislaus of Gielniow laboured most successfully in this district.在十五世纪约翰,姓“小”,并祝福Gielniow拉迪斯劳斯辛劳在这区最成功的。In Prussia (now the provinces of West and East Prussia), Livonia, and Courland (where the Minorite Albert was Bishop of Marienwerder (1260-90) and founded the town of Reisenburg), as well as in Lapland, the inhabitants of which were still heathens, the Reformation put an end to the labours of the Friars Minor.在普鲁士(今西和东普鲁士的省),利沃尼亚,和库尔兰(其中Minorite伟业是Marienwerder主教(一二六零年至1290年),并创立了Reisenburg镇),以及在拉普兰,其中居民被还是异教徒,宗教改革结束的男修道士未成年人的劳动。 Their numerous houses in Denmark, Sweden, and Norway, which formed the province of Denmark (Dania, Dacia), and the provinces of England, Scotland, and to some extent those of Holland and Germany, were also overthrown.在丹麦,瑞典,挪威,这就形成了丹麦(达尼亚,达契亚)省,英格兰,苏格兰各省,并在一定程度上荷兰和德国的,也推翻了他们的许多房屋。 After the year 1530, the Franciscans could work in these lands only as missionaries, in which capacity they laboured there from the fifteenth to the eighteenth century and still continue to a certain extent.一年后,1530年,方济会工作,这些土地只能作为传教士,其中有能力,他们辛劳从第十五到十八世纪,仍继续在一定程度上。

A few words may here be devoted to those Friars minor who stood forth as fearless defenders of the Faith in the Northern countries during the Reformation period.几句话可以在这里专门为那些男修道士未成年人谁站作为在改革期间,在北方国家规定信仰无畏的捍卫者。The Franciscans and Dominicans supplied the greatest number and the most illustrious champions of the Church, and comparatively few yielded to temptation or persecution and deserted their order and their Faith.方济会和多米尼加提供的最大数量和教会的最杰出的冠军,以及较少屈服于诱惑或迫害和遗弃他们的订单和他们的信仰。As in the case of the scholars, artists, missionaries, and holy men of the order, only a few names can be mentioned here.正如学者,艺术家,传教士和秩序圣人的情况下,只有少数的名称可以在这里提及。Among the hundreds of names from Great Britain may be cited: John Forest of London, burned at the stake in 1538, Godfrey Jones (d. 1598), Thomas Bullaker (d. 1642), Henry Heath (d. 1643), Arthur Bell (d. 1643), Walter Colman (d. 1645) whose heroism culminated in every case in death.其中来自英国的数百名可引:约翰森林伦敦,在1538年火刑,戈弗雷琼斯(卒于1598年),托马斯Bullaker(卒于1642年),亨利希思(卒于1643年),阿瑟钟(卒于1643年),沃尔特科尔曼(卒于1645),其英雄主义在每一个死亡的情况下达到了高潮。 Similarly in Ireland we find Patrick O'Hely (d. 1578), Cornelius O'Devany (d. 1612), Boetius Egan (d. 1650), etc.同样,在爱尔兰,我们发现帕特里克O'Hely(卒于1578),科尼利厄斯O'Devany(卒于1612),Boetius伊根(卒于1650年)等。

Among the most distinguished Danish defenders of the Faith is Nikolaus Herborn (Ferber), mockingly called "Stagefyr" (d. 1535); in France, Christophe de Cheffontaines (d. 1595) and François Feuradent; in Germany Thomas Murner (d. 1537), Augustin von Alfeld (d. 1532), Johannes Ferus (Wild) (d. 1554), Konrad Kling, (d. 1556), Ludolf Manann (d. 1574), Michael Hillebrand (d. about 1540), Kaspar Schatzgeyer (d. 1527), Johann Nas (d. 1590), etc. Between 1520 and 1650 more than 500 Minorites laid down their lives for the Church.其中最杰出的信仰捍卫者,是尼古劳斯Herborn丹麦(Ferber的加盟),嘲弄所谓“Stagefyr”(卒于1535),在法国,克里斯托夫DE Cheffontaines(卒于1595)和弗朗索瓦Feuradent,在德国托马斯Murner(卒于1537年),奥古斯丁冯阿尔费尔德(卒于1532年),约翰内斯Ferus(野生)(卒于1554年),康拉德克林,(四1556),Ludolf Manann(卒于1574年),迈克尔希勒布兰德(约1540 D.),卡斯帕Schatzgeyer (卒于1527),约翰纳斯(四1590),至1520和1650等500多个Minorites奠定了教会他们的生活。On the Black and Caspian Seas the Franciscans instituted missions about 1270.在黑海和里海济提起关于1270年任务。 The following Franciscans laboured in Greater Armenia: James of Russano in 1233; Andrew of Perugia in 1247; Thomas of Tolentino in 1290.在下面的济大亚美尼亚吃力:詹姆斯在1233年的Russano;佩鲁贾安德鲁在1247年,托马斯在1290年的托伦蒂诺。 King Haito (Ayto) II of Lesser Armenia, and Jean de Brienne, Emperor of Constantinople, both entered the Franciscan Order.王Haito(Ayto)的小亚美尼亚II和吉恩de Brienne,君士坦丁堡皇帝,都进入了济秩序。Franciscans were in Persia about 1280, and again after 1460.济约1280人在波斯,后再次1460。About this time Louis of Bologna went through Asia and Russia to rouse popular sentiment against the Turks.大约在这个时候路易博洛尼亚经历了亚洲和俄罗斯的反对土耳其人振奋民心。The Franciscans were in Further India by 1500, and toiled among the natives, the St. Thomas Christians, and the Portuguese, who made over to them the mosque of Goa seized in 1510.方济会是由1500年进一步印度,并跻身当地人,圣托马斯基督徒,葡萄牙,谁向他们作出了果阿清真寺在1510年查获劳苦功高。 The order had colleges and schools in India long before the arrival of the Jesuits, who first came under the Franciscan Archbishop of Goa, João Albuquerque (1537-53).该命令已前的耶稣会士,谁首先在果阿,若昂阿尔布开克(1537年至1553年)济大主教来到抵达印度院校长。

Since 1219 the Franciscans have maintained a mission in the Holy Land, where, after untold labours and turmoil and at the expense of hundreds of lives, they have, especially since the fourteenth century, recovered the holy places dear to Christians.自1219年方济保持了在圣地的使命,在那里,经过数不清的劳作和动荡和在数百人的生命为代价,他们以来,特别是十四世纪,收回亲爱的基督徒圣地。 Here they built houses for the reception of pilgrims, to whom they gave protection and shelter.在这里,他们建造的房子接待朝圣者,向他们给予保护和庇护。Friars from every country compose the so-called custody of the Holy Land, whose work in the past, interrupted by unceasing persecutions and massacres, constitutes a bloody but glorious page in the history of the order.从每个国家修士组成的圣地,他们的工作在过去,通过不断的迫害和屠杀中断,构成的命令,但历史上光辉的一页血腥所谓的保管。 In the territory of the Patriarchate of Jerusalem, reinstituted in 1847, the Franciscans have 24 convents, and 15 parishes; in Syria (the Prefecture Apostolic of Aleppo), to which also belong Phoenicia and Armenia, they have 20 convents and 15 parishes, while in Lower Egypt they occupy 16 convents and 16 parishes.在对1847年再提起耶路撒冷主教领地,济有24修道院,1​​5教区,在叙利亚(阿勒颇使徒的县),对此也属于腓尼基和亚美尼亚,他们有20个和15个教区修道院,而在他们下埃及修道院占据16和16个教区。 As all these (with numerous schools) are included in the custody of the Holy Land, the total for the mission is: 58 convents, 46 parishes, and 942 religious.由于所有这些(与许多学校)在保管圣地在内,为总任务是:58修道院,46个教区,942宗教。the Catholics of Latin Rite in these districts number 74,779; of Oriental Rites 893.在这些地区的人数74779拉丁礼天主教;的893东方仪式。

Under the greatest difficulties and frequently with small fruit, in consequence of the recurrent devastating wasrs and insurrections, the Franciscan missionaries have laboured in south-eastern Europe.在最大的困难和小水果的经常性和破坏性wasrs起义的结果,频繁,方济传教士辛劳在东南欧。Albania, Montenegro, bosnia, and Bulgaria received many Minorites in the thirteenth century, about which period many of the order occupied the archiepiscopal See of Antivari, and in 1340, Peregrinus of Saxony was nominated first Bishop of Bosnia.阿尔巴尼亚,黑山,波斯尼亚和保加利亚获得了十三世纪的许多Minorites,哪个时期的许多订单占据了大监督见Antivari,并在1340年,萨克森Peregrinus被提名波斯尼亚第一主教。 In these districts the Fraciscans worked earnestly to reconcile the schismatics with Rome.在这些地区的Fraciscans工作认真调和与罗马的schismatics。Nicholas IV, himself a Franciscan, sent missionaries of the order to Servia in 1288, and another mission followed (1354) under Friar Bartholomew, Bishop of Trau (Tragori).尼古拉四,自己是一个方济会,派出的传教士为了Servia在1288和另一个使命之后弗莱尔巴塞洛缪下,对TRAU主教(Tragori)(1354)。 In 1389, Bajazet I destroyed almost all these missions, while those which were re-established in 1402 fell into the hands of the Turks, who definitely took possession of Servia in 1502.在1389年,巴雅泽我摧毁了几乎所有这些任务,而那些人在1402重新建立到土耳其人的手中,谁肯定了1502年的Servia占有下跌。 In 1464 the courageous Franciscan Angelus Zojedzodovic, obtained from Mohammed II a charter of toleration for Catholics, and progress was also made by the Franciscan missions in Bulgaria, Wallachia, Moldavia, and Podolia.在1464年勇敢的济三钟经Zojedzodovic,从穆罕默德二世对天主教的宽容宪章获得,也取得了进展,并在保加利亚,瓦拉几亚,摩尔多瓦和Podolia济任务。 In Black Russia Nikolaus Melsat of Crosna with twenty-five friars began a mission about 1370, Moldavia being visited about the same time by Anthony of Spalato (and lataer by Fabian of Bachia and James of the March), but their work was interrupted in 1460 by the Turks, who in 1476 cast 40,000 Christians from these districts into prison.在黑色的Crosna Melsat尼古劳斯俄罗斯与25修士开始了关于1370年任务,摩尔多瓦被访问大约在同一时间通过Spalato安东尼(并通过Bachia和詹姆斯的费边lataer月),但他们的工作是在1460年中​​断由土耳其人,谁在1476年从这些地区投入监狱40000基督徒。 Boniface IX transferred the episcopal see to Bakau, Benedict XIV to Sniatyn.博尼九转主教看到Bakau,本笃十四至Sniatyn。 At the beginning of the seventeenth century Bishop Bernardino Quirino was murdered by the Turks, and, on the death of the last bishop (Bonaventura Berardi) in 1818, the mission in Moldavia and Rumania was entrusted to the Conventuals, who still retain it.在十七世纪初主教圣贝纳迪诺奎里诺被谋杀的土耳其人,以及关于在1818年的最后主教(波纳文图拉Berardi的)死亡,在摩尔多瓦和罗马尼亚的任务委托给Conventuals,谁仍然保留它。

The Franciscans were settled in Constantinople as early as the thirteenth century.济人定居在君士坦丁堡为在13世纪初。In 1642 this and the subordinate missions were united into a prefecture Apostolic, from which the Prefecture of Rhodes was separated in 1897. 1642年这和下属任务是团结成一个地使徒,从其中罗德县是在1897年分开。The former now occupies seven convents, while the latter has seven churches and houses.前者现在占据seven修道院,而后者则有七个教堂和房屋。In 1599, the convents of the Albanian mission were erected into a province, which, on 9 October, 1832, was divided into five prefectures Apostolic (Epirus, Macedonia, Servia, Pulati, and Kastrati), which are almost entirely worked by Franciscans, and were on 31 January, 1898, placed by the general, Aloysius Lauer, under a commissary general, with the authority of a provincial. 1599年,阿尔巴尼亚代表团的修道院被竖立成为一个省,其中,10月9日1832年,划分为五个县使徒(伊庇鲁斯,马其顿,Servia,普拉提和卡斯特拉蒂),这几乎完全是由方济会工作之分,并于1898年1月31日放置一般,Aloysius劳尔,在一个小卖部一般与一个省级权威,。 In Bosnia and Herzegovina, which was separated from the Bosnian province in 1847 and elevated to the rank of a province in 1892, the Franciscans were the first missionaries and pastors, and these countries are still almost entirely under the spiritual guidance of the order, practically all the bishops having been Franciscans.在波斯尼亚和黑塞哥维那,这是脱离波斯尼亚省在1847年上升到1892年全省的排名,方济会是第一个传教士和牧师,而这些国家仍在订单的精神指导下几乎完全,切实所有的主教已被济。 When it was proposed in 1886 to erect a see at Antivari in Montenegro, Simon Milinovic of the Franciscan Order was designated Archbishop of Antivari and Primate of Servia.当它在1886年提出竖立在Antivari看到在黑山,西蒙的济秩序Milinovic被指定的Antivari和灵长类动物的Servia大主教。 In Montenegro the Friars Minor administer ten of the eleven parishes.在黑山的男修道士未成年人管理十一个教区十。

According to the statistics of 4 October, 1907, the present condition of the Franciscan missions, which ae distributed over the five continents, is as follows: Total number of Friars Minor, 4689, including 2535 priests, 620 clerics, 1396 lay brothers, and 138 novices.根据1907年10月4日的统计,方济各代表团,其中AE分布在五大洲,目前的情况如下:总人数的男修道士未成年人,4689,包括2535祭司,620神职人员,1396年奠定兄弟, 138新手。These are assisted in their work by 12,572 Franciscan sisters, chiefly members of the Third Order of St. Francis.这些都是协助他们的工作由12,572济姐妹,在圣弗朗西斯三阶主要成员。

XI.十一。CULTIVATION OF THE SCIENCES培养科学

The order has always devoted itself diligently to the cultivation of sciences, and, although St. Francis is to b enumbered rather amongst the divinely enlightened than among the academically trained, he was neither a declared enemy nor a despiser of learning.该命令一直致力于认真的科学种植,而且,虽然圣弗朗西斯是到B enumbered之间的神圣的学术训练比在相当开明,他既不是敌人,也没有宣布的学习despiser。to qualify themselves for the tasks assigned in ever-increasing numbers to their rapidly spreading order -- which was revered by rich and poor, was employed by popes and kings on missions of every description, and was to labour for the social betterment of every section of the community -- the Franciscans were early compelled to take advantage of every possible source of scientific culture, and, within thirty or forty years after their founder's death, they shared with the Dominicans the most prominent place in the revival of learning.有资格在不断增加的号码顺序分配的迅速传播自己的任务 - 这是由富国和穷国尊敬,是受雇于教皇和国王的形形色色的任务,并为每个部分社会进步劳工社会 - 济是早期被迫采取的每一个可能的来源的科学文化优势,并在三,四十年后,他们的创始人去世后,他们与多米尼加共享,在学习的复兴最突出的地方。This place has been retained for centuries with distinction and brillancy, especially in the domain of theology and philosophy.这个地方一直保留以优异成绩和brillancy世纪以来,特别是在神学和哲学领域。A list of Franciscan scholars and their works would fill volumes, while many of their writings have exercised an abiding influence in the realms of science, on the religious life of the people, and on the whole human race.阿方济学者和他们的作品名单将蔚为大观,而他们的许多著作已经行使在科学领域an守法影响人民的宗教生活,以及对整个人类。 Mention may be made of only a few of the eminent dogmatic and moral theologians, philosophers, writers on ethics, historians, linguists, philologists, artists, poets, musicians, geographers, etc., whom the order has produced.提到可能是由只有著名和教条式的道德神学家,哲学家,伦理,历史学家,语言学家,语文学家,艺术家,诗人,音乐家,地理学等,他们的订单生产的作家很少。

Formerly Franciscans lectured in many universities, eg parish, Oxford, Bologna, Cambridge, Cologne, Toulouse, Alcalá, Salamanca, Erfurt, Vienna, Heidelberg, Fulda.原济在许多大学讲学,例如教区,牛津大学,博洛尼亚,剑桥,科隆,图卢兹,阿尔卡拉,萨拉曼卡,爱尔福特,维也纳,海德堡,富尔达。 We may here mention; Alexander of Hales (d. 1245); John of Rupella (La Rochelle) (d. 1245); Adam of Marsh (Marisco) (d. 1258); John Peckman, Archbishop of Canterbury (d. 1292); Cardinal Matthew of Acquasparta (d. 1302); Johannes Guallensia (John of Wales) (d. about 1300); Richard of Middleton (de Mediavilla) (d. about 1305); John Duns Scotus (d. 1308), the most subtle of all Scholastics; William of Occam (d. 1349); William Vorrillon (Vorilongus) (d. 1464); Nicolas d Orbellis (d. 1465); Monaldus (d. about 1290); John of Erfurt (d. about 1310); Nicholas of Lyra (d. about 1340); the most influential exegete of the Middle Ages; David of Augsburg, mystic (d. 1272); Artesanus of Asti (c. 1317), author of the famous "Summa Casuum", called the "Artesana"; Nicholas of Osimo (d. about 1450); Pacificus of Ceredano (d. 1482), author of the "Summa Pacifica"; Baptista Trovamala de Salis (c. 1485), author of the "Baptistiniana", also called the "Rosella"; Angelo Carletti di Chivasso (d. 1495), author of the "Summa Angelica"; Dietrich (Theodore) Coelde (d. 1515), author of the "Christenespiegel"; Francesco Lichetti (d. 1520); François Feuardent (d. 1612), controversialist and exegete; Luke Wadding (d. 1658); Florence Conry (d. 1629); Anthony Hickey (Hyquaeus) (d. 1641); Pierre Marchant (d. 1661); William Herinex (d. 1678); Friedrich Stummel (d. 1682); Patritius Sporer (d. 1683); Benjamin Eubel (d. 1756); Anacletus Reiffenstuel (d. 1703); DeGubernatis (d. about 1689); Alva y Astorga (d. 1667); Jean de la Haye (d. 1661); Lorenzo Cozza (d. 1729); Amadus Hermann (d. 1700); Claude Frassen (d. 1711); François Assermet (d. 1730); Jerome of Montefortino (d. about 1740); Luca Ferraris (d. about 1750); Giovanni Antonio Bianchi (d. 1758);我们可以在这里提;亚历山大黑尔斯(卒于1245);的Rupella(拉罗谢尔)(卒于1245)约翰;的沼泽(Marisco)(卒于1258)亚当;约翰Peckman,坎特伯雷大主教(卒于1292) ;枢机马修Acquasparta(四1302);约翰内斯Guallensia(威尔士约翰)(约1300 D.);理查德米德尔顿(DE Mediavilla)(约1305 D.);约翰邓司各脱(四1308),最微妙的所有院哲学家;的奥卡姆威廉(四1349),威廉Vorrillon(Vorilongus)(卒于1464);萨科Ð Orbellis(卒于1465); Monaldus(约1290 D.);的爱尔福特约翰(约1310 D. );尼古拉斯的天琴座(约1340 D.)的中世纪最有影响力的注释家,大卫的奥格斯堡,神秘(四1272);的阿斯蒂Artesanus(约1317),著名的“大全Casuum”的作者,被称为“Artesana”;的Osimo(约1450 D.)尼古拉斯;,在“大全晴”作者Ceredano Pacificus(四1482);巴普蒂斯塔Trovamala DE萨利斯(约1485),其中的“Baptistiniana”的作者,也被称为“罗塞拉”;,其中的“当归大全”的作者安杰洛Carletti二Chivasso(卒于1495年);迪特里希(西奥多)Coelde(卒于1515),其中的“Christenespiegel”的作者;弗朗切斯科Lichetti(卒于1520) ;弗朗索瓦Feuardent(卒于1612),争论者和注释家,卢克絮片(卒于1658年);佛罗伦萨Conry(卒于1629年);安东尼希基(Hyquaeus)(卒于1641年),皮埃尔马尔尚(卒于1661年);威廉Herinex (卒于1678),弗里德里希Stummel(卒于1682); Patritius Sporer(卒于1683年);本杰明Eubel(卒于1756); Anacletus Reiffenstuel(卒于1703年); DeGubernatis(约1689 D.);阿尔瓦Ÿ阿斯托加( D. 1667年);吉恩de拉艾(卒于1661年);洛​​伦佐科扎(卒于1729); Amadus赫尔曼(卒于1700);克劳德Frassen(卒于1711);弗朗索瓦Assermet(卒于1730);的Montefortino杰罗姆(约1740 D.);卢卡法拉利(约1750 D.);乔瓦尼安东尼奥比安奇(卒于1758年);

Sigmund Neudecker (d. 1736); Benedetto Bonelli (d. 1773); Kilian Kazenberger (d. about 1729); Vigilus Greiderer (d. 1780); Polychronius Gassmann (d. about 1830); Hereculanus Oberrauch (d. 1808); Ireneo Affò (d. 1797); Sancatntonio Cimarosto (d. 1847); Adalbert Waibel (d. 1852); Chiaro Vascotti (d. 1860); Gabriele Tonini (d. about 1870); Antonio Maria of Vicenza (d. 1884); Melchior Stanislaus of Cerreto (d. 1871); Petrus von Hötzl (d. 1902 as Bishop of Augsburg); Bernard van Loo (d. 1885); Fidelis a Fanna (d. 1881); Ignatius Jeiler (d. 1704); Marcellino da Civezza (d. 1906).西格蒙德Neudecker(卒于1736年),贝内代托波内利(​​卒于1773年);克利安Kazenberger(约1729 D.); Vigilus Greiderer(卒于1780年); Polychronius Gassmann(约1830 D.); Hereculanus Oberrauch(卒于1808); Ireneo AFFO(卒于1797年); Sancatntonio Cimarosto(卒于1847年); Adalbert Waibel(卒于1852年); Chiaro Vascotti(卒于1860年);加布里埃莱Tonini(大约1870年D.);安东尼维琴察玛丽亚(卒于1884年) ;梅尔基奥尔斯坦尼斯的切雷托(卒于1871年);佩特鲁斯冯Hötzl(D.作为奥格斯堡主教1902年);伯纳德车噜(卒于1885年);菲德利斯a Fanna(卒于1881年);伊格Jeiler(卒于1704年); Marcellino达Civezza(卒于1906年)。The Franciscans did not, like other orders, confine themselves to any particular Scholastic school (system).方济会不一样,其他的订单,将自身局限于任何特定的学术学校(系统)。They were more attached to the teachings of Duns Scotus, perhaps, than to the School of St. Bonaventure, but there was no official compulsion in the matter.他们更重视的邓司各脱,或许比在圣文德学校的教导,但没有对此事正式强制。

Among the many naturalists, artists, and poets of the order may be mentioned: Thomas of Celano (d. about 1255), author of the "Dies Irae"; Giacomino of Verona (c. 1300), a precursor of Dante; St. Bonaventure (d 1274); Jacopone of Todi (d. 1306), author of the "Stabat Mater"; John Brugman (d. 1473); Gregor Martic (d. 1905); the Croatian poet.在众多的博物学家,艺术家和诗人的顺序可能会提到:托马斯切拉诺,其中的“模具Irae”的作者(约1255 D.);维罗纳Giacomino(约1300),是但丁前兆;街文德(D 1274);的托迪Jacopone(卒于1306),其中的“圣母悼歌”的作者,约翰布鲁格曼(卒于1473);格雷戈尔马尔蒂奇(卒于1905年);克罗地亚诗人。 Among the musicians: Julian of Speyer (d. about 1255); Bonaventure of Brescia (fifteenth century); Pietro Canuzzi; Luigi Grossi of Viadana (d. 1627); Domenico Catenacci (d. about 1791); David Moretti (d. 1842); Petrus Singer (d. 1882).其中音乐家:朱利安施派尔(约1255 D.);布雷西亚文德(十五世纪);彼得罗Canuzzi;路易吉格罗西的Viadana(四1627);多梅尼科Catenacci(约1791 D.),大卫莫雷蒂(D. 1842 );佩特鲁斯歌手(草1882)。Among the naturalists may be mentioned: Roger Bacon (d. 1294); the so-called Schwarzer (Black) Berthold (c. 1300), the reputed discoverer of gunpowder; Luca Pacioli (d. about 1510); Elektus Zwinger (d. 1690); Charles Plumier (d. 1704).其中博物学家可能会提到:罗杰培根(四1294),所谓的施瓦泽(黑色)贝特霍尔德,被誉为发现者的火药(约1300);卢卡帕乔利(约1510 D.); Elektus茨温格(D. 1690),查尔斯Plumier(草1704)。

For writers on the history of the order, the reader may be referred to the bibliography, since the vast majority of the books cited have been written by Franciscans.有关该命令的历史作家,读者可能会转介到书目,自引书籍绝大多数是由方济会写的。In recent times -- to some extent since 1880, but manily since 1894 -- the investigation of the history of the Friars Minor, especially during the first centuries succeeding the foundation of the order, has aroused a keen and widespread interest in the leading civilized lands and among scholars of every religious denomination and belief.在最近的时代 - 1880年以来一些,但自1894年manily程度 - 的的男修道士未成年人,特别是在成功的秩序基础的第一个世纪,历史的调查,引起了激烈的主导文明和广泛的兴趣土地和每一个宗教派别之间和信仰的学者。

XII.十二。SAINTS AND BEATI OF THE ORDER圣人和BEATI的顺序

The number of Friars Minor who have been canonized or beatified, is -- even if we exclude here as throughout this article, the members of the other orders of St. Francis (Conventuals, Poor Clares, Tertiaries and Capuchins) -- extraordinarily high.天主教方济会小的数目谁被册封或享福,是 - 即使我们排除在整个这篇文章在这里,圣弗朗西斯的其他命令(Conventuals,差Clares,Tertiaries和卷尾猴)的成员 - 非常高。 In this enumeration we further confine ourselves to those who are officially venerated throughout the Church, or at least throughout the whole order, with canonical sanction.在此枚举我们进一步局限于那些谁是整个教会正式崇敬,或至少在整个秩序,以规范的制裁。These exceed one hundred in number, the names, dates of decease, and feast of the best-known being as follows.在这些超过百数,姓名,死亡日期,以及如下最有名的是盛宴。

Saints圣徒

Francis of Assisi, d.方济各,D.3 October 1226 (4 October); Berard of Carbio and four companions, martyred 1220 (16 January); Peter Baptist and twenty-fve companions, martyred at Nagasaki, Japan, 1597 (5 February); John Joseph of the Cross, d. 1226年10月3日(4月);的Carbio和四个同伴贝拉尔,烈属1220(1月16日);彼得浸会和二十FVE同伴,烈属,在长崎,日本,1597年(5月);约翰约瑟夫的十字架,D. 1734 (5 March); Benedict of San Philadelphio, d.1734(3月5日);圣Philadelphio,四本笃1589 (3 April); Peter Regalda, d 1456 (13 May); Paschal Baylon, d.1589年(3月);彼得Regalda,D 1456(13日);逾越节Baylon,D.1592 (17 May); Bernardine of Siena, d.1592(5月17日);锡耶纳,D.伯纳迪恩1444 (20 May); Anthony of Padua, d.1444年(20日);帕多瓦,D.安东尼1231 (13 June); Nicholas Pick, hanged by les Gueux at Gorcum (Holland) in 1572 with eighteen companions, of whom eleven were Franciscans (9 July); Bonaventure of Bagnorea, d. 1231年(13月);尼古拉斯匹克,吊死在1572年由Les Gueux在Gorcum(荷兰)与eighteen同伴,其中共有十一宗,方济(9日);的Bagnorea,D.文德1274 (15 July); Francis Solanus, the Apostle of South America, d.1274年(15日);弗朗西斯Solanus,在南美洲,D.使徒 1610 (24 July); Louis of Anjou, Bishop of Toulouse, d.1610年(24日);路易斯安久,主教图卢兹,四1297 (19 August); Pacificus of San Severino, d.1297年(19月);的圣塞韦里诺,四Pacificus1721 (25 September); Daniel, and seven companions, martyred at Ceuta 1227 (13 October); Peter of Alcántara, d. 1721年(25月);丹尼尔,和七个同伴,在休达1227(10月13日),烈属,彼得的阿尔坎塔拉,D。1562 (19 October); John Capistran, d.1562(10月19日);约翰Capistran,D。1456 (23 October); Didacus (Diego), d.1456(10月23日); Didacus(迭戈),D.1463 (12 November); Leonard of Port Maurice, d.1463(11月12日);港口莫里斯,伦纳德D。1751 (26 November); James of the March (Monteprandone), d.1751(11月26日)的三月(Monteprandone),D.詹姆斯1476 (28 November). 1476(11月28日)。

Beati Beati

Matthew of Girgenti, d.马修Girgenti,D.1455 (28 January).; Andreas de Conti di Signa, d.1455年(28月);安德烈亚斯德孔蒂迪Signa的,D.1302 (1 February); Odoric of Pordenone, d.1302年(1月);的波代诺内,四Odoric1331 (3 February); Anthony of Stroncone, d.1331(2月3日);的Stroncone,D.安东尼1461 (7 Feb.); Aegidius Maria of St. Joseph, d.1461(2月7日); Aegidius玛丽亚的圣若瑟,D.1812 (9 Feb.); Sebastian of Apparizio, d.1812年(2月9日);的Apparizio,D.塞巴斯蒂安1600 (25 Feb.); John of Triora, martyred in China, 1816 (27 Feb.); Thomas of Cora, d. 1600(2月25日);的Triora约翰,在中国殉国,1816(2月27日);的科拉,D.托马斯1720 (28 Feb.); Peter of Treia, d.1720(2月28日);的Treia,四彼得1304 (14 March); Salvator of Orta, d.1304(3月14日);的奥尔塔,D. Salvator1567 (18 March); John of Parma, d.1567年(18月);帕尔马,D.约翰1289 (20 March); Benventuo, Bishop of Osimo, d.1289(3月20日); Benventuo主教Osimo,D。1282 (22 March); Rizzerius of Mucia, d.1282(3月22日);的Mucia,D. Rizzeriusabout 1240 (26 March); Peregrinus of Fallerone, d.约1240(3月26日);的Fallerone,D. Peregrinusabout 1245 (27 March); Marco Fantuzzi of Bologna, d.关于1245年(27月);马可波罗博洛尼亚,D. Fantuzzi1479 (31 March); Thomas of Tolentino, martyred in Further India, 1321, (6 April); Benivoglio de Bonis, d. 1479年(31日);托马斯托伦蒂诺,进一步印度殉国,1321,(6日); Benivoglio DE Bonis,D.about 1235 (2 April); Julain of San Augustino, d.约1235(4月2日);圣Augustino,D. Julain1606 (8 April); Archangelo of Calatafimo, d.1606年(8月);的Calatafimo,D. Archangelo1460 (9 April); Carlo of Sezze, d.1460年(9月);的Sezze,D.卡罗1670 (10 April); Angelo Carletti di Chivasso, d.1670年(10月);安杰洛Carletti迪Chivasso,D.1495 (12 April); Andreas Hibernan, d.1495年(12月);安德烈亚斯Hibernan,D.1602 (18 April); Conrad of Ascoli, d.1602(4月18日);的阿斯科利,D.康拉德1290, (19 April); Leopold of Gaiche, d.1290,(4月19日);的Gaiche,D.利奥波德1815 (20 April); 1815年(4月20日);

Ægidus of Assisi, d.Ægidus的阿西西,D。1262, (23 April); James of Bitetto, called Illyricus, d.1262年,(23日);的Bitetto詹姆斯,称为Illyricus,D.about 1490 (27 April); Agnellus of Pisa, d.关于1490年(27月);比萨,四Agnellus1236, (8 May); Francis of Fabriano, d.1236年,(8日);的Fabriano,D.弗朗西斯1322 (14 May); Benventuo of Recanati, d.1322年(14日);的雷卡纳蒂,D. Benventuo1289 (15 May); John Forest, martyred at London, 1538 (22 May); John of Prado, martyred in Morocco, 1631, (29 May); Ercolane de Plagario (Piagale), d. 1289年(15日);约翰森林,在伦敦,1538(22日)殉国;约翰的普拉多在摩洛哥,1631殉国,(29日); Ercolane DE Plagario(Piagale),D.1451 (29 May); James Stepar, d. 1451(29日);詹姆斯Stepar,D。1411 (1 June); Andrew of Spello, d.1411年(1月);的Spello,D.安德鲁1254 (3 June); Pacificus of Ceredano, d.1254年(3月);的Ceredano,D. Pacificus1482 (5 June); Stephen of Narbonne and Raymond of Carbonna, murdered by the Albigensians, 1242 (7 June); Bartolomeo Pucci, d. 1482年(5月);斯蒂芬的纳博讷和雷蒙德的Carbonna,由Albigensians杀害,1242(7月);巴托洛梅奥Pucci的,D. 1330 (8 June); Guido of Cortona, d.1330年(8月);的科尔托纳,D.圭多about 1250 (12 June); Benvenuto of Gobbio, d.1250(12月);的Gobbio,D. Benvenutoabout 1232 (27 June); Simon of Lipnica, d.关于1232年(27月);的Lipnica,D.西蒙1482 (18 July); John of Dukla (like the preceding a Pole), d.1482年(18日);约翰杜克拉(如前面的波兰人),D.1484 (19 July); John of Laverna, d.1484(7月19日);的Laverna,D.约翰about 1325 (9 Aug.); Peter of Molleano (Mogliano), d.约1325(8月9日);彼得Molleano(Mogliano),D.1490 (13 Aug.); Sanctes of Montefabri (Urbino), d.1490(8月13日); Sanctes的Montefabri(乌尔比诺),D.1385 (14 Aug); 1385(8月14日);

John of Perugia and Peter of Sassoferrato, martyred at Valencia in Spain, 1231 (3 Sept.); Gentilis of Matelica, martyred in Persia (5 Sept.); Vincent of Aquilla, d.约翰佩鲁贾和彼得Sassoferrato在瓦伦西亚在西班牙,1231(9月3日)殉国;的马泰利卡Gentilis,在波斯(5月)殉国;的Aquilla,D.文森特 1504 (6 Sept.); Apollinaris with thirty-nine companions of the First and Third Orders, martyred in japan, 1617-32 (12 Sept); Bernardine of Feltre, d. 1504(9月6日),与39同伴的第一和第三订单在日本,1617年至1632年(9月12日)烈属,Apollinaris;的Feltre,D.伯纳迪恩 1494 (28 Sept.); John of Penna (Penne), d.1494年(28月);约翰彭纳(长通粉),D.1271 (5 Oct.); Ladislaus of Gielniow, d.1271(10月5日);的Gielniow,D.拉迪斯劳斯1505 (22 Oct.); Francis of Calderola, d.1505(10月22日);的Calderola,D.弗朗西斯1407 (25 Oct); Theophilus of Corte, d.1407年(25月);的科尔特,D.西奥菲勒斯1740 (30 Oct.); Liberato de Loro (Lauro), d.1740(10月30号); Liberato DE罗洛(劳罗),D.about 1306 (30 Oct.); Thomas of Florence, d.约1306(10月30日);佛罗伦萨,D.托马斯1447; Rainerius of Arezzo, d. 1447;的阿雷佐,D. Rainerius1304 (5 Nov.); Bernardine of Aquila (Fossa), d.1304(11月5日);伯纳迪恩的阿奎拉(窝),D.1503 (7 Nov.); Gabriele Ferretti, d.1503(11月7日);加布里埃莱法拉帝,四1456 (14 Nov.); Humilis of Bisignano, d.1456(11月14日);的Bisignano,D.蒿草1637 (5 Dec.); Conrad of Offida, d.1637(12月5日);的Offida,D.康拉德1306 (19 Dec.); Nicholas Factor, d.1306(12月19日);尼古拉斯因子,D.1583 (23 Dec.). 1583(12月23日)。

To these might be added long lists of Blessed, who enjoy a cultus sanctioned by the Church, but whose cultus is only local, ie limited to their native or burial-places or to the dioceses with which they were connected.对于这些可能会增加长期列出有福,谁享受由教会认可a礼拜,但只是局部的礼拜,也就是将其限制在本地或埋葬的地方,或与它们被连接教区。 If these be included in the reckoning, the number of saints and beati in all the orders of St. Francis exceeds 300.如果这些在清算在内,圣人和所有的圣弗朗西斯订单beati数量超过300间。

At the present time (1909), the postulatura of the order at Rome, whose office is to collect evidence concerning the candidates for beatification and canonization, is urging the cause of about ninety members of the First, Second, and Third orders of St. Francis.在目前这个时间(1909年),是在罗马,他的办公室是收集有关证据,并册封为赐福的候选人,为了postulatura敦促约百分之九十的第一,第二成员的事业,和圣三订单弗朗西斯。 This list includes some names belonging to later and even recent times, and it will thus be seen that the Order of Friars Minor never ceases to produce members whose holiness entitles them to the highest ecclesiastical honour -- that of the altar.这份名单包括一些名属于后来甚至近代,它会由此看出,天主教方济会小订单从未停止生产成员的神圣赋予他们教会的最高荣誉 - 的祭坛。That the spirit of Jesus Christ, which St. Francis laboured so untermittently to revive in the world and instilled into his institutions still lives in his order to the glorification of the Divine Name, the great effciency of the Friars Minor in our day is sufficient proof.这是耶稣基督,其中圣弗朗西斯辛劳使untermittently重振世界和精神灌输到他的机构仍然在他的命令生活的颂扬神的名字,对我们今天天主教方济会小大effciency足以证明。

Publication information Written by Michael Bihl.出版信息的书面迈克尔Bihl。Transcribed by Beth Ste-Marie.转录由贝丝STE - 玛丽。The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume VI.天主教百科全书,第六卷。Published 1909.1909年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, September 1, 1909. Nihil Obstat,1909年9月1日。Remy Lafort, Censor.人头马lafort,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰米farley,大主教纽约



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