Freemasonry共济会

General Information一般资料

Freemasonry refers to the principles, institutions, and practices of the fraternal order of the Free and Accepted Masons.共济会的原则是指,机构,以及对自由和接受石匠兄弟秩序的做法。The largest worldwide society, freemasonry is an organization of men based on the fatherhood of God and the brotherhood of man, using builders' tools as symbols to teach basic moral truths generally accepted by persons of good will. It is religious in that a belief in God is the prime requirement for membership, but it is nonsectarian in that no religious test is used. The purpose of freemasonry is to enable men to meet in harmony, to promote friendship, and to be charitable.全球最大的社会共济会是一个男人组织对父亲的神和人的兄弟情谊,用符号建设者“的工具来教一般的良好意愿的人接受的基本道德真理, 这是宗教,一个信仰上帝是成员的主要要求,但它是无宗派的,没有宗教测试用于的共济会的目的是使男性达到和谐,促进友谊,是慈善。 Its basic ideals are that all persons are the children of one God, that all persons are related to each other, and that the best way to worship God is to be of service to people.它的基本理念是,所有的人都是一个神的儿女,所有人都是相互关联的,而最好的方式崇拜上帝是要服务的人。

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The basic unit of freemasonry is the lodge, which exists under a charter issued by a grand lodge exercising administrative powers.共济的基本单位是小屋,这下由盛大行使行政权力向发出包机存在。The lodges are linked together informally by a system of mutual recognition between lodges that meet the Masonic requirements. The lodge confers three degrees: Entered Apprentice, Fellow Craft, and Master Mason. Additional degrees are conferred by two groups of advanced freemasonry: the York Rite, which awards 12 degrees, and the Scottish Rite, which awards 30 higher degrees.该旅馆是联系在一起的小屋之间的共济会的要求,满足互认制度非正式的提出赋予三度:进入学徒,研究员工艺,和主梅森附加度由两个先进的共济会团体授予:约克成年礼,这奖项12度,和苏格兰成年礼,这奖项30度更高。 In the United States and Canada members have formed a large number of groups to enable them to expand their social and charitable activities.在美国和加拿大的成员已经形成了大量的群体,使他们能扩大他们的社会和慈善活动。The best known of these groups is the Shriners, who hold festive parades and support hospitals for crippled and burned children.这些群体最有名的是施赖纳斯,谁持有残废和烧伤儿童节日游行和支持医院。There are also the Order of the Eastern Star for Master Masons and their wives; the Order of De Molay for boys; and the Order of Job's Daughters and the Order of Rainbow for girls.还有的为石匠大师和他们的妻子东星勋章 ; 在德男孩Molay秩序有关职位的女儿秩序和彩虹女孩订购

The BELIEVE Religious Information Source web site is not connected with the organization described in this presentation.该相信宗教信息来源网站没有连接,在此演示中描述的组织。This happens to be ONE of the 1,000 religious subjects which are included in BELIEVE.这恰巧是信奉的是包括1000名宗教科目之一。

Our small Protestant Christian Church, which created and maintains the BELIEVE site, has no contact with the organization described here, so we cannot help in providing contacts or addresses.我们的小基督教新教教堂,创建和维护不管相信网站,没有在这里描述与组织的联系,所以我们不能帮助提供接触或地址。 In addition, since BELIEVE does not "sell" anything, we cannot help in finding books, icons or souvenirs.此外,由于不管相信不“卖”什么,我们不能帮助寻找书籍,图标或纪念品。

Many legendary theories exist concerning the origin of freemasonry, but it is generally believed that it evolved from the medieval guilds of the stonemasons.许多传说中的有关理论存在的共济会的起源,但人们普遍认为,从中世纪的石匠行会演变而来。Its present organizational form began on June 24, 1717, when a grand lodge was formed in London.其目前的组织形式开始了1717年6月24日,当一个大旅馆在伦敦成立。Since that time lodges have spread all over the world with local grand lodges formed whenever enough lodges exist in an area.从那时起,旅馆已遍布世界传播与当地盛大的小屋时形成足够的旅馆在一个地区存在的。Lodges first appeared in America in Philadelphia (1730) and Boston (1733).小屋最早出现在美国费城(1730)和波士顿(1733年)。

At various times and places freemasonry has met religious and political opposition.在不同的时间和地点共济会遭到宗教和政治反对派。Religious opponents, especially the Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox churches, have traditionally claimed that freemasonry is a religion and is a secret organization. A papal ban on Roman Catholic membership in Masonic lodges was rescinded in 1983.宗教的对手,尤其是罗马天主教和东正教教堂,传统上声称,共济会是一种宗教,是一个秘密组织, 一个在罗马天主教教皇的共济会小屋成员的禁令是在1983年撤销。

Freemasons hold that the organization is religious but not a religion, and that it is not a secret organization since it works openly in the community. 济认为,该组织是宗教而不是宗教,它不是一个秘密组织,因为它工作在社会上公开。Freemasonry has always been suppressed in totalitarian states.共济会一直被压制在极权国家。

There are approximately 4.8 million Freemasons in regular lodges scattered around the world.大约有480万散布在世界各地经常小屋济。Of this number, more than 3 million are to be found in the United States, where there are numerous distinct Masonic groups. Many notable men in history have been Freemasons, including Benjamin Franklin, Mozart, Henry Ford, Rudyard Kipling, Douglas MacArthur, Will Rogers, and George Washington and a number of other presidents of the United States.其中,有300多万是在美国,那里有许多不同的共济会的组中。 历史上许多著名的男子已济,including本杰明富兰克林,莫扎特,亨利福特,吉卜林,麦克阿瑟,将罗杰斯和乔治华盛顿,以及对美国其他总统的数量。

Alphonse Cerza阿方斯Cerza

Bibliography 参考书目
H Coil, Masonic Encyclopedia (1962) and A Comprehensive View of Freemasonry (1954); WR Denslow, 10,000 Famous Freemasons (1957 - 60); AG Mackey, Encyclopedia of Freemasonry (1966); R Macoy, Dictionary of Freemasonry (1989); FL Pick, and GN Knight, The Pocket History of Freemasonry (1977); JJ Robinson, Born in Blood: The Lost Secrets of Freemasonry (1990).H线圈,共济会的百科全书(1962年)和全面的看法的共济会(1954年); WR Denslow,10,000(1957年至1960年)著名济; AG麦基,共济会百科全书(1966年),R Macoy,共济会(1989)字典; FL选择,而且,共济掌上历史(1977)GN骑士; JJ鲁宾逊,在血液出生:共济会失落的秘密(1990年)。


Masonry (Freemasonry)砌体(济)

Catholic Information天主教信息

The subject is treated under the following heads:该课题被视为在以下元首:

I. Name and Definition;一,名称和定义;

II. II。Origin and Early History;起源和早期历史;

III. III。Fundamental Principles and Spirit;基本原则和精神;

IV. IV。Propagation and Evolution;传播与演化;

V. Organization and Statistics;五,组织和统计;

VI. VI。Inner Work;内工作;

VII.七。Outer Work;外工作;

VIII.第八。Action of State and Church.行动的国家和教会。

I. NAME AND DEFINITION一,名称和定义

Leaving aside various fanciful derivations we may trace the word mason to the French maçon (Latin matio or machio), "a builder of walls" or "a stone-cutter" (cf. German Steinmetz, from metzen, "to cut"; and Dutch vrijmetselaar).撇开各种幻想的推导,我们可以跟踪这个词石匠法国梅肯(拉丁文matio或machio),“一墙建造者”或“一石刀”(见德国斯坦梅茨,从metzen,“切”;和荷兰vrijmetselaar)。 The compound term Freemason occurs first in 1375 -- according to a recently found writing, even prior to 1155 [1] -- and, contrary to Gould [2] means primarily a mason of superior skill, though later it also designated one who enjoyed the freedom, or the privilege, of a trade guild.互济会会员的复合词出现在1375第一 - 根据最近发现写作,甚至之前,1155 [1] - 和,相反古尔德[2]首先意味着一个石匠的卓越技能,虽然后来也指定一个谁享有自由或特权,一个行业公会。[3] In the former sense it is commonly derived from freestone-mason, a mason hewing or building in free (ornamental) stone in opposition to a rough (stone) mason. [3]在前者一般意义上讲,它是从毛石,石匠,一个石匠砍伐或免费(观赏)在反对一个粗略的(石)石匠石头建筑而得。[4] This derivation, though harmonizing with the meaning of the term, seemed unsatisfactory to some scholars. [4]这推导,尽管与这个词的含义统一,一些学者似乎并不理想。Hence Speth proposed to interpret the word freemasons as referring to those masons claiming exemption from the control of local guilds of the towns, where they temporarily settled.因此,建议斯佩思解释为是指那些声称从泥瓦匠的城镇,在那里他们暂时解决当地行会控制豁免字共济会。[5] In accordance with this suggestion the "New English Dictionary of the Philological Society" (Oxford, 1898) favours the interpretation of freemasons as skilled artisans, emancipated according to the medieval practice from the restrictions and control of local guilds in order that they might be able to travel and render services, wherever any great building (cathedral, etc.) was in process of construction. [5]主张在这项建议的(牛津,1898)“新的语言学学会英语词典”的规定,作为熟练的工匠共济会的解释,根据解放,才能从限制和当地中世纪的行会控制他们的做法,也许能旅行和提供服务,不论任何伟大的建筑(教堂等)的建设进程。 These freemasons formed a universal craft for themselves, with a system of secret signs and passwords by which a craftsman, who had been admitted on giving evidence of competent skill, could be recognized.这些共济会为自己形成一种普遍的工艺,具有秘密标志和一名工匠,谁一直在给予主管技能接纳为证据,可以确认的密码系统。 On the decline of Gothic architecture this craft coalesced with the mason guilds.在这下降的哥特式建筑工艺与石匠行会联合起来。 [6][6]

Quite recently W. Begemann [7] combats the opinion of Speth [8] as purely hypothetical, stating that the name freemason originally designated particularly skilled freestone-masons, needed at the time of the most magnificent evolution of Gothic architecture, and nothing else.最近不少W. Begemann [7]作战的斯佩思认为[8]作为纯粹的假设,指出洪门最初指定的名称,特别是熟练的毛石,泥瓦工,在最宏伟的哥特式建筑的发展需要时间,而不是其他。 In English law the word freemason is first mentioned in 1495, while frank-mason occurs already in an Act of 1444-1445.在英国法字洪门是第一次提到在1495年,而弗兰克 - 梅森已经出现在了1444年至1445年法。[9] Later, freemason and mason were used as convertible terms.[9]后来,洪门和石匠被用作可转换条款。The modern signification of Freemasonry in which, since about 1750, the word has been universally and exclusively understood, dates only from the constitution of the Grand Lodge of England, 1717.该共济会在其中,因为大约1750年,这个词已经被普遍和完全理解现代意义,日期只从英国,1717大旅馆宪法。In this acceptation Freemasonry, according to the official English, Scottish, American, etc., craft rituals, is most generally defined: "A peculiar [some say "particular" or "beautiful"] system of morality veiled in allegory and illustrated by symbols."在这种词义共济,根据官方英文,苏格兰,美国等,工艺礼仪,是最一般的定义:“一个奇特的[有人说”特殊“或”美丽“]道德体系寓言含蓄和符号说明“ Mackey [10] declares the best definition of Freemasonry to be: "A science which is engaged in the search after the divine truth."麦基[10]宣布的共济会最好的定义是:“一个在后的神圣真理从事科学”The German encyclopedia of Freemasonry, "Handbuch" [11] defines Freemasonry as "the activity of closely united men who, employing symbolical forms borrowed principally from the mason's trade and from architecture, work for the welfare of mankind, striving morally to ennoble themselves and others and thereby to bring about a universal league of mankind [Menschheitsbund], which they aspire to exhibit even now on a small scale".共济德国百科全书“手册下载”[11]定义为“紧密团结男子谁,用人象征形式借鉴了石匠的贸易和架构,工作主要是为人类的福利,争取道义上对高尚自己的活动共济会和他人,从而带来了人类普遍的联赛[Menschheitsbund],他们渴望表现在小规模即使是现在“。 The three editions which this "Handbuch" (Universal Manual of Freemasonry) has had since 1822 are most valuable, the work having been declared by English-speaking Masonic critics by far the best Masonic Encyclopedia ever published.三本“手册下载”(共济通用手册)自1822年有版本是最宝贵的,这项工作已被宣布为讲英语的共济会的批评迄今为止最好的共济会有史以来出版百科全书。 [12][12]

II. II。ORIGIN AND EARLY HISTORY起源和早期历史

Before entering upon this and the following divisions of our subject it is necessary to premise that the very nature of Freemasonry as a secret society makes it difficult to be sure even of its reputed documents and authorities, and therefore we have consulted only those which are acknowledged and recommended by responsible members of the craft, as stated in the bibliography appended to this article.在此之前,我们的主题下面的部门进入有必要前提,即作为一个秘密社团共济会的性质,很难甚至被誉为文件和其主管部门确定,因此,我们已征询只有那些承认并通过工艺负责人建议,正如在本文所附的参考书目。 "It is the opprobrium of Freemasonry", says Mackey [13]“这是共济会的谴责”,说麦基[13]

that its history has never yet been written in a spirit of critical truth; that credulity .它的历史上从来还没有写在一个关键真理的精神;是轻信。..has been the foundation on which all masonic historical investigations have been built, .一直是历史上所有的共济会的调查已建成的基础。..that the missing links of a chain of evidence have been frequently supplied by gratuitous invention and that statements of vast importance have been carelessly sustained by the testimony of documents whose authenticity has not been proved.这是一个证据链的缺失环节被频繁无偿提供的发明和广阔的重要性报表已不慎由文件的真实性尚未得到证实的证词持续。

"The historical portion of old records", he adds [14] as written by Anderson, Preston, Smith, Calcott and other writers of that generation, was little more than a collection of fables, so absurd as to excite the smile of every reader.他说:“旧记录历史的一部分”,他补充道[14]书面安德森,普雷斯顿,史密斯,Calcott和其他作家的那一代人,只不过是一个寓言集,如此荒唐的以激发每一位读者的微笑。

The germs of nearly all these fantastic theories are contained in Anderson's "The Constitutions of Free Masons" (1723, 1738) which makes Freemasonry coextensive with geometry and the arts based on it; insinuates that God, the Great Architect, founded Freemasonry, and that it had for patrons, Adam, the Patriarchs, the kings and philosophers of old.几乎所有这些奇妙的理论细菌载于安德森的“的宪法自由共济会”(1723,1738),这使得济与几何和基于它的艺术coextensive;影射上帝,伟大的建筑师,成立共济,而它的顾客,亚当的始祖,国王和老哲学家。 Even Jesus Christ is included in the list as Grand Master of the Christian Church.即使耶稣基督是包含在作为大的基督教教会的主列表。Masonry is credited with the building of Noah's Ark, the Tower of Babel, the Pyramids, and Solomon's Temple.砌体是记入与诺亚方舟,巴别塔,金字塔,和所罗门圣殿的建设。Subsequent authors find the origin of Masonry in the Egyptian, Dionysiac, Eleusinian, Mithraic, and Druidic mysteries; in sects and schools such as the Pythagoreans, Essenes, Culdees, Zoroastrians, and Gnostics; in the Evangelical societies that preceded the Reformation; in the orders of knighthood (Johannites, Templars); among the alchemists, Rosicrucians, and Cabbalists; in Chinese and Arabic secret societies.随后的作者发现,在埃及的砌体的起源,酒神,Eleusinian,Mithraic,以及德鲁伊的奥秘,在教派,如毕达哥拉斯学派,爱色尼,Culdees,拜火教,和诺斯替教派学校,在这之前的基督教社会改革;在订单的爵位(Johannites,圣殿);之间的炼金术士,Rosicrucians和Cabbalists,在中国和阿拉伯的秘密社团。 It is claimed also that Pythagoras founded the Druidic institution and hence that Masonry probably existed in England 500 years before the Christian Era.据称还毕达哥拉斯创立了督伊德教机构,因此这可能是在英国存在砌体前500年,基督教时代。Some authors, considering geological finds as Masonic emblems, trace Masonry to the Miocene (?) Period [15] while others pretend that Masonic science "existed before the creation of this globe, diffused amidst the numerous systems with which the grand empyreum of universal space is furnished".有些作者,考虑作为共济会标志的地质发现,跟踪砌体的中新世(?)期[15],而其他人假装共济会科学“之前,这个地球创造存在的浪潮中,众多的扩散与该系统的普及空间隆重empyreum配“。 [16][16]

It is not then difficult to understand that the attempt to prove the antiquity of Freemasonry with evidence supplied by such monuments of the past as the Pyramids and the Obelisk (removed to New York in 1879) should have resulted in an extensive literature concerning these objects.它不是那么困难的理解,试图证明由过去的金字塔等古迹和方尖碑(除去1879年纽约)提供的证据共济古代应该有一个广泛涉及文学,导致这些对象。 [17] Though many intelligent Masons regard these claims as baseless, the majority of the craft [18] still accept the statement contained in the "Charge" after initiation: "Ancient no doubt it is, having subsisted from time immemorial. In every age monarchs [American rituals: "the greatest and best men of all ages"] have been promoters of the art, have not thought it derogatory to their dignity to exchange the sceptre for the trowel, have participated in our mysteries and joined in our assemblies". [17]虽然许多聪明的石匠认为这些说法毫无根据,该工艺[18]多数仍接受“充电”后萌生中的声明:“毫无疑问,这是古代,有从远古时代并不存在在每一个时代君主[美国礼仪:“各年龄段的最大和最好的男人”]一直是艺术的推动者,有没有想过它有损自己的尊严来换取抹子的权杖,参加了我们的奥秘,在我们的组件加入“ 。[19] It is true that in earlier times gentlemen who were neither operative masons nor architects, the so-called geomatic Masons [20] joined with the operative, or dogmatic, Masons in their lodges, observed ceremonies of admission, and had their signs of recognition. [19]它是真正的绅士,在较早的时候谁也不既不手术石匠建筑师,所谓的[20]用手术或教条式的加入,在他们的旅馆泥瓦匠,观察地球数学泥瓦匠入场仪式,并获得他们的标志认可。 But this Masonry is by no means the "speculative" Masonry of modern times, ie, a systematic method of teaching morality by means of such principles of symbols according to the principles of modern Freemasonry after 1723.但是,这砌体是“投机”近代砌体,即道德的教学通过对后根据1723现代共济会的原则等原则是指符号系统的方法。绝不

As the best German authorities admit [21], speculative Masonry began with the foundation of the Grand Lodge of England, 24 June, 1717, and its essential organization was completed in 1722 by the adoption of the new "Book of Constitutions" and of the three degrees: apprentice, fellow, master.作为最好的德国当局承认[21],投机砌体开始与英国大旅馆的基础上,1717年6月24日,其基本组织是于1722年完成的新的“宪法书”通过和三度:学徒,研究员,硕士。 All the ablest and most conscientious investigations by competent Masonic historians show, that in 1717 the old lodges had almost ceased to exist.所有的共济会的历史学家最能干的主管,最认真的调查显示,即在1717年的旧旅馆几乎不复存在。The new lodges began as convivial societies, and their characteristic Masonic spirit developed but slowly.新的旅馆开始了欢乐的社会,他们的特点开发的共济会的精神,但速度缓慢。This spirit, finally, as exhibited in the new constitutions was in contradiction to that which animated the earlier Masons.这种精神,最后,在新的宪法是矛盾的表现是早期的动画泥瓦匠。These facts prove that modern Masonry is not, as Gould [22] Hughan [23] and Mackey [24] contend, a revival of the older system, but rather that it is a new order of no greater antiquity than the first quarter of the eighteenth century.这些事实证明,现代砌体并非如古尔德[22] Hughan [23]和麦基[24]抗衡,上了年纪系统的复兴,而是说这是一个没有更大的古代比第一季度的新秩序十八世纪。

III. III。FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES AND SPIRIT基本原则和精神

There have been many controversies among Masons as to the essential points of Masonry.目前已跻身泥瓦匠,以砌体基本点颇多争议。English-speaking Masons style them "landmarks", a term taken from Deuteronomy 19:14, and signifying "the boundaries of Masonic freedom", or the unalterable limits within which all Masons have to confine themselves.讲英语的泥瓦匠风格他们“地标”,从申命记19:14采取了术语,象征的“共济会自由的界限”,或在所有梅森必须限于本身不可改变的限制。 Mackey [25] specifies no less than twenty-five landmarks.麦基[25]规定不超过25地标少。The same number is adopted by Whitehead [26] "as the pith of the researches of the ablest masonic writers".同样的数目是由白石采用[26]“作为作家的最能干的共济会的研究髓”。

The principle of them are [27]他们的原则是[27]

the method of recognition by secret signs, words, grips, steps, etc.; the three degrees including the Royal Arch; the Hiram legend of the third degree; the proper "tiling" of the lodge against "raining" and "snowing", ie, against male and female "cowans", or eavesdroppers, ie, profane intruders; the right of every regular Mason to visit every regular lodge in the world; a belief in the existence of God and in future life; the Volume of the Sacred Law; equality of Masons in the lodge; secrecy; symbolical method of teaching; inviolability of landmarks.三度,其中包括皇家建筑;;第三度西贡传奇;由秘密标志,文字,夹具,步骤等识别方法正确的“平铺”反对“下雨”和“雪花”提出,也就是说,对男性和女性“cowans”,或窃听者,即,亵渎的入侵者;每个定期梅森有权访问世界上每一个普通小屋,在神的存在和未来生活的信念;的神圣卷法,在向泥瓦匠平等;保密;象征性的教学方法;地标不可侵犯。

In truth there is no authority in Freemasonry to constitute such "unchangeable" landmarks or fundamental laws.在真相没有权威的共济会构成这种“不变”的地标或基本法律。Strictly judicially, even the "Old Charges", which, according to Anderson's "Constitutions", contain the unchangeable laws have a legal obligatory character only as far as they are inserted in the "Book of Constitution" of each Grand Lodge.严格司法,连“老费”,而根据安德森的“宪法”,包含了不变的法律有法律强制性质仅据他们是在“宪法书”的每一个大旅馆中。 [28] But practically there exist certain characteristics which are universally considered as essential. [28]但实际上存在的普遍认为是必不可少的某些特征。Such are the fundamental principles described in the first and sixth articles of the "Old Charges" concerning religion, in the texts of the first two English editions (1723 and 1738) of Anderson's "Constitutions".这些都是在“老费”关于宗教,前两个版本的英文文本的安德森的“宪法”(1723和1738)的第一和第六条所述的基本原则。 These texts, though differing slightly, are identical as to their essential tenor.这些文字,虽然略有不同,由于其基本要旨是相同的。 That of 1723, as the original text, restored by the Grand Lodge of England in the editions of the "Constitutions", 1756-1813, and inserted later in the "Books of Constitutions" of nearly all the other Grand Lodges, is the most authoritative; but the text of 1738, which was adopted and used for a long time by many Grand Lodges, is also of great importance in itself and as a further illustration of the text of 1723.这是1723年,作为原始文本,恢复了英国在“宪法”,1756年至1813年的版本大旅馆,并插入在“宪法图书”几乎所有其他大小屋后,是最权威,但在1738年文本,这是通过和很长一段时间被许多大旅馆,也是在本身和作为1723文字进一步说明具有重要意义。

In the latter, the first article of the "Old Charges" containing the fundamental law and the essence of modern Freemasonry runs (the text is given exactly as printed in the original, 1723):在后者,“老费”包含的基本规律和现代共济运行(文中给出了原始的,完全按照1723印)本质的第一篇文章:

I. Concerning God and Religion.一,关于上帝和宗教。A Mason is obliged by his Tenure, to obey the moral law: and if he rightly understands the Art, he will never be a stupid Atheist [Gothic letters] nor an irreligious Libertine [Gothic letters].梅森是一个必须由他的任期内,要服从道德法则:如果他正确地理解艺术​​,他将永远是一个愚蠢的无神论者[哥特字母],也不是一个非宗教的风流才子[哥特字母]。 But though in ancient times Masons were charged in every country to be of the religion of that country or nation, whatever it was, yet 'tis now thought more expedient only to oblige them to that religion in which all men agree, leaving their particular Opinions to themselves: that is, to be good men and true or Men of Honour and Honesty, by whatever Denominations or Persuasions they may be distinguished; whereby Masonry becomes the Centre of Union and the Means of conciliating true Friendship among Persons that must have remained at a perpetual Distance.但是,尽管在古代石匠被指控在每一个国家成为该国家或民族的宗教,不管是什么,但“现在想更快捷TIS只迫使他们的宗教中,所有的人同意,离开他们的特别意见对自己:那就是,要善于和真正的男人或男的荣誉和诚信,以任何教派或信仰,他们可能是杰出的,即砌体成为联盟中心和调解之间必须有真正的友谊保持在人的手段一个永久的距离。

Under Article VI, 2 (Masons' behaviour after the Lodge is closed and the Brethren not gone) is added:根据第六条,2(泥瓦匠“的行为后,酒店关闭,弟兄不消失)加入:

In order to preserve peace and harmony no private piques or quarrels must be brought within the door of the Lodge, far less any quarrels about Religion or Nations or State Policy, we being only, as Masons, of the Catholick Religion, above mentioned, we are also of all Nations, Tongues, Kindreds and Languages and are resolved against all Politicks [printed in the original in Gothic letters] as what never yet conduced to the welfare of the Lodge nor ever will.为了维护和平与和谐没有私人激起了争吵或必须使范围内的酒店门口,远远少谈宗教或民族或国家政策有任何争吵,我们暂时只作为泥瓦匠,在Catholick宗教,上面提到的,我们也是所有国家,舌头,家系和语言,并针对尚未conduced没有什么作为的小屋福利也永远会[在原有的哥特字母印]的所有Politicks解决。 This charge has been always strictly enjoin'd and observ'd; but especially ever since the Reformation in Britain or the dissent and secession of these Nations from the communion of Rome.这项收费一直都是严格enjoin'd和observ'd,但特别是自从在英国宗教改革或不同意见,这些国家分裂从罗马的共融。

In the text of 1738 the same articles run (variation from the edition of 1723 are given in italics):在1738年文本运行相同的文章(从1723版的变化是斜体):

I. Concerning God and Religion.一,关于上帝和宗教。A Mason is obliged by his Tenure to observe the moral law as true Noahida (sons of Noah, the first name of Freemasons) and if he rightly understands the craft, he will never be a stupid atheist or an irreligious libertine nor act against conscience.梅森是一个必须由他的任期内,观察为真Noahida(儿子诺亚,共济会的名字)的道德法律,如果他正确地理解工艺,他将永远不会是一个愚蠢的无神论者或反宗教的风流才子,也不对良心的行为。 In ancient times the Christian masons were charged to comply with the Christian usages of each country where they travelled or worked; but Masonry being found in all nations, even of diverse religions, they are now generally charged to adhere to that religion, in which all men agree, (leaving each Brother his own particular opinion), that is, to be good men and true, men of honour and honesty, by whatever names, religions or persuasions they may be distinguished; for they all agree in the three great articles of Noah, enough to preserve the cement of the lodge.在古代基督教的石匠被指控遵守每个国家旅行或工作,他们的基督教惯例,但砌体被发现在所有国家,甚至不同的宗教,他们现在一般收费要坚持宗教,在所有男子同意,(每一个兄弟离开了自己的特别意见),也就是要善于和真正的男人,荣誉和诚实以任何名称,宗教或信仰的区别,他们可能是男性,因为他们都在这三个伟大的文章同意诺亚,足以维护水泥的小屋。 Thus Masonry is the centre of their union and the happy means of conciliating true friendship among persons who otherwise must have remained at a perpetual distance.因此砌体是他们之间的联盟和调解,否则谁必须有一个永久的距离保持者真正的友谊的快乐方式的中心。

VI. VI。1. 1。Behaviour in the Lodge before closing: .在关闭之前小屋行为。..No private piques nor quarrels about nations, families, religions or politics must by any means or under any colour or pretence whatsoever be brought within the doors of the lodge; for as Masons we are of the most ancient catholic religion, above mentioned and of all nations upon the square, level and plumb; and like our predecessors in all ages we are resolved against political disputes, as contrary to the peace and welfare of the Lodge.也没有私人激起了有关国家,家庭,宗教或政治争吵必须以任何方式或根据任何借口或任何颜色带来的小屋内的门,作为泥瓦匠,我们最古老的宗教是天主教,上面所提及的所有在广场上,水平和垂直的国家,以及像我们的前辈们的青睐,我们对政治解决争端,违背了和平与小屋的福利。

In order to appreciate rightly these texts characterizing modern "speculative" Freemasonry it is necessary to compare them with the corresponding injunction of the "Gothic" (Christian) Constitutions regulating the old lodges of "operative" Masonry till and after 1747.为了正确地理解这些文本特征的现代“投机”共济会,要比较的“哥特式”(基督教)的调节,直到1747后的“执行”砌体老旅馆宪法相应的禁令他们。 These injunctions are uniformly summed up in the simple words: "The first charge is this that you be true to God and Holy Church and use no error or heresy".这些禁令是均匀总结了简单的话:“第一次充电就是这个,你是真正的上帝和圣教会和使用没有错误或异端”。[29] The radical contrast between the two types is obvious.[29]之间的两种极端的对比是显而易见的。While a Mason according to the old Constitution was above all obliged to be true to God and Church, avoiding heresies, his "religious" duties, according to the new type, are essentially reduced to the observation of the "moral law" practically summed up in the rules of "honour and honesty" as to which "all men agree".虽然按照旧宪法梅森首先必须是真实的上帝和教会,避免邪说,他的“宗教”的职责,根据新的类型,基本上降低到了“道德法”实际上概括观察在“荣誉和诚实”至于哪些规则“所有的人同意”。 This "universal religion of Humanity" which gradually removes the accidental divisions of mankind due to particular opinions "or religious", national, and social "prejudices", is to be the bond of union among men in the Masonic society, conceived as the model of human association in general.这种“普遍的宗教人文”逐渐消除了人类的偶然部门因特殊意见“或宗教”,国家和社会的“偏见”,是要成为社会的共济会之间的男性债券工会,作为模型设想在一般人的协会。

"Humanity" is the term used to designate the essential principle of Masonry. “人性化”是用来指定砌体基本原则的术语。[30] It occurs in a Masonic address of 1747.[30]它在1747共济会的地址发生。[31] Other watchwords are "tolerance", "unsectarian", "cosmopolitan".[31]其他的口号是“宽容”,“unsectarian”,“大都会”。 The Christian character of the society under the operative régime of former centuries, says Hughan [32] "was exchanged for the unsectarian regulations which were to include under its wing the votaries of all sects, without respect to their differences of colour or clime, provided the simple conditions were observed of morality, mature age and an approved ballot".对下世纪前执行制度的社会基督徒的品格,说Hughan [32]“被交换的是要根据其翼包括所有教派的votaries unsectarian法规不尊重的颜色或clime的差异,提供简单的条件下进行观察的道德,成熟的年龄和经批准的选票“。[33] In Continental Masonry the same notions are expressed by the words "neutrality", "laïcité", "Confessionslosigkeit", etc. In the text of 1738 particular stress is laid on "freedom of conscience" and the universal, non-Christian character of Masonry is emphasized. [33]在大陆砌体的概念是相同的文字所表达的“中立”,“政教分离”,“Confessionslosigkeit”,在1738年特别强调的是放在“良心自由”和普遍​​的,非基督教文本等砌体字符强调。 The Mason is called a "true Noahida", ie an adherent of the pre-Christian and pre-Mosaic system of undivided mankind.梅森被称为“真正的Noahida”,即对人类的不可分割的前基督教和前花叶系统附着。The "3 articles of Noah" are most probably "the duties towards God, the neighbour and himself" inculcated from older times in the "Charge to a newly made Brother". “3诺亚物品”是最有可能“对上帝的职责,邻居和他本人”灌输从“充电到一个新做兄弟”旧时代。They might also refer to "brotherly love, relief and truth", generally with "religion" styled the "great cement" of the fraternity and called by Mackey [34] "the motto of our order and the characteristic of our profession".他们可能还提及“兄弟之爱,救济和真理”,一般以“宗教”病急乱投医“大水泥”的博爱和麦基[34]“我们的秩序和我们的行业特点的座右铭”之称。

Of the ancient Masons, it is no longer said that they were obliged to "be of the religion" but only "to comply with the Christian usages of each Country".古老的泥瓦匠,它不再是说,他们不得不“的宗教是”,但只有“遵守每个国家的基督教的习惯”。The designation of the said "unsectarian" religion as the "ancient catholick" betrays the attempt to oppose this religion of "Humanity" to the Roman Catholic as the only true, genuine, and originally Catholic.指定的说:“unsectarian”为“古catholick”宗教背叛试图反对作为唯一真实的,真正的,最初天主教这样的“人性”宗教罗马天主教。 The unsectarian character of Masonry is also implied in the era chosen on the title page: "In the year of Masonry 5723" and in the "History".砌体的unsectarian字符也隐含在扉页上选择的时代:“在砌体5723年”和“历史”。 As to the "History" Anderson himself remarks in the preface (1738):至于“历史”安德森自己的言论在序言(1738):

Only an expert Brother, by the true light, can readily find many useful hints in almost every page of this book which Cowans and others not initiated (also among Masons) cannot discern.只有一个专家兄弟,由真光,可以很容易地找到几乎所有的这本书,Cowans和其他人不启动(在梅森也)不能辨别页许多有用的提示。

Hence, concludes Krause [35], Anderson's "History" is allegorically written in "cipher language".因此,结论克劳斯[35],安德森的“历史”是寓言中的“密码语言”编写的。Apart, then, from "mere childish allusions to the minor secrets", the general tendency of this "History" is to exhibit the "unsectarianism" of Masonry.此外,然后,从“单纯幼稚的小秘密典故”,这个“历史”的总趋势是表现出“unsectarianism”砌体。

Two points deserve special mention: the utterances on the "Augustan" and the "Gothic" style of architecture and the identification of Masonry with geometry.有两点值得特别一提:在“奥古斯都”的话语和“哥特式”建筑风格和砌体与几何鉴定。The "Augustan" which is praised above all other styles alludes to "Humanism", while the "Gothic" which is charged with ignorance and narrow-mindedness, refers to Christian and particularly Roman Catholic orthodoxy.而“奥古斯都”,这是高于一切其他样式称赞暗示“以人为本”,而“哥特式”,这是无知和狭隘性收费,是指基督教,特别是罗马天主教的正统。 The identification of Masonry with geometry brings out the naturalistic character of the former.对砌体与几何识别带出前自然特色。Like the Royal Society, of which a large and most influential proportion of the first Freemasons were members [36], Masonry professes the empiric or "positivist" geometrical method of reason and deduction in the investigation of truth.正如英国皇家学会,其中第一大济和最有影响力的比例分别为成员[36],砌体自称的经验或“实证”理性和真理的调查扣的几何方法。 [37] In general it appears that the founders of Masonry intended to follow the same methods for their social purposes which were chosen by the Royal Society for its scientific researches.[37]在一般看来,砌体的创始人打算跟他们其中由英国皇家学会的科研选择社会目的相同的方法。[38] "Geometry as a method is particularly recommended to the attention of Masons." [38]“作为一种方法几何是特别推荐给梅森的注意。”"In this light, Geometry may very properly be considered as a natural logic; for as truth is ever consistent, invariable and uniform, all truths may be investigated in the same manner. Moral and religious definitions, axioms and propositions have as regular and certain dependence upon each other as any in physics or mathematics." “有鉴于此,几何很可能适当地被视为一种自然逻辑;作为真理是永远一致的,不变的,统一的,所有的真理可能在相同的方式进行调查的道德和宗教的定义,公理和命题作为定期和明确的。在每一个在任何其他物理或数学的依赖。“ "Let me recommend you to pursue such knowledge and cultivate such dispositions as will secure you the Brotherly respect of this society and the honour of your further advancement in it".“我建议你去追求这些知识和培养作为这类处分将确保你对这个社会的尊重和兄弟你在它的进一步发展荣誉”。[39][39]

It is merely through inconsistency that some Grand Lodges of North America insist on belief in the Divine inspiration of the Bible as a necessary qualification and that not a few Masons in America and Germany declare Masonry an essentially "Christian institution".它仅仅是通过不一致的北美一些大小屋在圣经的神圣启示的信仰坚持的一个必要条件,而不是在美国和德国几个泥瓦匠声明砌体一个基本上“基督教机构”。 According to the German Grand Lodges, Christ is only "the wise and virtuous pure man" par excellence, the principal model and teacher of "Humanity".据德国大奖赛旅馆,基督仅仅是“明智和良性纯粹的人”出类拔萃,主要模式和“人性化”的老师。[40] In the Swedish system, practised by the German Country Grand Lodge, Christ is said to have taught besides the exoteric Christian doctrine, destined for the people and the duller mass of his disciples, an esoteric doctrine for his chosen disciples, such as St. John, in which He denied that He was God. [40]在瑞典的制度,由德国国家实行大旅馆,基督是说,有教授,除了通俗的基督教教义,为人民的愚钝弟子质量,为他选择的弟子深奥的理论,例如,注定圣约翰,其中他否认他是神。 [41] Freemasonry, it is held, is the descendant of the Christian secret society, in which this esoteric doctrine was propagated.[41]共济会,它是举行,是基督教秘密社团,在本深奥的理论是传播后代。

It is evident, however, that even in this restricted sense of "unsectarian" Christianity, Freemasonry is not a Christian institution, as it acknowledges many pre-Christian models and teachers of "Humanity".这是显而易见的,然而,即使在这种“unsectarian”基督教限制感,共济会并非是一个基督教机构,因为它承认许多前基督教模式和“人性化”的教师。 All instructed Masons agree in the objective import of this Masonic principle of "Humanity", according to which belief in dogmas is a matter of secondary importance, or even prejudicial to the law of universal love and tolerance.所有指示泥瓦匠同意在这种“人性”共济会的原则,客观的进口,根据这教条的信仰是一个次要的问题,甚至损害了法律的普遍的爱和宽容。 Freemasonry, therefore, is opposed not only to Catholicism and Christianity, but also to the whole system of supernatural truth.共济会,因此,不仅是反对天主教和基督教,但也给整个系统的超自然的真理。

The only serious discrepancies among Masons regarding the interpretation of the texts of 1723 and 1738 refer to the words: "And if he rightly understands the Art, he will never be a stupid Atheist or an irreligious Libertine".之间关于对1723年和1738年文本的解释只有梅森严重不符,指的话:“如果他正确地理解艺术​​,他将永远是一个愚蠢的无神论者或者非宗教风流才子”。 The controversy as to the meaning of these words has been particularly sharp since 13 September, 1877, when the Grand Orient of France erased the paragraph, introduced in 1854 into its Constitutions, by which the existence of God and the immortality of soul were declared the basis of Freemasonry [42] and gave to the first article of its new Constitutions the following tenor: "Freemasonry, an essentially philanthropic, philosophic (naturalist, adogmatic) and progressive institution, has for its object the search after truth, the study of universal morality, of the sciences and arts and the practice of beneficence. It has for its principles absolute liberty of conscience and human solidarity. It excludes none on account of his belief. Its device is Liberty, Equality, Fraternity."作为对这些词的含义的争议一直特别尖锐,因为1877年9月13日,当法国大东方删除该段,于1854年引进到其宪法,其中上帝存在和灵魂不死人宣布共济会的基础上[42]并给其新宪法第一条下列男高音:“共济会,一个基本上慈善,哲学(自然,adogmatic)和进步的机构,拥有真理后,普遍研究的对象道德,科学和艺术的善行实践,已经为它的原则,良心和人类团结的绝对自由,但不包括他的账上没有信仰,它的设备是自由,平等,博爱“。 On 10 September, 1878, the Grand Orient, moreover, decreed to expunge from the Rituals and the lodge proceedings all allusions to religious dogmas as the symbols of the Grand Architect, the Bible, etc. These measures called out solemn protests from nearly all the Anglo-American and German organs and led to a rupture between the Anglo-American Grand Lodges and the Grand Orient of France. 9月10日1878年,大东方,而且,下旨要抹去从礼仪,提出诉讼的所有典故,以作为大建筑师,圣经等宗教教条的符号称为从几乎所有这些措施的严正抗议英美和德国的器官,并导致之间的英美大旅馆和法国大东方破裂。 As many freethinking Masons both in America and in Europe sympathize in this struggle with the French, a world-wide breach resulted.由于许多自由思想无论是在美国和欧洲的泥瓦匠在这方面与法国的斗争表示同情,一个世界性的违约造成。 Quite recently many Grand Lodges of the United States refused to recognize the Grand Lodge of Switzerland as a regular body, for the reason that it entertains friendly relations with the atheistical Grand Orient of France.不少最近美国许多大小屋拒绝承认作为一个经常性的身体瑞士大酒店,为的原因,它招待与无神论大东方的法国的友好关系。 [43] This rupture might seem to show, that in the above paragraph of the "Old Charges" the belief in a personal God is declared the most essential prerequisite and duty of a Mason and that Anglo-American Masonry, at least, is an uncompromising champion of this belief against the impiety of Latin Masonry. [43]这似乎表明可能破裂,即在“老费”前款中的神的信仰是个人申报的最重要的前提和义务的梅森和英美砌体,至少,是一个这种不妥协的冠军对拉美砌体不虔诚的信念。

But in truth all Masonry is full of ambiguity.但事实上所有砌体是充满歧义。The texts of 1723 and 1738 of the fundamental law concerning Atheism are purposely ambiguous. 1723和1738的基本法律关于无神论的文本故意含糊不清。Atheism is not positively condemned, but just sufficiently disavowed to meet the exigencies of the time, when an open admission of it would have been fatal to Masonry.无神论是没有正面谴责,而只是否认足够的时间来满足的迫切需要,当它的一个公开承认将是致命的砌筑。It is not said that Atheists cannot be admitted, or that no Mason can be an Atheist, but merely that if he rightly understands the Art, he will never be a stupid Atheist, etc., ie, he will not hold or profess Atheism in a stupid way, by statements, for instance that shock religious feeling and bring Masonry into bad repute.这并不是说,无神论者不能被录取,或者说没有梅森可以是一个无神论者,而只是说,如果他正确地理解艺术​​,他将永远是一个愚蠢的无神论者,等等,也就是说,他不会持有或信奉无神论一个愚蠢的方式,通过报表,例如宗教感情的冲击,并纳入不良声誉砌筑。 And even such a stupid Atheist incurs no stronger censure than the simple ascertaining of the fact that he does not rightly understand the art, a merely theoretical judgment without any practical sanction.而即使是这样一个愚蠢的无神论者招致不超过一个事实,即他不正确地理解没有任何实际制裁的艺术,只是简单的理论判断确定更强的责难。 Such a disavowal tends rather to encourage modern positivist or scientific Atheism.这种否定倾向,而鼓励现代实证或科学无神论。

Scarcely more serious is the rejection of Atheism by the British, American and some German Grand Lodges in their struggle with the Grand Orient of France.几乎没有更严重的是无神论由英国,美国和德国的一些大小屋在与法国大东方斗争的拒绝。The English Grand Lodge, it is true, in its quarterly communication of 6 March, 1878 [44] adopted four resolutions, in which belief in the Great Architect of the Universe is declared to be the most important ancient landmark of the order, and an explicit profession of that belief is required of visiting brethren belonging to the Grand Orient of France, as a condition for entrance into the English lodges.英国大旅馆,这是事实,在其1878年3月6日的季度通讯[44]通过了四项决议,这在宇宙大建筑师的信念被宣布为是最重要的秩序古老地标,以及这种信念是需要明确的职业来访的弟兄属于法国大东方,作为进入英语小屋门口的条件。 Similar measures were taken by the Irish, Scottish, and North American Grand Lodges.类似的措施,采取了爱尔兰,苏格兰和北美大小屋。But this belief in a Great Architect is so vague and symbolical, that almost every kind of Atheism and even of "stupid" Atheism may be covered by it.但是,这在一个伟大的建筑师的信念是如此的含糊和象征,几乎每一种无神论和“愚蠢”无神论甚至有可能被它覆盖。Moreover, British and American Grand Lodges declare that they are fully satisfied with such a vague, in fact merely verbal declaration, without further inquiry into the nature of this belief, and that they do not dream of claiming for Freemasonry that it is a "church", a "council", a "synod".此外,英国和美国大小屋宣布,他们完全符合这样一个模糊的满意,其实只是口头声明,没有进入这个信念性质的进一步探究,他们不梦想为共济会声称,这是一个“教会“,一个”局“,一个”主教“。 Consequently even those are acknowledged as Masons who with Spencer and other Naturalist philosophers of the age call God the hidden all-powerful principle working in nature, or, like the followers of "Handbuch" [45] maintain as the two pillars of religion "the sentiment of man's littleness in the immensity of space and time", and "the assurance that whatever is real has its origin from the good and whatever happens must be for the best".因此即使是那些被公认为梅森谁与斯宾塞和时代称之为上帝隐藏的全能的原则,工作性质,或像“手册下载”的追随者,其他自然主义哲学家[45]保持宗教的两大支柱“的人的渺小,在广袤的空间和时间“,和”保证,无论是真实的情绪都有其善者而从不管发生什么必须为最佳“的由来。

An American Grand Orator Zabriskie (Arizona) on 13 November, 1889, proclaimed, that "individual members may believe in many gods, if their conscience and judgment so dictate".一位美国大演说家Zabriskie(亚利桑那州)11月13日,1889年,宣布,提出“个别成员可能认为在许多神,如果他们的良知和判断,以便决定”。 [46] Limousin [47] approved by German Masons [48] says: "The majority of men conceive God in the sense of exoteric religions as an all-powerful man; others conceive God as the highest idea a man can form in the sense of esoteric religions." [46]利木赞[47]批准由德国梅森[48]说:“大多数男性想像中的通俗宗教作为一个全能的神人的感觉,其他受孕的最高理念可以形成一个人在这个意义上神的。深奥的宗教“ The latter are called Atheists according to the exoteric notion of God repudiated by science, but they are not Atheists according to the esoteric and true notion of God.后者被称为无神论者根据神通俗的概念由科学否定,但它们不是无神论者根据神深奥的和真实的概念。On the contrary, add others [49] they are less Atheists than churchmen, from whom they differ only by holding a higher idea of God or the Divine.相反,添加其他[49]他们不太无神论者比牧师,他们从不同的人举行了神圣的上帝或更高的想法而已。In this sense Thevenot, Grand Secretary of the Grand Orient of France, in an official letter to the Grand Lodge of Scotland (30 January, 1878), states: "French Masonry does not believe that there exist Atheists in the absolute sense of the word" [50] and Pike himself [51] avows:从这个意义上讲Thevenot,大的法国大东方秘书,在正式写信给苏格兰大酒店(1878年1月30日),指出:“法国砌体并不认为存在着这个词的绝对意义上无神论者“[50]和派克自己[51] avows:

A man who has a higher conception of God than those about him and who denies that their conception is God, is very likely to be called an Atheist by men who are really far less believers in God than he, etc.一个人谁拥有神高于那些关于他和谁否认他们的观念是上帝的观念,很可能被称为男人谁是真正的上帝的信徒比他少得多,一个无神论者等。

Thus the whole controversy turns out to be merely nominal and formal.因此,整个争议原来是有名无实和正规。Moreover, it is to be noticed that the clause declaring belief in the great Architect a condition of admission, was introduced into the text of the Constitutions of the Grand Lodge of England, only in 1815 and that the same text says: "A Mason therefore is particularly bound never to act against the dictates of his conscience", whereby the Grand Lodge of England seems to acknowledge that liberty of conscience is the sovereign principle of Freemasonry prevailing over all others when in conflict with them.此外,要注意到,该条款声明的伟大建筑师的录取条件的信念,是到了英国大旅馆的宪法文本仅在1815年推出,而且,同一文中说:“因此,一个梅森尤其是从来没有采取行动必将对自己的良心“,据此,英国的大旅馆,似乎承认,良心自由的支配是主权原则的共济会超过其他所有通行时与他们发生冲突。 The same supremacy of the liberty of conscience is implied also in the unsectarian character, which Anglo-American Masons recognize as the innermost essence of masonry.而同样的良心自由至上是也意味着在unsectarian字符,英美泥瓦匠为砖石内心的本质认识。"Two principles", said the German Emperor Frederick III, in a solemn address to Masons at Strasburg on 12 September, 1886, "characterize above all our purposes, viz., liberty of conscience and tolerance"; and the "Handbuch" [52] justly observes that liberty of conscience and tolerance were thereby proclaimed the foundation of Masonry by the highest Masonic authority in Germany. “两个原则”,说德国皇帝弗雷德里克三世,在庄严的地址梅森在斯特拉斯堡9月12日1886年,“首先我们的目的特征,即,自由的良知和宽容”;和“手册下载”[52 ]公正地指出,良知和宽容的自由人,从而宣告了砌体由德国共济会的最高权威的基础。

Thus the Grand Orient of France is right from the Masonic point of view as to the substance of the question; but it has deviated from tradition by discarding symbols and symbolical formulæ, which, if rightly understood, in no way imply dogmatic assertions and which cannot be rejected without injuring the work of Masonry, since this has need of ambiguous religious formulæ adaptable to every sort of belief and every phase of moral development.因此,法国大东方是对从以问题的实质内容共济会的点,但它已经背离传统,丢弃的符号和象征性的公式,其中,如果正确地理解,绝不意味着教条断言并不能被拒绝而不伤害的砌体工作,因为这需要模糊的宗教公式适应每一类,每一个信仰的道德发展阶段。 From this point of view the symbol of the Grand Architect of the Universe and of the Bible are indeed of the utmost importance for Masonry.从这个角度来看,对宇宙的大建筑师和圣经的符号是确实的砌体最重要的。Hence, several Grand Lodges which at first were supposed to imitate the radicalism of the French, eventually retained these symbols.因此,一些起初是应该大小屋模仿法国,最终保留了这些符号的激进主义。A representative of the Grand Lodge of France writes in this sense to Findel: "We entirely agree with you in considering all dogmas, either positive or negative, as radically contradictory to Masonry, the teaching of which must only be propagated by symbols. And the symbols may and must be explained by each one according to his own understanding; thereby they serve to maintain concord. Hence our Grand Lodge facultatively retains the Symbol of the Grand Architect of the Universe, because every one can conceive it in conformity with his personal convictions. [Lodges are allowed to retain the symbols, but there is no obligation at all of doing so, and many do not.] To excommunicate each other on account of metaphysical questions, appears to us the most unworthy thing Masons can do".一个法国大酒店代表写在这个意义上,以芬德尔:“我们完全同意你在考虑所有的教条,无论是正面还是负面的,因为从根本上违背砌体,教学当中必须只能由符号传播而符号可能必须解释每一个按他自己的理解,从而有助于它们保持和谐,因此我们的大旅馆兼性保留了宇宙的大建筑师符号,因为每个人都可以设想在符合他个人的信念了。 [小屋被允许保留的符号,但没有在这样做的所有义务,许多人没有。]要破门的形而上学问题帐户对方,在我们看来最不值得的事情可以做泥瓦匠“。[53] The official organ of Italian Masonry even emphasizes: "The formula of the Grand Architect, which is reproached to Masonry as ambiguous and absurd, is the most large-minded and righteous affirmation of the immense principle of existence and may represent as well the (revolutionary) God of Mazzini as the Satan of Giosue Carducci (in his celebrated hymn to Satan); God, as the fountain of love, not of hatred; Satan, as the genius of the good, not of the bad". [53]意大利砌体官方机构更强调道:“大建筑师,这是责备的含糊和荒谬的砌体,配方是存在巨大的原则最大型的胸襟和正义的肯定和代表,以及可能在马志尼(革命)神作为Giosue Carducci撒旦(在他著名的赞美诗撒旦)作为好,坏“不是天才撒旦;神,作为爱情的喷泉,而不是仇恨。[54] In both interpretations it is in reality the principle of Revolution that is adored by Italian Masonry. [54]在这两种解释它在现实中是革命的原则,是由意大利砌体崇拜。

IV. IV。PROPAGATION AND EVOLUTION OF MASONRY繁殖和砌体演化

The members of the Grand Lodge formed in 1717 by the union of four old lodges, were till 1721 few in number and inferior in quality.在大旅馆的成员在1717年形成由四个旧旅馆联盟,直到1721年数在数量和质量均较差。The entrance of several members of the Royal Society and of the nobility changed the situation.而英国皇家学会和贵族的几名成员高考改变了这种状况。Since 1721 it has spread over Europe.自1721它已经遍及欧洲。[55] This rapid propagation was chiefly due to the spirit of the age which, tiring of religious quarrels, restive under ecclesiastical authority and discontented with existing social conditions, turned for enlightenment and relief to the ancient mysteries and sought, by uniting men of kindred tendencies, to reconstruct society on a purely human basis. [55]这种快速繁殖的主要是由于它的年龄,宗教纷争,动荡下的教会权威和现有社会条件不满累的精神,为启蒙和救济转向了古老的奥秘,并要求由男性亲属团结,倾向,重建一个纯粹的人的基础上的社会。 In this situation Freemasonry with its vagueness and elasticity, seemed to many an excellent remedy.在这方面与它的模糊性和弹性的情况共济会,似乎很多优秀的补救措施。To meet the needs of different countries and classes of society, the original system (1717-23) underwent more or less profound modifications.为了满足不同国家和社会阶层的需要,原系统(1717年至1723年)进行了或多或少深刻的修改。In 1717, contrary to Gould [56], only one simple ceremony of admission or one degree seems to have been in use [57]; in 1723 two appear as recognized by the Grand Lodge of England: "Entered Apprentice" and "Fellow Craft or Master". 1717年,古尔德相反[56],承认只有一个或一个简单的仪式程度似乎已在使用中[57]得到; 1723年两点似乎由英国大旅馆承认:“进入学徒”和“研究员工艺或大师“。The three degree system, first practised about 1725, became universal and official only after 1730.这三个学位制度,一是关于1725年实行,成为普遍的,官方才1730。[58] The symbols and ritualistic forms, as they were practised from 1717 till the introduction of further degrees after 1738, together with the "Old Charges" of 1723 or 1738, are considered as the original pure Freemasonry. [58]的符号和仪式的形式,因为他们是从1717到实践的进一步出台后1738度,与“老费”的1723或1738一起,被认为是原始的纯济。 A fourth, the "Royal Arch degree [59] in use at least since 1740, is first mentioned in 1743, and though extraneous to the system of pure and ancient Masonry [60] is most characteristic of the later Anglo-Saxon Masonry. In 1751 a rival Grand Lodge of England "according to the Old Institutions" was established, and through the activity of its Grand Secretary, Lawrence Dermott, soon surpassed the Grand Lodge of 1717. The members of this Grand Lodge are known by the designation of "Ancient Masons". They are also called "York Masons" with reference, not to the ephemeral Grand Lodge of all England in York, mentioned in 1726 and revived in 1761, but to the pretended first Grand Lodge of England assembled in 926 at York. [61] They finally obtained control, the United Grand Lodge of England adopting in 1813 their ritualistic forms.第四,“皇家建筑中使用的程度至少从1740年[59],是第一次提到在1743年,虽然无关的纯粹和古代砖石系统[60]是最后来盎格鲁撒克逊砌体的特点,在1751的对手英格兰的大旅馆“按旧制度”成立,并通过其大秘书,劳伦斯Dermott活动,很快就超过了1717大旅馆,这个大旅馆的成员是由指定称为“古代泥瓦匠“,他们也被称为”纽约泥瓦匠“参考,不以短暂的大旅馆的所有英格兰在纽约,提到在1726年和1761年复苏,但对假装第一场英格兰旅馆在926聚集在纽约。 [61]他们终于得到控制,美国大旅馆的英格兰在1813年的仪式形式采纳。

In its religious spirit Anglo-Saxon Masonry after 1730 undoubtedly retrograded towards biblical Christian orthodoxy.在其宗教精神盎格鲁撒克逊砌体后,1730年无疑是对圣经的基督教正统退。[62] This movement is attested by the Christianization of the rituals and by the popularity of the works of Hutchinson, Preston, and Oliver with Anglo-American Masons. [62]这一运动是由基督教的仪式,由与英美泥瓦匠的哈钦森,普雷斯顿,和Oliver作品的普及证明。It is principally due to the conservatism of English-speaking society in religious matters, to the influence of ecclesiastical members and to the institution of "lodge chaplains" mentioned in English records since 1733.这主要由于英语在宗教事务的社会保守主义,对教会成员的影响和对“向牧师”的英文记录中提到自1733机构。[63] The reform brought by the articles of union between the two Grand Lodges of England (1 December, 1813) consisted above all in the restoration of the unsectarian character, in accordance with which all allusions to a particular (Christian) religion must be omitted in lodge proceedings. [63]通过工会的文章带来了两者之间的大英国村舍(1813年12月1日)由上述改革在unsectarian恢复所有字符,其中规定所有到一个特定的(基督徒)的宗教典故,必须省略提出诉讼。 It was further decreed "there shall be the most perfect unity of obligation of discipline, or working . . . according to the genuine landmarks, laws and traditions . . . throughout the masonic world, from the day and date of the said union (1 December, 1813) until time shall be no more".这是进一步颁布“须有纪律责任的最完美统一,或工作。根据真正标志性建筑,法律和传统。世界各地的共济会从每天的日期,说工会(1十二月,1813),直到更多的时间不得“。 [64] In taking this action the United Grand Lodge overrated its authority.[64]在采取这一行动的美国大旅馆高估了它的权威性。 Its decree was complied with, to a certain extent, in the United States where Masonry, first introduced about 1730, followed in general the stages of Masonic evolution in the mother country.它是遵守法令,在一定程度上,美国在砌体,首次推出约1730,一般在祖国共济会的演化阶段之后。

The title of Mother-Grand Lodge of the United States was the object of a long and ardent controversy between the Grand Lodges of Pennsylvania and Massachusetts.对母亲的美国大标题是小屋之间的宾夕法尼亚州和马萨诸塞州的大小屋长和殷切的争议对象。The prevailing opinion at present is, that from time immemorial, ie, prior to Grand Lodge warrants [65] there existed in Philadelphia a regular lodge with records dating from 1731.而目前普遍的看法是,从远古时代,即前大旅馆权证[65]在费城存在有一个由1731年代的记录定期向。[66] In 1734 Benjamin Franklin published an edition of the English "Book of Constitutions". [66]本杰明富兰克林在1734年出版了英文“的宪法书”版本。The principal agents of the modern Grand Lodge of England in the United States were Coxe and Price.现代大酒店的英格兰在美国的主要推动者是Coxe和价格。Several lodges were chartered by the Grand Lodge of Scotland.一些旅馆被包租由苏格兰大旅馆。After 1758, especially during the War of Independence, 1773-83, most of the lodges passed over to the "Ancients".经过1758年,特别是在独立,1773年至1783年战争中,大部分通过了在旅馆的“古人”。The union of the two systems in England (1813) was followed by a similar union in America.在英格兰(1813)两个系统工会其次是在美国类似的联盟。The actual form of the American rite since then practised is chiefly due to Webb (1771-1819), and to Cross (1783-1861).而自那以后,美国实行仪式的实际形式,主要是由于韦伯(1771年至1819年),并交(1783年至1861年)。 In France and Germany, at the beginning Masonry was practised according to the English ritual [67] but so-called "Scottish" Masonry soon arose.在法国和德国,在开始实行砌体是根据英文仪式[67],但所谓的“苏格兰”砌体很快出现。Only nobles being then reputed admissible in good society as fully qualified members, the Masonic gentlemen's society was interpreted as society of Gentilshommes, ie, of noblemen or at least of men ennobled or knighted by their very admission into the order, which according to the old English ritual still in use, is "more honourable than the Golden Fleece, or the Star or Garter or any other Order under the Sun".只有贵族被当时名震为完全合格的成员良好的社会受理,的共济会的先生们的社会被解释为Gentilshommes,即社会,贵族或至少高贵,或由他们到订单非常入场封爵男人,而根据旧英文仪式仍然在使用,是“比金羊毛荣誉,或星或袜带或阳光下的任何其他命令”。 The pretended association of Masonry with the orders of the warlike knights and of the religious was far more acceptable than the idea of development out of stone-cutters' guilds.对砌体与好战的骑士和宗教的命令假装协会远远超过了开发出的石锯“行会的想法可以接受的。Hence an oration delivered by the Scottish Chevalier Ramsay before the Grand Lodge of France in 1737 and inserted by Tierce into his first French edition of the "Book of Constitutions" (1743) as an "oration of the Grand Master", was epoch-making.因此,交付前由苏格兰其士大酒店,法国于1737年和拉姆齐插入他的第一次“的宪法书”(1743)法国版由三度作为一个“大法师致词”的演说,是划时代的。 [68] In this oration Masonry was dated from "the close association of the order with the Knights of St. John in Jerusalem" during the Crusades; and the "old lodges of Scotland" were said to have preserved this genuine Masonry, lost by the English. [68]在此祭文砌体日期是从十字军东征期间“的,在耶路撒冷的圣约翰骑士团为了密切联系”,而“苏格兰老旅馆”据说有保留这个真正的砌体,输了英语。 Soon after 1750, however, as occult sciences were ascribed to the Templars, their system was readily adaptable to all kinds of Rosicrucian purposes and to such practices as alchemy, magic, cabbala, spiritism, and necromancy.不久后,1750年,但是,由于被赋予神秘科学的圣殿,他们的系统是很容易适应各种用途的玫瑰十字会,并作为炼金术,魔术,cabbala,招魂术和巫术等做法。 The suppression of the order with the story of the Grand Master James Molay and its pretended revival in Masonry, reproduced in the Hiram legend, representing the fall and the resurrection of the just or the suppression and the restoration of the natural rights of man, fitted in admirably with both Christian and revolutionary high grade systems.此次与该大师詹姆斯Molay及其假装复苏砌体故事才能在西贡传奇再现,代表秋季和复活的公正或抑制和对人的自然权利的恢复压制,装在基督教和革命的高档系统令人钦佩。 The principal Templar systems of the eighteenth century were the system of the "Strict Observance", organized by the swindler Rosa and propagated by the enthusiast von Hundt; and the Swedish system, made up of French and Scottish degrees in Sweden.在十八世纪的主要圣殿系统是在“严格遵守”举办的骗子罗萨和发烧友冯Hundt传播,系统,以及瑞典的制度,由法国,瑞典和苏格兰度了。

In both systems obedience to unknown superiors was promised.在这两个系统服从上级是未知的承诺。 The supreme head of these Templar systems, which were rivals to each other, was falsely supposed to be the Jacobite Pretender, Charles Edward, who himself declared in 1777 that he had never been a Mason.这些圣堂系统最高元首,这是彼此的对手,被错误地应该是詹姆斯党伪装,查尔斯爱德华,谁他自己在1777年宣称,他从来就不是一个梅森。 [69] Almost all the lodges of Germany, Austria, Hungary, Poland, and Russia were, in the second half of the eighteenth century, involved in the struggle between these two systems. [69]几乎所有的德国旅馆,奥地利,匈牙利,波兰和俄罗斯人,在十八世纪下半叶,在这两个系统之间的斗争有关。In the lodges of France and other countries [70] the admission of women to lodge meetings occasioned a scandalous immorality.在法国和其他国家的小屋[70]妇女进入了令人惊讶的不道德行为所引致向会议。[71] The revolutionary spirit manifested itself early in French Masonry.[71]革命精神体现自己在法国砌体早。 Already in 1746 in the book "La Franc-Maçonnerie, écrasée", an experienced ex-Mason, who, when a Mason, had visited many lodges in France and England, and consulted high Masons in official position, described as the true Masonic programme a programme which, according to Boos, the historian of Freemasonry (p. 192), in an astonishing degree coincides with the programme of the great French Revolution of 1789.早在书中“拉郎,Maçonnerie,écrasée”,有经验的前梅森,谁,当一个梅森,访问了法国和英国的许多旅馆,并征询高泥瓦匠的官方立场,为真正的共济会的程序描述1746一个程序,而根据嘘声,历史学家的共济会(第192页)在一个惊人的程度,在伟大的1789年法国革命的纲领不谋而合。 In 1776 this revolutionary spirit was brought into Germany by Weisshaupt through a conspiratory system, which soon spread throughout the country. 1776年这个革命精神所带来的威斯豪普特通过conspiratory系统,很快在全国各地蔓延到德国。[72] Charles Augustus of Saxe-Weimar, Duke Ernest of Gotha, Duke Ferdinand of Brunswick, Goethe, Herder, Pestalozzi, etc., are mentioned as members of this order of the Illuminati. [72]查尔斯奥古斯都的萨克森 - 魏玛,哥达公爵欧内斯特,不伦瑞克公爵,歌德,赫德尔,裴斯泰洛齐,费迪南德等,都提到了这个光明秩序的成员。 Very few of the members, however, were initiated into the higher degrees.很少数的成员,但是,他们开始进入更高的学位。The French Illuminati included Condorcet, the Duke of Orléans, Mirabeau, and Sieyès.法国光明包括孔多塞,在奥尔良公爵,米拉博和西耶士。[73][73]

After the Congress of Wilhelmsbade (1782) reforms were made both in Germany and in France.后Wilhelmsbade大会(1782)进行了改革,无论是在德国和法国。The principal German reformers, L. Schröder (Hamburg) and IA Fessler, tried to restore the original simplicity and purity.德国的主要改革者,属施罗德(汉堡)和IA费斯勒,试图恢复原来的简单性和纯洁性。The system of Schröder is actually practised by the Grand Lodge of Hamburg, and a modified system (Schröder-Fessler) by the Grand Lodge Royal York (Berlin) and most lodges of the Grand Lodge of Bayreuth and Dresden.而施罗德系统实际上是实行由汉堡大旅馆,并修改系统由皇家大旅馆纽约(柏林)和拜罗伊特和德累斯顿大旅馆最小屋(施罗德-费斯勒)。 The Grand Lodges of Frankfort-on-the-Main and Darmstadt practice an eclectic system on the basis of the English ritual.在法兰克福发表了主,并达姆施塔特实践上的英文礼仪制度的基础上兼收并蓄的大小屋。[74] Except the Grand Lodge Royal York, which has Scottish "Inner Orients" and an "Innermost Orient", the others repudiate high degrees.[74]除皇家大旅馆纽约,它的苏格兰“内定向”和“最内层东方”,别人推翻高度。 The largest Grand Lodge of Germany, the National (Berlin), practises a rectified Scottish (Strict Observance) system of seven degrees and the "Landes Grossloge" and Swedish system of nine degrees.最大的大旅馆,德国,国家(柏林),实行纠正苏格兰(严格遵守)的七度和“兰德斯Grossloge”和九度瑞典的制度体系。 The same system is practised by the Grand Lodge of Sweden, Norway, and Denmark.同样的系统是实行由瑞典,挪威大酒店,和丹麦。 These two systems still declare Masonry a Christian institution and with the Grand Lodge Royal York refuse to initiate Jews.这两个系统仍宣布砌体一个基督教机构,并与皇家大旅馆纽约拒绝启动犹太人。Findel states that the principal reason is to prevent Masonry from being dominated by a people whose strong racial attachments are incompatible with the unsectarian character of the institution.芬德尔指出,主要的原因是为了防止一个人的坚强与该机构unsectarian性质不相符的种族附件为主砌筑。 [75][75]

The principal system in the United States (Charleston, South Carolina) is the so-called Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite, organized in 1801 on the basis of the French Scottish Rite of perfection, which was established by the Council of the Emperors of the East and West (Paris, 1758).在美国的主要系统(查尔斯顿,南卡罗来纳州)是所谓的古代和接受苏格兰礼,在1801年举办了法国苏格兰祭完美,这是由东方皇帝理事会建立的基础和西(巴黎,1758)。 This system, which was propagated throughout the world, may be considered as the revolutionary type of the French Templar Masonry, fighting for the natural rights of man against religious and political despotisms, symbolized by the papal tiara and a royal crown.这个系统,这是在世界各地传播,可能会被视为法国革命的圣堂砌体类型,对宗教和政治专制的人自然由罗马教皇的皇冠和皇冠标志的权利,战斗。 It strives to exert a preponderant influence on the other Masonic bodies, wherever it is established.它努力发挥对其他共济会的机构,无论它是建立占优势的影响。

This influence is insured to it in the Grand Orient systems of Latin countries; it is felt even in Britain and Canada, where the supreme chiefs of craft Masonry are also, as a rule, prominent members of the Supreme Councils of the Scottish Rite.这种影响被保险人给它的大东方拉美国家的系统,它是感觉,即使在英国和加拿大,那里的工艺砌体最高首领也,作为一项规则,对苏格兰礼最高理事会主要成员。 There are at the present time (1908) twenty-six universally recognized Supreme Councils of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite: US of America: Southern Jurisdiction (Washington), established in 1801; Northern Jurisdiction (Boston), 1813; Argentine Republic (Buenos Aires), 1858; Belgium (Brussels), 1817; Brazil (Rio de Janeiro), 1829; Chile (Santiago), 1870; Colon, for West India Islands (Havana), 1879; Columbia (Cartagena); Dominican Republic (S. Domingo); England (London), 1845; Egypt (Cairo), 1878; France (Paris), 1804; Greece (Athens), 1872; Guatemala (for Central American), 1870; Ireland (Dublin), 1826; Italy (Florence), 1858; Mexico (1868); Paraguay (Asuncion); Peru (Lima), 1830; Portugal (Lisbon), 1869; Scotland (Edinburgh), 1846; Spain (Madrid), 1811; Switzerland (Lausanne), 1873; Uruguay (Montevideo); Venezuela (Caracas).还有在目前(1908年)26公认的最高议会古代和接受苏格兰礼:美国US:南方管辖权(华盛顿),于1801年成立;北管辖权(波士顿),1813;阿根廷共和国(布宜布宜诺斯艾利斯),1858年,比利时(布鲁塞尔),1817年,巴西(里约热内卢),1829年,智利(圣地亚哥),1870;科隆,西印度群岛(哈瓦那),1879年,哥伦比亚(卡塔赫纳),多米尼加共和国(S.多明戈);英国(伦敦),1845年,埃及(开罗),1878年,法国(巴黎),1804年,希腊(雅典),1872年,危地马拉(中美洲),1870年,爱尔兰(都柏林),1826年,意大利(佛罗伦萨),1858年,墨西哥(1868年);巴拉圭(亚松森),秘鲁(利马),1830年,葡萄牙(里斯本),1869年,苏格兰(爱丁堡),1846年,西班牙(马德里),1811年,瑞士(洛桑),1873年,乌拉圭(蒙得维的亚),委内瑞拉(加拉加斯)。 Supreme Councils not universally recognized exist in Hungary, Luxemburg, Naples, Palermo, Rome, Turkey.不存在普遍公认的最高议会在匈牙利,卢森堡,那不勒斯,巴勒莫,罗马,土耳其。The founders of the rite, to give it a great splendour, invented the fable that Frederick II, King of Prussia, was its true founder, and this fable upon the authority of Pike and Mackey is still maintained as probable in the last edition of Mackey's "Encyclopedia" (1908).该仪式的创始人,给它一个伟大的辉煌,发明了寓言的腓特烈二世,普鲁士国王,被后,派克和麦基权威的真正创始人,这个寓言是仍可能保持在麦基的最后一版“大百科全书”(1908年)。 [76][76]

V. ORGANIZATION AND STATISTICS五,组织及统计

The characteristic feature of the organization of speculative Masonry is the Grand Lodge system founded in 1717.而投机砌体组织特点是大旅馆系统在1717年成立。Every regular Grand Lodge or Supreme Council in the Scottish, or Grand Orient in the mixed system, constitutes a supreme independent body with legislative, judicial, and executive powers.每一个大旅馆定期或最高法院在苏格兰,或大东方在混合体系理事会,构成与立法,司法和行政权力至高无上的独立机构。 It is composed of the lodges or inferior bodies of its jurisdiction or of their representatives regularly assembled and the grand officers whom they elect.它是由在旅馆或在其管辖或他们的代表定期组装和他们所选出的宏伟人员劣质机构。A duly constituted lodge exercises the same powers, but in a more restricted sphere.经正式演习构成提出相同的权力,但在更受限制的领域。The indispensable officers of a lodge are the Worshipful Master [77] the Senior and Junior Warden, and the Tiler.一个不可缺少的人员提出的尊贵人[77]高级和初级监狱长和瓦工。The master and the wardens are usually aided by two deacons and two stewards for the ceremonial and convivial work and by a treasurer and a secretary.主机和督导员通常是由两个辅助执事和两个仪式和欢乐的工作管家和一名司库和秘书。Many lodges have a Chaplain for religious ceremonies and addresses.许多旅馆有一个宗教仪式和地址牧师。The same officers in large numbers and with sounding titles (Most Worshipful Grand Master, Sovereign Grand Commander, etc.) exist in the Grand Lodges.大量与探空标题(大多数尊贵大师,主权大指挥官等)相同的人员中存在的大小屋。As the expenses of the members are heavy, only wealthy persons can afford to join the fraternity.作为会员的费用是沉重的,只有有钱的人可以买得起加入联谊会。The number of candidates is further restricted by prescriptions regarding their moral, intellectual, social, and physical qualifications, and by a regulation which requires unanimity of votes in secret balloting for their admission.候选人数是进一步限制了对他们的道德,智力,社会和物理资格处方,并通过一项条例,规定在入学无记名投票的表决一致。 Thus, contrary to its pretended universality, Freemasonry appears to be a most exclusive society, the more so as it is a secret society, closed off from the profane world of common mortals.因此,违背其假装普遍性,共济会似乎是一个最独特的社会,更何况它是一个秘密的社会,封闭了从普通凡人世俗世界。 "Freemasonry", says the "Keystone" of Philadelphia [78] "has no right to be popular. It is a secret society. It is for the few, not the many, for the select, not for the masses." “共济”,说的“梯形”费城[78]“没有权利受到欢迎,这是一个秘密的社会,是少数,而不是很多,对于选择,不为群众。”

Practically, it is true, the prescriptions concerning the intellectual and moral endowments are not rigourously obeyed:实际上,这是事实,处方有关的知识和道德禀赋不rigourously遵守:

"Numbers are being admitted . . . whose sole object is to make their membership a means for advancing their pecuniary interest". “数字是被录取。其唯一目的是使他们的成员为推进自己的金钱利益的一种手段”。[79] "There are a goodly number again, who value Freemasonry solely for the convivial meetings attached to it." [79]“有许多优美的数了一遍,谁的价值仅用于连接到它的欢乐的会议共济。”"Again I have heard men say openly, that they had joined to gain introduction to a certain class of individuals as a trading matter and that they were forced to do so because every one did so. Then there is the great class who join it out of curiosity or perhaps, because somebody in a position above them is a mason." “我再次听到男子公开说,他们已加入获得作为一个贸易问题,他们被迫这样做,因为每个人都这样做了介绍,对个体的某些类。然后是伟大的阶级谁加入出来出于好奇或者,因为在他们之上的位置有人是石匠。“ "Near akin to this is that class of individuals who wish for congenial society".“近类似于这是谁的个人为社会相投希望班”。 [80] "In Masonry they find the means of ready access to society, which is denied to them by social conventionalities. They have wealth but neither by birth nor education are they eligible for polite and fine intercourse." [80]“在砌体,他们发现了准备进入社会,这是由社会conventionalities否认对他们的手段,他们的财富,但没有出生,也不是他们的礼貌教育和精细性交的资格。” "The shop is never absent from their words and deeds."“这家商店是永远不会从他们的言行缺席。”"The Masonic body includes a large number of publicans."他说:“共济会的机构包括了大量的税吏。”[81][81]

Of the Masonic rule -- brotherly love, relief, and truth -- certainly the two former, especially as understood in the sense of mutual assistance in all the emergencies of life, is for most of the candidates the principal reason for joining.共济会的规则 - 友爱,救济,和真理 - 当然前两个,特别是在对所有的生命的紧急情况互助的意义上理解,是对候选人的加入最主要原因。This mutual assistance, especially symbolized by the five points of fellowship and the "grand hailing sign of distress" in the third degree, is one of the most fundamental characteristics of Freemasonry.这种相互援助,特别是研究生奖学金和“大欢呼签署危难”中的三度五点象征,是共济会的最根本的特征之一。 By his oath the Master Mason is pledged to maintain and uphold the five points of fellowship in act as well as in words, ie, to assist a Master Mason on every occasion according to his ability, and particularly when he makes the sign of distress.通过他的誓言主梅森是保证维持和维护的行为以及在字的金五点,即协助每次主梅森根据他的能力,尤其是当他使遇险的迹象。 In Duncan, "American Ritual" (229), the Royal Arch-Mason even swears:在邓肯,“美国礼”(229),皇家拱梅森甚至发誓:

I will assist a companion Royal Arch-Mason, when I see him engaged in any difficulty and will espouse his cause so as to extricate him from the same whether he be right or wrong.我将协助同伴皇家拱梅森,当我看到他在从事任何困难,并会拥护他的事业,以摆脱同他是否是对还是错。

It is a fact attested by experienced men of all countries that, wherever Masonry is influential, non-Masons have to suffer in their interests from the systematical preferment which Masons give each other in appointment to offices and employment.这是一个事实的所有国家,无论是影响力的砌体,非泥瓦匠都在其利益遭受系统性升迁任命的泥瓦匠给予对方办事处和就业经验的人证明。 Even Bismarck [82] complained of the effects of such mutual Masonic assistance, which is detrimental alike to civic equality and to public interests.即使俾斯麦[82]对这种相互共济会的援助,这不利于公民一样平等和社会公共利益的影响抱怨。In Masonic books and magazines unlawful and treacherous acts, performed in rendering this mutual assistance, are recommended and praised as a glory of Freemasonry."The inexorable laws of war themselves", says the official orator of the Grand Orient de France, Lefèbvre d'Aumale [83] "had to bend before Freemasonry, which is perhaps the most striking proof of its power. A sign sufficed to stop the slaughter; the combatants threw away their arms, embraced each other fraternally and at once became friends and Brethren as their oaths prescribed", and the "Handbuch" [84] declares: "this sign has had beneficial effect, particularly in times of war, where it often disarms the bitterest enemies, so that they listen to the voice of humanity and give each other mutual assistance instead of killing each other".在共济会的书籍和杂志的非法和奸诈行为,渲染这种相互协助执行的,建议和作为共济会荣耀称赞。“战争本身的无情法则”,说的大东方法国官方的演说家,勒菲弗尔D' Aumale [83]“共济会前已经弯曲,这也许是其最显着的力量足以证明一个标志停止屠杀;战斗扔掉武器,互相拥抱和兄弟般地一度成为他们的朋友和兄弟宣誓规定“和”手册下载“[84]宣称:”这个标志已经有有利的影响,特别是在战争时期,它经常撤防的死敌,让他们听,给人类的声音互相援助,而不是互相残杀“。 [85][85]

Even the widely spread suspicion, that justice is sometimes thwarted and Masonic criminals saved from due punishment, cannot be deemed groundless.即使是广为传播的怀疑,正义有时是挫败和共济会的罪犯应有的惩罚保存,不能被视为毫无根据的。The said practice of mutual assistance is so reprehensible that Masonic authors themselves [86] condemn it severely.上述相互援助的做法是让自己应该受到谴责的共济会的作者[86]严厉谴责。"If", says Bro.“如果”说,弟兄。 Marbach (23), "Freemasonry really could be an association and even a secret one of men of the most different ranks of society, assisting and advancing each other, it would be an iniquitous association, and the police would have no more urgent duty than to exterminate it."马尔巴赫(23),“共济会真的可能是一个协会,甚至对社会最不同职级的男人的秘密之一,协助和推动对方,这将是一个不公正的关联​​,警方不会有更迫切的任务比消灭它。“ Another characteristic of Masonic law is that "treason" and "rebellion" against civil authority are declared only political crimes, which affect the good standing of a Brother no more than heresy, and furnish no ground for a Masonic trial.共济会的另一个特点是,法律的“叛国罪”和“叛乱”对公民权力的声明只是政治罪行,从而影响了兄弟不超过异端良好信誉,并没有提供一个共济会的试验地。 [87] The importance which Masonry attaches to this point is manifest from the fact that it is set forth in the Article II of the "Old Charges", which defines the duties of a Freemason with respect to the State and civil powers. [87]的重要性,砌体重视这一点,从它被设置在“老费”,它定义了相对于国家和民间力量的共济会的职责第二条规定实际上体现。Compared with the corresponding injunction of the "Gothic" constitutions of operative masonry, it is no less ambiguous than Article I concerning God and religion.相对于的“哥特式”的禁令执行相应的砌体宪法,它并不比第一条关于上帝和宗教含糊不清。The old Gothic Constitutions candidly enjoined: "Also you shall be true liegemen to the King without treason or falsehood and that you shall know no treason but you mend it, if you may, or else warn the King or his council thereof".老哥特宪法坦率地嘱咐:“你也不得叛国罪或谬误,并且向国王真正liegemen你就知道没有叛国,但你缝补,如果可能,否则国王或他警告安理会及其”。 [88] The second article of modern speculative Freemasonry (1723) runs:[88]现代投机共济会的第二篇文章(1723)运行:

Of the civil magistrates, supreme and subordinate.对民事法官,最高法院和下级。A Mason is a peaceable subject to the Civil Powers, wherever he resides or works, and is never to be concerned in Plots and Conspiracies against the peace and welfare of the Nation, nor to behave himself undutifully to inferior Magistrates; for as Masonry hath always been injured by War, Bloodshed and Confusion so ancient Kings and Princes have been much disposed to encourage the craftsmen, because of their Peaceableness and Loyalty, whereby they practically answer'd the Cavils of their adversaries and promoted the Honour of Fraternity, who ever flourished in Times of Peace.梅森是一个爱好和平受到民事权力,无论他居住或工作,并且永远不会将在情节和对和平与民族福利阴谋有关,也不是为了表现自己undutifully到下裁判,始终作为砌体祂所受伤的战争,流血和混乱,使古老的国王和王子已经大大处置,鼓励能工巧匠,因为他们Peaceableness和忠诚度,据此,他们几乎answer'd其对手的Cavils,促进了联谊会荣誉,谁曾蓬勃发展,在和平时期。 So that if a Brother should be a Rebel against the State, he is not to be countenanc'd in his Rebellion, however he may be pitied as an unhappy man; and, if convicted of no other Crime, though the loyal Brotherhood must and ought to disown his Rebellion, and give no Umbrage or Ground of political Jealousy to the Government for the time being; they cannot expel him from the Lodge and his Relation to it remains indefeasible.所以,如果一个兄弟应该是一个对国家反叛,他是不是要在他的叛乱countenanc'd,但是他可能是可怜作为一个不幸的人,以及,如果没有其他犯罪而被定罪,但必须和忠诚的兄弟应该不认他的叛乱,并给没有不快或政治嫉妒地对暂时政府,他们不能开除他的小屋和他的关系到它仍然不能取消。

Hence rebellion by modern speculative Masonry is only disapproved when plots are directed against the peace and welfare of the nation.因此,现代投机砌体只有拒当叛乱阴谋反对和平和民族的福利导向。The brotherhood ought to disown the rebellion, but only in order to preserve the fraternity from annoyance by the civil authorities.在兄弟情谊应该断绝叛乱,但只是为了维护由民事当局烦恼的兄弟情谊。A brother, then, guilty of rebellion cannot be expelled from the lodge; on the contrary, his fellow Masons are particularly obliged to have pity on his misfortune when he (in prison or before the courts) has to suffer from the consequences of his rebellion, and give him brotherly assistance as far as they can.兄弟,那么,犯上作乱不能被驱逐出向,相反,他的同胞泥瓦匠尤其有义务对他的不幸可惜当他(在监狱或在法庭上)已经遭受他的叛乱的后果,并给他兄弟般的援助远,因为他们可以。 Freemasonry itself as a body is very peaceable and loyal, but it does not disapprove; on the contrary, it commends those brethren who through love of freedom and the national welfare successfully plot against monarchs and other despotic rulers, while as an association of public utility it claims privilege and protection through kings, princes, and other high dignitaries for the success of its peaceful work.共济会作为一个机构本身是很爱好和平的和忠诚的,但它并不不赞成,相反,它赞扬那些弟兄们谁通过自由和福利的国家成功地对专制统治者的君主和其他情节的爱情,而作为公共事业协会它声称特权通过国王,王子,并为它的和平工​​作的成功等贵宾和保护。 "Loyalty to freedom", says "Freemason's Chronicle" [89] "overrides all other considerations". “精忠自由”,说:“洪门的纪事”[89]“将覆盖所有其他的考虑”。The wisdom of this regulation, remarks Mackey [90] "will be apparent when we consider, that if treason or rebellion were masonic crimes, almost every mason in the United Colonies, in 1776, would have been subject to expulsion and every Lodge to a forfeiture of its warrant by the Grand Lodges of England and Scotland, under whose jurisdiction they were at the time".本规例的智慧,麦基的言论[90]“会明显当我们考虑,如果叛乱或叛国罪被共济会,几乎每石匠在美国殖民地,于1776年,将受到驱逐和每一个小屋没收其由英格兰和苏格兰,在其管辖下,他们在当时是“大小屋令。

A misleading adage is "once a Mason always a Mason".误导的格言是“一次梅森总是一个梅森”。This is often taken to mean that "the Masonic tie is indissoluble, that there is no absolution from its consequences" [91] or "Obligations" [92] that not even death can sever the connection of a Mason with Freemasonry.这意味着,往往采取“共济会的领带是不可分割的,有没有赦免其后果”[91]或“义务”[92],甚至没有死亡可以切断一个梅森与济连接。 [93] But certainly a Mason has the "right of demission" [94] and this right, whatever be the opinion of Masonic jurisprudence, according to the inalienable natural rights of man, extends to a complete withdrawal not only from the lodge but also from the brotherhood. [93]但肯定是一个梅森有“离职的权利”[94]而这种权利,无论是判例的共济会的意见,根据人的不​​可剥夺的自然权利,不仅延伸到从提出全面撤军,但也从兄弟情谊。 In the scale of Masonic penalties, "expulsion" is the most severe.在刑罚的共济会的规模,“驱逐”是最严重的。[95] Besides those who have been expelled or who have resigned there are many "unaffiliated" Masons who have ceased to be "active" members of a lodge, but, according to Masonic law, which, of course, can oblige no more than is authorized by the general rules of morality, they remain subject to the lodge within the jurisdiction of which they reside. [95]除了那些已被开除谁或谁辞职有许多“无党派”谁也不再是“积极”的小屋成员泥瓦匠,但是,根据共济会的法律,其中,当然也可以迫使不超过是由道德的一般规则的授权,他们仍然受到辖区内提出的,他们居住。

As to unity, Masonic authorities unanimously affirm that Freemasonry throughout the world is one, and that all Freemasons form in reality but one lodge; that distinct lodges exist only for the sake of convenience, and that consequently every regular Mason is entitled to be received in every regular lodge of the world as a brother, and, if in distress, to be relieved.至于团结,共济会当局一致肯定,在世界各地共济会是其中之一,并且所有在现实中只有一个共济会的形式提出;是不同的旅馆只为方便起见存在的,因此每一个经常梅森有权收到每一个兄弟定期向世界,而且,如果遇险,得到缓解。 The good understanding among Masons of different countries is furthered by personal intercourse and by correspondence, especially between the grand secretary offices and international congresses [96] which led to the establishment, in 1903, of a permanent international office at Neuchâtel, Switzerland.不同国家之间的泥瓦匠好理解进一步推动个人交往和通信之间特别是首辅办公室和国际会议,[96]而导致的设立,在1903年的一个永久的纳沙泰尔,瑞士国际办公室。 [97] There is no general Grand Lodge or direction of Freemasonry, though various attempts have been made in nearly every larger state or country to establish one. [97]有没有一般大旅馆或共济会的方向,但各种尝试已在几乎所有的大国或国家为建立一个。Incessant dissensions between Masonic systems and bodies are characteristic of Freemasonry in all countries and times.共济会制度和机构之间的纠纷不断是所有国家和时间共济的特点。But the federative unity of Freemasonry suffices to prove a true solidarity among Masons and Masonic bodies throughout the world; hence the charge of complicity in the machinations which some of them carry on.但是,联邦团结共济足以证明在世界各地之间的梅森和共济会团体真正的团结,因此在这其中的阴谋进行了一些同谋负责。 This solidarity is openly avowed by Masonic authorities.这种团结是由共济会当局公然宣称的。Pike, for instance, writes [98]派克,例如,写[98]

When the journal in London which speaks of the Freemasonry of the Grand Lodge of England, deprecatingly protested that the English Freemasonry was innocent of the charges preferred by the Papal Bull (Encycl. 1884) against Freemasonry, when it declared that English Freemasonry had no opinions political or religious, and that it did not in the least degree sympathize with the loose opinions and extravagant utterances of part of the Continental Freemasonry, it was very justly and very conclusively checkmated by the Romish Organs with the reply, 'It is idle for you to protest.当该杂志在伦敦的英国大旅馆共济会说话,调侃抗议英国共济会是由罗马教皇的公牛对共济会(Encycl. 1884年),首选的收费无辜时,宣布英国共济会没有意见政治或宗教,它没有在最低程度的同情宽松意见和共济会的大陆部分奢侈的话语,这是很公正,很确凿通过与答复Romish机关将死,“这是给你的空闲抗议。 You are Freemasons and you recognize them as Freemasons.你是共济会和你承认济他们。You give them countenance, encouragement and support and you are jointly responsible with them and cannot shirk that responsibility'.你给他们的面容,鼓励和支持,你与他们共同负责,不能推卸的责任“。

As accurate statistics are not always to be had and the methods of enumeration differ in different countries, total numbers can only be approximated.由于准确的统计数据并不总是要过和枚举的方法在不同的国家不同,总数只能近似。Thus in most of the Lodges of the United States only the Masters (third degree) are counted, while in other countries the apprentices and fellows are added.因此,在对美国的小屋大多只(第三度)都计算在内,而在其他国家的学徒和研究员加入硕士学位。There are besides many unaffiliated Masons (having ceased to be members of a lodge) who are not included.除了有许多无党派梅森(已不再是一个向成员)谁不包括在内。Their number may be estimated at two-thirds of that of the active Masons.他们的人数可能是估计的积极泥瓦匠的三分之二。 In England a Mason may act as member of many lodges.在英格兰梅森可能会充当许多旅馆的成员。

Confirming our statement as to the active members of the strictly Masonic bodies, which in calendars and year books are registered as such, we may, upon recent and reliable sources [99] estimate the actual state of Freemasonry as follows: Grand Orients, Grand Lodges, Supreme Councils, and other Scottish G. Bodies, 183; lodges 26,500; Masons, about 2,000,000; the number of the Grand Chapters of Royal Arch is: in the United States 2968 subordinate chapters, under one General Grand Chapter; England, 46 Grand Chapters with 1015 subordinate chapters; English colonies and foreign Masonic centres, 18 Grand Chapters with 150 subordinate chapters.确认以严格的共济会组织,这在今年的日历和书籍等作为注册的活跃成员的发言,我们可根据最新的可靠来源[99]估计如下的共济会的实际状态:大定向,大小屋,最高议会,以及其他苏格兰G.机构,183;小屋26500;泥瓦匠约200万;的皇家建筑大一些章节是:在美国2968年下属的章节,在一个一般大章,英格兰,46大章,1015下属章节;英国殖民地和国外共济会中心,下属18个章节150章大。 The census of craft masonry is as follows:普查的砌筑工艺如下:

Great Britain and Colonies (excluding Canada): 4,670 lodges; 262,651 members英国及殖民地(不包括加拿大):4,670小屋; 262651成员

Canada: 727 lodges; 60,728 members加拿大:727小屋; 60728成员

United States (White): 12,916 lodges; 1,203,159 members美国(白色):12916小屋; 1203159成员

United States (Colored): 1,300 lodges; 28,000 members美国(彩色):1,300小屋; 28000成员

Latin countries: 2,500 lodges; 120,000 members拉美国家:2500小屋,12万会员

Other European countries: 771 lodges; 90,700 members欧洲其他国家:771小屋; 90700成员

Africa: 53 lodges; 2,150 members非洲:53旅馆; 2,150成员

Total: 22,937 lodges; 1,767,388 members共计:22937小屋; 1767388成员

VI. VI。INNER WORK OF FREEMASONRY:内蒙古共济会的工作:

MASONIC SYMBOLISM AND OATHS共济会的象征意义和宣誓

"From first to last", says Pike [100] "Masonry is work". “从第一​​个到最后”说,派克[100]“砌体的工作”。The Masonic "work", properly so called, is the inner secret ritualistic work by which Masons are made and educated for the outer work, consisting in action for the welfare of mankind according to Masonic principles.共济会“工作”,所谓正确,是内心的秘密仪式的工作,这是由梅森和教育的工作外,行动包括为人类的福利根据共济会的原则。 Masons are made by the three ceremonies of initiation (first degree), passing (second degree), and raising (third degree).梅森是由萌生三个仪式(学士学位),传递(第二度),提高(第三度)。The symbols displayed in these ceremonies and explained according to the Masonic principles and to the verbal hints given in the rituals and lectures of the third degrees, are the manual of Masonic instruction.显示在这些仪式,并解释根据共济会的原则,并在仪式和第三度讲课给予口头提示的符号,都是共济会的说明书。 The education thus begun is completed by the whole lodge life, in which every Mason is advised to take an active part, attending the lodge meetings regularly, profiting, according to his ability, by the means which Masonry affords him, to perfect himself in conformity with Masonic ideals, and contributing to the discussions of Masonic themes and to a good lodge government, which is represented as a model of the government of society at large.由此开始的教育是完成了整个小屋的生活,每一个梅森应采取积极参与,向出席会议的定期,获利,根据他的能力,由手段,砌体affords他,完善符合自己以共济会的理想,奉献的共济会的主题展开讨论,并提出一个好政府,这是作为一个对社会的政府代表在大型模型。 The lodge is to be a type of the world [101] and Masons are intended to take part in the regeneration of the human race.小屋是成为世界型[101]和泥瓦匠的目的是参加对人类再生的一部分。[102] "The symbolism of Freemasonry", says Pike in a letter to Gould, 2 December, 1888 [103] "is the very soul of Masonry."[102]“的共济会的象征意义”,说在给古尔德信,1888年12月2日派克[103]“是砌体的灵魂。” And Boyd, the Grand Orator of Missouri, confirms: "It is from the beginning to the end symbol, symbol, symbol".和Boyd,密苏里大演说家,确认:“这是从开始到结束的标志,符号,象征”。[104][104]

The principal advantages of this symbolism, which is not peculiar to Freemasonry but refers to the mysteries and doctrines of all ages and of all factors of civilization, are the following: (1) As it is adaptable to all possible opinions, doctrines, and tastes, it attracts the candidate and fascinates the initiated.这种象征意义的主要优势,这是不是特有的共济会,但指的奥秘和所有年龄和文明的所有因素学说,有以下几种:(1)它是适应所有可能的观点,学说和口味,它吸引的候选人和着迷的启动。 (2) It preserves the unsectarian unity of Freemasonry in spite of profound differences in religion, race, national feeling, and individual tendencies. (2)它保留了深刻的差异,宗教,种族,民族感情,和个人的倾向,尽管共济unsectarian团结。(3) It sums up the theoretical and practical wisdom of all ages and nations in a universally intelligible language.(3)总结了各年龄层,并在普遍理解的语言国家的理论和实践智慧。(4) It trains the Mason to consider existing institutions, religious, political, and social, as passing phases of human evolution and to discover by his own study the reforms to be realized in behalf of Masonic progress, and the means to realize them. (4)列车梅森考虑现有的机构,宗教,政治,社会与传递人类进化阶段,并通过自己的研究发现要在共济会的代表实现了改革的进展,并实现它们的手段。 (5) It teaches him to see in prevailing doctrines and dogmas merely subjective conceptions or changing symbols of a deeper universal truth in the sense of Masonic ideals. (5)教导他看到当时的教义和教条只是主观观念或在更深意义上的共济会的理想普遍真理改变符号。(6) It allows Freemasonry to conceal its real purposes from the profane and even from those among the initiated, who are unable to appreciate those aims, as Masonry intends. (六)允许济隐瞒,甚至从各发起的亵渎和,谁是无法欣赏这些目标,作为其真正的目的砌体打算。"Masonry", says Pike, "jealously conceals its secrets and intentionally leads conceited interpreters astray".“砌体”,派克说,“小心翼翼地掩盖其秘密和故意导致自负口译误入歧途”。[105] "Part of the Symbols are displayed . . . to the Initiated, but he is intentionally misled by false interpretations".[105]“的符号显示部分。发起的,但他是故意误导的虚假解释”。[106] "The initiated are few though many hear the Thyrsus".[106]“在开始的几年虽然许多听到Thyrsus”。[107] "The meaning of the Symbols is not unfolded at once. We give you hints only in general. You must study out the recondite and mysterious meaning for yourself". [107]“的符号意义不在于开展一次,我们只给你提示一般,你必须自己研究出来的深奥和神秘的意义”。[108] "It is for each individual Mason to discover the secret of Masonry by reflection on its symbols and a wise consideration of what is said and done in the work". [108]“这对每个人梅森是通过反思发现它的符号和一个说什么和做的工作是明智的考虑砌体的秘密”。[109] "The universal cry throughout the Masonic world", says Mackey [110] "is for light; our lodges are henceforth to be schools, our labour is to be study, our wages are to be learning; the types and symbols, the myths and allegories of the institution are only beginning to be investigated with reference to the ultimate meaning and Freemasons now thoroughly understand that often quoted definition, that Masonry is a science of morality veiled in allegory and illustrated by symbols." [109]“共济会的整个世界的普遍哭”说,麦基[110]“是光,我们的旅馆是今后要学校,我们的劳动是要学习,我们的工资要学习;的种类和符号,神话和寓言的机构只是开始被参照的终极意义和共济会彻底调查了解,现在经常引用的定义,即砌体是一种隐晦的寓言和符号说明道德的科学。“

Masonic symbols can be and are interpreted in different senses.共济会的符号可以在不同的感官和解释。 By orthodox Anglican ecclesiastics the whole symbolism of the Old and New Testament connected with the symbolism of the Temple of Solomon was treated as Masonic symbolism and Masonry as the "handmaid of religion" [111] which, "in almost every part of every degree refers distinctly and plainly to a crucified Saviour".正统圣公会教区的与所罗门圣殿的象征连接的旧约和新约全被视为共济会的象征符号和砌体的“宗教的婢女”[111]其中,几乎每一个部分每度“是指清楚明白地向救主钉在十字架上“。 [112] Many Masonic authors in the Latin countries [113] and some of the principal Anglo-American authors [114] declare that Masonic symbolism in its original and proper meaning refers above all to the solar and phallic worship of the ancient mysteries, especially the Egyptian. [112]许多在拉美国家的共济会的作者[113]及主要英美一些作者[114]宣布,在其原应有之义和共济会的象征,是指首先对古奥秘太阳能和生殖器崇拜,尤其是埃及。 [115] "It is in the antique symbols and their occult meaning", says Pike [116] "that the true secrets of Freemasonry consist. These must reveal its nature and true purposes." [115]“正是在他们的神秘符号和古董的意思是”说,派克[116]“的共济会的真正秘密组成,其中必须揭示其本质和真实目的。”In conformity with this rule of interpretation, the letter G in the symbol of Glory (Blazing Star) or the Greek Gamma (square), summing up all Masonry is very commonly explained as meaning "generation"; the initial letter of the tetragrammaton (Yahweh) and the whole name is explained as male or male-female principle.按照这一解释规则规定,在荣耀的象征字母G(炽天星)或希腊伽玛(方),总结了所有砌体是很常用的意思是“一代”的解释;的tetragrammaton首字母(耶和华)和整个名称解释为男性或男性与女性的原则。 [117] In the same sense according to the ancient interpretation are explained the two pillars Boaz and Jachin; the Rosecroix (a cross with a rose in the centre); the point within the circle; the "vesica piscis", the well-known sign for the Saviour; the triple Tau; Sun and Moon; Hiram and Christ (Osiris); the coffin; the Middle Chamber and even the Sancta Sanctorum, as adyta or most holy parts of each temple, usually contained hideous objects of phallic worship. [117]在同一意义上根据古代解释解释的两大支柱波阿斯和斤;的Rosecroix(一个在中心玫瑰交叉);内圆点;的“vesica南鱼”,众所周知的注册救主;三重头,太阳和月亮,西贡和基督(奥西里斯);棺材,中间商会甚至Sancta Sanctorum,作为adyta或每个寺庙最神圣的地方,通常包含生殖器崇拜的狰狞的对象。[118][118]

As Masons even in their official lectures and rituals, generally claim an Egyptian origin for Masonic symbolism and a close "affinity" of "masonic usages and customs with those of the Ancient Egyptians" [119] such interpretations are to be deemed officially authorized.因为即使在他们的官方礼仪讲座和泥瓦匠,一般要求为共济会的象征意义和密切的“亲和力”的“共济会的惯例,并与古埃及人的习俗”埃及起源[119]这种解释将被视为正式授权。 Pike says, moreover, that "almost every one of the ancient Masonic symbols" has "four distinct meanings, one as it were within the other, the moral, political, philosophical and spiritual meaning".派克说,此外,“几乎每一个古老的共济会的象征之一”的“四个不同的含义,一是因为它在另一方面,道德,政治,哲学和精神内涵是”。 [120] From the political point of view Pike with many other Anglo-American Scotch Masons interprets all Masonic symbolism in the sense of a systematic struggle against every kind of political and religious "despotism". [120]而从派克与其他许多英美苏格兰梅森政治角度解释所有在一个反对任何政治和宗教的“专制”那种系统的共济会的象征意义的斗争。Hiram, Christ, Molay are regarded only as representatives of "Humanity" the "Apostles of Liberty, Equality, Fraternity".西贡,基督,Molay被认为只作为“人性”的“使徒自由,平等,博爱”的代表。[121] The Cross (a double or quadruple square) is "no specific Christian symbol", "to all of us it is an emblem of Nature and of Eternal life; whether of them only let each say for himself". [121]十字(双或四方形)是“没有具体的基督教象征”,“对我们所有人这是一个自然与生命的永恒象征,无论他们只让每一个为自己说”。[122] The Cross X (Christ) was the Sign of the Creative Wisdom or Logos, the Son of God. [122]十字架X(基督)是智慧的创意或标志,是神的儿子签名。Mithraism signed its soldiers on the forehead with a cross, etc. [123] INRI, the inscription on the Cross is, Masonically read: "Igne Natura Renovatur Integra". Mithraism签署了额头有交叉的士兵等[123]映里,在十字架上的题词是,Masonically写着:“Igne的Natura Renovatur INTEGRA”。The regeneration of nature by the influence of the sun symbolizes the spiritual regeneration of mankind by the sacred fire (truth and love) of Masonry, as a purely naturalistic institution.对性质的影响再生的太阳象征的神圣之火的砌体(真理和爱)人类精神的再生,作为一个纯粹的自然主义的机构。 [124] "The first assassin of Hiram is Royalty as the common type of tyranny", striking "with its rule of iron at the throat of Hiram and making freedom of speech treason." [124]“在西贡的第一杀手是普通型的暴政版税”后发制人“的铁律,其在西贡喉咙,使叛国言论的自由。”The second assassin is the Pontificate (Papacy) "aiming the square of steel at the heart of the victim".第二个刺客是教宗(教皇)“目标的钢材在受害者心方”。[125] Christ dying on Calvary is for Masonry "the greatest among the apostles of Humanity, braving Roman despotism and the fanaticism and bigotry of the priesthood". [125]基督在各各死是砌体“之间的人类最伟大的使徒,冒着罗马专制主义和宗教狂热和偏执的神职人员”。[126] Under the symbol of the Cross, "the legions of freedom shall march to victory". [126]在十字架的象征,“自由军团应走向胜利”。[127][127]

The Kadosh (thirtieth degree), trampling on the papal tiara and the royal crown, is destined to wreak a just vengeance on these "high criminals" for the murder of Molay [128] and "as the apostle of truth and the rights of man" [129] to deliver mankind "from the bondage of Despotism and the thraldom of spiritual Tyranny".该卡多什(三十度),在罗马教皇的皇冠头饰和践踏,是注定要发泄对这些“高罪犯”为Molay谋杀公正复仇[128]和“为真理的使徒和人的权利“[129]提供人类”从专制主义的束缚和精神暴政thraldom“。 [130] "In most rituals of this degree everything breathes vengeance" against religious and political "Despotism".[130]“在这一切的程度最仪式呼吸复仇”对宗教和政治上的“专制”。[131] Thus Masonic symbols are said to be "radiant of ideas, which should penetrate the soul of every Mason and be clearly reflected in his character and conduct, till he become a pillar of strength to the fraternity". [131]因此共济会的符号,说是“思想的辐射,这应该渗透到每一个梅森的灵魂,并清楚地反映在他的性格和行为,直到他成为一个支柱力量的兄弟”。 [132] "There is no iota of Masonic Ritual", adds the "Voice" of Chicago, "which is void of significance". [132]“没有丝毫的共济会的仪式”,增加了芝加哥的“语音”,“这是意义无效的”。[133] These interpretations, it is true, are not officially adopted in Anglo-American craft rituals; but they appear in fully authorized, though not the only ones authorized even by its system and by the first two articles of the "Old Charge" (1723), which contains the fundamental law of Freemasonry. [133]这些解释,这是事实,都没有正式通过英美船仪式,但他们似乎在充分授权,但不是唯一的,即使它的系统,由前两个“老费”条款授权(1723),其中包含了共济会的基本法律。 As to the unsectarian character of Masonry and its symbolism, Pike justly remarks: "Masonry propagates no creed, except its own most simple and sublime one taught by Nature and Reason. There has never been a false Religion on the world. The permanent one universal revelation is written in visible Nature and explained by the Reason and is completed by the wise analogies of faith. There is but one true religion, one dogma, one legitimate belief".至于砌体,其象征意义unsectarian性质,派克公正的言论:“砌体传播,除了其自身的最简单和崇高的性质,原因教一次不信仰,从来没有对世界永久的假宗教的普遍性。启示是写在可见的自然和解释的原因,是由信仰的明智类比完成。世界上只有一个真正的宗教,一个教条,一个合法的信仰“。 [134] Consequently, also, the Bible as a Masonic symbol, is to be interpreted as a symbol of the Book of Nature or of the Code of human reason and conscience, while Christian and other dogmas have for Freemasonry but the import of changing symbols veiling the one permanent truth, of which Masonic "Science" and "Arts" are a "progressive revelation", and application. [134]因此,同样,圣经作为共济会的象征,是被作为自然或人类理性和良知法典符号解释,而基督教和其他教条的共济会,但进口也改变符号面纱一个永久的真理,其中共济会“科学”和“艺术”是一个“渐进的启示”,和应用。 [135][135]

It should be noted, that the great majority of Masons are far from being "initiated" and "are groveling in Egyptian darkness".应当指出,认为梅森绝大多数从“开始”和“在埃及的黑暗卑躬屈膝”远。 [136] "The Masonry of the higher degrees", says Pike [137] "teaches the great truths of intellectual science; but as to these, even as to the rudiments and first principles, Blue Masonry is absolutely dumb. Its dramas seem intended to teach the resurrection of the body". [136]“的高学历砌体”说,派克[137]“教知识科学的大道理,但因为这些,即使在雏形和第一的原则,蓝砌体是绝对愚蠢的电视剧似乎其意。教身体的复活“。 "The pretended possession of mysterious secrets, has enabled Blue Masonry to number its initiates by tens of thousands. Never were any pretences to the possession of mysterious knowledge so baseless and so absurd as those of the Blue and Royal Arch Chapter Degrees".他说:“假装神秘的秘密藏,使蓝砌体数目的发起由数以万计。从不为任何的借口如此神秘的知识占有毫无根据的,所以作为蓝和皇家章拱度的荒谬”。 [138] "The aping Christianity of Blue Masonry made it simply an emasculated and impotent society with large and sounding pretences and slender performances. And yet its multitudes adhere to it, because initiation is a necessity for the Human Soul; and because it instinctively longs for a union of the many under the control of a single will, in things spiritual as well as in things temporal, for a Hierarchy and a Monarch". [138]“的蓝砌体制成简单模仿基督教与大和探空借口和细长表演一个无力的政治和社会,但它的无能众人坚持下去,因为开始是一个人的灵魂的必要性;因为它本能的渴望针对许多下的单一控制联盟将在事物的精神以及对事物的时间为层次结构和君主“。 [139] "It is for the Adept to understand the meaning of the Symbols [140] and Oliver declares: "Brethren, high in rank and office, are often unacquainted with the elementary principles of the science". [141] Masons "may be fifty years Masters of the Chair and yet not learn the secret of the Brotherhood. [139]“这是为娴熟,了解符号[140]和奥利弗声明的含义:”“[141]泥瓦匠”弟兄们,降级和办公高,往往与科学的基本原则不熟悉可能为五十年名人赛的主席,但不学习兄弟会的秘密。 This secret is, in its own nature, invulnerable; for the Mason, to whom it has become known, can only have guessed it and certainly not have received it from any one; he has discovered it, because he has been in the lodge, marked, learned and inwardly digested.这个秘密是在其自身的性质,无懈可击;为梅森,谁知道它已成为,只能猜对了,肯定不会收到任何之一,他已经发现了它,因为他在提出以来,标记,教训和内心消化。 When he arrives at the discovery, he unquestionably keeps it to himself, not communicating it even to his most intimate Brother, because, should this person not have capability to discover it of himself, he would likewise be wanting in the capability to use it, if he received it verbally.当他到达时发现,他毫无疑问地保持它自己,不沟通,这都与他最亲密的兄弟,因为,这个人不应该有能力去发现他自己,他会想同样是在能力使用它,如果他接受它口头上。 For this reason it will forever remain a secret". [142] In view of the fact that the secrets of Masonry are unknown to the bulk of Masons, the oaths of secrecy taken on the Bible are all the more startling and unjustifiable. The oath, for instance, of the first degree is as follows: "I, in the presence of the Great Architect of the Universe, .由于这个原因,它会永远是秘密。“[142]在一个事实,即砌体的秘密是未知的泥瓦匠散装认为,圣经上所采取的保密誓言都更令人吃惊的和毫无道理的誓言例如,第一度如下:“我,在宇宙的伟大建筑师,存在。 ..do hereby and hereon solemnly and sincerely swear, that I will always hide, conceal and never reveal any part or parts, any point or points of the secrets or mysteries of or belonging to Free and Accepted Masons in Masonry which may heretofore have been known by, shall now or may at any future time be communicated to me" etc. "These several points I solemnly swear to observe under no less penalty, than to have my throat cut across, my tongue torn out by the root and my body buried in the sands of the sea", "or the more efficient punishment of being branded as a wilfully perjured individual, void of all moral worth". "So help me God", etc. Similar oaths, but with severer penalties attached, are taken in the advanced degrees. The principle contents of the promises are according to Pike:特此和关于此谨以至诚发誓,我会一直隐瞒,隐瞒,从不透露任何部分或部件,任何一点或秘密或者属于奥秘点,或在砌体自由和接受可能迄今已经知道梅森由,现在或将来可能在任何时间传达给我“等”这些我郑重宣誓遵守在任何以下的罚款,比有几点我的喉咙跨越,我的舌头撕出的根和我的身体埋在海的沙滩“,”或故意伪证被作为个人,一切道德价值的品牌更有效的处罚无效“,”所以上帝帮助我“等类似的誓言,但严厉的附加处罚,采取在先进度的承诺的原则是根据派克内容:

Eighteenth degree: "I obligate and pledge myself always to sustain, that it belongs to Masonry to teach the great unsectarian truths, that do not exclusively belong to any religion and acknowledge that I have no right whatever to exact from others the acceptation of any particular interpretation of masonic symbols, that I may attribute to them by the virtue of my personal belief. I obligate and solemnly pledge myself to respect and sustain by all means and under any circumstances Liberty of Speech, Liberty of Thought and Liberty of Conscience in religious and political matters".第十八度:“我有义务并保证自己始终保持,它属于砌体教unsectarian的伟大真理,不完全属于任何宗教,承认我没有权利以任何他人的任何特别的确切词义的共济会的符号,使我的属性由凭借我个人的信念给他们解释,我有义务并郑重承诺尊重和保持自己宗教的一切手段和在任何情况下的语音自由,思想自由和良心自由和“政治问题。 [143] Thirtieth Degree: A. -- "I solemnly and freely vow obedience to all the laws and regulations of the Order, whose belief will be my belief, I promise obedience to all my regular superiors. . . . I pledge myself to be devoted, soul and body, to the protection of innocence, the vindication of right, the crushing of oppression and the punishment of every infraction against the law of Humanity and of Man's rights . . . never, either by interest or by fear, or even to save my existence, to submit to nor suffer any material despotism, that may enslave or oppress humanity by the usurpation or abuse of power. I vow never to submit to or tolerate any intellectual Despotism, that may pretend to chain or fetter free thought, etc."[143]第三十届学位:A. - “我郑重发誓,自由地服从所有的法律和命令,将是我的信仰信念的规定,我保证服从我的所有定期向上级我保证我自己。。专门,灵魂和身体,到无罪保护,权利平反,压迫破碎和每一个对人类法律的违规行为和人的权利的惩罚。从来没有,无论是利息或恐惧,或甚至挽救我的存在,提交的材料,也没有受到任何专制,奴役或压迫,可能由侵占或滥用权力的人性,我发誓绝不向任何知识产权或容忍专制,可能假装链或束缚自由思想等等。“

B. "I solemnly vow to consecrate my life to the ends of the Order of Knights of Kadosh, and to co-operate most efficaciously by all means prescribed by the constituted authorities of the order to attain them. I solemnly vow and consecrate, to these ends, my words, my power, my strength, my influence, my intelligence and my life. I vow to consider myself henceforward and forever as the Apostle of Truth and of the rights of man." B.“我郑重发誓我的生命奉献给了卡多什骑士命令的结束,合作,由该命令的构成当局规定的一切手段来达到他们最efficaciously,我郑重地发誓和奉献,以这些目标,我的话,我的力量,我的力量,我的影响,我的智慧和我的生活,我发誓从今以后要考虑自己和真理和人的权利,使徒永远。“

C. "I vow myself to the utmost to bring due punishment upon the oppressors, the usurpers and the wicked; I pledge myself never to harm a Knight Kadosh, either by word or deed . . .; I vow that if I find him as a foe in the battlefield, I will save his life, when he makes me the Sign of Distress, and that I will free him from prison and confinement upon land or water, even to the risk of my own life or my own liberty. I pledge myself to vindicate right and truth even by might and violence, if necessary and duly ordered by my regular superiors." C.“我发誓自己的最大努力,把后压迫者,篡夺者和邪恶应有的惩罚,我保证自己从未伤害骑士卡多什,无论是由词或契据; 我发誓,如果我找到他的在战场上的敌人,我会挽救他的生命,当他使我的苦恼的迹象,我将释放出狱,一经陆路或水路监禁他,甚至到了我自己的生活还是我自己的自由的风险,我承诺以维护自己的权利和真相甚至可能和暴力,如果必要和适当由我定期上级命令道。“

D. "I pledge myself to obey without hesitation any order whatever it may be of my regular Superiors in the Order".D.“我承诺自己,毫不迟疑地听从任何命令不管它可能是我经常在上级命令”。 [144][144]

VII.七。OUTER WORK OF FREEMASONRY: OUTER共济会的工作:

ITS ACHIEVEMENTS, PURPOSES AND METHODS其成就,目的和方法

The outer work of Freemasonry, though uniform in its fundamental character and its general lines, varies considerably in different countries and different Masonic symbols.该共济会外的工作,虽然在其根本性质和它的一般行统一,差异很大,不同国家和不同的共济会的符号。"Charitable"or "philanthropic" purposes are chiefly pursued by English, German, and American Masonry, while practically at least, they are neglected by Masons in the Latin countries, who are absorbed by political activity. “慈善”或“慈善”的目的是追求的主要是英语,德语和美国砌体,而实际上,至少,他们是在拉美国家的梅森,谁是政治活动吸收忽视。But even in England, where relatively the largest sums are spent for charitable purposes, Masonic philanthropy does not seem to be inspired by very high ideals of generosity and disinterestedness, at least with respect to the great mass of the brethren; the principal contributions are made by a few very wealthy brethren and the rest by such as are well-to-do.但是,即使在英格兰,在那里相对数额最大的花费是作慈善用途,共济会的慈善事业似乎并没有被激发出来的慷慨和无私很高的理想,至少相对于大质量的弟兄;的主要贡献是提出由少数非常富有的兄弟和诸如其余都是富裕的事。

Moreover, in all countries it is almost exclusively Masons and their families that profit by Masonic charity.此外,在所有国家,几乎完全是梅森和共济会的慈善机构及其家庭的利润。Masonic beneficence towards the "profane" world is little more than figurative, consisting in the propagation and application of Masonic principles by which Masons pretend to promote the welfare of mankind; and if Masons, particularly in Catholic countries, occasionally devote themselves to charitable works as ordinarily understood, their aim is to gain sympathy and thereby further their real purposes.对“亵渎”世界共济会的善行只不过是形象化的,在传播和应用的共济会的原则,其中梅森假装促进人类的福利组成,如果在天主教国家,特别是泥瓦匠,偶尔投身慈善工程,通常的理解,他们的目的是为了博取同情,从而推动其真正的目的。 In North America, especially in the United States a characteristic feature of the outer work is the tendency toward display in the construction of sumptuous Masonic "temples", in Masonic processions, at the laying of cornerstones and the dedication of public buildings and even of Christian churches.在北美,尤其是在美国的外部工作特点是在豪华的共济会的“寺庙”共济会的游行中,建筑的趋势走向显示,在铺设的基石和公共建筑的献身精神和基督教甚至教堂。 This tendency has frequently been rebuked by Masonic writers.这种倾向常常被责骂的共济会的作家。"The Masonry of this continent has gone mad after high degreeism and grand titleism. We tell the brethren, that if they do not pay more attention to the pure, simple, beautiful symbolism of the Lodge and less to the tinsel, furbelow, fire and feathers of Scotch Ritism and Templarism, the Craft will yet be shaken to its very foundations!"他说:“这个大陆砌体已经发疯后高degreeism和盛大titleism,我们告诉弟兄们,如果他们不支付更注重的是纯净,简洁,优美的小屋的象征意义,少了金属丝,俗丽的装饰,消防及苏格兰Ritism和Templarism羽毛,工艺将尚未被动摇它的根基!“ "Let the tocsin be sounded". “让警钟响起”。[145] "Many masons have passed through the ceremony without any inspiration; but, in public parades of the Lodges (also in England) they may generally be found in the front rank and at the masonic banquets they can neither be equalled nor excelled". [145]“许多泥瓦匠已通过仪式没有任何灵感,但是,在公众游行的小屋(也在英国),他们一般可在前列,并在他们既不能,也不等于共济会发现出色的宴会” 。[146] [146]

Even with regard to the most recent Turkish Revolution, it seems certain that the Young Turkish party, which made and directed the Revolution, was guided by Masons, and that Masonry, especially the Grand Orients of Italy and France, had a preponderant rôle in this Revolution.即使考虑到最近的土耳其革命,它似乎可以肯定,青年土耳其党,这使得和指导革命,被梅森的指导下,和砌体,特别是意大利和法国大定向,曾在这个主要作用革命。 [153] In conducting this work Freemasonry propagates principles which, logically developed, as shown above, are essentially revolutionary and serve as a basis for all kinds of revolutionary movements. [153]传播在开展这项工作的共济会的,逻辑的发展,如上图所示,本质上是革命性的,并作为对革命运动的各种基础的原则。Directing Masons to find out for themselves practical reforms in conformity with Masonic ideals and to work for their realization, it fosters in its members and through them in society at large the spirit of innovation.导演泥瓦匠,找出自己实际的改革与符合共济会的理想,并努力为他们的实现,促进整个社会的创新精神,并通过他们的成员。 As an apparently harmless and even beneficent association, which in reality is, through its secrecy and ambiguous symbolism, subject to the most different influences, it furnishes in critical times a shelter for conspiracy, and, even when its lodges themselves are not transformed into conspiracy clubs, Masons are trained and encouraged to found new associations for such purposes or to make use of existing associations.作为一个表面无害,甚至有益的关联,这实际上是通过它的保密性和模糊的象征意义,但最不同的影响,它furnishes在关键时刻为阴谋住,行等,即使其本身不进小屋阴谋转化俱乐部,泥瓦匠进行培训,并鼓励为这些目的,或利用现有的协会使用中发现新的关联。

Thus, Freemasonry in the eighteenth century, as a powerful ally of infidelity, prepared the French Revolution.因此,在十八世纪的共济会,作为一个强大的盟友不忠,编写了法国大革命。The alliance of Freemasonry with philosophy was publicly sealed by the solemn initiation of Voltaire, the chief of these philosophers, 7 February, 1778, and his reception of the Masonic garb from the famous materialist Bro.共济与哲学联盟是公开密封的伏尔泰,这些哲学家的首席,1778年2月7日隆重启动,他从著名的唯物主义的共济会弟兄的外衣招待会。 Helvetius.爱尔维修。[154] Prior to the Revolution various conspiratory societies arose in connection with Freemasonry from which they borrowed its forms and methods; Illuminati, clubs of Jacobins, etc. A relatively large number of the leading revolutionists were members of Masonic lodges, trained by lodge life for their political career. [154]前革命各个conspiratory社会共济会出现在从他们借来的形式和方法方面,光明,对雅各宾俱乐部等革命家的领导一些比较大的共济会小屋的成员,通过向生活训练为自己的政治生涯。 Even the programme of the Revolution expressed in the "rights of man" was, as shown above, drawn from Masonic principles, and its device: "Liberty, Equality, Fraternity" is the very device of Freemasonry.即使是革命的纲领中的“人的权利”表示是,如上图所示,从共济会的原则制定的,其设备:“自由,平等,博爱”是共济会很装置。 Similarly, Freemasonry, together with the Carbonari, cooperated in the Italian revolutionary movement of the nineteenth century.同样的,共济会,连同Carbonari,在意大利合作在十九世纪的革命运动。Nearly all the prominent leaders and among them Mazzini and Garibaldi, are extolled by Masonry as its most distinguished members.几乎所有的著名领袖和它们之间的马志尼和加里波第,是赞美的砌体作为其最杰出的成员。 In Germany and Austria, Freemasonry during the eighteenth century was a powerful ally of the so-called party, of "Enlightenment" (Aufklaerung), and of Josephinism; in the nineteenth century of the pseudo-Liberal and of the anti-clerical party.在德国和奥地利,在十八世纪的共济会是一个所谓的党强大的盟友,“启蒙”(Aufklaerung),和Josephinism;在伪自由十九世纪和反文书的缔约国。

In order to appreciate rightly the activity of Freemasonry in Germany, Sweden, Denmark and England, and in France under the Napoleonic regime, the special relations between Freemasonry and the reigning dynasties must not be overlooked.为了正确地理解在德国,瑞典,丹麦和英国,在法国拿破仑政权下的共济会的活动,在共济会和统治时期的特殊关系是不容忽视。 In Germany two-thirds of the Masons are members of the old Prussian Grand Lodges under the protectorship of a member of the Royal Dynasty, which implies a severe control of all lodge activity in conformity with the aims of the Government.在德国的泥瓦匠三分之二是旧普鲁士大小屋成员下一个王朝的皇家,这意味着所有提出的活动与政府的目标是一致的成员protectorship严厉的调控。 Hence German Freemasons are scarcely capable of independent action.因此,德国济是很少的独立行动的能力。But they certainly furthered the movement by which Prussia gradually became the leading state of Germany, considered by them as the "representative and the protector of modern evolution" against "Ultramontanism", "bigotry", and "Papal usurpations".但他们肯定推动了运动,其中普鲁士逐渐成为德国领先的状态,他们认为是“代表和现代演化保护者”反对“Ultramontanism”,“偏执”和“罗马教皇的强取豪夺”。 They also instigated the "Kulturkampf".他们还煽动“文化之”。The celebrated jurisconsult and Mason, Grandmaster Bluntschli, was one of the foremost agitators in this conflict; he also stirred up the Swiss "Kulturkampf".著名法学家和梅森,广安门布伦奇利,是这场冲突中最重要的鼓动者之一,他也激起了瑞士“文化之”。At his instigation the assembly of the "Federation of the German Grand Lodges", in order to increase lodge activity in the sense of the "Kulturkampf", declared, 24 May, 1874: "It is a professional duty for the lodges to see to it, that the brethren become fully conscious of the relations of Freemasonry to the sphere of ethical life and cultural purposes. Freemasons are obliged to put into effect the principles of Freemasonry in practical life and to defend the ethical foundations of human society, whensoever these are assailed. The Federation of the German Grand Lodges will provide, that every year questions of actuality be proposed to all lodges for discussion and uniform action".在他的指使下的“德国联邦大小屋”,以增加在“文化之”感向活动大会宣布,1874年5月24日:“这是一个专业的小屋看到责任它的兄弟成为完全的共济会的道德生活和文化领域的关系的目的意识。济有责任落实在实际生活中的共济会的原则和捍卫人类社会的道德基础,这些都是whensoever抨击的德国联邦将提供大小屋,即每年的现实问题进行讨论,并提出了统一的行动,所有旅馆“。 [155] German Freemasons put forth untiring efforts to exert a decisive influence on the whole life of the nation in keeping with Masonic principles, thus maintaining a perpetual silent "Kulturkampf". [155]德国济提出的不懈努力,发挥在共济会的原则保持对整个国家生活的决定性影响,从而保持永久的沉默的“文化之”。The principal means which they employ are popular libraries, conferences, the affiliation of kindred associations and institutions, the creation, where necessary, of new institutions, through which the Masonic spirit permeates the nation.其所采用的主要手段是常用库,会议,对亲属协会和机构隶属关系,建立新的机构,在必要时,通过这些共济会的精神贯穿全国。 [156] A similar activity is displayed by the Austrian Freemasons.[156]显示了类似的活动是由奥地利共济会。

The chief organization which in France secured the success of Freemasonry was the famous "League of instruction" founded in 1867 by Bro.这位负责人的组织,在法国取得成功的共济会是著名的“联盟指令”于1867年创办的弟兄。F. Macé, later a member of the Senate.F.锤,后来成为参议员。This league affiliated and implied with its spirit many other associations.这个联盟下属的精神与许多其他协会暗示。French Masonry and above all the Grand Orient of France has displayed the most systematic activity as the dominating political element in the French "Kulturkampf" since 1877.法国砌体首先是法国大东方,并已显示为主导,在法国“文化之”政治因素自1877年以来的最系统的活动。[157] From the official documents of French Masonry contained principally in the official "Bulletin" and "Compte-rendu" of the Grand Orient it has been proved that all the anti-clerical measures passed in the French Parliament were decreed beforehand in the Masonic lodges and executed under the direction of the Grand Orient, whose avowed aim is to control everything and everybody in France. [157]从法国砌体包含在官方的“通报”和“Compte -任督”的大东方已经证明,所有的反文书在法国议会通过的措施,下令在共济会的主要官方文件事先小屋和执行下,大东方,其宣称的目的是控制一切,在法国大家的方向。 [158] "I said in the assembly of 1898", states the deputy Massé, the official orator of the Assembly of 1903, "that it is the supreme duty of Freemasonry to interfere each day more and more in political and profane struggles". [158]“我在1898年大会说”,国家副集体,对1903年大会的正式演说家“,认为它是共济会的最高职责干涉每天在政治和世俗的斗争越来越多的”。 "Success (in the anti-clerical combat) is in a large measure due to Freemasonry; for it is its spirit, its programme, its methods, that have triumphed." “成功(在反文书战斗)在很大程度上是由于共济会,因为这是它的精神,其方案,其方法,已经取得了胜利。”"If the Bloc has been established, this is owing to Freemasonry and to the discipline learned in the lodges. The measures we have now to urge are the separation of Church and State and a law concerning instruction. Let us put our trust in the word of our Bro. Combes". “如果人政团已经成立,这是由于共济会,并在旅馆学到的纪律的措施,我们现在呼吁是教会与国家分离和法律有关的指令,让我们把这个词我们的信任我们的弟兄。孔布“。 "For a long time Freemasonry has been simply the republic in disguise", ie, the secret parliament and government of Freemasonry in reality rule France; the profane State, Parliament, and Government merely execute its decrees. “很长一段时间的共济会的,只不过变相共和国”,秘密议会和法国共济会在现实的规则,即政府,世俗国家,议会和政府只是执行其法令。"We are the conscience of the country"; "we are each year the funeral bell announcing the death of a cabinet that has not done its duty but has betrayed the Republic; or we are its support, encouraging it by saying in a solemn hour: I present you the word of the country . . . its satisfecit which is wanted by you, or its reproach that to-morrow will be sealed by your fall". “我们是国家的良心”,“我们每年的葬礼钟声宣布了一个还没有完成其职责,但背叛了共和国内阁死亡,或者我们的支持,鼓励在庄严小时说它:我现在你该国字的satisfecit这是由你想要的,或责备的明天将是你的秋季封“。 "We need vigilance and above all mutual confidence, if we are to accomplish our work, as yet unfinished. This work, you know . . . the anti-clerical combat, is going on. The Republic must rid itself of the religious congregations, sweeping them off by a vigorous stroke. The system of half measures is everywhere dangerous; the adversary must be crushed with a single blow". “我们需要警惕,首先相互信任,如果我们要完成我们的工作,尚未完成。这项工作,你知道。反作战文书,是怎么回事。共和国必须摆脱宗教团体本身, 。席卷了一场轰轰烈烈的中风送行的一半措施制度无处不在的危险;对手必须用一个单一的打击“粉碎。[159] "It is beyond doubt", declared the President of the Assembly of 1902, Bro. [159]“这是毫无疑问的”,宣告了1902年大会主席,弟兄。Blatin, with respect to the French elections of 1902, "that we would have been defeated by our well-organized opponents, if Freemasonry had not spread over the whole country". Blatin,关于1902年的法国大选,“我们会被击败了我们的组织严密的对手,如果没有共济会在全国蔓延”。[160] Along with this political activity Freemasonry employed against its adversaries, whether real or supposed, a system of spying and false accusation, the exposure of which brought about the downfall of the masonic cabinet of Combes. [160]随着这种政治活动的共济会雇用的对手无论是真实或假定,一个间谍和诬告陷害系统,曝光,其中关于共济会的孔布内阁倒台带来的。In truth all the "anti-clerical" Masonic reforms carried out in France since 1877, such as the secularization of education, measures against private Christian schools and charitable establishments, the suppression of the religious orders and the spoliation of the Church, professedly culminate in an anti-Christian and irreligious reorganization of human society, not only in France but throughout the world.事实上所有的“反文书”共济会的改革进行了自1877年在法国,如教育世俗化,反对私人基督教学校和慈善机构,宗教团体的镇压和教会的掠夺措施,自称达到高潮人类社会的反基督教和非宗教的重组,不仅在法国而且在全世界。 Thus French Freemasonry, as the standard-bearer of all Freemasonry, pretends to inaugurate the golden era of the Masonic universal republic, comprising in Masonic brotherhood all men and all nations.因此,法国共济,共济会为所有的旗手,假装开创了共济会的普遍共和国的黄金时期,在共济会兄弟所有男人和所有国家组成。 "The triumph of the Galilean", said the president of the Grand Orient, Senator Delpech, on 20 September, 1902, "has lasted twenty centuries. But now he dies in his turn. The mysterious voice, announcing (to Julian the Apostate) the death of Pan, today announces the death of the impostor God who promised an era of justice and peace to those who believe in him. The illusion has lasted a long time. The mendacious God is now disappearing in his turn; he passes away to join in the dust of ages the divinities of India, Egypt, Greece, and Rome, who saw so many creatures prostrate before their altars. Bro. Masons, we rejoice to state that we are not without our share in this overthrow of the false prophets. The Romish Church, founded on the Galilean myth, began to decay rapidly from the very day on which the Masonic Association was established".他说:“伽利略的胜利”,说的大东方,参议员杜鹏志,于一九〇二年九月二十日总统“,已经持续了二十个世纪,但现在他又在他去世的神秘的声音,宣布(对朱利安的叛教者)泛死亡,今天宣布的骗子答应上帝谁的正义与和平的时代,谁​​相信他死亡的幻想已经持续了很长一段时间的虚假神现在轮到他消失; 他去世到加入到世世印度神灵,埃及,希腊和罗马,谁看到这么多前的祭坛顶礼膜拜的生物。弟兄灰尘。泥瓦匠,我们欣喜地指出,我们没有我们的份额并不在这个假先知推翻该Romish教会,在伽利略神话成立,开始腐烂的那一天在该协会成立的共济会“迅速。 [161][161]

The assertion of the French Masons: "We are the conscience of the country", was not true.法国梅森断言:“我们是国家的良心”,事实并非如此。By the official statistics it was ascertained, that in all elections till 1906 the majority of the votes were against the Masonic Bloc, and even the result in 1906 does not prove that the Bloc, or Masonry, in its anti-clerical measures and purposes represents the will of the nation, since the contrary is evident from many other facts.由它确定的官方统计,在所有的选举,直到1906年的多数票反对共济集团,甚至在1906年的结果是不能证明的集团,或砖石在其反文书的措施和目标,代表民族的意志,反而是因为许多其他事实可见一斑。 Much less does it represent the "conscience" of the nation.大部分更不是代表了国家的“良心”。The fact is, that the Bloc in 1906 secured a majority only because the greater part of this majority voted against their "conscience".事实是,该政团在1906年获得了多数只是因为这个多数大部份反对他们的“良心”投了反对票。 No doubt the claims of Freemasonry in France are highly exaggerated, and such success as they have had is due chiefly to the lowering of the moral tone in private and public life, facilitated by the disunion existing among Catholics and by the serious political blunders which they committed.毫无疑问,在法国共济会的主张是高度夸张​​,这样的成功,因为他们不得不主要是由于到私人和公共生活的道德色彩降低,由现行的天主教​​徒之间不愈的便利和严重的政治失误,他们承诺。 Quite similar is the outer work of the Grand Orient of Italy which likewise pretends to be the standard-bearer of Freemasonry in the secular struggle of Masonic light and freedom against the powers of "spiritual darkness and bondage", alluding of course to the papacy, and dreams of the establishment of a new and universal republican empire with a Masonic Rome, supplanting the papal and Cæsarean as metropolis.不少类似的是意大利大东方外工作,也假装是在光的共济会和自由对“精神的黑暗和奴役”世俗的权力斗争的共济会的旗手,当然暗指教皇,和一个新的和普遍的共济会与罗马帝国建立共和的梦想,取代了教皇和剖腹产的大都市。 The Grand Orient of Italy has often declared that it is enthusiastically followed in this struggle by the Freemasonry of the entire world and especially by the Masonic centres at Paris, Berlin, London, Madrid, Calcutta, Washington.大东方的意大利经常宣称它是在这场斗争中积极其次是整个世界,特别是由共济会在巴黎,柏林,伦敦,马德里,加尔各答,华盛顿共济会的中心。 [162] It has not been contradicted by a single Grand Lodge in any country, nor did the German and other Grand Lodges break off their relations with it on account of it shameful political and anti-religious activity. [162]它没有矛盾的一个大旅馆在任何国家,也没有德国和其他大小屋断绝与它在它可耻的政治和反宗教活动帐户的关系。But though the aims of Italian Masons are perhaps more radical and their methods more cunning than those of the French, their political influence, owing to the difference of the surrounding social conditions, is less powerful.但是,尽管意大利泥瓦匠的目的也许是更激进的和他们的方法比法国人,他们的政治影响力,由于周围那些狡猾的社会条件的差异,是那么强大。 The same is to be said of the Belgian and the Hungarian Grand Lodges, which also consider the Grand Orient of France as their political model.同样是要在比利时和匈牙利大旅馆,也考虑他们的政治模式的法国大东方说。

Since 1889, the date of the international Masonic congress, assembled at Paris, 16 and 17 July, 1889, by the Grand Orient of France, systematic and incessant efforts have been made to bring about a closer union of universal Freemasonry in order to realize efficaciously and rapidly the Masonic ideals.自1889年以来,国际共济会的代表大会的日期,聚集在巴黎,16日和1889年7月17日由法国大东方,系统性和不懈的努力,已实现了全民共济会紧密的联盟,以实现efficaciously并迅速的共济会的理想。 The special allies of the Grand Orient in this undertaking are: the Supreme Council and the Symbolical Grand Lodge of France and the Masonic Grand Lodges of Switzerland, Belgium, Italy, Spain, Hungary, Portugal, Greece; the Grand Lodges of Massachusetts and of Brazil were also represented at the congress.的大东方在这项工作的特殊盟友是:最高委员会和象征性的大旅馆法国和共济会大小屋瑞士,比利时,意大利,西班牙,匈牙利,葡萄牙,希腊,马萨诸塞州和巴西大小屋也派代表出席了大会。 The programme pursued by the Grand Orient of France, in its main lines, runs thus: "Masonry, which prepared the Revolution of 1789, has the duty to continue its work".由法国大东方所追求的方案,其主要线路,运行这样的:“砌体,它编制的1789年革命后,有责任继续工作”。[163] This task is to be accomplished by the thoroughly and rigidly consistent application of the principles of the Revolution to all the departments of the religious, moral, judicial, legal, political, and social order. [163]这个任务是由彻底和严格对所有的宗教,道德,司法,法律,政治和社会秩序部门的革命原则的应用程序来完成。The necessary political reforms being realized in most of their essential points, henceforth the consistent application of the revolutionary principles to the social conditions of mankind is the main task of Masonry.必要的政治改革正在其基本点最实现,今后的革命原则应用到人类的社会条件是砌体的主要任务。The universal social republic, in which, after the overthrow of every kind of spiritual and political tyranny", of "theocratical" and dynastical powers and class privileges, reigns the greatest possible individual liberty and social and economical equality conformably to French Masonic ideals, the real ultimate aims of this social work.在普遍的社会共和国,其中统治后,每一种精神和政治暴政推翻的“,”theocratical“和dynastical权力和阶级特权,最大可能的个人自由与社会和经济平等conformably法国共济会的理想,真正的最终目的是这个社会的工作。

The following are deemed the principal means: (1) To destroy radically by open persecution of the Church or by a hypocritical fraudulent system of separation between State and Church, all social influence of the Church and of religion, insidiously called "clericalism", and, as far as possible, to destroy the Church and all true, ie, superhuman religion, which is more than a vague cult of fatherland and of humanity; (2) To laicize, or secularize, by a likewise hypocritical fraudulent system of "unsectarianism", all public and private life and, above all, popular instruction and education.以下是被认为主要是指:(1)摧毁教会的迫害或打开一个虚伪的国家与教会分离欺诈系统从根本上,所有的教会和宗教的社会影响力,不知不觉地称为“教权”,并,尽可能,破坏教会和所有真正的,即超人的宗教,这是多了祖国和人类的模糊邪教以上;(2)laicize,或还俗,由同样虚伪的“unsectarianism欺诈系统“,所有公共和私人生活和最重要的,流行的指导和教育。 "Unsectarianism" as understood by the Grand Orient party is anti-Catholic and even anti-Christian, atheistic, positivistic, or agnostic sectarianism in the garb of unsectarianism. “Unsectarianism”由大东方党理解的是反天主教,甚至反基督教,无神论,实证主义,宗派主义或不可知的unsectarianism外衣。 Freedom of thought and conscience of the children has to be developed systematically in the child at school and protected, as far as possible, against all disturbing influences, not only of the Church and priests, but also of the children's own parents, if necessary, even by means of moral and physical compulsion.的思想和孩子们的良心自由,必须系统地发展在孩子在学校和保护,尽可能克服一切干扰影响,而不是教会和牧师而已,但对孩子的亲生父母也,如有必要,甚至道德和身体强制手段。 The Grand Orient party considers it indispensable and an infallibly sure way to the final establishment of the universal social republic and of the pretended world peace, as they fancy them, and of the glorious era of human solidarity and of unsurpassable human happiness in the reign of liberty and justice.大东方党认为是不可缺少的肯定和绝对无误的方式向社会的普遍共和国和假装世界和平的最终建立,因为他们看中了他们,和人类团结的光荣时代和无法超越的统治人类的幸福自由和正义。 [164][164]

The efforts to bring about a closer union with Anglo-American and German Freemasonry were made principally by the Symbolical Grand Lodge of France and the "International Masonic Agency" at Neuchâtel (directed by the Swiss Past Grand Master Quartier-La Tente), attached to the little Grand Lodge "Alpina" of Switzerland.在努力实现与英美和德国共济会的紧密联盟提出了主要由象征性的大旅馆的法国和“共济会的国际机构”在纳沙泰尔(由瑞士过去的大师Quartier香格里拉TENTE导演),隶属小大旅馆“阿尔皮纳”瑞士。 These two Grand Lodges, as disguised agents of the Grand Orient of France, act as mediators between this and the Masonic bodies of English-speaking and German countries.这两个大旅馆,作为法国大东方,因为这和讲英语和德语国家的共济会组织的调解员行为变相代理。With English and American Grand Lodges their efforts till now have had but little success.随着英国和美国大小屋的努力至今有但很少成功。[165] Only the Grand Lodge of Iowa seems to have recognized the Grand Lodge of France. [165]只有爱荷华大酒店似乎已经认识到了法国的大旅馆。[166] The English Grand Lodge not only declined the offers, but, on 23 September, 1907, through its registrar even declared: "We feel, that we in England are better apart from such people. Indeed, Freemasonry is in such bad odour on the Continent of Europe by reason of its being exploited by Socialists and Anarchists, that we may have to break off relations with more of the Grand Bodies who have forsaken our Landmarks". [166]英语大旅馆不仅拒绝提供,但9月23日,1907年,通过其注册商甚至宣称:“我们觉得,在英国我们更好的除了这些人的确,共济会在这样恶劣的气味在欧洲由于其被社会主义者和无政府主义者,我们可能要断绝同谁抛弃我们的地标有“大机构更多的关系利用大陆的原因。 [167] The American Grand Lodges (Massachusetts, Missouri, etc.), in general, seem to be resolved to follow the example of the English Grand Lodges. [167]美国大小屋(马萨诸塞州,密苏里州等),一般来讲,​​似乎决心遵循英语大小屋的例子。

The German Grand Lodges, on the contrary, at least most of them, yielded to the pressure exercised on them by a great many German brothers.德国的大旅馆,相反,至少大部分,取得了对他们行使了大量的德国兄弟的压力。Captivated by the Grand Orient party on 3 June, 1906, the Federation of the eight German Grand Lodges, by 6 votes to 2, decreed to establish official friendly relations with the Grand Lodge, and on 27 May, 1909, by 5 votes to 3, to restore the same relations with the Grand Orient of France.迷住了大东方党6月3日,1906年,德国的八个大小屋联合会,6票对2票,颁布建立与大酒店正式友好关系,并于1909年5月27日,5票对3票,恢复与法国一样大东方的关系。 This latter decree excited the greatest manifestations of joy, triumph and jubilation in the Grand Orient party, which considered it as an event of great historic import.后者法令兴奋的喜悦,胜利和党在大东方,这被视为一个伟大的历史事件是喜庆进口的最大表现。But in the meantime a public press discussion was brought about by some incisive articles of the "Germania" [168] with the result, that the three old Prussian Grand Lodges, comprising 37,198 brothers controlled by the protectorate, abandoned their ambiguous attitude and energetically condemned the decree of 27 May, 1909, and the attitude of the 5 other so-called "humanitarian" German Grand Lodges, which comprise but 16,448 brothers.但在此期间公众新闻的讨论所带来的“日耳曼”[168]关于一些精辟的文章,结果,这三个老普鲁士大旅馆,包括在保护地控制37198兄弟,放弃自己的暧昧态度,大力谴责在1909年5月27号法令,以及5其他所谓的“人道主义”德国大奖赛旅馆,其中包括但16448兄弟的态度。 It was hoped, that the British and American Grand Lodges, enticed by the example of the German Grand Lodges, would, in the face of the common secular enemy in the Vatican, join the Grand Orient party before the great universal Masonic congress, to be held in Rome in 1911.人们希望,英国和美国的大旅馆,由德国大小屋例如引诱,将在共同在梵蒂冈世俗的敌人面前,在伟大的普遍加入共济会的大会上,大东方党,是在罗马举行的1911年。 But instead of this closer union of universal Freemasonry dreamt of by the Grand Orient party, the only result was a split between the German Grand Lodges by which their federation itself was momentarily shaken to its foundation.但这个梦想,而不是由大东方党普遍济紧密的联盟,唯一的结果是他们之间的联盟,其中本身一度动摇其基础德国大奖赛小屋分裂。

But in spite of the failure of the official transactions, there are a great many German and not a few American Masons, who evidently favour at least the chief anti-clerical aims of the Grand Orient party.但在正式交易失败尽管如此,也有很多德国和美国的梅森不是少数,谁主张显然至少首席反办事员的大东方党的目标。Startling evidence thereof was the recent violent world-wide agitation, which, on occasion of the execution of the anarchist, Bro.令人吃惊的证据不足,是最近的暴力世界各地激动,这对的无政府主义,弟兄执行一次。Ferrer, 31, an active member of the Grand Orient of France [169] was set at work by the Grand Orient of France [170] and of Italy [171] in order to provoke the organization of an international Kulturkampf after the French pattern.费雷尔,31日,法兰西大东方的积极成员[169]在工作中设置了由法国大东方[170]和意大利[171]为了挑起的国际文化之后,法国的模式组织。 In nearly all the countries of Europe the separation between State and Church and the laicization or neutralization of the popular instruction and education, were and are still demanded by all parties of the Left with redoubled impetuosity.在几乎所有欧洲国家的国家与教会和laicization或流行的教学和教育中和分离,过去和现在都仍然在与各方加倍左急躁要求。

The fact that there are also American Masons, who evidently advocate the Kulturkampf in America and stir up the international Kulturkampf, is attested by the example of Bros. JD Buck, 33 and A. Pike, 33.事实上,也有美国的梅森,谁主张显然与美国文化之挑起国际文化之,是证明由兄弟JD降压,33和A派克,33例。Buck published a book, "The Genius of Freemasonry", in which he advocates most energetically a Kulturkampf for the United States.巴克出版了新书“天才的共济会”,其中他最积极的倡导者为美国一场文化。This book, which in 1907, was in its 3rd edition, is recommended ardently to all American Masons by Masonic journals.这本书,这在1907年,在其第3版,建议所有美国梅森热烈的共济会的期刊。A. Pike, as the Grand Commander of the Mother Supreme Council of the World (Charleston, South Carolina) lost no opportunity in his letters to excite the anti-clerical spirit of his colleagues. A.派克,失去母亲的最高的世界理事会(查尔斯顿,南卡罗来纳州)大指挥官没有在他的信的机会,激发了他的同事反文书的精神。In a long letter of 28 December, 1886, for instance, he conjures the Italian Grand Commander, Timoteo Riboli, 33, the intimate friend of Garibaldi, to do all in his power, in order to unite Italian Masonry against the Vatican.在对1886年12月28日长信,例如,他让人想起了意大利大奖赛指挥官,Timoteo Riboli,33,加里波第亲密的朋友,做他的一切力量,以联合起来反对梵蒂冈意大利砌体。He writes:他写道:

The Papacy .罗马教廷。. .has been for a thousand years the torturer and curse of Humanity, the most shameless imposture, in its pretence to spiritual power of all ages.已有一千多年的折磨,并在其借口人道,最无耻的骗局,诅咒所有年龄段的精神力量。 With its robes wet and reeking with the blood of half a million of human beings, with the grateful odour of roasted human flesh always in its nostrils, it is exulting over the prospect of renewed dominion.凭借其长袍湿reeking与半个人类万血的人肉烤在其鼻孔总是感激的气味,它是exulting以上的新统治的前景。 It has sent all over the world its anathemas against Constitutional government and the right of men to freedom of thought and conscience.它已向世界各地的政府和反对宪法的人的权利的anathemas的思想和良心自由。

Again,同样,

"In presence of this spiritual 'Cobra di capello', this deadly, treacherous, murderous enemy, the most formidable power in the world, the unity of Italian Masonry is of absolute and supreme necessity; and to this paramount and omnipotent necessity all minor considerations ought to yield; dissensions and disunion, in presence of this enemy of the human race are criminal". “在这种精神的”眼镜蛇迪卡佩罗“,这种致命的,奸诈,凶残的敌人,是世界上最强大的力量的存在,意大利砌体统一是绝对的,至高无上的必要性,并把这种至高无上,无所不能的必要性所有未成年人的考虑应当产量;纠纷和不愈合,在这个人类敌人的存在是犯罪“。 "There must be no unyielding, uncompromising insistence upon particular opinions, theories, prejudices, professions: but, on the contrary, mutual concessions and harmonious co-operation".“不得有不屈不挠,在特定的意见,理论,成见,专业不妥协的坚持:但是,相反,互相让步,和谐的合作”。 "The Freemasonry of the world will rejoice to see accomplished and consummated the Unity of the Italian Freemasonry".“世界的共济会欣喜地看到完成和完善了统一的意大利共济会”。[172][172]

Important Masonic journals, for instance, "The American Tyler-Keystone" (Ann Arbor), openly patronize the efforts of the French Grand Orient Party.重要的共济会的期刊,例如,“美国泰勒梯形”(安阿伯),公开光顾的法国大东方党的努力。"The absolute oneness of the Craft", says the Past Grand Master Clifford P. MacCalla (Pennsylvania), "is a glorious thought."“该工艺绝对合一”,说的过去大师克利福德P. MacCalla(宾夕法尼亚州),“是一个光荣的思想。” "Neither boundaries of States nor vast oceans separate the Masonic Fraternity. Everywhere it is one." “国家远隔重洋,也无论是单独的共济会的界限联谊会,到处是一个。”"There is no universal church, no universal body of politic; but there is an universal Fraternity, that Freemasonry; and every Brother who is a worthy member, may feel proud of it".“有没有普世教会,没有政体普遍性机构,但有一种博爱,是共济会和每一个兄弟谁是当之无愧的成员,可能会觉得它的骄傲”。 [173] Owing to the solidarity existing between all Masonic bodies and individual Masons, they are all jointly responsible for the evil doings of their fellow-members. [173]由于团结共济会之间的所有机构和个人泥瓦匠现有的,他们都是共同为他们的同胞的罪恶行径成员负责。

Representative Masons, however, extol the pretended salutary influence of their order on human culture and progress.代表泥瓦匠,但是,歌颂假装他们为了人类文化的有益影响和进步。"Masonry", says Frater, Grand Orator, Washington, "is the shrine of grand thoughts, of beautiful sentiments, the seminary for the improvement of the moral and the mental standard of its members. As a storehouse of morality it rains benign influence on the mind and heart". “砌体”,Frater说,大演说家,华盛顿,“是伟大的思想圣地,美丽的情操,为道德的提高和其成员的心理温床的标准,作为一个道德的仓库下雨良性影响头脑和心脏“。 [174] "Modern Freemasonry", according to other Masons, "is a social and moral reformer". [174]“现代共济会”,根据其他泥瓦匠“,是一个社会道德改革者”。[175] "No one", says the "Keystone" of Chicago, "has estimated or can estimate the far reaching character of the influence of Masonry in the world. It by no means is limited the bodies of the Craft. Every initiate is a light bearer, a center of light". [175]“没有人”,说的“梯形”芝加哥“,估计还是可以估算出世界砌体影响深远的人物。并不意味着它是有限的工艺的机构,每一个开始,是轻承载,光中心“。 [176] "In Germany as in the United States and Great Britain those who have been leaders of men in intellectual, moral and social life, have been Freemasons. Eminent examples in the past are the Brothers Fichte, Herder, Wieland, Lessing, Goethe. Greatest of them all was IW von Goethe. Well may we be proud of such a man" [177] etc. German Masons [178] claim for Freemasonry a considerable part in the splendid development of German literature in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. [176]“在德国,如美国和英国这些谁一直在思想,道德和社会生活中的领导者,已共济会,在过去的杰出的例子是兄弟费希特,赫尔德,维兰德,莱辛,歌德,其中最大的是IW冯歌德,那么可能我们是这样一个人感到骄傲“[177]等德国梅森[178]的共济会在在十八,十九世纪德国文学辉煌的发展相当一部分索赔。 These claims, however, when critically examined, prove to be either groundless or exaggerated.这些说法,但是,当仔细研究,被证明是毫无根据或夸大或者。English Freemasonry, being then at a low intellectual and moral level and retrograding towards orthodoxy, was not qualified to be the originator or a leading factor in the freethinking "Culture of Enlightenment."英国共济会,是在低智力和道德水平和对正统retrograding那么,是没有资格成为发起人或自由思想主导因素“启蒙文化”。 German Masonry, then dominated by the Swedish system and the Strict Observance and intellectually and morally degenerated, as Masonic historians themselves avow, was in no better plight.德国砌体,然后由瑞典的制度和严格遵守和智力上和道德上堕落为主导的共济会的历史学家自己招认,在没有更好的困境。 In truth the leading literary men of the epoch, Lessing, Goethe, Herder, etc. were cruelly disabused and disappointed by what they saw and experienced in their lodge life.在真理的时代,莱辛,歌德,赫德尔等领导文人惨遭disabused和他们所看到的和他们提出的生活经历失望。[179] Lessing spoke with contempt of the lodge life; Goethe characterized the Masonic associations and doings as "fools and rogues"; Herder wrote, 9 January, 1786, to the celebrated philologist Bro. [179]莱辛采访了向生命的蔑视;歌德定性为“傻瓜和无赖”的共济会的组织和行为;赫尔德说,1786年1月9日,以著名语言学家弟兄。Heyne; "I bear a deadly hatred to all secret societies and, as a result of my experience, both within their innermost circles and outside, I wish them all to the devil. For persistent domineering intrigues and the spirit of cabal creep beneath the cover". Heyne,“我承担了致命的仇恨所有秘密社团,并作为我的经验,无论是在自己内心深处的圈子外的结果,我祝他们一切的恶魔对于持续霸气尔虞我诈的阴谋集团的精神和蠕变下方盖。 “。[180] [180]

Freemasonry, far from contributing to the literary greatness of these or other leading men, profited by the external splendour which their membership reflected on it.共济会,远离促进了这些或其他领先的男士,由外部的辉煌,他们的成员就可以反映获利文学的伟大。But the advantage was by no means deserved, for even at the height of their literary fame, not they, but common swindlers, like Johnson, Cagliostro, etc., were the centres round which the Masonic world gravitated.但优势是绝不应得的,即使在他们的文学声誉的高度,而不是他们,而是共同的骗子像约翰逊,卡廖斯特罗等,是中心轮的共济会的世界所吸引。 All the superior men belonging to Freemasonry: Fichte, Fessler, Krause, Schröder, Mossdorf, Schiffman, Findel, etc., so far as they strove to purge lodge life from humbug, were treated ignominiously by the bulk of the average Masons and even by lodge authorities.所有属于男人的优越济:费希特,费斯勒,克劳斯,施罗德,Mossdorf,希夫曼,芬德尔等等,到目前为止,他们力图清除提出从骗子的生活,治疗可耻的平均体积和泥瓦匠甚至向当局。 Men of similar turn of mind are stigmatized by English and American Masonic devotees as "materialists" and "iconoclasts".类似的心态转由男性诬蔑为“唯物论”和“反传统”英国和美国共济会的信徒。[181] But true it is that the lodges work silently and effectually for the propagation and application of "unsectarian" Masonic principles in human society and life. [181]但是,真正的就是这条旅馆工作的传播和“unsectarian”在人类社会生活的共济会的原则和程序默默而有效。The Masonic magazines abound in passages to this effect.共济会杂志比比皆是,在这方面的通道。Thus Bro.因此弟兄。Richardson of Tennessee avers: "Freemasonry does its work silently, but it is the work of a deep river, that silently pushes on towards the ocean, etc."美国田纳西州理查森断言:“共济会默默地做其工作,但它是一个深河工作,即对上默默推动海洋,等等。”[182] "The abandonment of old themes and the formation of new ones", explained Grand High Priest, JW Taylor (Georgia),[182]“旧的主题和形成的新的遗弃”,解释大大祭司,JW泰勒(格鲁吉亚),

"do not always arise from the immediately perceptible cause which the world assigns, but are the culmination of principles which have been working in the minds of men for many years, until at last the proper time and propitious surroundings kindle the latent truth into life, and, as the light of reason flows from mind to mind and the unity of purpose from heart to heart, enthusing all with a mighty common cause and moving nations as one man to the accomplishment of great ends. On this principle does the Institution of Freemasonry diffuse its influence to the world of mankind. It works quietly and secretly, but penetrates through all the interstices of society in its many relations, and the recipients of its many favors are awed by its grand achievements, but cannot tell whence it came". “不要总是源于立即感觉到这导致世界分配,但其中的原则一直在人们的心目中多年,直到最后在适当的时间和有利的环境点燃生命潜伏到的真理,高潮并且,作为理性的流量的头脑和心灵的目的从心连心的团结与强大enthusing共同的事业和移动所有国家作为一个人的伟大成就两端,光在这一原则,是否学会了共济会扩散其影响力,为人类的世界。它的工作原理悄悄秘密,而是通过所有的社会间隙渗透在它的许多关系,它的许多赞成者是其宏伟的成就感到敬畏,但不能告诉何处它来了。“ [183][183]

The "Voice" (Chicago) writes: "Never before in the history of ages has Freemasonry occupied so important a position, as at the present time. Never was its influence so marked, its membership so extensive, its teaching so revered." “声音”(芝加哥)写道:“以前从未在历史上共济会的年龄占领截至目前如此重要的地位,绝不是其影响力,使标志,其成员如此广泛,它的教学,使尊敬。” "There are more Masons outside the great Brotherhood than within it."“还有比在外面更是伟大的兄弟泥瓦匠。”Through its "pure morality" with which pure Freemasonry is synonomous, it "influences society, and, unperceived, sows the seed that brings forth fruit in wholesome laws and righteous enactments. It upholds the right, relieves the distressed, defends the weak and raises the fallen (of course, all understood in the masonic sense above explained). So, silently but surely and continually, it builds into the great fabric of human society".通过它的“纯道德”的,纯粹的共济会的代名词,但“影响社会,而且,unperceived,母猪的种子,结出的卫生法律和正义的成文法水果,它坚持正确的,解除苦恼,守弱,并引发倒下的(当然,所有上述解释共济会的意义上理解),所以,默默地​​,但肯定不断,它为人类社会的巨大结构的基础“。 [184][184]

The real force of Freemasonry in its outer work is indeed, that there are more Masons and oftentimes better qualified for the performance of Masonic work, outside the brotherhood than within it.该共济会在其外部工作确实是真正的力量,有更多更好的泥瓦匠和时常资格的共济会的工作表现比在它外面的兄弟情谊。Freemasonry itself in Europe and in America founds societies and institutions of similar form and scope for all classes of society and infuses into them its spirit.共济会在欧洲和美国创立的社会和类似的形式,为社会各阶层的范围和机构本身注入到他们的精神。Thus according to Gould [185] Freemasonry since about 1750 "has exercised a remarkable influence over all other oath-bound societies".因此,根据古尔德[185]关于1750年以来共济会“行使其他一切宣誓约束社会的一个了不起的影响”。The same is stated by Bro.同样是上述表示弟兄。L. Blanc, Deschamps, etc. for Germany and other countries.L.布兰克,德尚,德国和其他国家等。In the United States, according to the "Cyclopedia of Fraternities", there exist more than 600 secret societies, working more or less under the veil of forms patterned on Masonic symbolism and for the larger part notably influenced by Freemasonry, so that every third male adult in the United States is a member of one or more of such secret societies.在美国,根据“的联谊会Cyclopedia”,存在着600多个秘密社团,工作下,对共济会的象征意义和较大的部分主要是由共济会影响图案的形式或多或少的面纱,让每一位男性的第三在美国成年人是由一个或更多的这些秘密社团的成员。 "Freemasonry", says the "Cyclopedia", pv, "of course, is shown to be the mother-Fraternity in fact as well as in name."“共济”,说“Cyclopedia”,PV,“当然,被证明是事实,也是在名义上的母亲,友爱。”"Few who are well informed on the subject, will deny that the masonic Fraternity is directly or indirectly the parent organization of all modern secret societies, good, bad and indifferent". “谁是好几个关于这个问题的通报,会否认,共济会联谊会是直接或间接的所有现代秘密社会,良,差和上级组织无动于衷”。[186][186]

Many Anglo-American Freemasons are wont to protest strongly against all charges accusing Freemasonry of interfering with political or religious affairs or of hostility to the Church or disloyalty to the public authorities.许多英美济是惯于抗议所有指控与政治或宗教事务的干涉或敌意济教会或不忠向公共当局指控强烈。They even praise Freemasonry as "one of the strongest bulwarks of religions" [187] "the handmaid of religion" [188] and the "handmaid of the church".他们甚至称赞为“宗教最强的堡垒之一”共济会[187]“宗教的婢女”[188]和“教会的婢女”。[189] "There is nothing in the nature of the Society", says the "Royal Craftsman", New York, "that necessitates the renunciation of a single sentence of any creed, the discontinuance of any religious customs or the obliteration of a dogma of belief. No one is asked to deny the Bible, to change his Church relations or to be less attentive to the teaching of his spiritual instructors and counsellors". [189]“目前在社会性质没有”,说“皇家工匠”,纽约“,即就必须对任何信仰,任何宗教习俗中止或教条闭塞单句放弃信仰,没有人问否认圣经,改变他的教会关系或不那么细心的他的精神导师和辅导员“教学。 [190] "Masonry indeed contains the pith of Christianity".[190]“砌体确实包含了基督教的精髓”。[191] "It is a great mistake to suppose it an enemy of the Church."[191]“这是一个极大的错误的假设是一个教会的敌人。”"It does not offer itself as a substitute of that divinely ordained institution." “它不提供作为该机构取代神灵保佑自己。”"It offers itself as an adjunct, as an ally, as a helper in the great work of the regeneration of the race, of the uplifting of man".“它提供作为辅助手段本身,作为盟友,作为一个在比赛的再生伟大工作的人振奋,帮手”。[192] Hence, "we deny the right of the Romish Church to exclude from its communion those of its flock who have assumed the responsibility of the Order of Freemasonry". [192]因此,“我们否认Romish教会有权排除其共融其羊群那些谁也承担了共济秩序的责任”。[193][193]

Though such protestations seem to be sincere and to reveal even a praiseworthy desire in their authors not to conflict with religion and the Church, they are contradicted by notorious facts.虽然这样的抗议似乎是真诚的,并揭示其作者甚至不值得称道的欲望与宗教和教会的冲突,他们是矛盾的臭名昭著的事实。Certainly Freemasonry and "Christian" or "Catholic" religion are not opposed to each other, when Masons, some erroneously and others hypocritically understand "Christian" or "Catholic" in the above described Masonic sense, or when Masonry itself is mistakenly conceived as an orthodox Christian institution.当然济和“基督教”或“天主教”宗教并不反对对方,当泥瓦匠,一些错误的理解和别人假惺惺“基督教”或“天主教”在上面所述的共济会的意义,或当砌体本身就是错误地作为一个设想正统的基督教机构。 But between "Masonry" and "Christian" or "Catholic" religion, conceived as they really are: between "unsectarian" Freemasonry and "dogmatic, orthodox" Christianity or Catholicism, there is a radical opposition.但与“砌体”和“基督教”或“天主教”宗教,视为他们真的是:在“unsectarian”共济会和“教条式的,正统的”基督教或天主教,有一个激进的反对。 It is vain to say: though Masonry is officially "unsectarian", it does not prevent individual Masons from being "sectarian" in their non-Masonic relations; for in its official "unsectarianism" Freemasonry necessarily combats all that Christianity contains beyond the "universal religion in which all men agree", consequently all that is characteristic of the Christian and Catholic religion.这是徒劳地说:虽然砌体正式“unsectarian”,它不会阻止在他们的非共济会的关系“宗派主义”个人泥瓦匠,在其官方的“unsectarianism”共济会一定战斗所有基督教超越了“普遍含有宗教在其中所有的人同意“,因此所有的基督教和天主教的宗教特点。 These characteristic features Freemasonry combats not only as superfluous and merely subjective, but also as spurious additions disfiguring the objective universal truth, which it professes.这些特色功能不仅是多余的,只是主观的,但也被毁容的客观普遍真理,它自称虚假补充济作战。To ignore Christ and Christianity, is practically to reject them as unessential framework.要忽略基督和基督教,实际上是拒绝为非本质的框架。

But Freemasonry goes farther and attacks Catholicism openly.但济越走越远,攻击天主教公开。The "Voice" (Chicago), for instance, in an article which begins: "There is nothing in the Catholic religion which is adverse to Masonry", continues, “声音”(芝加哥),例如,在一篇文章的开头:“有是在天主教的宗教是没有什么不利的砌体”,继续,

for the truth is, that masonry embodies that religion in which all men agree.为真理就是,砌体体现,宗教,其中所有的人同意。This is as true as that all veritable religion, wherever found, is in substance the same.这是因为所有真正的宗教,只要发现,实质上也是如此。Neither is it in the power of any man or body of men to make it otherwise.无论是在没有任何人或男性体内的力量,使其否则它。Doctrines and forms of observance conformable to piety, imposed by spiritual overseers, may be as various as the courses of wind; and like the latter may war with each other upon the face of the whole earth, but they are not religion.教义和顺应性,以虔诚的遵守,由监督员施加精神,形式可能会像风的课程不同,而像后者可能与每个在整​​个地球上的其他战争,但他们不是宗教。 Bigotry and zeal, the assumptions of the priestcraft, with all its countless inventions to magnify and impress the world .偏执和热情,对祭司假设所有的无数发明放大和打动了世界。..are ever the mainsprings of strife, hatred and revenge, which defame and banish religion and its inseparable virtues, and work unspeakable mischief, wherever mankind are found upon the earth.是不断的冲突,仇恨和报复的主要推动力,这诋毁和放逐的宗教和不可分割的美德,工作难言的恶作剧,只要人类是在地上发现。 Popery and priestcraft are so allied, that they may be called the same; the truth being, that the former is nothing more nor less than a special case of the latter, being a particular form of a vicious principle, which itself is but the offspring of the conceit of self-sufficiency and the lust of dominion. Popery和祭司是如此结盟,他们可以被称为是相同的;事实是,前者无非是或少于后者的特殊情况,是一个恶性原则的特殊形式,其本身不过是后代在自给自足的和统治欲望自负。 Nothing which can be named, is more repugnant to the spirit of masonry, nothing to be more carefully guarded against, and this has been always well understood by all skillful masters, and it must in truth be said, that such is the wisdom of the lessons, ie of masonic instruction in Lodges, etc. [194]没有什么可以被命名,更可恶的砖石,没有什么可更仔细地防范,这一直都是深受所有娴熟的主人翁精神的理解,而且必须在真理说,这些是智慧教训,在小屋共济会的指令,即等[194]

In similar discussions, containing in almost every word a hidden or open attack on Christianity, the truly Masonic magazines and books of all countries abound.在类似的讨论,几乎每一个字载有关于基督教,真正的共济会的杂志和书籍的所有国家或打开隐藏攻击比比皆是。Past Grand Deacon JC Parkinson, an illustrious English Mason, frankly avows: "The two systems of Romanism and Freemasonry are not only incompatible, but they are radically opposed to each other" [195] and American Masons say: "We won't make a man a Freemason, until we know that he isn't a Catholic."过去的大执事JC帕金森,一个杰出的英文梅森,坦率地说avows:“对Romanism和共济这两个系统不仅是不相容的,但他们根本反对对方”[195]和美国的梅森说:“我们不会让一个男人共济会,直到我们知道他是不是天主教徒。“ [196][196]

With respect to loyalty towards "lawful government" American Masons pretend that "everywhere Freemasons, individually and collectively, are loyal and active supporters of republican or constitutional governments".关于对“合法政府”忠诚的美国共济会假装“无处不在共济会,个人和集体,是共和党或宪法政府的忠诚和积极的支持者”。 [197] "Our principles are all republican".[197]“我们的原则是所有共和”。[198] "Fidelity and Loyalty, and peace and order, and subordination to lawful authorities are household gods of Freemasonry" [199] and English Freemasons declare, that, "the loyalty of English Masons is proverbial". [198]“富达和忠诚,和平和秩序,服从合法当局共济家神”[199]和英文济声明,即“忠诚的英语梅森是众所周知的”。[200] These protestations of English and American Freemasons in general may be deemed sincere, as far as their own countries and actual governments are concerned. [200]在普通英语和美国共济会,这些抗议可能被视为真诚的,据他们自己的国家和政府都关心的实际。Not even the revolutionary Grand Orient of France thinks of overthrowing the actual political order in France, which is in entire conformity with its wishes.甚至不是革命大东方的法国认为推翻在法国,这与它的愿望是符合实际的整个政治秩序。The question is, whether Freemasons respect a lawful Government in their own and other countries, when it is not inspired by Masonic principles.问题是,是否尊重自己的共济会和其他国家的合法政府,当它不是由共济会的原则启发。In this respect both English and American Freemasons, by their principles and conduct, provoke the condemnatory verdict of enlightened and impartial public opinion.在这方面,英语和美国共济会,由他们的原则和行为,激起了开明和公正的舆论谴责的裁决。We have already above hinted at the whimsical Article II of the "Old Charges", calculated to encourage rebellion against Governments which are not according to the wishes of Freemasonry.我们已经在上面暗示的异想天开的第二条“老费”计算,以鼓励对政府是没有根据的共济会的意愿叛乱。The "Freemason's Chronicle" but faithfully expresses the sentiments of Anglo-American Freemasonry, when it writes:而“洪门的纪事”,而是忠实地表达了英美共济会的情绪,当它写道:

If we were to assert that under no circumstances had a Mason been found willing to take arms against a bad government, we should only be declaring that, in trying moments, when duty, in the masonic sense, to state means antagonism to the Government, they had failed in the highest and most sacred duty of a citizen.如果我们断言,在任何情况下发现了梅森愿意采取一个坏政府的武器,我们只应声明的是,在尝试的时刻,当责任,在共济会的意义上说,国家的手段对抗政府,他们没有在一个公民的最高和最神圣的职责。 Rebellion in some cases is a sacred duty, and none, but a bigot or a fool, will say, that our countrymen were in the wrong, when they took arms against King James II.在某些情况下,起义是一个神圣的职责,并没有,而是偏执或一个傻瓜,会说,我们的同胞是在错误的,当他们把反对国王詹姆斯二世武器。 Loyalty to freedom in a case of this kind overrides all other considerations, and when to rebel means to be free or to perish, it would be idle to urge that a man must remember obligations which were never intended to rob him of his status of a human being and a citizen.忠诚在这种情况下自由凌驾于所有其他的考虑,当叛乱意味着要免费或灭亡,这将是闲置,敦促男人必须记住这是从来没有打算抢劫他的状态他的义务人类和公民。 [201][201]

Such language would equally suit every anarchistic movement.这种语言将同样适合各种无政府主义运动。 The utterances quoted were made in defence of plotting Spanish Masons.引述的话语是在策划西班牙泥瓦匠辩护。Only a page further the same English Masonic magazine writes: "Assuredly Italian Masonry, which has rendered such invaluable service in the regeneration of that magnificent country", "is worthy of the highest praise".只有进一步相同的英文页面共济会杂志写道:“无疑意大利砌体,这已使这种在该国的宏伟再生的宝贵服务”,“是值得的最高赞誉。” [202] "A Freemason, moved by lofty principles", says the "Voice" (Chicago), "may rightly strike a blow at tyranny and may consort with others to bring about needed relief, in ways that are not ordinarily justifiable. History affords numerous instances of acts which have been justified by subsequent events, and none of us, whether Masons or not, are inclined to condemn the plots hatched between Paul Revere, Dr. J. Warren and others, in the old Green Dragon Tavern, the headquarters of Colonial Freemasonry in New England, because these plots were inspired by lofty purpose and the result not only justified them, but crowned these heroes with glory". [202]“一个洪门,感动了崇高的原则”,说的“声音”(芝加哥),“可能正确地打击暴政的打击,并可能与其他人的配偶带来需要救济的​​方式,并非通常合理的,历史这里不但有被随后发生的事件,而我们没有,不管是泥瓦匠与否,都倾向于谴责保罗之间的尊敬,J.沃伦博士和其他孵化的田块在老绿龙酒馆的,合理的行为,许多情况在新英格兰殖民地的共济会总部,因为这些地块被启发了崇高的目的和结果,不仅证明他们,但这些英雄的荣耀冠冕“。 [203] "No Freemason" said Right Rev. HC Potter on the centenary of the Grand Chapter of Royal Arch, New York, "may honourably bend the knee to any foreign potentate (not even to King Edward VII of England) civil or ecclesiastical (the Pope) or yield allegiance to any alien sovereignty, temporal or spiritual". [203]“没有共济会”上说的皇家建筑,纽约,大章百年右牧师HC哈利波特“可能体面膝关节弯曲任何外国君主(不连英国国王爱德华七世)的民事或教会(教皇)或产量效忠于任何外来的主权,时间或精神“。 [204] From this utterance it is evident that according to Potter no Catholic can be a Mason. [204]从这个话语很明显,根据波特没有天主教可以是一个梅森。In conformity with these principles American and English Freemasons supported the leaders of the revolutionary movement on the European continent.根据这些原则符合美国和英国共济会支持欧洲大陆上的革命运动的领导人。Kossuth, who "had been leader in the rebellion against Austrian tyranny", was enthusiastically received by American Masons, solemnly initiated into Freemasonry at Cincinnati, 21 April, 1852, and presented with a generous gift as a proof "that on the altar of St. John's Lodge the fire of love burnt so brightly, as to flash its light even into the deep recesses and mountain fastnesses of Hungary".科苏特,谁“一直在反对奥地利暴政的起义领袖”,是作为一个证明热烈欢迎“的郑重发起成济在辛辛那提,1852年4月21日,与美国提出的一份厚礼泥瓦匠,那祭坛上的圣约翰的旅馆发生火灾烧毁的爱如此明亮,以闪光灯连成深处和匈牙利山区牢度其轻“。 [205] Garibaldi, "the greatest freemason of Italy" [206] and Mazzini were also encouraged by Anglo-American Freemasons in their revolutionary enterprises. [205]加里波第“的意大利最大的洪门”[206]和马志尼也鼓励企业在其革命性的英美济。[207] "The consistent Mason", says the "Voice" (Chicago), "will never be found engaged in conspiracies or plots for the purpose of overturning and subverting a government, based upon the masonic principles of liberty and equal rights". [207]“的一贯梅森”说,“声音”(芝加哥),“永远不会被发现,或为阴谋推翻和颠覆政府的目的后,自由的共济会的原则和平等权利为基础,从事阴谋”。 [208] "But" declares Pike, "with tongue and pen, with all our open and secret influences, with the purse, and if need be, with the sword, we will advance the cause of human progress and labour to enfranchise human thought, to give freedom to the human conscience (above all from papal 'usurpations') and equal rights to the people everywhere. Wherever a nation struggles to gain or regain its freedom, wherever the human mind asserts its independence and the people demand their inalienable rights, there shall go our warmest sympathies". [208]“但是,”派克宣布,“用舌和笔,与我们所有的公开和秘密的影响,与钱包,如果需要的话用剑,我们将推动人类进步和劳动事业enfranchise人类思想,给予自由的人的良知(以上由罗马教皇的“强取豪夺”所有),并到各地人民的平等权利。只要一个民族的斗争获得或恢复其自由,只要人的心灵声称其独立和人民要求他们的不可剥夺的权利时,应当走我们最热烈的同情“。 [209][209]

VIII.第八。ACTION OF STATE AND CHURCH AUTHORITIES行动的国家和教会当局

Curiously enough, the first sovereign to join and protect Freemasonry was the Catholic German Emperor Francis I, the founder of the actually reigning line of Austria, while the first measures against Freemasonry were taken by Protestant Governments: Holland, 1735; Sweden and Geneva, 1738; Zurich, 1740; Berne, 1745.奇怪的是,第一个加入主权和保护共济会是天主教德国皇帝弗朗西斯我,奥地利实际在位线的创始人,而对共济会的第一个措施是由新教各国政府采取:荷兰,1735,瑞典和日内瓦,1738 ;苏黎世,1740;伯尔尼,1745。In Spain, Portugal and Italy, measures against Masonry were taken after 1738.在西班牙,葡萄牙和意大利,对砌体措施采取后,1738。 In Bavaria Freemasonry was prohibited 1784 and 1785; in Austria, 1795; in Baden 1813; in Russia, 1822.在巴伐利亚州共济会是被禁止的1784和1785年,在奥地利,1795年,在巴登1813,在俄罗斯,1822年。Since 1847 it has been tolerated in Baden, since 1850 in Bavaria, since 1868 in Hungary and Spain.自1847年一直在巴登容忍,因为在巴伐利亚1850年,因为在匈牙利和西班牙1868。In Austria Freemasonry is still prohibited because as the Superior Court of Administration, 23 January, 1905, rightly declared, a Masonic association, even though established in accordance with law, "would be a member of a large (international) organization (in reality ruled by the 'Old Charges', etc. according to general Masonic principles and aims), the true regulations of which would be kept secret from the civil authorities, so that the activity of the members could not be controlled".在奥地利共济会仍然是禁止的,因为作为政府,1905年1月23日,高级法院正确地宣布,一个共济会协会,即使在依法设立的,“将是一个大(国际)组织的成员(在现实中排除由“老费”等共济会根据一般原则和目标),其中将不断从民间当局的秘密,使各成员的活动无法真正控制条例“。 [210] It is indeed to be presumed that Austro-Hungarian Masons, whatever statutes they might present to the Austrian Government in order to secure their authorization would in fact continue to regard the French Grand Orient as their true pattern, and the Brothers Kossuth, Garibaldi, and Mazzini as the heroes, whom they would strive to imitate. [210],实在是被推定的奥匈牙利泥瓦匠,无论法规它们可能带来的奥地利政府,以争取他们的授权实际上将继续视自己真正的东方模式的法国大奖赛,和兄弟科苏特,加里波第和马志尼的英雄,他们会努力去模仿。 The Prussian edict of 1798 interdicted Freemasonry in general, excepting the three old Prussian Grand Lodges which the protectorate subjected to severe control by the Government.在1798年普鲁士一般停职济诏书,除三个老普鲁士大其中保护地受到政府严厉控制小屋。This edict, though juridically abrogated by the edict of 6 April, 1848, practically, according to a decision of the Supreme Court of 22 April, 1893, by an erroneous interpretation of the organs of administration, remained in force till 1893.这诏书,虽然法律上废除由1848年4月6日,几乎诏书,根据一项对22个最高法院的裁决四月,1893年,由一个行政机关错误的解释,仍然有效,直到1893年。 Similarly, in England an Act of Parliament was passed on 12 July, 1798 for the "more effectual suppression of societies established for seditions and treasonable purposes and for preventing treasonable and seditious practices".同样,在英国议会的一项法案通过的1798年7月12日为“更行之有效的seditions和叛逆性的目的而设立的社会抑制和防止叛国和煽动行为”。 By this Act Masonic associations and meetings in general were interdicted, and only the lodges existing on 12 July, 1798, and ruled according to the old regulations of the Masonry of the kingdom were tolerated, on condition that two representatives of the lodge should make oath before the magistrates, that the lodge existed and was ruled as the Act enjoined.根据该法共济协会和一般会议,停职,只有旅馆于1798年7月12日现有的,并裁定根据王国砌体旧规例容忍,条件是两位代表提出要宣誓裁判前,即提出存在,被裁定为责成法。 [211] During the period 1827-34, measures were taken against Freemasonry in some of the United States of America.[211]在1827年至1834年期间,已采取措施对共济会在美国的一些。As to European countries it may be stated, that all those Governments, which had not originated in the revolutionary movement, strove to protect themselves against Masonic secret societies.至于欧洲国家可能会说,所有这些国家的政府,它没有在革命运动起源,努力防止共济会的秘密社会本身。

The action of the Church is summed up in the papal pronouncements against Freemasonry since 1738, the most important of which are:教会的行动是在总结了罗马教皇的言论对共济会以来1738年,其中最重要的是:

Clement XII, Constitution "In Eminenti", 28 April, 1738; Benedict XIV, "Providas", 18 May, 1751; Pius VII, "Ecclesiam", 13 September, 1821; Leo XII, "Quo graviora", 13 March, 1825; Pius VIII, Encyclical "Traditi", 21 May, 1829; Gregory XVI, "Mirari", 15 August, 1832; Pius IX, Encyclical "Qui pluribus", 9 November, 1846; Pius IX, Allocution "Quibus quantisque malis", 20 April, 1849; Pius IX, Encyclical "Quanta cura", 8 December, 1864; Pius IX, Allocution "Multiplices inter", 25 September, 1865; Pius IX, Constitution "Apostolicæ Sedis", 12 October, 1869; Pius IX, Encyclical "Etsi multa", 21 November, 1873; Leo XIII, Encyclical "Humanum genus", 20 April, 1884; Leo XIII, "Præclara", 20 June, 1894; Leo XIII, "Annum ingressi", 18 March, 1902 (against Italian Freemasonry); Leo XIII, Encyclical "Etsí nos", 15 February, 1882; Leo XIII, "Ab Apostolici", 15 October, 1890.克莱门特第十二宪法“在Eminenti”,1738年4月28日,本笃十四,“Providas”,1751年5月18日,碧岳七,“Ecclesiam”,1821年9月13日,狮子座十二,“利国graviora”,1825年3月13日;比约八,通谕“Traditi”,1829年5月21日;高利十六世,“Mirari”,1832年8月15日,碧岳九,通谕“魁pluribus”,1846年11月9日,庇护九世,训示“Quibus quantisque马里” 1849年4月20日,碧岳九,通谕“广达城联盟”,1864年12月8日,碧岳九,训示“Multiplices间”,1865年9月25日,碧岳九,宪法“Apostolicæ Sedis”,1869年10月12日,碧岳九,通谕“ETSI multa”,1873年11月21日,利奥十三世通谕“Humanum属”,1884年4月20日,利奥十三世,“Præclara”,1894年6月20日,利奥十三世,“每年ingressi”,1902年3月18号(对意大利的共济会);利奥十三世,通谕“ETSI不”,1882年2月15日,利奥十三世,“AB Apostolici”,1890年10月15号。

These pontifical utterances from first to last are in complete accord, the latter reiterating the earlier with such developments as were called for by the growth of Freemasonry and other secret societies.从第一个到最后,这些教皇的言论是完全一致,后者重申与这种发展较早的被称为由共济会和其他秘密会社增长。Clement XII accurately indicates the principal reasons why Masonic associations from the Catholic, Christian, moral, political, and social points of view, should be condemned.克莱门特十二准确地表明为什么从天主教,基督教,道德,政治和社会观点共济会的组织,应该受到谴责的主要原因。 These reasons are:这些原因包括:

The peculiar, "unsectarian" (in truth, anti-Catholic and anti-Christian) naturalistic character of Freemasonry, by which theoretically and practically it undermines the Catholic and Christian faith, first in its members and through them in the rest of society, creating religious indifferentism and contempt for orthodoxy and ecclesiastical authority.奇特的“unsectarian”(说实话,反天主教和反基督教)自然主义的共济性质,其中理论和实践它破坏了天主教和基督教的信仰,首先在它的成员,并通过他们在社会的休息,创造宗教indifferentism和蔑视正统和教会的权威。

The inscrutable secrecy and fallacious ever-changing disguise of the Masonic association and of its "work", by which "men of this sort break as thieves into the house and like foxes endeavour to root up the vineyard", "perverting the hearts of the simple", ruining their spiritual and temporal welfare.高深莫测的秘密和荒谬的不断变化的共济会协会和它的“工作”,其中“这类打破男子为进了屋,像狐狸盗贼努力铲除葡萄园”伪装“,贪赃枉法的心中简单“,破坏他们的精神和时间的福利。 The oaths of secrecy and of fidelity to Masonry and Masonic work, which cannot be justified in their scope, their object, or their form, and cannot, therefore, induce any obligation.对砌体和共济会的工作,这是没有道理在他们的范围,他们的对象,或他们的形式,并不能因此,诱使任何义务宣誓保密和忠诚。 The oaths are condemnable, because the scope and object of Masonry are "wicked" and condemnable, and the candidate in most cases is ignorant of the import or extent of the obligation which he takes upon himself.宣誓是受到谴责,因为范围和砌体对象在大多数情况下“邪恶”和谴责,而候选人的进口或义务,他在自己身上发生的程度一无所知。 Moreover the ritualistic and doctrinal "secrets" which are the principal object of the obligation, according to the highest Masonic authorities, are either trifles or no longer exist.此外,该仪式和教义“秘密”,这是义务的主要对象,根据共济会的最高当局,要么扯皮或不再存在。[212] In either case the oath is a condemnable abuse.[212]在这两种情况下,宣誓是一种应受谴责的滥用。Even the Masonic modes of recognition, which are represented as the principal and only essential "secret" of Masonry, are published in many printed books.即使是识别共济会的模式,这是作为主要和唯一必要的“秘密”为代表的砌体,刊登在许多印刷书籍。Hence the real "secrets" of Masonry, if such there be, could only be political or anti-religious conspiracies like the plots of the Grand Lodges in Latin countries.因此,真正的“秘密”的砌体,如果有这样的,只能是像拉丁美洲国家的大小屋情节政治或反宗教的阴谋。But such secrets, condemned, at least theoretically, by Anglo-American Masons themselves, would render the oath or obligation only the more immoral and therefore null and void.但这样的秘密,谴责,至少在理论上由英美梅森自己,就会使宣誓或义务只有更不道德的,因而是无效的。Thus in every respect the Masonic oaths are not only sacrilegious but also an abuse contrary to public order which requires that solemn oaths and obligations as the principal means to maintain veracity and faithfulness in the State and in human society, should not be vilified or caricatured.因此,在各方面的共济会的宣誓,不仅亵渎而且还滥用违反公共秩序这就要求庄严宣誓和义务的主要手段,以保持准确性和在国家和人类社会的忠诚,不应该贬低或讽刺。 In Masonry the oath is further degraded by its form which includes the most atrocious penalties, for the "violation of obligations" which do not even exist; a "violation" which, in truth may be and in many cases is an imperative duty.在砌体的誓言是进一步形成,其中包括其最残暴的处罚,对于“违反义务”,这甚至不存在退化,一个“侵犯”的,说实话可能会在很多情况下是必要的义务。

The danger which such societies involve for the security and "tranquility of the State" and for "the spiritual health of souls", and consequently their incompatibility with civil and canonical law.危险的这种社会的安全和“国家安宁”和“灵魂的精神健康”,因此他们的公民和不兼容涉及的法律规范。For even admitting that some Masonic associations pursued for themselves no purposes contrary to religion and to public order, they would be nevertheless contrary to public order, because by their very existence as secret societies based on the Masonic principles, they encourage and promote the foundation of other really dangerous secret societies and render difficult, if not impossible, efficacious action of the civil and ecclesiastical authorities against them.因为即使承认一些共济会协会没有为自己追求的目的,违背宗教和公共秩序,但他们会违反公共秩序,因为他们作为共济会的原则基础上的秘密会社的存在,他们鼓励和推动基础其他非常危险和秘密社团呈现困难,如果不是不可能的,民间和教会当局对他们有效的行动。 Of the other papal edicts only some characteristic utterances need be mentioned.其他教皇的法令只有一些特征话语需要被提及。 Benedict XIV appeals more urgently to Catholic princes and civil powers to obtain their assistance in the struggle against Freemasonry.本笃十四呼吁更加迫切天主教王子和民事权力,以获得在对济斗争的援助。Pius VII condemns the secret society of the Carbonari which, if not an offshoot, is "certainly an imitation of the Masonic society" and, as such, already comprised in the condemnation issued against it.比约七谴责的,如果不是一个分支,是“肯定是社会的共济会模仿”,因此,它已经对发出的谴责包括Carbonari秘密社会。 Leo XII deplores the fact, that the civil powers had not heeded the earlier papal decrees, and in consequence out of the old Masonic societies even more dangerous sects had sprung.利奥十二遗憾的是,该民事权力没有理会早期教皇的法令,以及更危险的教派如雨后春笋般涌现了旧社会的共济会的结果出来。 Among them the "Universitarian" is mentioned as most pernicious.其中的“Universitarian”中提到的最有害的。"It is to be deemed certain", says the pope, "that these secret societies are linked together by the bond of the same criminal purposes."“这是被视为某种”说,教皇“,这些秘密社团有联系的同一犯罪目的的债券在一起。”Gregory XVI similarly declares that the calamities of the age were due principally to the conspiracy of secret societies, and like Leo XII, deplores the religious indifferentism and the false ideas of tolerance propagated by secret societies.格雷戈里十六同样宣布这个时代的灾难是由于主要的秘密会社的阴谋,而像狮子座十二,遗憾的宗教indifferentism和容忍虚假的思想传播的秘密社团。 Pius IX [213] characterizes Freemasonry as an insidious, fraudulent and perverse organization injurious both to religion and to society; and condemns anew "this Masonic and other similar societies, which differing only in appearance coalesce constantly and openly or secretly plot against the Church or lawful authority".庇护九世[213]特征作为一个阴险,欺诈和不正当的损害既宗教组织和社会共济,并再次谴责“这个共济会和其他类似的社会,它在外观上唯一不同的合并不断,公开或秘密情节或对教会合法权力“。 Leo XIII (1884) says: "There are various sects, which although differing in name, rite, form, and origin, are nevertheless so united by community of purposes and by similarity of their main principles as to be really one with the Masonic sect, which is a kind of centre, whence they all proceed and whither they all return."利奥十三世(1884)说:“有各种教派,这虽然在名称不同,仪式,形式和来源,都不过这样的目的社会和他们的主要原则的相似性团结是真正的共济会的教派one ,这是一个中心,从那里出发和实物都往那他们都回来。“The ultimate purpose of Freemasonry is "the overthrow of the whole religious, political, and social order based on Christian institutions and the establishment of a new state of things according to their own ideas and based in its principles and laws on pure Naturalism."该共济会的最终目的是“整个宗教,政治和社会的基督教机构和对事物按照自己的想法,并在其纯粹的自然主义原则和法律为基础的新国家的建立基础秩序被推翻。”

In view of these several reasons Catholics since 1738 are, under penalty of excommunication, incurred ipso facto, and reserved to the pope, strictly forbidden to enter or promote in any way Masonic societies.在这些天主教徒几个原因,因为1738顷,根据逐出教会的惩罚,招致事实本身,并保留向教宗,严禁进入或以任何方式促进社会的共济会。 The law now in force [214] pronounces excommunication upon "those who enter Masonic or Carbonarian or other sects of the same kind, which, openly or secretly, plot against the Church or lawful authority and those who in any way favour these sects or do not denounce their leaders and principal members."该法已生效[214]发音时“谁进入同类共济会或Carbonarian或其他教派,而被逐出教会,公开或秘密,对教会或合法授权的情节和那些谁以任何方式支持这些教派或做不谴责其领导人和主要成员。“ Under this head mention must also be made of the "Practical Instruction of the Congregation of the Inquisition, 7 May, 1884 [215] and of the decrees of the Provincial Councils of Baltimore, 1840; New Orleans, 1856; Quebec, 1851, 1868; of the first Council of the English Colonies, 1854; and particularly of the Plenary Councils of Baltimore, 1866 and 1884. [216] These documents refer mainly to the application of the papal decrees according to the peculiar condition of the respective ecclesiastical provinces. The Third Council of Baltimore, n. 254 sq., states the method of ascertaining whether or not a society is to be regarded as comprised in the papal condemnation of Freemasonry. It reserves the final decision thereon to a commission consisting of all the archbishops of the ecclesiastical provinces represented in the council, and, if they cannot reach a unanimous conclusion, refers to the Holy See.在这头还必须提到的“对宗教裁判所,1884年5月7日毕业典礼实践教学[215]和对巴尔的摩,1840年省议会法令;新奥尔良,1856;魁北克省,1851年,1868年;对英国殖民地,1854年第一届理事会;特别的巴尔的摩,1866年和1884年议会全体会议[216]这些文件主要是指对罗马教皇的法令,根据各自的教会各省特殊条件的应用。在巴尔的摩,北254平方米,第三委员会成员国,以确定是否一个社会要被视为教皇谴责的共济会组成方法,它保留最终决定一个委员会就此向所有大主教的组成教会各省代表在安理会,而且,如果他们不能达成一致的结论,指的是罗马教廷。

These papal edicts and censures against Freemasonry have often been the occasion of erroneous and unjust charges.这些罗马教皇的法令,并谴责对济常常被错误的和不公正的指控之际。The excommunication was interpreted as an "imprecation" that cursed all Freemasons and doomed them to perdition.该逐出教会被解释为“诅咒”的诅咒所有济,注定他们灭亡。In truth an excommunication is simply an ecclesiastical penalty, by which members of the Church should be deterred from acts that are criminal according to ecclesiastical law.事实上an逐出教会只是一个教会的刑罚,其中教会的成员应当从犯罪行为,是根据教会法却步。The pope and the bishops, therefore, as faithful pastors of Christ's flock, cannot but condemn Freemasonry.教皇和主教,因此,作为基督的羊群忠实的牧师,不能不谴责济。They would betray, as Clement XII stated, their most sacred duties, if they did not oppose with all their power the insidious propagation and activity of such societies in Catholic countries or with respect to Catholics in mixed and Protestant countries.他们会背叛,作为第十二克莱门特表示,他们最神圣的职责,如果他们不反对,一切权力的阴险的传播和天主教国家,社会活动或与有关国家在混合天主教徒和新教徒。 Freemasonry systematically promotes religious indifferentism and undermines true, ie, orthodox Christian and Catholic Faith and life.济系统促进宗教indifferentism和破坏的真实,即正统基督教和天主教的信仰和生活。Freemasonry is essentially Naturalism and hence opposed to all supernaturalism.济基本上是自然主义,因而反对一切超自然。 As to some particular charges of Leo XIII (1884) challenged by Freemasons, eg, the atheistical character of Freemasonry, it must be remarked, that the pope considers the activity of Masonic and similar societies as a whole, applying to it the term which designates the most of these societies and among the Masonic groups those, which push the so-called "anti-clerical", in reality irreligious and revolutionary, principles of Freemasonry logically to their ultimate consequences and thus, in truth, are, as it were, the advanced outposts and standard-bearers of the whole immense anti-Catholic and anti-papal army in the world-wide spiritual warfare of our age.至于利奥十三世的共济会,例如,字符挑战无神论的共济会(1884年)的一些特定的收费,必须指出,即教皇认为,作为一个整体共济会和类似的社会活动,运用到它的术语,指定这些社会之间的共济会的大部分群体的,这推动了所谓的“反文书”,在现实非宗教的和革命的,逻辑上的共济会的原则,以他们的最终后果,因此,说实话,是的,因为它是,先进的前哨基地和整个巨大的反天主教和反教皇在世界各地我们这个时代的精神战军标准的团体。 In this sense also the pope, in accordance with a fundamental biblical and evangelical view developed by St. Augustine in his "De civitate Dei", like the Masonic poet Carducci in his "Hymn to Satan", considers Satan as the supreme spiritual chief of this hostile army.在这个意义上说也是教皇,在一个基本圣经和福音开发的圣奥古斯丁在他的“德civitate业会”之类的共济会的诗人Carducci,在他的“赞美诗撒旦”说法,认为作为最高精神首席撒旦这种敌对的军队。 Thus Leo XIII (1884) expressly states:因此利奥十三世(1884年)明确规定:

What we say, must be understood of the Masonic sect in the universal acceptation of the term, as it comprises all kindred and associated societies, but not of their single members.我们说,一定要理解的,在这个词的普遍词义共济会教派,因为它包括所有亲属和相关的社会,但他们没有一个成员。There may be persons amongst these, and not a few, who, although not free from the guilt of having entangled themselves in such associations, yet are neither themselves partners in their criminal acts nor aware of the ultimate object which these associations are endeavouring to attain.有可能是这些人当中,而不是少数,谁,虽然没有从这些协会中有纠缠自己有罪自由,但既不是自己的合作伙伴在他们的犯罪行为,也不是最终的对象,这些协会正在努力实现认识。 Similarly some of the several bodies of the association may perhaps by no means approve of certain extreme conclusions, which they would consistently accept as necessarily following from the general principles common to all, were they not deterred by the vicious character of the conclusions.同样的该协会的一些机构的一些也许并不意味着赞同某些极端的结论,他们一定会不断接受来自于所有的一般原则下,他们没有被吓倒的恶性特征的结论。

"The Masonic federation is to be judged not so much by the acts and things it has accomplished, as by the whole of its principles and purposes."他说:“共济会联合会是要评判的行为,它已经完成了其作为原则和宗旨的整体,没有那么多的东西。”

Publication information Written by Hermann Gruber.出版信息写赫尔曼格鲁伯。Transcribed by Bobie Jo M. Bilz.转录由Bobie乔M. Bilz。Dedicated to R. Michael Steinmacher, III The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume IX.致力于R.迈克尔Steinmacher,三天主教百科全书,卷IX。Published 1910.发布1910年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, October 1, 1910. Nihil Obstat,1910年10月1日。Remy Lafort, Censor.人头马lafort,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰米farley,大主教纽约

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[25] 3, 17-39.[24]百科全书,296平方米[25] 3,17-39。 [26] Chr., 1878, I, 187, 194 sqq.[26]人权委员会。1878年,我,187,194 SQQ。[27] Mackey, "Jurisprudence", 17-39; Chr., 1878, I, 194 sqq.; 1888, I, 11).[27]麦基,“法理学”,17-39; CHR,1878年,我,194 SQQ;。1888年,我11)。[28] Fischer, I, 14 sq.; Groddeck, 1 sqq., 91 sqq.; "Handbuch", 3rd ed., II, 154.[28]菲舍尔,我,14平方米; Groddeck,1 SQQ,91 SQQ;。“手册下载”,第3版,II,154。[29] Grand Lodge Ms. No. 1, Gould, "Concise History", 236; Thorp, Ms. 1629, AQC, XI, 210; Rawlinson Ms. 1729-39 AQC, XI, 22; Hughan, "Old Charges". [29]大旅馆女士第1号,古尔德,“简明史”,236;索普女士,1629年,AQC,第十一,210;罗林森AQC女士1729年至1739年,十一,22; Hughan,“老费” 。[30] Groddeck; "Handbuch", 3rd ed., I, 466 sqq.[30] Groddeck,“手册下载”,第3版,我,466 SQQ。[31] Oliver, "Remains", I, 96; 332.[31]奥利弗,“遗迹”,我,96,332。[32] Chr., 1876, I, 113. [32]人权委员会。,1876年,我,113。[33] see also Chr., 1878, I, 180; 1884, II, 38; etc., Gould, "Conc. Hist.", 289 sq. [34] Lexicon, 42. [33]参见人权委员会,1878年,我,180; 1884年,二,38;“。浓嘘”等,古尔德,289平方米[34]词典,42。[35] Kunsturkunden, 1810, I, 525.[35] Kunsturkunden,1810年,我,525。[36] Begemann, "Vorgeschichte," II, 1910, 127 sq., 137 sq. [37] Calcott, "A Candid Disquisition, etc.", 1769; Oliver, "Remains", II, 301.[36] Begemann,“Vorgeschichte,”二,1910年,127平方米,137平方米[37] Calcott,“坦率Disquisition等”,1769,奥利弗,“遗迹”,第二章,301。[38] Gould, "History", II, 400. [38]古尔德,“历史”,第二章,400。[39] Calcott; Oliver, ibid., II, 301-303.[39] Calcott;奥利弗,同上,二,301-303。[40] "Sign.", 1904, 45 sq., 54; Gruber (5), 49 sqq.; Idem (4), 23 sq. [41] Findel, "Die Schule der Hierarchie, etc.", 1870, 15 sqq.; Schiffmann, "Die Entstehung der Rittergrade", 1882, 85, 92, 95 sq. [42] Bulletin du Grand Orient de France, 1877, 236-50. [40]“的标志。”,1904年,45平方米,54;格鲁伯(5),49 SQQ;同上(4),23平方米[41]芬德尔,“模具学派DER Hierarchie等”,1870年, 15 SQQ; Schiffmann,“模具Entstehung DER Rittergrade”,1882,85,92,95平方米[42]通报杜大东方法国,1877年,236-50。[43] "Intern. Bull.", Berne, 1908, No. 2.[43]“实习生。公牛”,伯尔尼,1908年第2期。[44] Chr., 1878, I, 161. [44]人权委员会。1878年,我,161。[45] 3rd ed., II, 231. [45]第3版,二,231。[46] Chr., 1890, I, 243.[46]人权委员会。,1890年,我,243。[47] Acacia, 1907, I, 48. [47]相思,1907年,我48。[48] Sign., 1907, 133 sq. [49] Sign., 1905, 54.[48]​​号。,1907年,133平方米[49]号。,1905年,54。[50] Chr., 1878, I, 134. [50]人权委员会。1878年,我,134。[51] Morals and Dogma, 643 sqq. [51]道德与教条,643 SQQ。[52] 3rd ed., II, 200. [52]第3版,二,200元。[53] Sign., 1905, 27.[53]号。1905年,27。[54] Rivista, 1909, 44.[54] Rivista,1909年,44。[55] Gould, "History", II, 284 sq. [56] Concise History, 309.[55]古尔德,“历史”,第二章,284平方米[56]简明历史,309。[57] AQC, X, 127 sqq.; XI, 47 sqq.; XVI, 27 sqq.[57] AQC,X,127 SQQ;十一,47 SQQ;十六,27 SQQ。[58] Gould, "Conc. Hist., 272; 310- 17. [59] Ibid., 280. [60] Ibid., 318. [61] Handbuch, 3rd ed., I, 24 sqq.; II, 559 sqq. [62] Chr., 1906, II, 19 sq.; 1884, II, 306. [63] AQC, XI, 43. [64] Preston, "Illustrations", 296 seq. [65] Chr., 1887, II, 313. [66] Drummond., "Chr.", 1884, II, 227; 1887, I, 163; II, 178; Gould, "Concise History", 413. [67] Prichard, "Masonry Dissected", 1730. [68] Gould, "Concise History", 274 sq., 357 sq.; Boos, 174 sq. [69] Handbuch, 2nd ed., II, 100. [70] Abafi, I, 132. [71] Boos, 170, 183 sqq., 191. [72] See ILLUMINATI, and Boos, 303. [73] Robertson, "Chr.", 1907, II, 95; see also Engel, "Gesch. [58]古尔德,“浓组织胺,272;。。。。。。。。。310 - 17 [59]同上,280 [60]同上,318 [61]手册下载,第3版,我24 SQQ;二, 559 SQQ [62]人权委员会,1906年,二,19平方米;。。1884年,第二,306 [63] AQC,十一,43 [64]普雷斯顿,“插图”,296页起[65] CHR,。 。1887年,第二,313 [66]德拉蒙德,“CHR”,1884年,二,227,1887年,我,163; II,178;古尔德,“简明史”,413 [67]普里查德,“砌体解剖“,1730 [68]古尔德,”简明史“,274平方米,357平方米;。嘘声,174平方米[69]手册下载,第2版,II,100 [70] Abafi,我,132 [ “。CHR”71]嘘声,170,183 SQQ,191 [72]见光明,和嘘声,303 [73]罗伯逊,1907年,二,95;又见恩格尔,“Gesch。des Illuminatenordens", 1906. [74] Bauhütte, 1908, 337 sqq. [75] Sign., 1898, 100; 1901, 63 sqq.; 1902, 39; 1905, 6. [76] , 292 sq. [77] French Vénérable; German Meister von Stuhl. [78] Chr., 1885, I, 259. [79] Chr., 1881, I, 66. [80] Chr., 1884, II, 196. [81] Chr., 1885, I, 259), etc., etc. [82] Gedanken und Erinnerungen, 1898, I, 302 sq. [83] Solstice, 24 June, 1841, Procès-verb., 62. [84] 3rd ed., II, 109. [85] See also Freemason, Lond., 1901, 181; Clavel, 288 sqq.; Ragon, "Cours", 164; Herold, 191, no. 10; "Handbuch", 2nd ed., II, 451 sqq. [86] Eg, Krause, ibid., 2nd ed., I, 2, 429; Marbach, "Freimaurer-Gelübde", 22-35. [87] Mackey, "Jurisprudence", 509. [88] Thorp, Ms., 1629, AQC, XI, 210; Rawlinson, Ms. 1900, AQC, XI, 22; Hughan, "Old Charges". [89] Chr., 1875, I, 81. [90] Jurisprudence, 510, note 1. [91] Chr., 1885, I, 161. [92] Chr., 1889, II, 58. [93] Chr., 1883, II, 331. [94] Mackey, "Jurisprudence", 232 sq. [95] Mackey, op. cit., 514 sqq. [96] Paris, 1889; Antwerp, 1894; Hague, 1896; Paris, 1900; Geneva, 1902; Brussells, 1904; Rome, intended for Oct., 1911. [97] Chr., 1907, II, 119. [98] Off. Bull., 1885, VII, 29. [99] Mackey, "Encyclopedia", 1908, 1007 sq.: "Annual of Universal Masonry", Berne, 1909; "Mas.DES Illuminatenordens“,1906年[74] Bauhütte,1908年,337 SQQ [75]注册,1898年,100;。1901年,63 SQQ; 1902年,39; 1905年6 [76],292平方米[77]法国尊者;。。。。德国迈斯特冯Stuhl [78]人权委员会,1885年,我,259 [79]人权委员会,1881年,我66 [80]人权委员会,1884年,第二,196 [81] CHR, 1885年,我,259),等等,等等[82] Gedanken UND Erinnerungen,1898年,我,302平方米[83]冬至,1841年6月24日,议事录,动词。,62 [84]第3版,二,109 [85]参见洪门,Lond,1901年,181;。Clavel,288 SQQ; Ragon,“赛道”,164;赫罗尔德,191,没有10;。“手册下载”,第二版,二, 451 SQQ [86]例如,克劳斯,同上,第2版,I,2,429;。马尔巴赫,“Freimaurer - Gelübde”,22-35 [87]麦基,“法理学”,509 [88]索普。女士,1629年,AQC,第十一,210;罗林森女士,1900年,AQC,十一,22;。Hughan,“老费”[89]人权委员会,1875年,我81 [90]法理学,510,注1 [91]人权委员会。,1885年,我,161 [92]人权委员会。1889年,二,58 [93]人权委员会。1883年,二,331 [94]麦基,“法理学”,232平方米[95]麦基,同上,514 SQQ [96]巴黎,1889年;。安特卫普,1894年,海牙,1896年,巴黎,1900年,日内瓦,1902年; Brussells,1904年,罗马,为10月,1911年意。 [97]人权委员会,1907年,二,119 [98]关通报,1885年,七,29 [99]麦基,“百科全书”,1908年,1007平方米:。。。,伯尔尼“环球砌体年鉴” 1909年,“马斯。Year-Book 1909", London; "Kalendar für Freimaurer", Leipzig, 1909. [100] I, 340. [101] Chr., 1890, I, 99. [102] Chr., 1900, II, 3. [103] AQC, XVI, 28. [104] Chr., 1902, I, 167. [105] (1), 105. [106] (1), 819. [107] (1), 355. [108] (3), 128. [109] (1), 218. [110] Inner Sanctuary I, 311. [111] Oliver, Hist. Landmarks, I, 128. [112] Oliver, ibid., I, 146, 65; II, 7 sq. [113] Clavel, Ragnon, etc. [114] Pike, Mackey, etc. [115] Pike (1), 771 sq. [116] (4), 397. [117] Pike (1), 698 sq., 751, 849; (4), IV, 342 sq.; Mackey, "Symbolism", 112 sqq., 186 sqq.; see also Preuss, "American Freemasonry", 175 sqq. [118] Mackey, "Dictionary", sv Phallus; Oliver, "Signs", 206-17; V. Longo, La Mass. Specul. [119] Ritual, I (first) degree. [120] Pike (3), 128. [121] Pike (4), 141. [122] Pike, ibid., 100 sq. [123] (1), 291 sq. [124] Pike (4), III, 81; (1), 291; Ragon, lc, 76-86. [125] (4), I, 288 sq. [126] Ibid., III, 142 sq. [127] Ibid., III, 146. [128] Ibid., IV, 474 sq. [129] Ibid., IV, 478. [130] Ibid., IV, 476. [131] Ibid., IV, 547. [132] "Masonic Advocate" of Indianapolis, Chr., 1900, I, 296. [133] Chr., 1897, II, 83. [134] (4), I, 271. [135] Ibid., I, 280; (1), 516 sq. [136] Chr., 1878, II, 28. [137] (4), I, 311. [138] Ibid., IV, 388 sq. [139] Ibid, IV, 389 sq. [140] (1), 849. [141] Oliver, "Theocratic Philosophy", 355. [142] Oliver, Hist. Landmarks, I, 11, 21; "Freemasons' Quarterly Rev.", I, 31; Casanova in Ragon, "Rit.年鉴1909“,伦敦,”。。。。。。Kalendar献给Freimaurer“,莱比锡,1909年[100]我,340 [101] CHR,1890年,我99 [102] CHR,1900年,二,三[ 103] AQC,十六,28 [104]染色体。,1902年,我,167 [105](1),105 [106](1),819 [107](1),355 [108] (3),128 [109](1),218 [110]内保护区I,311 [111]奥利弗,组织胺。地标,我,128 [112]奥利弗,同上,我,146,65 ;二,7平方米[113] Clavel,Ragnon等[114]派克,麦基等[115]派克(1),771平方米[116](4),397 [117]派克(1 ),698平方米,751,849(4),IV,342平方米;麦基,“象征”,112 SQQ,186 SQQ;。又见普罗伊斯,“美国共济会”,175 SQQ [118]麦基。 “大辞典”,SV菲勒斯,奥利弗,“苗头”,206-17;。五,隆戈,拉马萨诸塞州Specul [119]仪式,我(第一)学位[120]派克(3),128 [121 ]派克(4),141 [122]派克,同上,100平方米[123](1),291平方米[124]派克(4),三,81;(1),291; Ragon,LC ,76-86 [125](4),I,288平方米[126]同上,III,142平方米[127]同上,III,146 [128]同上,四,474平方米[ 129]同上,四,478 [130]同上,四,476 [131]同上​​,四,547 [132]“共济会倡导”印第安纳波利斯,染色体。,1900年,我,296 [133 ] CHR,1897年,二,83 [134](4),I,271 [135]同上,我,280;。。(1),516平方米[136] CHR,1878年,二,28。 [137](4),I,311 [138]同上,四,388平方米[139]同上,四,389平方米[140](1),849 [141]奥利弗,“神权哲学” ,355 [142]奥利弗,历史地标,我,11,21;。“共济会”每季度启示录“,我31,在Ragon卡萨诺瓦,”丽特。3rd Degree", 35. [143] Pike (4), III, 68. [144] Ibid., IV, 470, 479, 488, 520. [145] Chr., 1880, II, 179. [146] Ibid., 1892, I, 246. For similar criticism see Chr., 1880, II, 195; 1875, I, 394. [147] Gould, "Concise History" 419. [148] Chr., 1893, I, 147. [149] Chr., 1906, I, 202. [150] "New Age", May, 1910, 464. [151] "Acacia", II, 409. [152] See Congrés Intern. of Paris, 1889, in "Compte rendu du Grand Orient de France", 1889; Browers, "L'action, etc."; Brück, "Geh.三度“,35 [143]派克(4),III,68 [144]同上,四,470,479,488,520 [145]染色体。,1880年,二,179 [146]同上,,1892年,我,246 CHR看到类似的批评,1880年,II,195;。1875年,我,394 [147]古尔德,“简明史”419 [148] CHR,1893年,我,147。 [149]染色体。,1906年,我,202 [150]“新时代”,5月,1910年,464 [151]“相思”,第二章,409 [152]见Congrès酒店巴黎,1889年,实习生中“Compte任督杜大东方法国”,1889年; Browers,“L'行动等”;布鲁克,“GEH。Gesellsch.Gesellsch。 in Spanien"; "Handbuch"; articles on the different countries, etc. [153] See "Rivista", 1909, 76 sqq.; 1908, 394; "Acacia," 1908, II, 36; "Bauhütte", 1909, 143; "La Franc-Maçonnerie démasquée , 1909, 93-96; "Compte rendu du Convent. Du Gr. Or. de France", 21-26 Sept., 1908, 34-38.在Spanien“,”手册下载“,对不同国家的物品等[153]参见”Rivista“,1909年,76 SQQ; 1908年,394,”相思“,1908年,二,36;”Bauhütte“,1909年, 143,“拉郎,Maçonnerie démasquée,1909年,93-96;”Compte任督杜修道院都遗传资源或法国“,9月21日至26号,1908年,34-38。。 [154] Handbuch, 3rd ed., II, 517.[154]手册下载,第3版,二,517。[155] Gruber (5), 6; Ewald, "Loge und Kulturkampf".[155]格鲁伯(5),6,埃瓦尔德,“LOGE UND文化之”。[156] See Herold, No. 37 and 33 sqq.[156]参见赫罗尔德,37号和33 SQQ。[157] See also Chr., 1889, I, 81 sq. [158] "Que personne ne bougera plus en France en dehors de nous", "Bull. Gr. Or.", 1890, 500 sq. [159] Compterendu Gr. [157]参见人权委员会。,1889年,我81平方米[158]“阙personne NE bougera加EN法恩dehors德常识”,“斗牛。石墨,或者 ”,1890年,500平方米[159] Compterendu克。Or., 1903, Nourrisson, "Les Jacobins", 266-271.或者,1903年,Nourrisson,“莱斯雅各宾派”,266-271。[160] Compte-rendu, 1902, 153. [160] Compte -任督,1902,153。[161] Compte-rendu Gr.[161] Compte -任督石墨。Or.或者。de France, 1902, 381.法国,1902年,381。[162] "Riv.", 1892, 219; Gruber, "Mazzini", 215 sqq.[162]“RIV”,1892年,219;格鲁伯,“马志尼”,215 SQQ。and passim.并各处。[163] Circular of the Grand Orient of France, 2 April, 1889.[163]的大东方的法国,1889年4月2日的通知。[164] See "Chaîne d'Union," 1889, 134, 212 sqq., 248 sqq., 291 sqq.; the official comptes rendus of the International Masonic Congress of Paris, 16-17 July, 1889, and 31 August, 1 and 2 September, 1900, published by the Grand Orient of France, and the regular official "Comptes rendus des travaux" of this Grand Orient, 1896-1910, and the "Rivista massonica", 1880-1910.[164]参见“CHAIN​​E D'联盟”1889年,134,212 SQQ,248 SQQ,291 SQQ;。官方审计法院共济会的国际大会在巴黎,16-17日,1889 rendus,8月31日, 1,1900年9月2日,由法国出版大东方,和普通官员“审计法院rendus DES准备工作”这个大东方,1896年至1910年,而“Rivista massonica”,1880年至1910年。[165] See Internat. [165]见INTERNAT。Bulletin, 1908, 119, 127, 133, 149, 156; 1909, 186.通报,1908年,119,127,133,149,156; 1909年,186。[166] Chr. [166]染色体。1905, II, 58, 108, 235.1905年,II,58,108,235。[167] From a letter of the Registrator J. Strahan, in London, to the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts; see "The New Age", New York, 1909, I, 177.[167]从对Registrator J.斯特拉恩,在伦敦,到马萨诸塞州大酒店信,见“新时代”,纽约,1909年,我,177。[168] Berlin, 10 May, 1908; 9 June, 12 November, 1909; 5, 19 February, 1910.[168]柏林,1908年5月10日,9 June 11月12日1909年5日,1910年2月19日。[169] Barcelona, 13 October, 1909.[169]巴塞罗那,1909年10月13日。[170] Circular of 14 October, 1909; "Franc-Maç. dém.", 1906, 230 sqq.; 1907, 42, 176; 1909, 310, 337 sqq.; 1910, an "International Masonic Bulletin", Berne, 1909, 204 sq. [171] Rivista massonica, 1909, 337 sqq., 423.[170]的通知1909年10月14日;“。法郎- Mac的DEM”,1906年,230 SQQ; 1907年,42,176,1909年,310,337 SQQ; 1910年,“国际共济会的公告”,伯尔尼, 1909年,204平方米[171] Rivista massonica,1909年,337 SQQ。,423。[172] Official Bulletin, September, 1887, 173 sqq.[172]官方通报,九月,1887年,173 SQQ。[173] Chr., 1906, II, 132. [173]染色体。,1906年,二,132。[174] Chr., 1897, II, 148. [174]染色体。,1897年,二,148。[175] Chr., 1888, II, 99. [175]染色体。1888年,二,99。[176] Chr., 1889, II, 146. [176]染色体。,1889年,二,146。[177] "Keystone", quoted in Chr., 1887, II, 355.[177]“梯形”,在CHR引用。1887年,二,355。[178] See Boos, 304-63. [178]见嘘声,304-63。[179] Gruber (6), 141-236. [179]格鲁伯(6),141-236。[180] Boos, 326. [180]嘘声,326。[181] Chr., 1885, I, 85, 1900, II, 71.[181]染色体。,1885年,我85,1900,二,71。[182] Chr., 1889, I, 308. [182]染色体。,1889年,我,308。[183] Chr., 1897, II, 303. [183]​​染色体。,1897年,二,303。[184] Chr.[184]染色体。 1889, II, 257 sq. [185] Concise History, 2.1889年,二,257平方米[185]简明历史,2。[186] Ibid., p.[186]同上,第 xv.十五。[187] Chr., 1887, II, 340. [187]染色体。1887年,二,340。[188] Chr., 1887, I, 119. [188]染色体。,1887年,我,119。[189] Chr., 1885, II, 355. [189]染色体。,1885年,二,355。[190] Chr., 1887, II, 49. [190]染色体。1887年,二,49。[191] Chr., 1875, I , 113. [191]染色体。,1875年,我,113。[192] Chr., 1890, II, 101. [192]染色体。,1890年,二,101。[193] Chr., 1875, I, 113. [193]染色体。,1875年,我,113。[194] Chr., 1887, I, 35. [194]染色体。1887年,我35。[195] Chr.[195]染色体。 1884, II, 17.1884年,二,17。 [196] Chr., 1890, II, 347: see also 1898, I, 83.[196] CHR,1890年,二,347:又见1898年,我83。[197] "Voice" quoted in Chr., 1890, I, 98.[197]“声”在CHR引用。,1890年,我98。[198] "Voice" in Chr., 1893, I, 130.[198]“声”在染色体。,1893年,我,130。[199] "Voice" in Chr., 1890, I, 98.[199]“声”在染色体。,1890年,我98。[200] Chr., 1899, I, 301. [200]染色体。,1899年,我,301。[201] Chr., 1875, I, 81. [201]染色体。1875年,我81。[202] Chr., 1875, I, 82. [202]染色体。1875年,我82。[203] Chr., 1889, I, 178. [203]染色体。,1889年,我,178。[204] Chr., 1889, II, 94. [204]染色体。,1889年,二,94。[205] "Keystone" of Philadelphia quoted by Chr., 1881, I, 414; the "Voice" of Chicago, ibid., 277. [205]“梯形”费城由CHR引述,1881年,我,414;“语音”的芝加哥,同上,277。[206] "Intern. Bull.", Berne, 1907, 98.[206]“实习生。公牛”,伯尔尼,1907年,98。[207] Chr., 1882, I, 410; 1893, I, 185; 1899, II, 34.[207] CHR,1882年,我,410; 1893年,我,185,1899年,二,34。[208] Chr., 1892, I, 259. [208]染色体。,1892年,我,259。[209] Pike (4), IV, 547. [209]派克(4),IV,547。[210] Bauhütte, 1905, 60.[210] Bauhütte,1905年,60岁。[211] Preston, "Illustrations of Masonry", 251 sqq.[211]普雷斯顿,“插图砌体”,251 SQQ。[212] Handbuch, 3rd ed., I, 219. [212]手册下载,第3版,我,219。[213] Allocution, 1865. [213]训示,1865。[214] Const.[214] CONST。"Apostolicæ Sedis", 1869, Cap. “Apostolicæ Sedis”,1869年,第。ii, n.二,N.24.24。[215] "De Secta Massonum" (Acta Sanctæ Sedis, XVIII, 43-47. [216] See "Collect. Lacensis", III, 1875 and "Acta et decr. Concil. plen. Balt. III", 1884.[215]“德Secta Massonum”(ACTA Sanctæ Sedis,十八,43-47 [216]参见“收集。Lacensis”,三,1875年和“文献等DECR。Concil。PLEN。BALT三”,1884年。

OTHER NOTES.其他注释。The following are the abbreviations of masonic terms used in this article: L., Ls., GL, GLs, GO, GOs, Supr.以下是本文中使用的共济会方面缩写:L.,LS,GL,GLS,GO,GOS,Supr。Counc., GBs = Lodge, Lodges, Grand Lodge, Gr.Counc。,GBS =酒店,旅馆,大旅馆,GR。Orient, Supreme Council, Gr.东方,最高理事会,GR。Bodies, etc. Abbreviations of more frequently quoted books and magazines: K.=Keystone (Philadelphia).机构等更经常引用的书籍和杂志缩写:K. =梯形(费城)。V="Voice of Masonry", later on: "Masonic Voice and Review" (Chicago).V =“语音砌体”,后来“共济会的语音和评论”(芝加哥)。Chr.="Freemason's Chronicle" (London); AQC="Ars Quatuor Coronatorum".CHR .=“洪门的纪事”(伦敦); AQC =“ARS Quatuor Coronatorum”。Transactions (London), the best scientific masonic magazine; Bauh.=Bauhütte; Sign.="Signale für die deutsche Maurerwelt" (Leipzig); Enc., Cycl., Handb.=Encyclopedia, "Allgemeines Handbuch der Freimaurerei" (Universal Manual of Freemasonry) Leipzig.交易(伦敦),共济会的最佳科学杂志; Bauh .= Bauhütte;注册.=“Signale献给德意志Maurerwelt死”(莱比锡)。ENC,CYCL,Handb .=百科全书“Allgemeines手册下载DER Freimaurerei”(通用手册共济会)莱比锡。This latter German encyclopedia, in its three editions, quite different from each other, but all of them containing valuable and accurate information, is considered even by English and American masonic criticism (AQC, XI, 1898, 64) as far and away the best masonic encyclopedia ever published.后者德国的百科全书,在它的三个版本,彼此相当不同,但含有宝贵的,准确的信息全部,甚至被认为是由英国和美国共济会的批评(AQC,十一,1898年,64)尽量地占据了最好的共济会百科全书出版过。

Key to numbers: In the article above, an Arabic number after the name of an author of several works indicates the work marked with the same number in the following bibliography.关键数字:在文章上面,一个在后的几个作品的作者姓名用阿拉伯数字表示,在下列书目相同数量的显着的工作。 Other numbers are to be judged according to the general rules maintained throughout the ENCYCLOPEDIA.其他的数字来评判根据各地百科全书保持的一般规则。The Freemason's Chronicle (Chr.), of which two volumes have been published every year in London since 1875, reproducing on a large scale also the principle articles published by the best American Masonic journals, offers the best and most authorized general survey of Anglo-American Freemasonry.在洪门的纪事(Chr.),其中两册已经出版,每年在伦敦1875年以来,大规模复制的原则,也是最好的美国共济会的期刊上发表文章,提供了最好的和最权威的普查盎格鲁 - 美国共济会。R. FR.R. FR。GOULD styles it: "A first class Masonic newspaper" (Chr., 1893, I, 339). GOULD风格的那样:“一个一流的共济会报”(Chr.,1893年,我,339)。The principle Masonic author quoted by us is the late ALBERT PIKE, Grand Commander of the Mother- Supreme Council (Charleston, South Carolina -- Washington), acknowledged as the greatest authority in all Masonic matters.共济会的原则,我们引用作者是已故的伟业派克,大的母亲最高理事会(查尔斯顿,南卡罗来纳州 - 华盛顿州)指挥官承认作为最权威的共济会的事宜。According to NORTON "the world-renowned BRO. PIKE (Chr., 1888, II, 179) is generally admitted as the best authority on Masonic jurisprudence in America" (Chr., 1876, II, 243).据诺顿“世界知名的人权法。PIKE(Chr.,1888,II,179)被普遍承认的法理上的共济会在美国最权威”(Chr.,1876,II,243)。 According to the Grand Orator ROBERT (Indian Territory) he "was the greatest Masonic scholar and writer of this (19th) century, whose name has been a household word wherever Masonry is known" (Chr., 1893, I, 25).据大演说家罗伯特(印度领土),他“是最伟大的共济会的学者和本(19)世纪,他的名字一直是家喻户晓的地方砌体是著名作家”(Chr.,1893年,我25)。 According to the New Age, New York, he was "regarded as the foremost figure in the Freemasonry of the world" (1909, II, 456), "the greatest Freemason of the Nineteenth Century", "the Prophet of Freemasonry" (1910, I, 52).据新时代,新的纽约,他“认为,在世界共济会最重要的人物”(1909,II,456)“的十九世纪最伟大的共济会”,“先知的共济会”(1910年,我52)。 "His great work -- his Magnum Opus -- as he called it", says the New Age (1910, I, 54), "was The Scottish Rite Rituals, as they were revised and spiritualized by him."“他的伟大的工作 - 他的巨著 - 他称之为”说,新时代(1910年,我54),“是苏格兰成年礼仪式,为他们进行了修订和他灵性。”And his book Morals and Dogma, currently quoted by us, is highly recommended to all Masons searching for serious and sure information, by the celebrated Masonic scholars TEMPLE (Brussels) and SPETH, the late secretary of the learned Quatuor-Coronati Lodge at London (Chr., 1888, I, 389).其人其书道德和教条,目前我们所报,强烈建议所有梅森严重和确保信息搜索,由著名学者共济庙(布鲁塞尔)和斯佩思,对所学的Quatuor - Coronati酒店在伦敦晚秘书(人权委员会。,1888年,我,389)。The circulars (letters) of PIKE, according to the Bulletin of the Supreme Council of Belgium (1888, 211) were "true codes of Masonic Widsom".派克的通告(函),根据比利时最高委员会公告(1888年,211)是“真正的共济会Widsom代码”。The well-known English BRO.著名的英国人权法。YARKER, 33, says: "The late A. Pike . . . was undoubtedly a masonic Pope, who kept in leading strings all the Supreme Councils of the world, including the Supreme Councils of England, Ireland, and Scotland, the first of which includes the Prince of Wales (now King Edward VII) Lord Lathom and other Peers, who were in alliance with him and in actual submission" (AE WAITE, Devil-Worship in France, 1896, 215). YARKER,33岁,说:“已故A.派克无疑是共济会的教皇,谁在领导字符串保存所有的世界最高议会,包括英国,爱尔兰最高法院议会和苏格兰,其中第一包括威尔士亲王(现国王爱德华七世)主Lathom和其他同龄人,谁与他结盟,在实际提交了“(AE WAITE,在法国魔鬼崇拜,1896年,215页)。"The German Handbuch (2nd ed., 1879, IV, 138) calls Pike: "The supreme General of the Order", and TG Findel, the German historian of Masonry: "the uncrowned king of the High Degrees" (Bauhütte, 1891, 126). “德国手册下载(第二版,1879年,IV,138)调用派克说:”该命令的最高常规“,和TG芬德尔,砌体的德国历史学家:”高级学位无冕王“(Bauhütte,1891 ,126)。

Masonic Publications.共济会的刊物。Encyclopedias: MACKEY, (1) Encyclopedia of Freemasonry (London, 1908), even this recent edition, according to American authorities, is thoroughly antiquated and scarcely an improvement on that of 1860; IDEM, (2) Lexicon of Freemasonry (London, 1884); OLIVER, Dict.百科全书:麦基,(1)百科全书济(伦敦,1908年),连这个最新版本,据美国当局彻底过时,几乎对1860年的改善;同上,(2)词汇的共济会(伦敦,1884 ); OLIVER,快译通。of Symbolic Freemasonry (London, 1853); MACKENZIE, The Royal Masonic Cycl.共济会的符号(伦敦,1853年);麦肯齐,皇家共济会CYCL。(1875-7); WOODFORD, Kenning's Cycl.(1875-7);伍德福德,健力的CYCL。(1878); LENNING, Encycl. (1878年); LENNING,Encycl。der Freimaurerei (1822- 1828); IDEM AND HENNE AM RHYN, Allgemeines Handbuch der Fr., 2nd ed.DER Freimaurerei(1822年至1828年); IDEM和HENNE上午RHYN,Allgemeines手册下载DER神父,第二版。 (1863-79); FISCHER, Allg. (1863年至1879年),FISCHER,Allg。Handb.Handb。d.D.Fr., 3rd ed.神父,第3版。(1900); these editions contain valuable information and answer scientific requirements far more than all the other Masonic cyclopedias (AQC, XI, 64); STEVENS, Cyclopedia of Fraternities (New York, 1907). (1900年),这些版本都包含有价值的信息,并回答科学化的要求远远超过所有其他(AQC,十一,64)共济会cyclopedias; STEVENS,对联谊会Cyclopedia(纽约,1907年)。Masonic Law and Jurisprudence: The Constitutions of the Freemasons, 1723, 1738; Neues Constitutionen Buch, etc. (1741); DE LA TIERCE, Histoire, Obligations, et.共济会的法律和法理学:对共济会,1723年,1738年的宪法; Neues Constitutionen布赫等(1741); DE LA三度,Histoire,义务等。Statuts, etc. (Frankfort, 1742); OLIVER, Masonic Jurisprudence (1859, 1874); CHASE, Digest of Masonic Law (1866); MACKEY, Text Book of Mason.Statuts等(法兰克福,1742年); OLIVER,共济会法理学(1859年,1874年),大通,共济会法(1866年)消化;麦基,文字的梅森书。Jurisprudence (1889); VAN GRODDECK, etc., Versuch einer Darstellung des positiven innern Freimaurer.法理学(1889); VAN GRODDECK等,Versuch einer Darstellung DES POSITIVEN innern Freimaurer。Rechts (1877), the best general survey of Masonic laws of all countries.Rechts(1877年),最好的共济会的各国法律的一般调查。

Historical: ANDERSON, Hist.历史:安德森,组织胺。of Freemasonry in the first edition and translations of the Book of Constitutions (most unreliable, even after 1717); PRESTON, Illustrations of Masonry (1772), ed.在第一版的宪法和书(最不可靠的,即使在1717年)翻译的共济会,普雷斯顿,砌体插图(1772),主编。OLIVER (1856), though not reliable in some historical particulars, contains much valuable information of historical and ritualistic character; FORT, Early Hist. OLIVER(1856),虽然不是在一些历史资料可靠,包含许多有价值的信息和仪式的历史人物;堡,早期历史。and Antiquities of Freemasonry (Philadelphia, 1875); ROWBOTTOM, Origin of Freemasonry as manifested by the Great Pyramid (1880); HOLLAND, Freemasonry from the Great Pyramid historically illustrated (1885); CHAPMAN, The Great Pyramid, etc. (1886); WEISSE, The Obelisk and Freemasonry, according to the discoveries of Belzoni and Gorringe (New York, 1880); KATSCH, Die Entstehung und wahre Endzweck der Freimaurerei (1897); FINDEL, History of Freemasonry (1861-2; 1905), translated and revised by LYON, 1869; influential in spreading more accurate historical notions among Masons; GOULD, Hist.古物和共济会(费城,1875年); ROWBOTTOM,共济会的起源由大金字塔(1880)表现,荷兰,从大金字塔的历史说明(1885)济;查普曼,大金字塔等(1886); WEISSE,方尖碑和共济会,根据贝尔佐尼和Gorringe(纽约,1880年)的发现; KATSCH,模具Entstehung UND wahre Endzweck DER Freimaurerei(1897年);芬德尔,共济会历史(1861-2; 1905年),翻译和修订了里昂,1869年,在蔓延之中泥瓦匠更准确的历史观念影响,古尔德,组织胺。of Freemasonry (3 vols., 1883-1887), now reputed the best historical work on Freemasonry; CHETWODE CRAWLEY, Cœmentaria Hibernica (1895-1900); HUGHAN, Origin of the English Rite of Freemasonry (1884); The Old Charges of British Freemasons (London, 1872; 1895); KLOSS, Gesch.共济会(3卷,1883年至1887年),现在名震上共济会历史最好的工作; CHETWODE克劳利,Cœmentaria Hibernica(1895年至1900年),在共济(1884)英语之祭的起源HUGHAN;英国老费共济会(伦敦,1872年,1895年); KLOSS,Gesch。der Fr. DER神父。in Engl., Irland und Schottland 1685-1784 (1847); BOOS, Gesch.在ENGL,爱尔兰的北达科Schottland 1685年至1784年(1847年); BOOS,Gesch。der Freimaurerei (1896); HASCALL, Hist.DER Freimaurerei(1896年); HASCALL,组织胺。of Freemasonry (1891); Earl Hist.共济会(1891年);伯爵历史。and Transactions of Masons of New York (1876); McCLENACHAN, Hist.和纽约(1876年)泥瓦匠交易; McCLENACHAN,组织胺。of the Frat.在兄弟会。in New York (1888-94); ROSS ROBERTSON, Hist.在纽约(1888年至1894年); ROSS罗伯逊历史。of Freemasonry in Canada (1899); DRUMMOND, Hist.在加拿大(1899年)共济会,德拉蒙德,组织胺。and Bibliogr.和Bibliogr。 Memoranda and Hist.备忘录和历史。of Symb.对SYMB。and Royal Arch Masonry in the US; Supplement to GOULD, Hist.(1889); THORY, Annales, etc., du Grand Orient de France (1812); KLOSS, Gesch.和皇家建筑砌体在美国;补充古尔德,组织胺(1889年); THORY,年鉴等,杜大东方法国(1812); KLOSS,Gesch。der Freimaurerei in Frankr.DER Freimaurerei在Frankr。(1852-3); JOUAST, Hist. (1852-3); JOUAST,组织胺。du Grand Orient Fr.杜大东方神父。(1865); LEWIS, Gesch. (1865年),刘易斯,Gesch。d.D.Freimaurerei i. Freimaurerei岛Oesterreich (1861); ABAFI, Gesch.Oesterreich(1861); ABAFI,Gesch。d.D.Freimaurerei in Oesterreich-Ungarn (1890 sqq.), Principles, Spirit, Symbolism of Freemasonry. Freimaurerei在Oesterreich - Ungarn(1890 SQQ),原则,精神,共济会的象征意义。Chief Sources:-- The Constitutions of the Freemasons, 1723 and 1738; HUTCHINSON, Spirit of Freemasonry (1775); TOWN, System of Spec.主要来源: - 的共济会,1723年和1738年的宪法;哈钦森,共济会精神(1775),镇,规格系统。 Masonry (1822, New York); OLIVER, Antiquities of Freemasonry (1823); The Star in the East (1827); Signs and Symbols (1830, 1857); PIKE, (1) Morals and Dogma of the AA Scot.砌体(1822年,纽约); OLIVER,古物的共济会(1823)中的东星(1827),标志和符号(1830,1857); PIKE,(1)道德和机管局苏格兰人教条。Rite of Freemasonry 5632 (1882); IDEM, (2) The Book of the Words 5638 (1878); IDEM, (3) The Porch and the Middle Chamber.爱色丽的共济会5632(1882)同上,(2)5638字(1878)图书;同上,(3)门廊和中东厅。Book of the Lodge 5632 (1872); IDEM, (4) The Inner Sanctuary (1870-79); KRAUSE, Die drei ältesten Kunsturkunden der Frmrei (1810), still much esteemed, in spite of historical errors, as a critical appreciation of Freemasonry; FINDEL (best German authority), Geist und Form der Fr.预订的旅馆5632(1872)同上,(4)内蒙古保护区(1870年至1879年),克劳斯,模具DREI ältesten Kunsturkunden DER Frmrei(1810年),还有很多尊敬,尽管在历史的错误,作为一个关键的升值济;芬德尔(德国最好的权威),盖斯特UND DER表格神父。(1874, 1898); IDEM, Die Grundsötze der Fr.(1874年,1898年),同上,模具Grundsötze DER神父。 im Volkerleben (1892); IDEM, Die moderne Weltanschauung und die Fr.IM Volkerleben(1892年);同上,模具摩登世界观UND死神父。(1885); IDEM, Der frmische Gedanke (1898); Bauhütte (1858-1891) and Signale (1895-1905). (1885年),同上,明镜frmische Gedanke(1898年); Bauhütte(1858年至1891年)和Signale(1895至1905年)。

Anti-masonic publications: From 1723-1743, English Freemasonry and ANDERSON, History, were derided in many publications (GOULD, 2, 294, 327); against French Freemasonry appeared: L'Ordre des Freemasons trahi 1738 (AQC, IX, 85) and Le Secret des Mopses révélé (1745); Sceau romptu (1745); on the occasion of the French Revolution: LEFRANC, Le voile levé (1792).防共济出版物:从1723年至1743年,英国共济会和安德森,历史,在许多出版物嘲笑(古尔德,2,294,327);反对法国共济会出现:L'勋章DES济trahi 1738(AQC,IX,85 )和乐宫Mopses révélé秘密(1745年); Sceau romptu(1745年),对法国大革命之际:LEFRANC,乐纱LEVE(1792年)。In the United States the anti-Masonic movement began 1783: CREIGH, Masonry and Antimasonry (1854); STONE, Letters on Masonry and Antimasonry (1832); PENKIN, Downfall of Masonry (1838) Catalogue of anti-Masonic books (Boston, 1862); Sechs Stïmmen über geheime Gesellschaften und Frmrei (1824); ECKERT, Der Frmrorden in seiner wahren Bedeutung (1852); HENGSTENBERG, Die Frmrei und das evang.在美国的反共济会运动开始1783年:CREIGH,砌体和Antimasonry(1854);石,字母的砌体和Antimasonry(1832); PENKIN,砌体倒台(1838)抗共济会的书籍目录(波士顿,1862 ); Sechs Stïmmen黚geheime Gesellschaften UND Frmrei(1824);埃克特,德在围网渔船wahren Bedeutung(1852)Frmrorden;韩斯坦堡,模具Frmrei UND DAS evang。Pfarramt (1854-56); Civiltà Cattolica since 1866; NEGRONI, Storia passata e presente della setta anticristiana ed antisociale (1876); MENCACCI, Memorie documentate della rivoluzione italiana (1882); RINIERI, Cozetti Masonici (1900-01); ENIGMA, La setta verde (1906-7); GRUBER, Mazzini; Massoneria e Rivoluzione (1901), traces the revolutionary work of Italian Masonry from 1870 till 1900; GAUTRELET, La Franc-maçonnerie et la Révolution (1872); JANET, Les sociétés secrètes et la société 3rd ed., 1880-83), best general survey of the revolutionary work of secret societies in all countries; BROWERS, L'Action de la Franc-m. Pfarramt(1854年至1856年); Civiltà卡托利卡自1866年; NEGRONI,走势图历史passata发送presente德拉setta anticristiana版antisociale(1876年); MENCACCI,Memorie documentate德拉rivoluzione意大利(1882); RINIERI,Cozetti Masonici(1900年至1901年);谜,拉setta贝尔德(1906-7);格鲁伯,马志尼; Massoneria Ë Rivoluzione(1901),追踪从1870年至1900年意大利砌体革命工作; GAUTRELET,拉郎,maçonnerie ET LA革命(1872年); JANET,莱斯sociétés分泌。等LA SOCIETE第3版,1880年至1883年),最佳普查对所有国家的社会革命的秘密工作; BROWERS,L'行动德拉丽珠米。dans l'hist.DANS L'历史。 moderne (1892); LEROUSE, La Franc-m.摩登(1892年); LEROUSE,拉郎米。sous la 3e République (1886); COPIN-ALBANCELLI, La Franc-m.SOUS LA 3E共和国广场(1886年); COPIN - ALBANCELLI,拉郎米。(1892); GOYAU, La Franc-m.(1892年); GOYAU,拉郎米。en France (1899); NOURRISSON, Le club des Jacobins (1900); IDEM, Les Jacobins au pouvoir (1904); BIDEGAIN, Le Grand Orient de France (1905); NEUT, La F.-m.EN法国(1899年); NOURRISSON,乐宫雅各宾俱乐部(1900);同上,莱斯雅各宾派权力下(1904年); BIDEGAIN,乐大东方法国(1905年); NEUT,拉F.-m.soumise au grand jour de la publicité (1866), contains valuable documents on French, Belgian, and German Masonry; MALLIE, La Maçonnerie Belge (1906), documents on the most recent political activity of Belgian Masonry; DE LA FUERTE, Historia de las Sociedades secretas antiquas y modernas en España, etc. (1870-71); BRÜCK, Die geheimen Gesellschaften in Spanien (1881); TIRADO Y ROYAS, La Masonería en España (1892- 3); DE RAFAEL, La Masonería pintada por si misma (1883); PACHTLER, Der stille Krieg gegen Thron und Altar (1876); BEUREN (M. RAICH), Die innere Unwahrheit der Frmrei (1884); GRUBER, (4) Die Frmrei und die öffent. soumise非盟隆重怨妇德拉publicité(1866年),载有法国,比利时和德国砌体有价值的文件;在最近的比利时砌体政治活动MALLIE,拉Maçonnerie比利时(1906年),文件; DE LA福尔特,Historia - 德拉斯Sociedades secretas antiquas Ÿ modernas EN西班牙等(1870至71年),布鲁克,模具geheimen在Spanien Gesellschaften(1881); TIRADO Ÿ ROYAS,拉Masonería EN西班牙(1892 - 3); DE RAFAEL,拉Masonería pintada POR市misma (1883年);,明镜stille克里格葛根Thron UND坛(1876)PACHTLER;博伊伦(M.赖希),模具innere Unwahrheit DER Frmrei(1884年);格鲁伯,(4)模具Frmrei UND死öffent。Ordnung (1893); IDEM, (5) Einigungsbestrebungen, etc. (1898); IDEM, (6) Der "giftige Kern", etc. (1899); IDEM, (7) Frmrei und Umsturzbewegung(1901); Streifzüge durch das Reich der Frmrei (1897); EWALD, Loge und Kulturkampf (1899); OSSEG, Der Hammer d. Ordnung(1893年);同上,(5)Einigungsbestrebungen等(1898),同上,(6)明镜“giftige克恩”等(1899);同上,(7)Frmrei UND Umsturzbewegung(1901年); Streifzüge durch DAS帝国DER Frmrei(1897年);埃瓦尔德,LOGE UND文化之(1899年); OSSEG,DER锤D.Frmrei, etc. (1875); WB, Beiträge zur Geschichte der F. In Oesterreich (1868); Die Frmrei in Oesterreich Ungarn (1897).Frmrei等(1875); WB,Beiträge楚历史馆DER F.在Oesterreich(1868年);模具在Oesterreich Ungarn(1897)Frmrei。In Poland: MICHALOW, Die geh.在波兰:MICHALOW,模具GEH。Werkstätte der Poln.Werkstätte DER Poln。Erhebung (1830; 1877); ZALESKI, O Masonii w Polsce 1738-1820 (Cracow, 1908); for Anglo-Saxon and French Masonry see PREUSS, A Study in American Freemasonry (St. Louis, 1908), a careful discussion on the basis of the standard works of Mackey and Pike. Erhebung(1830,1877);扎列斯基,O Masonii瓦特Polsce 1738年至1820年(克拉科夫,1908年),为盎格鲁撒克逊和法国砌体见普罗伊斯,一个在美国共济会(圣路易斯,1908年)的研究,对认真讨论基础的麦基和派克标准的作品。



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