Gnosticism诺斯替主义

General Information一般资料

Gnosticism was a religious philosophical dualism that professed salvation through secret knowledge, or gnosis.诺斯替主义是一个宗教哲学的二元论是自称通过秘密的知识,或灵知得救The movement reached a high point of development during the 2d century AD in the Roman and Alexandrian schools founded by Valentius.该运动期间达成的由Valentius创立了罗马和亚历山大学校2D公元一世纪发展的高点。Scholars have attributed the origins of gnosticism to a number of sources: the Greek mystery cults; Zoroastrianism; the Kabbalah of Judaism; and Egyptian religion.学者们的诺斯替主义的起源归结为若干来源:希腊神秘邪教,祆教,犹太教的卡巴拉和埃及的宗教。The early Christians considered Simon Magus (Acts 8:9 - 24) the founder of gnosticism.早期的基督徒认为西蒙法师(徒8:9 - 24)的诺斯替主义的创始人。His doctrine, like that of other gnostic teachers, had nothing in common with the knowledge of the mysteries of God that Saint Paul called wisdom (1 Cor. 2:7).他的学说,像其他诺斯替老师认为,在没有任何共同之处了与神的奥秘是圣保罗所谓的智慧(林前2:7)的知识。

Christian leaders looked upon gnosticism as a subtle, dangerous threat to Christianity during the 2d century, a time marked by religious aspirations and philosophical preoccupations about the origins of life, the source of evil in the world, and the nature of a transcendent deity.基督教领袖白眼诺斯替主义作为一个微妙的,危险的威胁,基督教在2D世纪,宗教的愿望和对生命起源,在世界的罪恶之源,是一种超然的神性哲学成见标志着一个时间。 Gnosticism was perceived as an attempt to transform Christianity into a religious philosophy and to replace faith in the mysteries of revelation by philosophical explanations.诺斯替主义被认为是企图转变成一个宗教哲学和基督教的启示,以取代由哲学的奥秘解释信仰。

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The gnostic sects set forth their teachings in complex systems of thought.诺斯底教派的思想提出在复杂系统的教义。Characteristic of their position was the doctrine that all material reality is evil.他们的位置的特点是,所有的物质现实主义是邪恶的。One of their central convictions was that salvation is achieved by freeing the spirit from its imprisonment in matter.其中央的信念之一是,救恩是通过其在物质释放监禁的精神实现。Elaborate explanations were given on how this imprisonment came to be and how the deliverance of the soul was to be accomplished.精心制作的解释是就如何走过来的这个监禁以及如何解脱的灵魂是要完成的。The transcendent God was removed from all matter by a succession of intermediary eternal beings called aeons.超越的上帝被解除了所有物质由一种名为aeons中介永恒的生命继承。The aeons emanated as couples (male and female); the complete series (usually 30) constituted the Pleroma, the fullness of the Godhead.如夫妇(男,女)所发出的aeons;完整的系列(通常是30)构成Pleroma,对神性丰满。 Beyond the Pleroma were the material universe and human beings to be saved.除了Pleroma是物质宇宙和人类才能得救。

In gnostic thought, a divine seed was imprisoned in every person.在诺斯底思想,一种神圣的种子在每个人被监禁。The purpose of salvation was to deliver this divine seed from the matter in which it was lost.救恩的目的是为了实现从它丢失了这个神圣的种子问题。Gnostics classified people according to three categories: (1) gnostics, or those certain of salvation, because they were under the influence of the spirit (pneumatikoi); (2) those not fully gnostics, but capable of salvation through knowledge (psychikoi); and (3) those so dominated by matter that they were beyond salvation (hylikoi).诺斯替教派分类人们根据三类:(1)诺斯替主义,或某些人得救,因为他们受到的精神(pneumatikoi)的影响者;(2)那些不完全诺斯替主义,而是通过知识得救(psychikoi)的能力; (3)使那些占主导地位的问题,他们无法得救(hylikoi)的。Gnostics often practiced excessive asceticism, because they believed that they were thus liberated by the spirit.诺斯替教派往往实行过度的禁欲主义,因为他们相信,他们这样的精神解放。

Gnosticism was denounced by the Christian theologians Irenaeus, Hippolytus, and Tertullian.诺斯替主义被谴责的基督教神学家爱任纽,希波吕托斯和良。In the 3d century, Clement of Alexandria attempted to formulate an orthodox Christian gnosticism to explain the difference in perfection attained by individuals in their response to the gospel. Gnosticism gradually merged with Manichaeism. Today, the Mandeans are the only surviving sect of Gnostics.在三维世纪,亚历山大克莱门特尝试制订正统基督教灵知主义,解释在其回应福音。 诺斯替主义逐步与摩尼教合并个人达到完美的区别如今,Mandeans是唯一幸存的诺斯替教教派。The research of scholars has been greatly enhanced since 1945, when a Coptic gnostic library was discovered near Nag Hammadi (Nag Hammadi Papyri), in upper Egypt.学者的研究已经大大增强自1945年以来,当一个科普特诺斯底库附近的拿戈玛第(NAG哈马迪纸莎草纸)上发现了埃及。

Agnes Cunningham艾格尼丝坎宁安

Bibliography 参考书目
G Filoramo, Gnosticism (1990); RM Grant, Gnosticism and Early Christianity (1966); H Jonas, The Gnostic Religion (1963); J Lacarriere, The Gnostics (1977); E Pagels, The Gnostic Gospels (1981); JM Robinson, The Nag Hammadi Library (1977).摹Filoramo,诺斯替主义(1990); RM格兰特,诺斯替主义和早期基督教(1966年),H乔纳斯,在诺斯替宗教(1963)〔J Lacarriere,在诺斯替教(1977),E Pagels,(1981)诺斯底福音; JM罗宾逊的老马哈马迪库(1977)。


Gnosticism诺斯替主义

General Information一般资料

Introduction简介

Gnosticism is an esoteric religious movement that flourished during the 2nd and 3rd centuries AD and presented a major challenge to orthodox Christianity.诺斯替主义是一个深奥的宗教运动的蓬勃发展在第二和第三世纪AD和提出了重大挑战正统基督教。Most Gnostic sects professed Christianity, but their beliefs sharply diverged from those of the majority of Christians in the early church.大多数诺斯替教派自称基督教,但他们的信仰的大幅增长,在早期教会的基督徒大多数人有分歧。The term Gnosticism is derived from the Greek word gnosis ("revealed knowledge").诺斯替主义一词源于希腊字灵知(“透露知识”)。 To its adherents, Gnosticism promised a secret knowledge of the divine realm.为了它的追随者,诺斯替主义承诺的神圣境界秘密知识。 Sparks or seeds of the Divine Being fell from this transcendent realm into the material universe, which is wholly evil, and were imprisoned in human bodies.火花或神作为种子下降了这种超越的境界到宇宙的物质,这是完全邪恶的,并在人体内被监禁。Reawakened by knowledge, the divine element in humanity can return to its proper home in the transcendent spiritual realm.通过知识唤醒,在人类神圣的元素可以返回到其家中适当超越的精神境界。

Mythology神话

To explain the origin of the material universe, the Gnostics developed a complicated mythology.为了解释宇宙起源的物质,开发出一种复杂的诺斯替教派的神话。From the original unknowable God, a series of lesser divinities was generated by emanation.从最初的不可知的神,一个较小的神灵产生了一系列的化身。The last of these, Sophia ("wisdom"), conceived a desire to know the unknowable Supreme Being.其中最后,索菲亚(“智慧”),构思是希望知道不可知最高福祉。Out of this illegitimate desire was produced a deformed, evil god, or demiurge, who created the universe.出于这种不正当的欲望是产生变形,邪恶之神,或造物主,谁创造了宇宙。The divine sparks that dwell in humanity fell into this universe or else were sent there by the supreme God in order to redeem humanity.在人类居住的神圣火花落入这个宇宙,否则被送往那里的最高神,以赎人类。The Gnostics identified the evil god with the God of the Old Testament, which they interpreted as an account of this god's efforts to keep humanity immersed in ignorance and the material world and to punish their attempts to acquire knowledge.在诺斯替教派确定了与旧约,他们作为本神的努力,使沉浸在无知人类和物质世界,并惩罚他们试图获取知识的帐户解释神的邪恶之神。 It was in this light that they understood the expulsion of Adam and Eve from Paradise, the flood, and the destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah.正是在这个角度理解,他们从乐园,洪水,以及所多玛和蛾摩拉的毁灭,亚当和夏娃被驱逐。

Gnosticism and Christianity诺斯替主义和基督教

Although most Gnostics considered themselves Christians, some sects assimilated only minor Christian elements into a body of non-Christian Gnostic texts. The Christian Gnostics refused to identify the God of the New Testament, the father of Jesus, with the God of the Old Testament, and they developed an unorthodox interpretation of Jesus' ministry. 虽然大多数诺斯替教派认为自己是基督徒,同化到一个非基督教诺斯替文本的身体只是轻微的基督教教派的一些内容。基督教诺斯替教派拒绝识别新约,耶稣的父亲的神,与旧约的神,他们开发了耶稣的事工非正统的解释。 The Gnostics wrote apocryphal Gospels (such as the Gospel of Thomas and the Gospel of Mary) to substantiate their claim that the risen Jesus told his disciples the true, Gnostic interpretation of his teachings: Christ, the divine spirit, inhabited the body of the man Jesus and did not die on the cross but ascended to the divine realm from which he had come.写的诺斯替教派(如托马斯福音和玛丽福音)猜测福音,证明他们的声称复活的耶稣告诉他的弟子真,诺斯替解释他的教导:基督,神的精神,居住的人身体耶稣并没有死在十字架上,但登上了神圣的境界,从他的来意。 The Gnostics thus rejected the atoning suffering and death of Christ and the resurrection of the body.在诺斯替教派从而拒绝了赎罪的痛苦和死亡的基督和复活的身体。They also rejected other literal and traditional interpretations of the Gospels.他们还拒绝了福音其他文字和传统的解释。

Rites礼记

Some Gnostic sects rejected all sacraments; others observed baptism and the Eucharist, interpreting them as signs of the awakening of gnosis.有些诺斯底教派拒绝了所有圣事,其他观察洗礼和圣体,解释为对灵知他们觉醒的迹象。Other Gnostic rites were intended to facilitate the ascent of the divine element of the human soul to the spiritual realm.其他诺斯底仪式旨在促进人类灵魂的精神境界神圣元素上升。Hymns and magic formulas were recited to help achieve a vision of God; other formulas were recited at death to ward off the demons who might capture the ascending spirit and imprison it again in a body.赞美诗和魔术公式是背诵,以帮助实现神眼光;其他公式是在死亡背诵抵御恶魔谁可能捕捉升精神,禁锢于一体的一次。In the Valentinian sect (followers of Valentinus, a Gnostic teacher of the early 2nd century AD), a special rite, called the bridal chamber, celebrated the reunion of the lost spirit with its heavenly counterpart.在瓦伦蒂安节(共Valentinus追随者,一个公元2世纪早期诺斯替老师),一个特殊的仪式,叫洞房,庆祝其对应天上的精神失去了团聚。

Ethics道德

The ethical teachings of the Gnostics ranged from asceticism to libertinism.在诺斯替教派教义的道德范围从禁欲主义到放荡。The doctrine that the body and the material world are evil led some sects to renounce even marriage and procreation.该学说认为,身体和物质世界是邪恶导致一些派别甚至放弃婚姻和生育。Other Gnostics held that because their souls were completely alien to this world, it did not matter what they did in it.其他诺斯替教派认为,由于他们的灵魂是完全陌生的这个世界,它没有什么事,他们也做到了。Gnostics generally rejected the moral commandments of the Old Testament, regarding them as part of the evil god's effort to entrap humanity.诺斯替教派普遍拒绝了旧约的道德戒律,认为这是邪恶之神的努力,坑害人类的一部分。

Sources来源

Much scholarly knowledge of Gnosticism comes from anti-Gnostic Christian texts of the 2nd and 3rd centuries, which provide the only extensive quotations in the Greek of the original Gnostic texts.大部分诺斯替主义学术知识来源于反诺斯底基督教案文为第二和第三世纪,提供在原诺斯底文本希腊唯一广泛的报价。Most surviving Gnostic texts are in Coptic, into which they had been translated when Gnosticism spread to Egypt in the late 2nd and the 3rd centuries.大部分幸存的诺斯底文本在科普特人,到他们被翻译时,诺斯替主义传播中后期第二和第三世纪的埃及。In 1945 an Egyptian peasant found 12 codices containing more than 50 Coptic Gnostic writings near Naj'?ammâdî. 1945年埃及的农民发现12抄本中含有超过50近Naj“?ammâdî科普特诺斯底著作。It has been determined that these codices were copied in the 4th century in the monasteries of the region.它已被确定,这些抄本是在4世纪复制到该地区的寺院。It is not known whether the monks were Gnostics, or were attracted by the ascetic nature of the writings, or had assembled the writings as a study in heresy.目前还不知道是否是诺斯替教派的僧侣,或者是由苦行僧性质的著作所吸引,或已装配作为异端研究的著作。

History历史

Gnostic texts reveal nothing about the history of the various sects or about the lives of their most prominent teachers.诺斯底文本揭示了各教派的历史约占其最突出的教师的生活没有什么。Consequently, the history of the movement must be inferred from the traditions reflected in the texts and from anti-Gnostic writings.因此,对运动的历史,必须从文本推断和反诺斯底著作反映了传统。The question of whether Gnosticism first developed as a distinct non-Christian doctrine has not been resolved, but pagan Gnostic sects did exist.至于是否首次作为一个独特的诺斯替主义非基督教教义发展的问题还没有得到解决,但异教的诺斯替教派确实存在。Gnostic mythology may have been derived from Jewish sectarian speculation centered in Syria and Palestine during the late 1st century AD, which in turn was probably influenced by Persian dualistic religions (see Mithraism; Zoroastrianism).诺斯替神话可能起源于犹太人教派在叙利亚和巴勒斯坦集中在公元1世纪后期,而这又可能是由波斯的二元论宗教的影响(见Mithraism;祆教)的猜测。 By the 2nd century, Christian Gnostic teachers had synthesized this mythology with Platonic metaphysical speculation and with certain heretical Christian traditions.到了公元2世纪,基督教诺斯替教师们合成了柏拉图形而上学的猜测和某些异端基督教传统这个神话。The most prominent Christian Gnostics were Valentinus and his disciple Ptolemaeus, who during the 2nd century were influential in the Roman church.最突出的基督教诺斯替教派被Valentinus和他的弟子托勒玫环形山,谁在第二世纪被罗马教会的影响力。Christian Gnostics, while continuing to participate in the larger Christian community, apparently also gathered in small groups to follow their secret teachings and rituals.基督教诺斯替教派,同时继续参与在更大的基督教社区,显然也是三五成群聚集在跟随他们的秘密教义和仪式。

During the 2nd century another strain of Gnosticism emerged in eastern Syria, stressing an ascetic interpretation of Jesus' teachings.在2世纪又出现了紧张的诺斯替主义叙利亚东部,强调了耶稣的教导禁欲主义者的解释。Later in the century Gnosticism appeared in Egypt, and the emergence of monasticism there may be linked with the influence of the Syrian ascetic sects.后来出现在本世纪诺斯替主义在埃及,而修道的出现有可能与叙利亚的苦修教派的影响力联系在一起的。

By the 3rd century Gnosticism began to succumb to orthodox Christian opposition and persecution.到3世纪诺斯替主义开始屈服于正统基督教的反对和迫害。Partly in reaction to the Gnostic heresy, the church strengthened its organization by centralizing authority in the office of bishop, which made its effort to suppress the poorly organized Gnostics more effective.部分反应的诺斯底异端,教会加强了在主教办公室,这使得其努力抑制凌乱的诺斯替教派更有效的集中权威的组织。 Furthermore, as orthodox Christian theology and philosophy developed, the primarily mythological Gnostic teachings began to seem bizarre and crude.此外,作为正统基督教神学和哲学的发展,主要是神话诺斯底教义开始显得怪异和原油。Both Christian theologians and the 3rd-century Neoplatonist philosopher Plotinus attacked the Gnostic view that the material world is essentially evil.这两个基督教神学家和第三世纪的柏拉图哲学家普罗提诺攻击诺斯底认为,物质世界本质上是邪恶的。Christians defended their identification of the God of the New Testament with the God of Judaism and their belief that the New Testament is the only true revealed knowledge.基督徒捍卫他们对与犹太教的神和他们的信仰,新约是唯一真正的知识发现新约上帝鉴定。The development of Christian mysticism and asceticism satisfied some of the impulses that had produced Gnosticism, and many Gnostics were converted to orthodox beliefs.在基督教神秘主义和禁欲主义的发展感到满意的是已生产诺斯替主义冲动一些,许多诺斯替教派转化为正统的信仰。By the end of the 3rd century Gnosticism as a distinct movement seems to have largely disappeared.到了作为一个独特的运动3世纪诺斯替主义结束似乎已在很大程度上消失了。

Survivals残余

One small non-Christian Gnostic sect, the Mandaeans, still exists in Iraq and Iran, although it is not certain that it began as part of the original Gnostic movement.一个小非基督教诺斯替教派的曼德安,仍然存在于伊拉克和伊朗,虽然不能肯定它作为原始诺斯底运动的一部分开始。 Although the ancient sects did not survive, aspects of the Gnostic world view have periodically reappeared in many forms: the ancient dualistic religion called Manichaeism and the related medieval heresies of the Albigenses, Bogomils, and Paulicians; the medieval Jewish mystical philosophy known as Cabala (Kaballah); the metaphysical speculation surrounding the alchemy of the Renaissance; 19th-century theosophy; 20th-century existentialism and nihilism; and the writings of the 20th-century Swiss psychologist Carl Jung.虽然古代教派没有生存,在诺斯底世界观方面有定期重新出现在许多形式:古代称为摩尼教二元论宗教和Albigenses,Bogomils和Paulicians有关中世纪异端邪说;中世纪的犹太神秘哲学Cabala已知( Kaballah);形而上学的猜测周围的文艺复兴时期的炼丹术,19世纪神智; 20世纪的存在主义和虚无主义,以及20世纪的瑞士心理学家卡尔荣格的著作。The essence of Gnosticism has proved very durable: the view that the inner spirit of humanity must be liberated from a world that is basically deceptive, oppressive, and evil.诺斯替主义的本质已被证明非常耐用:认为人类的内在精神,必须从这个世界基本上是欺骗,压迫和罪恶中解放出来。

Pheme PerkinsPheme帕金斯


Gnosticism诺斯替主义

Advanced Information先进的信息

Prior to the first half of the twentieth century such early heresiologists (defenders of Christianity against heresy) as Irenaeus, Tertullian, Hippolytus, and Epiphanius were our principal sources of information concerning the Gnostics.此前,在二十世纪早期heresiologists如爱任纽等,良,西波吕和埃皮法尼乌斯(基督教的捍卫者对异端)上半年是我们的主要信息源关于诺斯替教派。 These heresiologists were scathing in their denunciations of the Gnostics, who were perceived as leading Christians astray by the manipulation of words and the twisting of scriptural meanings.这些heresiologists被严厉谴责他们的诺斯替教,谁是基督徒认为作为领导误入歧途的文字操纵和扭曲了圣经的意义。 Of particular interest to Gnostic interpreters were the stories of Genesis, the Gospel of John, and the epistles of Paul.特别感兴趣的诺斯底口译员的创世纪的故事,约翰福音,和保罗的书信。They used the biblical texts for their own purposes.他们用自己的目的的经文。Indeed, Gnostics such as Heracleon and Ptolemaeus were the first commentators on the Fourth Gospel.事实上,如Heracleon和托勒玫环形山诺斯替教派都在四福音第一评论家。But Irenaeus likens such interpretations to someone who takes apart a beautiful picture of a king and reassembles it into a picture of a fox (Adversus Haereses 1.8.1).但是,爱任纽比喻的人谁需要一个国王除了美丽图画和重组变成了一个狐狸(Adversus Haereses 1.8.1)图片是这样的解释。

The heresiologists regarded Gnosticism as the product of the combination of Greek philosophy and Christianity.该heresiologists视为希腊哲学和基督教灵知主义相结合的产物。 For instance, after detailing the Gnostic heretics, Tertullian announces: "What indeed has Athens to do with Jerusalem? What concord is there between the Academy and the Church? What between heretics and Christians? Away with all attempts to produce a mottled Christianity of Stoic, Platonic, and dialectic composition" (On Prescription Against Heretics 7).例如,在详细介绍了诺斯底异端,良宣布:“有什么的确是雅典与耶路撒冷之间有什么和谐的学院和教会之间有什么异教徒和基督徒废除了所有试图产生一种斯多葛斑驳的基督教?? ,柏拉图,组成和辩证法“(论反对异端7处方)。The heresiologists' view concerning Gnosticism was generally regarded as acceptable even at the end of the nineteenth century, when Adolf Harnack defined Gnosticism as the "acute secularizing of Christianity."该heresiologists“的观点有关诺斯替主义普遍视为可以接受的,即使在十九世纪末,当阿道夫哈纳克诺斯替主义定义为”急性基督教世俗化。“

The history of religions school, of which Hans Jonas is a contemporary exponent, has challenged this definition.对宗教学校的历史,其中汉斯乔纳斯是当代指数,这个定义提出了挑战。According to Jonas, Gnosticism is a general religious phenomenon of the hellenistic world and is the product of the fusion or Greek culture and Oriental religion.据乔纳斯,诺斯替主义是一般的希腊化世界的宗教现象,是融合或希腊文化和东方宗教的产物。The "Greek conceptualization" of Eastern religious traditions, ie, Jewish monotheism, Babylonian astrology, and Iranian dualism, is viewed as the basis for Gnosticism. “希腊概念化”的东方宗教传统,即犹太一神教,巴比伦占星术,和伊朗的二元论,被视为对诺斯替主义的基础。While RM Wilson and RM Grant reject such a broad definition and affirm instead a primary basis in hellenistic Judaism or Jewish apocalyptic, the advantage of Jonas's view is that it recognizes the broad spectrum within Gnosticism.虽然RM和RM格兰特威尔逊拒绝这样一个广泛的定义和确认,而不是在希腊犹太教或犹太世界末日,主要依据的乔纳斯认为优势在于,它承认在诺斯替主义广泛。 The weakness is that the definition encompasses almost everything within the concept of hellenistic religions.的缺点是,定义几乎涵盖范围内的古希腊宗教概念的一切。

The breadth of Gnostic orientations, however, has been confirmed by the discovery of a Gnostic library at Nag Hammadi in Egypt.诺斯底方向的广度,但是,已经证实了在纳格在埃及哈马迪诺斯底库的发现。 In the thirteen ancient codices are included fifty two tractates are of various types and orientations.在十三古抄本包括52 tractates不同类型和取向。A large number clearly present a Christian Gnostic perspective, the most familiar being the three so - called Valentinian gospels: the Gospel of Thomas (composed of a series of brief sayings of Jesus), the Gospel of Philip (a collection of sayings, metaphors, and esoteric arguments), and the Gospel of Truth (a discourse on deity and unity reminiscent of the language of the Fourth Gospel but definitely bent in the direction of Gnostic mythology and possibly related to the Gospel of Truth by Valentinus noted in Irenaeus).大量明显存在一个基督教诺斯底的角度来看,最熟悉的是三个如此 - 所谓瓦伦蒂安福音:在托马斯(一个简短的耶稣语录系列组成),在菲利普福音(收集的谚语,比喻福音,和深奥的参数),和真理的福音(对神和统一的语言让人想起四福音的话语,但绝对弯曲诺斯替神话中的方向和可能涉及到在爱任纽注意到Valentinus真理福音)。 Also among the Christian Gnostic tractates are the Apocryphon of James, the Acts of Peter and the Twelve Apostles, the Treatise on the Resurrection, the long collection known as the Tripartite Tractate, and three editions of the Apocryphon of John (the fascinating story of creation which involves a reinterpretation of the Genesis accounts).也属于基督教诺斯替tractates是詹姆斯Apocryphon,彼得的行为和十二门徒,在伤寒论复活,长期收集的三方短文可知,三个约翰Apocryphon版(创造的引人入胜的故事其中涉及的成因帐户重新解释)。

But not all the tractates reveal a pseudo - Christian orientation.但是,并非所有的tractates揭示伪 - 基督教的方向。The Paraphrase of Shem seems to reflect a Jewish Gnostic perspective.而闪意译似乎反映了犹太诺斯底的观点。The Discourse on the Eighth and the Ninth is patently a Hermetic treatise.关于第八届和第九届话语显然是一个密封的论文。The longest tractate in the library (132 pages) bears the designation Zostrianos and purports to be from Zoroaster.该库中的最长的短文(132页)承担指定Zostrianos和看来是从琐罗亚斯德。One of the interesting features of this library is the presence of two editions of Eugnostos the Blessed, which seems to be a non - Christian philosophic document which has apparently been "Christianized" in a redacted tractate called the Sophia of Jesus Christ.本库中的有趣的功能之一是两个Eugnostos的祝福,这似乎是一个非版本存在 - 基督教哲学的文件,显然是“基督教化”在节录短文叫耶稣基督索菲亚。Finally, the presence of a segment from Plato's Republic among these documents gives further witness to the syncretistic nature of Gnostic thinking.最后,从柏拉图的共和国在这些文件的存在提供了进一步细分见证了诺斯底思想syncretistic性质。As a result of Gnostic borrowing, readers will sense a certain fluidity in the Gnostic designations.作为诺斯底借贷的结果,读者会感觉在诺斯底指定一定的流动性。

Types of Gnosticism类型诺斯替主义

Despite a fluidity within Gnosticism, however, Jonas identifies two basic patterns or structures of Gnostic thought.尽管在诺斯替主义的流动性,但是,乔纳斯确定了两个基本模式的诺斯底思想或结构。Both are mythological structures which seek to explain the problem of evil in terms of its relationship to the process of creation.这两者都试图解释邪在它关系到创作过程方面问题的神话结构。

Iranian伊朗

This branch of Gnosticism developed in Mesopotamia and reflects a horizontal dualism associated with Zoroastrian worship and is epitomized in its later Gnostic form of Manichaeism.这在美索不达米亚的诺斯替主义分支发展,反映了水平的二元论与拜火教崇拜有关,并在其后来的诺斯底的摩尼教形式集中反映。 In this pattern light and darkness, the two primal principles or deities, are locked in a decisive struggle.在这个模式中光明与黑暗,这两个原则或原始神灵,被锁定在一个决定性的斗争。This struggle has been positionalized by the fact that, since light transcends itself and shines beyond its own realm, light particles were subjected to capture by its jealous enemy, darkness.这场斗争已经positionalized的,由于光超越自己,超越自己的境界眼前一亮,光粒子遭到捕捉其嫉妒敌人,黑暗的事实。 In order to launch a counterattack and recapture its lost particles, therefore, light gives birth to (or "emanates") a series of subordinate deities that are emanated for the purpose of doing battle.为了发动反击并夺回失去的颗粒,因此,光生了(或“emanates”)的,这对于做战的目的所发出下属神系列。In defense, darkness likewise sets in motion a comparable birthing of subdeities and arranges for the entombment of the light particles in a created world.在国防,黑暗也套在议案的subdeities可比分娩并为世界创造一个光粒子冢安排。This cosmic realm becomes the sphere of combat for the protagonists.这个宇宙境界成为作战的主角领域。The object of the struggle is the winning of the human beings who bear the light particles and the effecting of their release from the prison of this world so that they may reenter the sphere of heavenly light.斗争的对象是谁赢得了负担轻粒子人类和他们从监狱释放effecting这个世界,让他们重新进入天堂般的光球。

Syrian叙利亚

This type arose in the area of Syria, Palestine, and Egypt and reflects a much more complex vertical dualism.这种类型出现在叙利亚,巴勒斯坦和埃及地区,反映了更为复杂的垂直二元论。In this system the ultimate principle is good, and the task of the Gnostic thinkers is to explain how evil emerged from the singular principle of good.在这个系统中的最终原则是好的,对诺斯替思想家的任务是解释如何恶从善奇异原则应运而生。The method employed is the identification of some deficiency or error in the good.该方法采用的是一些缺乏或在良好的错误识别。

The Valentinian solution to the problem of evil is that the good god (the ultimate depth) with his consort (silence) initiates the birthing process of (or "emanates") a series of paired deities.该瓦伦蒂安解决恶的问题是,好神(最终深度)与他的配偶(沉默)启动(或“emanates”)的配对神系列分娩过程。 The last of the subordinate deities (usually designated as Sophia, wisdom) is unhappy with her consort and desires, instead, a relationship with the ultimate depth.在过去的下属神(通常为索菲亚,智慧指定)与她的配偶和愿望,相反,其最终深度的关系感到不满。This desire is unacceptable in the godhead and is extracted from Sophia and excluded from the heavenly realm (pleroma).这种愿望是不能接​​受的神格,是提取索菲亚和来自天上的境界(pleroma)排除在外。While Sophia is thus rescued from her lust, the godhead has lost a portion of its divine nature.虽然索菲亚因此,从她的欲望获救后,神格已经失去了其神圣性的部分。The goal, therefore, is the recovery of the fallen light.我们的目标,因此,是倒下的灯恢复。

But the excluded desire (or lower Sophia) is unaware of its fallen nature, and depending on the various accounts, either it or its offspring, the Creator, begins a "demiurgical" or birthing process which partially mirrors the "emanating" process in the pleroma and ultimately results in the creation of the world.但排除愿望(或更低索菲亚)是其堕落的性质不了解,并且根据不同的帐户,无论是它或它的后代,造物主,开始了“demiurgical”或分娩过程,部分地反映在了“产生”的过程pleroma,在创造了世界,最终的结果。 The upper godhead (pleroma) by its divine messenger (often called Christ or the Holy Spirit) tricks the Creator - Demiurge into breathing into man the breath of life, and thus the light particles are passed to a light man.其上部神格神圣的信使(经常被称为基督或圣灵)技巧造物主(pleroma) - 进到人的生命的气息呼吸造物主,因而光粒子传递给光的人。The defense strategy of the lower godhead (realm of the Demiurge) is that the lightman is entombed in a body of death which, under the direction of the Demiurge, has been formed by its pseudosubdeities, also known as "the fates" or identified with the realm of the planets.神格较低的(在造物主的境界)国防战略是,莱特曼是在一个死的身体,而根据该造物主方向,已被也被称为“命运”或确定其pseudosubdeities,形成埋葬行星的境界。

The Garden of Eden story is then transformed so that the biblical tree of the knowledge of good and evil becomes a vehicle of knowledge (gnosis) established by the heavenly or pleromatic realm.花园的伊甸园的故事,然后改造,使对善恶知识树变成了圣经知识车辆(灵知)由天上或pleromatic境界成立。But the tree of life becomes a vehicle of bondage and dependence established by the demiurgical realm.但生命之树变成了束缚,由demiurgical领域建立依赖汽车。The divine messenger from the pleroma encourages man to eat from the tree of knowledge; and in so eating, man discovers that the jealous Creator - Demiurge (often linked with misspelled forms of Yahweh such as Yaldabaoth or Yao) is not in fact the ultimate God but really an enemy of God.从pleroma神圣使者鼓励男人吃知识树,并在这样的饮食,男人发现的嫉妒造物主 - 造物主(常与耶和华的拼写错误的形式,如Yaldabaoth或者姚明链接),其实不是最终的神但真的是神的敌人。Man, as a result of divine help, thus comes to know more than the Creator.人,作为神的帮助的结果,从而得悉比造物主多。In anger the Creator casts man into an earthly body of forgetfulness, and the pleromatic realm is forced to initiate a process of spiritual awakening through the divine messenger.在愤怒的创造者转换成一个健忘尘世身体的人,和pleromatic境界是被迫开始通过神圣的使者一种精神觉醒的过程。

The divine messenger is frequently identified with the figure of the Christian's Jesus Christ, but such identification has some very significant alterations.神圣的使者,是经常遇到的与基督教的耶稣基督的身影,但这种鉴定有一些非常显着的变化。Since the divine realm is basically opposed to the creation of the lower realm, bodies at best are part of the created process and therefore need only to be regarded as vehicles which the divine may use for its own purposes.由于神的境界,基本上是反对的低境界的创造,充其量机构的创建过程的一部分,因此只需要被视为神圣的车辆可使用其视为自己的目的。 The divine messenger Christ, for the purpose of modeling the divine perspective, "adopted" the body of Jesus at a point such as the baptism and departed at a point such as just prior to the crucifixion.基督的神圣使者,为造型的神圣角度而言,“通过”以点的洗礼,如耶稣的身体,在如前的受难点离开。It is the risen "Jesus" or Christ, devoid of bodily restrictions, that based on the modeling has power to awaken man from his sleep of forgetfulness.这是复活的“耶稣”或基督,身体缺乏的限制,即在建模有权从他的健忘唤醒人的睡眠。This assumption of the body of Jesus by the divine messenger is generally termed as "adoptionism" and is related to docetism, wherein Christ merely appears to be a man.这是耶稣的神圣使者身体的假设是一般称之为“adoptionism”,关系到docetism,其中基督只是似乎是一个男人。

Gnostics are those set within a world where they are the spiritual persons (pneumatikoi) who possess the light particles and need only to be awakened in order to inherit their destinies.诺斯替教派是在世界的设定,他们是精神的人(pneumatikoi)谁拥有的光粒子,只需要被唤醒,以继承他们的命运。 In the world there are also said to be psychic persons (psychikoi), who are a grade lower and need to work for whatever salvation they may be able to attain.在世界上也有说是通灵人(psychikoi),谁是等级较低的工作,需要什么拯救他们可能能够实现。The Gnostics often identified such psychics with Christians and understandably irritated the Christian heresiologists such as Irenaus.在诺斯替教派的基督徒经常发现这样的通灵和理解的刺激,如Irenaus基督教heresiologists。The third division of this view of humanity is composed of material persons (hylikoi or sarkikoi), who have no chance to inherit any form of salvation but are destined for destruction.这个人类的第三种划分是由物质的人(hylikoi或sarkikoi),谁没有机会继承任何形式的救赎,但对于销毁的。 Accordingly, it should be obvious that such a view of anthropology is very deterministic in orientation.因此,它应该是显而易见的,这种人类学的观点是十分确定的方向。

The Valentinian goal is reentry into the pleroma, which is often symbolized by terms such as "union" or "unity."该瓦伦蒂安的目标是进入pleroma,这通常是由诸如“联盟”或条款再入象征“团结”。 In documents such as the Gospel of Philip, however, the use of the term "bridal chamber" may suggest a sacrament of union.在诸如菲利普福音文件,但是,对“洞房”的使用可能会提出一个联合圣餐。Such expressions highlight the fact that in many Gnostic documents sexually suggestive terminology is employed.这种表现形式突出,在许多诺斯底文件性暗示的术语是就业的事实。For some Gnostics sexual interests may be attached to a spiritual alternative within an ascetic life style which seems to issue in warning not to fragment further the light particles in one's self through conjugation or sexual intercourse.对于某些诺斯替教派性利益可能被连接到一个精神替代在一个苦行僧式的生活,似乎在发出警告,不要再在一个片段的共轭或通过性交自我的光粒子。 For others, however, such as the followers of Marcus, spiritual awareness was apparently transferred through copulative activity outside of marriage.对于其他人,但是,作为马库斯的追随者这样,精神的认识显然是通过转移系辞活动以外的婚姻。

At death the Gnostics, who had experienced awakening, shed the rags of mortality as they ascended through the realms of the fates (or planets).在死亡的诺斯替教派,谁经历过的觉醒,摆脱死亡的破布,他们通过对命运的领域(或行星)登高。Thus, passing through the purgatory of the planets, they came at last to the limit (horos) or border (sometimes called the "cross") where, devoid of all that constitutes evil, they are welcomed into the eternal realm.因此,通过对行星炼狱传球,他们来到最后到了极限(horos)或边界(有时被称为“交叉”)的地方,所有构成邪恶泯灭,他们进入永恒的境界欢迎。 The concept of purgatory in the Roman Catholic tradition is not unrelated to the purging pattern in Gnostic thought.在罗马天主教的传统炼狱的概念不无关系,在诺斯底思想净化的格局。

The above description is a pattern for understanding the Syrian type of Gnostic structure.以上说明是了解叙利亚的诺斯底结构类型的模式。While this structure should provide a helpful model for readers in interpreting Gnostic documents, it is imperative to recognize the syncretistic nature of Gnosticism and the wide variety of forms which are evident.虽然这种结构应提供的文件中解释诺斯替读者有用的模型,它必须承认诺斯替主义syncretistic性质和形式是多种多样明显。 The Sethians, for example, used Seth as their human figurehead, whereas the Ophites concentrated on the role of the serpent in giving knowledge.该Sethians,例如,作为其人力傀儡塞思,而Ophites上的蛇集中在提供知识的作用。The vast possibilities for variation in struction make Gnostic studies both an intriguing and exercising enterprise.对变化中的结构形式作出的巨大可能性诺斯底研究既是一个有趣和行使企业。

The Gnostics obviously used sources such as Platonic dualism and Eastern religious thought, including ideas derived from Christianity.显然使用的诺斯替教派来源,如柏拉图的二元论和东方宗教思想,包括基督教派生的想法。Their use of sources, however, often resulted in an attack upon those sources.他们对资源的使用,但是,往往导致一个在这些来源的攻击。For example, the Gnostics employ the concept of wisdom (the goal of Greek philosophy) in such a way that it is made the cause of all evil in the world.例如,诺斯替教派雇用这样的,它是由所有在世界上的邪恶事业方式的智慧概念(希腊哲学的目标)。Such an ingenious attack on the concept of wisdom is far more hostile than Paul's statements in 1 Cor.这种对智慧的概念巧妙的攻击远比林前保罗的陈述敌对。1:22 - 2:16.1:22 - 2:16。

In addition to the Valentinian system and its many related forms Hermetic literature provides a somewhat similar vertical structured dualism.除了瓦伦蒂安系统及其许多相关的文献提供了一个全封闭的形式有点类似垂直结构的二元论。This arose in Egypt, and most of the writings seem to be generally unrelated to Christianity or Judaism, although the principal tractate of the Corpus Hermeticum known as Poimandres may not be totally unlike the thought world of the Fourth Gospel.这出现在埃及,和大多数的著作似乎是一般无关的基督教或犹太教,虽然作为Poimandres称为语料库Hermeticum主要短文可能不完全不像四福音思想世界。 Hermetic literature thus raises the problem of Gnostic origins.密封文学从而提高了诺斯底起源问题。

The Problem of Dating约会的问题

Because of the methodological problems concerning Gnostic origins, it is imperative to mention briefly Mandaeanism.由于诺斯底起源有关的方法论问题,当务之急是要略述Mandaeanism。In the 1930s many scholars were referring to Mandaeanism as being pre - Christian, in spite of the fact that the documents used in the interpretive process were obtained from the small contemporary sect in Persia.在20世纪30年代许多学者都提到Mandaeanism作为是前 - 基督教,在,在解释过程中使用的文件是从波斯当代小教派,尽管获得的事实。There is of course no doubt that the traditions of this baptismal sect (which refers to John the Baptist) come from a much earlier time.毫无疑问,这种洗礼教派(指施洗约翰)的传统,从一个更早的时间来怀疑的过程。But how long before the rise of Islam, which considered Mandaeans a valid religious group possessing both sacred writings and a prophet prior to Mohammed, is totally unknown.但过了多久了伊斯兰教的兴起,它认为曼德安有效的宗教群体都具有神圣的著作和先知穆罕默德之前,完全是未知之数。 The matter of dating is, therefore, extremely problematic in the entire study of Gnosticism.约会的事情,因此,非常的诺斯替主义整个研究问题。

Some documents like the Hermetic materials seem to evidence very few influences from Christianity, whereas a few documents, such as the Sophia of Jesus, may be Christianized redactions of earlier non - Christian documents.如密封材料有些文件似乎证据很少从基督教的影响,而一些文件,如耶稣的索菲亚,可能是早期基督教化删节非 - 基督教的文件。But the question that still remains to be answered is: When did Gnosticism arise?但问题仍然有待回答是:什么时候诺斯替主义产生的呢?Clearly by the middle of the second century AD.显然,由公元二世纪中期。Gnosticism had reached its flowering.诺斯替主义已达到其开花。But contrary to Schmithals (Gnosticism in Corinth) the opponents of Paul in Corinth were hardly Gnostics.但出乎Schmithals(在科林斯诺斯替主义)保罗在哥林多的对手是很难诺斯替教派。Were the opponents described in Colossians or Ephesians Gnostics?是在歌罗西书或弗诺斯替教派所描述的对手?Were the opponents in the Johannine letters Gnostics?分别在约翰字母诺斯替教派的对手?It is hard to read the NT and gain any secure feeling at the present that canonical writers were attacking the Gnostic devotees or mythologizers.这是难以阅读的NT和获得任何在目前安全的感觉,典型的作家攻击诺斯底信徒或神话制造者。

GL BorchertGL Borchert
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 参考书目
DM Scholer, Nag Hammadi Bibliography 1948 - 1969; J Robinson, ed., The Nag Hammadi Library in English; RM Grant, ed., Gnosticism: A Source Book of Heretical Writings from the Early Christian Period; W Foerster, Gnosis: A Selection of Gnostic Texts; B Aland, Gnosis: Festschrift fur Hans Jonas; GL Borchert, "Insights into the Gnostic Threat to Christianity as Gained Through the Gospel of Philip," in New Dimensions in New Testament Study, ed. DM寿,拿戈玛参考书目1948年至19​​69年,J罗宾逊,教育署,英纳格在哈马迪图书馆; RM格兰特,ED,诺斯替主义:从早期基督教时期的邪教著作原始资料,W福斯特,灵知:一个选择。诺斯底文本,B奥兰,灵知:纪念论文集毛皮汉斯乔纳斯; GL Borchert,“入了基督教诺斯底威胁的见解获得通过菲利普福音”,在新约研究,编辑新的层面。RN Longenecker and MC Tenney; RM Grant, Gnosticism and Early Christianity; H Jonas, The Gnostic Religion; E Pagels, The Gnostic Gospels; G Quispel, Gnosis als Weltreligion; W Schmithals, Gnosticism in Corinth and Paul and the Gnostics; RM Wilson, The Gnostic Problem and Gnosis and the New Testament; E Yamauchi, Pre - Christian Gnosticism.RN Longenecker和MC坦尼; RM格兰特,诺斯替主义和早期基督教;,在诺斯替宗教H乔纳斯,E Pagels,而诺斯底福音,G Quispel,灵知ALS Weltreligion,W Schmithals,在科林斯和保罗诺斯替主义和诺斯替教派; RM威尔逊,在诺斯底问题和灵知和新约,E山内,预 - 基督教灵知。


Nag Hammadi Library Alphabetical Index老马哈马迪图书馆字母索引

The articles above mention a massive Coptic gnostic library that was discovered near Nag Hammadi (Nag Hammadi Papyri), in upper Egypt, in 1945.上述文章提到一个巨大的科普特诺斯底库附近纳格哈马迪(NAG哈马迪纸莎草纸)发现,在上埃及,于1945年。The contents of the 52 tractates of this collection of scrolls includes the following:本卷轴集合52 tractates的内容包括以下内容:

(BELIEVE contains the full text of of several of these)(相信包含全文这些几个)


Gnosticism诺斯替主义

Catholic Information天主教信息

The doctrine of salvation by knowledge.由知识得救的教义。This definition, based on the etymology of the word (gnosis "knowledge", gnostikos, "good at knowing"), is correct as far as it goes, but it gives only one, though perhaps the predominant, characteristic of Gnostic systems of thought.这个定义,对这个词的词源(灵知“知识”,gnostikos,“在明知好”)为基础,是正确的,因为目前来看,但它给只有一个,但也许是占主导地位,诺斯底系统的思想特点。 Whereas Judaism and Christianity, and almost all pagan systems, hold that the soul attains its proper end by obedience of mind and will to the Supreme Power, ie by faith and works, it is markedly peculiar to Gnosticism that it places the salvation of the soul merely in the possession of a quasi-intuitive knowledge of the mysteries of the universe and of magic formulae indicative of that knowledge.而犹太教和基督教,而且几乎所有的异教系统,认为其灵魂达到服从正确的心态和意志,最终的最高权力,由信仰和工程即是明显的,它特有的诺斯替主义地方的灵魂得救只是在一个对宇宙和神奇的公式,这些知识的奥秘指示准直观的知识占有。 Gnostics were "people who knew", and their knowledge at once constituted them a superior class of beings, whose present and future status was essentially different from that of those who, for whatever reason, did not know.诺斯替教派是“人谁知道”,他们在一次知识构成他们的生命优越类,其目前和未来的地位基本上是从这些谁,不管什么原因,不知道不同。 A more complete and historical definition of Gnosticism would be:一个比较完整的诺斯替主义和历史的定义是:

A collective name for a large number of greatly-varying and pantheistic-idealistic sects, which flourished from some time before the Christian Era down to the fifth century, and which, while borrowing the phraseology and some of the tenets of the chief religions of the day, and especially of Christianity, held matter to be a deterioration of spirit, and the whole universe a depravation of the Deity, and taught the ultimate end of all being to be the overcoming of the grossness of matter and the return to the Parent-Spirit, which return they held to be inaugurated and facilitated by the appearance of some God-sent Saviour.一个大量的集体名义大大变和泛神论的唯心主义的教派,这一段时间,才能蓬勃发展,从基督教时代下至第五世纪,其中,借用语和对宗教的教义的主要部分一天,尤其是基督教举行事情是一种精神的恶化,乃至整个宇宙的神的恶化,教的是要对物质和返回grossness克服一切最终结束的家长精神,这回他们认为是开创和一些神派救世主出现了便利。

However unsatisfactory this definition may be, the obscurity, multiplicity, and wild confusion of Gnostic systems will hardly allow of another.但不满意这个定义而定,默默无闻,多样性,野生和诺斯替系统混乱将很难让另一个。Many scholars, moreover, would hold that every attempt to give a generic description of Gnostic sects is labour lost.许多学者,而且,会认为每一个试图给一个诺斯底教派的通用描述则罔。

ORIGIN ORIGIN

The beginnings of Gnosticism have long been a matter of controversy and are still largely a subject of research.诺斯替主义的起源一直是有争议的问题,在很大程度上仍是一个研究课题。The more these origins are studied, the farther they seem to recede in the past.越是这些起源进行了研究,他们越远似乎退去了过去。

Whereas formerly Gnosticism was considered mostly a corruption of Christianity, it now seems clear that the first traces of Gnostic systems can be discerned some centuries before the Christian Era.而以前被认为主要是诺斯替主义的基督教腐败,现在看来显然,诺斯底系统的第一个痕迹就可以看出端倪前基督教时代的几个世纪。 Its Eastern origin was already maintained by Gieseler and Neander; F. Ch.其东部的起源已经维持Gieseler和尼安德; F.通道。Bauer (1831) and Lassen (1858) sought to prove its relation to the religions of India; Lipsius (1860) pointed to Syria and Phoenicia as its home, and Hilgenfeld (1884) thought it was connected with later Mazdeism.鲍尔(1831)和拉森(1858)试图证明其与印度的宗教; Lipsius(1860)指出作为其向叙利亚和腓尼基家,和Hilgenfeld(1884)认为它与后来Mazdeism连接。Joel (1880), Weingarten (1881), Koffmane (1881), Anrich (1894), and Wobbermin (1896) sought to account for the rise of Gnosticism by the influence of Greek Platonic philosophy and the Greek mysteries, while Harnack described it as "acute Hellenization of Christianity".乔尔(1880年),万家顿(1881),Koffmane(1881),Anrich(1894年),和Wobbermin(1896)试图占了诺斯替主义由希腊柏拉图哲学和希腊的神秘影响力的提高,而将其形容为哈纳克“急性希腊化的基督教”。

For the past twenty-five years, however, the trend of scholarship has steadily moved towards proving the pre-Christian Oriental origins of Gnosticism.对于过去的二十五年,但是,奖学金的趋势已逐渐走向证明了诺斯替主义前基督教的东方渊源。At the Fifth Congress of Orientalists (Berlin, 1882) Kessler brought out the connection between Gnosis and the Babylonian religion.在第五次代表大会的东方学家(柏林,1882年)之间凯斯勒带出了灵知和巴比伦宗教的连接。 By this latter name, however, he meant not the original religion of Babylonia, but the syncretistic religion which arose after the conquest of Cyrus.通过后者的名字,然而,他的意思不是巴比伦原始宗教,但syncretistic宗教,居鲁士征服后出现。The same idea is brought out in his "Mani" seven years later.同样的想法带来了他的“嘛呢”出七年后。In the same year FW Brandt published his "Mandiäische Religion".同年FW布兰特出版了他的“Mandiäische宗教”。This Mandaean religion is so unmistakably a form of Gnosticism that it seems beyond doubt that Gnosticism existed independent of, and anterior to, Christianity.这Mandaean宗教是如此明白无误的诺斯替主义的形式,它毫无疑问诺斯替主义似乎存在独立的,和前到,基督教。

In more recent years (1897) Wilhelm Anz pointed out the close similarity between Babylonian astrology and the Gnostic theories of the Hebdomad and Ogdoad.在最近三年(1897)澳新银行指出,威廉之间的巴比伦占星术及Hebdomad和Ogdoad的诺斯底理论密切的相似性。 Though in many instances speculations on the Babylonian Astrallehre have gone beyond all sober scholarship, yet in this particular instance the inferences made by Anz seem sound and reliable.虽然在许多情况下对巴比伦Astrallehre猜测已经超越了所有清醒的奖学金,但在这个特殊的实例ANZ提出的推论似乎声音和可靠。 Researches in the same direction were continued and instituted on a wider scale by W. Bousset, in 1907, and led to carefully ascertained results.在同一方向的研究,并制定了继续在更大范围内由W. Bousset,于1907年,并导致了仔细确定的结果。In 1898 the attempt was made by M. Friedländer to trace Gnosticism in pre-Christian Judaism. 1898年的尝试是由M.德兰德追查前基督教犹太教的诺斯替主义。His opinion that the Rabbinic term Minnim designated not Christians, as was commonly believed, but Antinomian Gnostics, has not found universal acceptance.他认为,长期Minnim指定拉比不是基督徒,正如普遍认为,但唯信仰论诺斯替教派,一直没有找到普遍接受。 In fact, E. Schürer brought sufficient proof to show that Minnim is the exact Armaean dialectic equivalent for ethne.事实上,E. Schürer带来了足够的证据表明,Minnim是确切的Armaean相当于为ethne辩证法。 Nevertheless Friedländer's essay retains its value in tracing strong antinomian tendencies with Gnostic colouring on Jewish soil.然而德兰德的作文保持其在追查与犹太诺斯底土着色强唯信仰论倾向的价值。

Not a few scholars have laboured to find the source of Gnostic theories on Hellenistic and, specifically, Alexandrian soil.不是少数学者在希腊找到吃力,具体地说,亚历山大诺斯底土的理论来源。In 1880 Joel sought to prove that the germ of all Gnostic theories was to be found in Plato. 1880年乔尔试图证明,所有诺斯底理论的胚芽是在柏拉图发现。Though this may be dismissed as an exaggeration, some Greek influence on the birth, but especially on the growth, of Gnosticism cannot be denied.虽然这可能是作为一种夸张驳回,一些诞生,特别是在增长,但希腊的影响诺斯替主义,不能否认。In Trismegistic literature, as pointed out by Reitzenstein (Poimandres, 1904), we find much that is strangely akin to Gnosticism.在Trismegistic文学,正如Reitzenstein(Poimandres,1904年)时,我们发现很多奇怪的是类似于诺斯替主义。 Its Egyptian origin was defended by E. Amélineau, in 1887, and illustrated by A. Dietrich, in 1891 (Abraxas Studien) and 1903 (Mithrasliturgie).它起源于埃及辩护E. Amélineau,于1887年,由A.迪特里希,在1891年(卫矛尺(研究))和1903年(Mithrasliturgie)所示。The relation of Plotinus's philosophy to Gnosticism was brought out by C. Schmidt in 1901.而普罗提诺的哲学与诺斯替主义是带来C.施密特在1901年。That Alexandrian thought had some share at least in the development of Christian Gnosticism is clear from the fact that the bulk of Gnostic literature which we possess comes to us from Egyptian (Coptic) sources.亚历山大认为这已经至少在基督教灵知主义发展的一些份额由上可见,事实是,诺斯底文献,我们拥有大量涉及到我们从埃及(科普特人)的来源。 That this share was not a predominant one is, however, acknowledged by O. Gruppe in his "Griechische Mythologie und Religionsgeschichte" (1902).这一比例不是主要的一个是,但是,承认O. GRUPPE在他的“Griechische Mythologie UND Religionsgeschichte”(1902年)。It is true that the Greek mysteries, as G. Anrich pointed out in 1894, had much in common with esoteric Gnosticism; but there remains the further question, in how far these Greek mysteries, as they are known to us, were the genuine product of Greek thought, and not much rather due to the overpowering influence of Orientalism.诚然,希腊奥秘,正如G. Anrich指出了在1894年,一直与深奥的诺斯替主义许多共同点,但仍然有进一步的问题,在多大程度上这些希腊的奥秘,因为它们是我们所知的,是真正的产品希腊认为,并没有多少,而由于东方不可抗拒的影响。

Although the origins of Gnosticism are still largely enveloped in obscurity, so much light has been shed on the problem by the combined labours of many scholars that it is possible to give the following tentative solution: Although Gnosticism may at first sight appear a mere thoughtless syncretism of well nigh all religious systems in antiquity, it has in reality one deep root-principle, which assimilated in every soil what is needed for its life and growth; this principle is philosophical and religious pessimism.虽然诺斯替主义的起源仍笼罩在朦胧很大程度上,这么多的光已经阐明该问题通过许多学者认为它有可能给下面的初步解决方案相结合的劳动:虽然诺斯替主义可能乍一看似乎只有轻率合一对几乎成了所有在古代宗教制度,它在现实中一深根的原则,在每一个什么是它的生命和生长所需的土壤吸收,这原则是哲学和宗教的悲观情绪。

The Gnostics, it is true, borrowed their terminology almost entirely from existing religions, but they only used it to illustrate their great idea of the essential evil of this present existence and the duty to escape it by the help of magic spells and a superhuman Saviour.在诺斯替教,这是事实,借用他们的术语几乎全部从现有的宗教,但他们只用它来说明他们的伟大思想对目前这个邪恶的存在必要和义务逃脱的魔法帮助它和超人的救主。 Whatever they borrowed, this pessimism they did not borrow -- not from Greek thought, which was a joyous acknowledgment of and homage to the beautiful and noble in this world, with a studied disregard of the element of sorrow; not from Egyptian thought, which did not allow its elaborate speculations on retribution and judgment in the netherworld to cast a gloom on this present existence, but considered the universe created or evolved under the presiding wisdom of Thoth; not from Iranian thought, which held to the absolute supremacy of Ahura Mazda and only allowed Ahriman a subordinate share in the creation, or rather counter-creation, of the world; not from Indian Brahminic thought, which was Pantheism pure and simple, or God dwelling in, nay identified with, the universe, rather than the Universe existing as the contradictory of God; not, lastly, from Semitic thought, for Semitic religions were strangely reticent as to the fate of the soul after death, and saw all practical wisdom in the worship of Baal, or Marduk, or Assur, or Hadad, that they might live long on this earth.无论他们借来的,这并没有悲观,他们借用 - 而不是从希腊思想,这是一个欢乐的承认和尊敬对这个世界的美丽和高贵与悲哀元素的研究不顾,不从埃及认为,这也不允许在阴曹报应和判断其精心揣测投在目前这个和平共处的阴霾,但认为创建或主持下,托特智慧进化的宇宙,不从伊朗认为,它举行的阿胡拉马自达绝对优势只有允许阿里曼在创作下属的份额,或者说反创造了世界;不是从印度Brahminic认为,这是泛神论中,反对票着,宇宙确定,而不是宇宙单纯,或神的帐幕现有作为上帝矛盾,不,最后,从犹太人的思想,对犹太人的宗教是很奇怪至于死后灵魂的命运保持沉默,只见在巴力崇拜的实践智慧,或马尔杜克,或亚述,或哈达,它们可能生活在这个地球上长。

This utter pessimism, bemoaning the existence of the whole universe as a corruption and a calamity, with a feverish craving to be freed from the body of this death and a mad hope that, if we only knew, we could by some mystic words undo the cursed spell of this existence -- this is the foundation of all Gnostic thought.这完全悲观,哀叹一个狂热的渴望是从这个死的身体中解脱出来,并疯狂希望作为一个腐败和灾难整个宇宙的存在,即,如果我们只知道,我们可以撤消一些神秘的话这个咒语诅咒的存在 - 这是所有诺斯底思想的基础。It has the same parent-soil as Buddhism; but Buddhism is ethical, it endeavours to obtain its end by the extinction of all desire; Gnosticism is pseudo-intellectual, and trusts exclusively to magical knowledge.它与佛教相同的父土,但佛教是伦理,它努力取得的所有欲望灭绝的结束;诺斯替主义是伪知识,并相信专为神奇的知识。 Moreover, Gnosticism, placed in other historical surroundings, developed from the first on other lines than Buddhism.此外,诺斯替主义,放置在其他历史环境,从发展上的第一个佛教比其他线路。

When Cyrus entered Babylon in 539 BC, two great worlds of thought met, and syncretism in religion, as far as we know it, began.当在公元前539年居鲁士进入巴比伦,世界上两个伟大的思想见面,并在宗教合一,据我们所知,就开始了。Iranian thought began to mix with the ancient civilization of Babylon.伊朗认为开始混合的巴比伦古文明。The idea of the great struggle between evil and good, ever continuing in this universe, is the parent idea of Mazdeism, or Iranian dualism.邪恶之间的斗争和良好的伟大构想,在这个宇宙中有史以来持续,是Mazdeism父母的想法,或伊朗的二元论。This, and the imagined existence of numberless intermediate spirits, angels and devas, are the conviction which overcame the contentedness of Semitism.这和想象中的无数中间鬼神存在,天使和天王,一经定罪,这是克服了反犹太主义知足。

On the other hand, the unshakable trust in astrology, the persuasion that the planetary system had a fatalistic influence on this world's affairs, stood its ground on the soil of Chaldea.另一方面,在占星术中,劝说该行星系统已经对这个世界的事务宿命论的影响,不可动摇的信任站在迦勒底土的地面。The greatness of the Seven -- the Moon, Mercury, Venus, Mars, the Sun, Jupiter, and Saturn -- the sacred Hebdomad, symbolized for millenniums by the staged towers of Babylonia, remained undiminished.这七个伟大 - 月球,水星,金星,火星,太阳,木星和土星 - 神圣Hebdomad,象征着几千年的巴比伦的塔上演,仍然不减。They ceased, indeed, to be worshipped as deities, but they remained archontes and dynameis, rules and powers whose almost irresistible force was dreaded by man.他们停止了,事实上,被视为神灵崇拜,但他们仍然archontes和dynameis,规则和权力,其几乎不可抗拒的力量是可怕的人。 Practically, they were changed from gods to devas, or evil spirits.实际上,他们改变了从神到天神,或恶鬼。The religions of the invaders and of the invaded effected a compromise: the astral faith of Babylon was true, but beyond the Hebodomad was the infinite light in the Ogdoad, and every human soul had to pass the adverse influence of the god or gods of the Hebdomad before it could ascend to the only good God beyond.对侵略者和被侵略的宗教影响的妥协:在巴比伦星界的信仰是真实的,但超出了Hebodomad是在Ogdoad无限的光,和每个人的灵魂必须通过对神的不利影响或神Hebdomad才可能升上唯一的好神超越。 This ascent of the soul through the planetary spheres to the heaven beyond (an idea not unknown even to ancient Babylonian speculations) began to be conceived as a struggle with adverse powers, and became the first and predominant idea in Gnosticism.这个灵魂,通过行星领域之外的天堂(一个想法并不陌生,甚至古老的巴比伦猜测)上升开始被视为一个不利的权力斗争的设想,并于诺斯替主义的第一个和主要的想法。

The second great component of Gnostic thought is magic, properly so called, ie the power ex opere operato of weird names, sounds, gestures, and actions, as also the mixture of elements to produce effects totally disproportionate to the cause.诺斯底思想的第二大组成部分是魔,所谓正确,即权力的前怪异的名字,声音,手势和动作opere operato一样,也将产生影响的元素完全不相称的原因混合物。These magic formulae, which caused laughter and disgust to outsiders, are not a later and accidental corruption, but an essential part of Gnosticism, for they are found in all forms of Christian Gnosticism and likewise in Mandaeism.这些神奇的公式,这引起笑声和厌恶外人,是不是以后和意外损坏,而是一个诺斯替主义的重要组成部分,因为他们是在基督教灵知一切形式同样在Mandaeism发现。 No Gnosis was essentially complete without the knowledge of the formulae, which, once pronounced, were the undoing of the higher hostile powers.没有灵知基本上没有的公式,其中,一旦明显,分别是较高的敌对势力撤消知识完成。Magic is the original sin of Gnosticism, nor is it difficult to guess whence it is inherited.魔术是诺斯替主义原罪,也不是很难猜测它是继承自何处。To a certain extent it formed part of every pagan religion, especially the ancient mysteries, yet the thousands of magic tablets unearthed is Assyria and Babylonia show us where the rankest growth of magic was to be found.在一定程度上形成了每一个异教的宗教,特别是古代神秘的一部分,但出土的数千片神奇的是亚述和巴比伦我们展示了神奇rankest增长被发现。 Moreover, the terms and names of earliest of Gnosticism bear an unmistakable similarity to Semitic sounds and words.此外,条款和诺斯替主义最早的名称承担对犹太人的声音和文字明白无误的相似性。

Gnosticism came early into contact with Judaism, and it betrays a knowledge of the Old Testament, if only to reject it or borrow a few names from it.诺斯替主义来得早与犹太教的联系,它暴露了旧约的知识,如果仅仅是拒绝,或借用它几个名字。Considering the strong, well-organized, and highly-cultured Jewish colonies in the Euphrates valley, this early contact with Judaism is perfectly natural.考虑到强,组织严密,具有很强的培养,在幼发拉底河流域,这与犹太教早期接触犹太殖民地是完全自然的。Perhaps the Gnostic idea of a Redeemer is not unconnected with Jewish Messianic hopes.也许一个救世主诺斯底的想法是不希望与犹太弥赛亚无关。But from the first the Gnostic conception of a Saviour is more superhuman than that of popular Judaism; their Manda d'Haye, or Soter, is some immediate manifestation of the Deity, a Light-King, an Æon (Aion), and an emanation of the good God.但是,从第一个救世主诺斯底概念比流行犹太教的超人,他们的曼达D'海牙,或梭特尔,是一些神直接的表现形式,轻景,一个永旺(永恒之塔),和射气的好神。

When Gnosticism came in touch with Christianity, which must have happened almost immediately on its appearance, Gnosticism threw herself with strange rapidity into Christian forms of thought, borrowed its nomenclature, acknowledged Jesus as Saviour of the world, simulated its sacraments, pretended to be an esoteric revelation of Christ and His Apostles, flooded the world with apocryphal Gospels, and Acts, and Apocalypses, to substantiate its claim.当灵知主义与基督教,必须发生在它的外观几乎立即触摸来了,用异样的速度诺斯替主义扔自己到基督教的思想形式,借用其名称,确认为救主的世界,模拟其圣礼耶稣,谎称自己是一个基督和他的门徒深奥的启示,充斥着猜测福音,和行为,并启示世界,以证明其索赔。 As Christianity grew within and without the Roman Empire, Gnosticism spread as a fungus at its root, and claimed to be the only true form of Christianity, unfit, indeed, for the vulgar crowd, but set apart for the gifted and the elect.由于基督教在增长,没有罗马帝国,在其根木耳诺斯替主义的蔓延,并声称是唯一真正的基督教的形式,不适合,实在庸俗的人群,但设置为优和选举分开。 So rank was its poisonous growth that there seemed danger of its stifling Christianity altogether, and the earliest Fathers devoted their energies to uprooting it.因此,它的排名是有毒的增长似乎有其危险性完全扼杀基督教,最早父亲精力投入到铲除它。Though in reality the spirit of Gnosticism is utterly alien to that of Christianity, it then seemed to the unwary merely a modification or refinement thereof.虽然在现实中的诺斯替主义的精神是完全陌生的基督教认为,这对粗心的话似乎仅仅是修改或改进不足。When domiciled on Greek soil, Gnosticism, slightly changing its barbarous and Seminitic terminology and giving its "emanatons" and"syzygies" Greek names, sounded somewhat like neo-Platonism, thought it was strongly repudiated by Plotinus.当希腊的土壤,诺斯替主义,稍微改变其野蛮和Seminitic术语,并给予其“emanatons”和“syzygies”希腊名定居,听起来有点像新柏拉图主义,认为这是强烈普罗提诺的否定。 In Egypt the national worship left its mark more on Gnostic practice than on its theories.在埃及的国家崇拜留在诺斯替比其理论实践的标志等等。

In dealing with theorigins of Gnosticism, one might be tempted to mention Manichaeism, as a number of Gnostic ideas seem to be borrowed from Manichaeism, where they are obviously at home.按照诺斯底主义的起源时,人们可能会受到诱惑,何况摩尼教,作为诺斯底思想数目似乎是从摩尼教,他们显然是在家里借来的。 This, however, would hardly be correct.然而,这将很难是正确的。Manichaeism, as historically connected with Mani, its founder, could not have arisen much earlier than AD 250, when Gnosticism was already in rapid decline.摩尼教,作为历史与摩尼,其创始人相连,不可能出现远远早于公元250,当诺斯替主义在迅速下降了。Manichaeism, however, in many of its elements dates back far beyond its commonly accepted founder; but then it is a parallel development with the Gnosis, rather than one of its sources.摩尼教,但是,日期在其后面的许多内容远远超出了其公认的创始人,但当时它是一个与灵知并行发展,而不是它的来源之一。 Sometimes Manichaeism is even classed as a form of Gnosticism and styled Parsee Gnosis, as distinguished from Syrian and Egyptian Gnosis.有时甚至列为摩尼教的诺斯替主义和风格的帕西灵知形式从叙利亚和埃及的灵知区分。This classification, however, ignores the fact that the two systems, though they have the doctrine of the evil of matter in common, start from different principles, Manichaeism from dualism, while Gnosticism, as an idealistic Pantheism, proceeds from the conception of matter as a gradual deterioration of the Godhead.这种分类,但忽略了一个事实,这两个系统,但他们有共同问题的邪恶学说,从不同的原则,从二元论的摩尼教,而灵知,作为一个理想主义的泛神论,从物质的概念所得款项一个神性逐渐恶化。

DOCTRINES强占理论

Owing to the multiplicity and divergence of Gnostic theories, a detailed exposition in this article would be unsatisfactory and confusing and to acertain extent even misleading, since Gnosticism never possessed a nucleus of stable doctrine, or any sort of depositum fidei round which a number of varied developments and heresies or sects might be grouped; at most it had some leading ideas, which are more or less clearly traceable in different schools.由于多重性和诺斯底的理论分歧,在这篇文章中详细论述,将理想和困惑,并acertain程度甚至误导,因为诺斯替主义从未拥有一个稳定的学说的核心,或任何depositum fidei那种轮数的变化发展和异端教派或可能进行分组,在大多数情况下它导致了一些想法,这是在不同的学校或多或少清楚溯源。Moreover, a fair idea of Gnostic doctrines can be obtained from the articles on leaders and phases of Gnostic thought (eg BASILIDES; VALENTINUS; MARCION; DOCETAE; DEMIURGE).此外,诺斯底主义的公平理念可从文章的领导人和诺斯底思想(如巴西里德; VALENTINUS;马吉安; DOCETAE;造物主)阶段。We shall here only indicate some main phases of thought, which can be regarded as keys and which, though not fitting all systems, will unlock most of the mysteries of the Gnosis.我们将在这里只能说明思想一些主要阶段,可作为项和,虽然不是所有的系统装置,将解开的奥秘最灵知认为。

(a) Cosmogony(一)宇宙起源

Gnosticism is thinly disguised Pantheism.诺斯替主义是伪装泛神论。In the beginning was the Depth; the Fulness of Being; the Not-Being God; the First Father, the Monad, the Man; the First Source, the unknown God (Bythos pleroma, ouk on theos, propator, monas, anthropos, proarche, hagnostos theos), or by whatever other name it might be called.一开始是深度;丰满的作为;的非存在上帝,第一个父亲,单子,人;第一个来源,未知的神(Bythos pleroma,ouk上THEOS,propator,莫纳斯,anthropos,proarche ,hagnostos THEOS),或以任何其他名称可能会被调用。This undefined infinite Something, though it might be addressed by the title of the Good God, was not a personal Being, but, like Tad of Brahma of the Hindus, the "Great Unknown" of modern thought.这种不确定的无限的东西,尽管它可能是由神称号的好解决,是不是个人的幸福,但是,像梵天的印度教徒,“伟大的未知”现代思想TAD。 The Unknown God, however, was in the beginning pure spirituality; matter as yet was not.未知的上帝,然而,在开始的纯精神;问题尚未没有。

This source of all being causes to emanate (proballei) from itself a number of pure spirit forces.这一切存在的根源源源自本身(proballei)的纯精神力量的数量。In the different systems these emanations are differently named, classified, and described, but the emanation theory itself is common too all forms of Gnosticism.在这些不同的系统有不同的化身命名,分类和描述,但流溢理论本身是很常见太诺斯替主义的所有形式。In the Basilidian Gnosis they are called sonships (uiotetes), in Valentinianism they form antithetic pairs or "syzygies" (syzygoi); Depth and Silence produce Mind and Truth; these produce Reason and Life, these again Man and State (ekklesia).在Basilidian灵知他们被称为sonships(uiotetes),在Valentinianism他们形成对立的成对或“syzygies”(syzygoi);深度和沉默产生心灵和真理,这些生产和生活的原因,这些人再次和国家(ekklesia)。 According to Marcus, they are numbers and sounds.据马库斯,他们是数字和声音。

These are the primary roots of the Æons.这些都是Æons的主要根源。With bewildering fertility hierarchies of Æons are thus produced, sometimes to the number of thirty.随着Æons扑朔迷离生育层次也由此产生,有时到三十号。These Æons belong to the purely ideal, noumenal, intelligible, or supersensible world; they are immaterial, they are hypostatic ideas.这些Æons属于纯粹的理想,本体,理解,或超感觉的世界,他们是无关紧要的,它们是本质的想法。 Together with the source from which they emanate they form the pleroma.加上源从他们发出他们形成pleroma。

The transition from the immaterial to the material, from the noumenal to the sensible, is brought about by a flaw, or a passion, or a sin, in one of the Æons.从非物质的材料过渡到合理的本体,是所带来的缺陷,或激情,或一种罪过,在Æons之一。According to Basilides, it is a flaw in the last sonship; according to others it is the passion of the female Æon Sophia; according to others the sin of the Great Archon, or Æon-Creator, of the Universe.据巴西里德,它是在过去sonship缺陷;根据其他人是女性永旺索菲亚激情;根据其他人的大执政官,或永旺集团创始人罪的宇宙。

The ultimate end of all Gnosis is metanoia, or repentance, the undoing of the sin of material existence and the return to the Pleroma.所有灵知最终到底是metanoia,或忏悔,对物质存在的罪恶撤消以及对Pleroma回报。

(b) Sophia-Myth(二)索菲亚 - 神话

In the greater number of Gnostic systems an important role is played by the Æon Wisdom -- Sophia or Achamoth.在诺斯底系统的更多是发挥了重要作用由永旺智慧 - 索菲亚或Achamoth。In some sense she seems to represent the supreme female principle, as for instance in the Ptolemaic system, in which the mother of the seven heavens is called Achamoth, in the Valentinian system, in which he ano Sophia, the Wisdom above, is distinguished from he kato Sophia, or Achamoth, the former being the female principle of the noumenal world, and in the Archotian system, where we find a "Lightsome Mother" (he meter he photeine), and in which beyond the heavens of the Archons is he meter ton panton and likewise in the Barbelognosis, where the female Barbelos is but the counterpart of the Unknown Father, which also occurs amongst the Ophites described by Irenaeus (Adv. Haeres., III, vii, 4).从某种意义上说,她似乎代表最高女的原则,在托勒密体系,其中的七天上的母亲叫Achamoth例如,在瓦伦蒂安系统,他在ANO索菲亚,上面的智慧,是区别于他加藤索菲亚,或Achamoth,前者的本体世界女性的原则,并在Archotian系统,在这里我们找到了“轻盈的母亲”(他他photeine​​米),并在其中超出了执政官天是他米吨潘顿和同样在Barbelognosis,其中女性Barbelos不过是对未知的父亲,这当中也由爱任纽(Adv. Haeres,,三,七,4)所描述的Ophites发生对应。

Moreover, the Eucharistic prayer in the Acts of Thomas (ch. 1) seems addressed to this supreme female principle.此外,在托马斯的行为感恩祷告(章1)似乎给这个最高的女性原则。W. Bousset's suggestion, that the Gnostic Sophia is nothing else than a disguise for the Dea Syra, the great goddess Istar, or Astarte, seems worthy of consideration.W. Bousset的建议,认为诺斯底索菲亚无非是为德亚Syra,伟大的女神伊斯塔,或其他变相阿施塔特,似乎值得考虑的。On the other hand, the Æon Sophia usually plays another role; she is he Prouneikos or "the Lustful One", once a virginal goddess, who by her fall from original purity is the cause of this sinful material world.在另一方面,永旺索菲亚通常扮演另一个角色,她是他Prouneikos或“好色一号”,一旦处女女神,谁是她从原来的纯度下降是这个罪恶的物质世界的原因。

One of the earliest forms of this myth is found in Simonian Gnosis, in which Simon, the Great Power, finds Helena, who during ten years had been a prostitute in Tyre, but who is Simon's ennoia, or understanding, and whom his followers worshipped under the form of Athena, the goddess of wisdom.对这个神话的最早形式之一,是发现在Simonian灵知,其中西门,大国,发现拿,谁在十几年,当年一直是轮胎妓女,但谁是西蒙的ennoia,或理解,并为之他的追随者崇拜下的雅典娜,智慧女神的形式。 According to Valentinus's system, as described by Hippolytus (Book VI, xxv-xxvi), Sophia is the youngest of the twenty-eight æons.据Valentinus的系统,如希波吕托斯(书六,二十五 - 26)所述,索菲亚是28 æons最年轻的。Observing the multitude of æons and the power of begetting them, she hurries back into the depth of the Father, and seeks to emulate him by producing offspring without conjugal intercourse, but only projects an abortion, a formless substance.观测的æons和众多的begetting他们力量,她赶紧回了父亲的深度,并力求仿效夫妻性交产生的后代没有他,但只项目流产,一个无形的物质。 Upon this she is cast out of Pleroma.当这她是施展出Pleroma。According to the Valentinian system as described by Irenaeus (op. cit., I) and Tertullian (Adv. Valent., ix), Sophia conceives a passion for the First Father himself, or rather, under pretext of love she seeks to know him, the Unknowable, and to comprehend his greatness.据瓦伦蒂安系统所爱任纽(同前,I)和特土良(Adv.价。,九)所述,索菲亚设想的第一个父亲自己的激情,或者说,爱的借口下,她的目的,是了解他,不可知,并理解他的伟大之处。 She should have suffered the consequence of her audacity by ultimate dissolution into the immensity of the Father, but for the Boundary Spirit.她应该有遭受最终解散,她大胆的后果到广袤的父亲,但对边界的精神。According to the Pistis Sophia (ch. xxix) Sophia, daughter of Barbelos, originally dwelt in the highest, or thirteenth heaven, but she is seduced by the demon Authades by means of a ray of light, which she mistook as an emanation from the First Father.据Pistis索菲亚(章二十九)索菲亚,对Barbelos女儿,原本住在最高的,或第十三天,但她是妖Authades诱惑由一个光射线,这是她作为一个从流溢误以为手段第一个父亲。 Authades thus enticed her into Chaos below the twelve Æons, where she was imprisoned by evil powers. Authades从而引诱下陷入混乱十二Æons,在那里她被邪恶势力囚禁她。

According to these ideas, matter is the fruit of the sin of Sophia; this, however, was but a Valentinian development; in the older speculations the existence of matter is tacitly presupposed as eternal with the Pleroma, and through her sin Sophia falls from the realm of light into Chaos or realm of darkness.根据这些思想,无论是对索菲亚罪水果;然而,这不过是瓦伦蒂安发展,在旧的猜测物质的存在是默认为与Pleroma永恒的先决条件,并通过她的罪恶索菲亚从瀑布光的境界陷入混乱或黑暗的境界。

This original dualism, however, was overcome by the predominant spirit of Gnosticism, pantheistic emanationism.这个原始的二元论,然而,克服了诺斯替主义,泛神论emanationism主要精神。 The Sophia myth is completely absent from the Basilidian and kindred systems.在索菲亚神话是完全不同于Basilidian和类似的系统不存在。It is suggested, with great verisimilitude, that the Egyptian myth of Isis was the original source of the Gnostic "lower wisdom".有人建议,具有很大的逼真,认为伊希斯是埃及神话的诺斯底“低智慧”的原始来源。 In many systems this Kato Sophia is sharply distinguished from the Higher Wisdom mentioned above; as, for instance, in the magic formula for the dead mentioned by Irenaeus (op. cit., I, xxi, 5), in which the departed has to address the hostile archons thus: "I am a vessel more precious than the female who made you. If your mother ignores the source whence she is, I know myself, and I known whence I am and invoke the incorruptible Sophia, whois in the Father, the mother of your mother, who has neither father nor husband. A man-woman, born from a woman, has made you, not knowing her mother, but thinking herself alone. But I invoke her mother."在许多系统中,这是索菲亚加藤大幅区别于上述更高的智慧,因为,例如,在由爱任纽(同前,我,二十一,5),其中提到的离去已经死去的妙方地址敌对执政官这样的:“我是一个容器比女性谁提出您宝贵的如果你的母亲,她忽略了源何处,我知道自己,我知道从那里我和调用在父的廉洁索菲亚,WHOIS。 ,你母亲的母亲,谁没有父亲也没有丈夫,一个男人,女人,从女人天生,取得了你,不知道她的母亲,但她自己独自思考,但我叫她妈妈。“This agrees with the system minutely described by Irenaeus (op. cit., I, iv-v), where Sophia Achamoth, or Lower Wisdom, the daughter of Higher Wisdom, becomes the mother of the Demiurge; she being the Ogdoad, her son the Hebdomad, they form a counterpart of the heavenly Ogdoad in the Pleromata.这同意每分钟由爱任纽(同前,我,IV - V),其中索菲亚Achamoth,或降低智慧,高等智慧的女儿,成为母亲的造物主所描述的系统,她作为Ogdoad,她的儿子在Hebdomad,他们形成了一个在天上Ogdoad Pleromata对口。This is evidently a clumsy attempt to fuse into one two systems radically different, the Basilidian and the Valentinian; the ignorance of the Great Archon, which is the central idea of Basilides, is here transferred to Sophia, and the hybrid system ends in bewildering confusion.这显然​​是一个笨拙的尝试,融合成一个完全不同的两个系统,在Basilidian和瓦伦蒂安;的大执政官,这是巴西里德中心思想,无知在这里转移到索菲亚和混合动力系统在扑朔迷离的混乱结束。

(c) Soteriology(三)救世神学

Gnostic salvation is not merely individual redemption of each human soul; it is a cosmic process.诺斯底得救不只是个人的每个人的灵魂的救赎,它是宇宙的过程。It is the return of all things to what they were before the flaw in the sphere of the Æons brought matter into existence and imprisoned some part of the Divine Light into the evil Hyle (Hyle).它是一切事物的返回他们在之前的Æons领域存在缺陷带进监狱的一些问题,将邪恶的Hyle(Hyle)圣光的一部分。 This setting free of the light sparks is the process of salvation; when all light shall have left Hyle, it will be burnt up, destroyed, or be a sort of everlasting hell for the Hylicoi.此设置的光火花自由是救恩的过程,当所有的灯应离开Hyle,它将被烧毁,消毁,或者是一个永恒的地狱的Hylicoi排序。

In Basilidianism it is the Third Filiation that is captive in matter, and is gradually being saved, now that the knowledge of its existence has been brought to the first Archon and then to the Second Archon, to each by his respective Son; and the news has been spread through the Hebdomad by Jesus the son of Mary, who died to redeem the Third Filiation.在Basilidianism是第三亲子关系是在物质俘虏,并逐渐被保存,现在其存在的知识已提请第一执政官,然后到第二执政官,由他的儿子每次分别,以及新闻已经传遍Hebdomad耶稣玛丽的儿子,谁死赎回第三亲子关系。

In Valentinianism the process is extraordinarily elaborate.在Valentinianism过程非常复杂。 When this world has been born from Sophia in consequence of her sin, Nous and Aletheia, two Æons, by command of the Father, produce two new Æons, Christ and the Holy Ghost; these restore order in the Pleroma, and in consequence all Æons together produce a new Æon, Jesus Logos, Soter, or Christ, whom they offer to the Father.当这个世界已经从索菲亚出生在她的罪恶后果,臭氧和真理,两个Æons,由父亲的命令,产生了两个新Æons,基督和圣灵;在Pleroma这些恢复秩序,并在所有Æons后果共同产生一个新的永旺,耶稣图案,梭特尔,或基督,他们所提供的父亲。 Christ, the Son of Nous and Aletheia, has pity on the abortive substance born of Sophia and gives it essence and form.基督,是臭氧和真理的儿子,已经在索非亚出生的流产药物可惜并给它的本质和形式。Whereupon Sophia tries to rise again to the Father, but in vain.于是索菲亚试图再次上升到父亲,但不成功。Now the Æon Jesus-Soter is sent as second Saviour, he unites himself to the man Jesus, the son of Mary, at his baptism, and becomes the Saviour of men.现在,永旺耶稣 - 梭特尔是作为第二救主派,他联合自己的人耶稣,玛利亚的儿子,在他的洗礼,成为男人的救世主。Man is a creature of the Demiurge, a compound of soul, body, and spirit.人是一种生物的造物主,是灵魂,身体和精神的化合物。His salvation consists in the return of his pneuma or spirit to the Pleroma; or if he be only a Psychicist, not a full Gnostic, his soul (psyche) shall return to Achamoth.他的救恩包括在他的元气,或精神的回归到Pleroma,或如果他只是一个Psychicist,不是一个完整的诺斯底,他的灵魂(精神)应返回Achamoth。 There is no resurrection of the body.没有身体的复活。(For further details and differences see VALENTINUS.)(详情见和分歧VALENTINUS。)

In Marcionism, the most dualistic phase of Gnosticism, salvation consisted in the possession of the knowledge of the Good God and the rejection of the Demiurge.在Marcionism,大部分的诺斯替主义二元论阶段,包括在救赎的好神和造物主排斥知识占有。The Good God revealed himself in Jesus and appeared as man in Judea; to know him, and to become entirely free from the yoke of the World-Creator or God of the Old Testament, is the end of all salvation.好神透露自己和耶稣在犹太男子出现,认识他​​,而成为完全从世界Creator或旧约的神枷锁的自由,是所有得救的结束。

The Gnostic Saviour, therefore, is entirely different from the Christian one.在诺斯底救主,因此,完全是从基督教的不同。For the Gnostic Saviour does not save.对于诺斯底救主不保存。Gnosticism lacks the idea of atonement.诺斯替主义缺乏赎罪的想法。There is no sin to be atoned for, except ignorance be that sin.有没有要赎的罪,除了无知是因为罪。Nor does the Saviour in any sense benefit the human race by vicarious sufferings.也没有在任何意义上的替代救主造福人类苦难。Nor, finally, does he immediately and actively affect any individual human soul by the power of grace or draw it to God.NOR,终于,他是否立即积极影响力的宽限期由任何个人或人类灵魂的绘制它的上帝。He was a teacher, he once brought into the world the truth, which alone can save.他是一名教师,他曾经带到世界的真相,只有这样才能保存。As a flame sets naphtha on fire, so the Saviour's light ignites predisposed souls moving down the stream of time.作为一个火炬台着火石脑油,所以救主的光点燃向下移动的时间流倾向于灵魂。Of a real Saviour who with love human and Divine seeks out sinners to save them, Gnosticism knows nothing.一个真正的救世主谁用爱人类和神圣的罪人了旨在拯救他们,诺斯替主义一无所知。

The Gnostic Saviour has no human nature, he is an æon, not a man; he only seemed a man, as the three Angels who visited Abraham seemed to be men.诺斯替救主没有人性,他是一个永旺,不是一个人,他好像只是一个人,作为三个天使谁访问亚伯拉罕似乎是男人。(For a detailed exposition see DOCETAE.) The Æon Soter is brought into the strangest relation to Sophia: in some systems he is her brother, in others her son, in other again her spouse. (见详细的论述DO​​CETAE)的永旺梭特尔奇怪的是到有关索菲亚带来:在一些系统中,他是她的哥哥,她在别人的儿子,又在其他配偶。He is sometimes identified with Christ, sometimes with Jesus; sometimes Christ and Jesus are the same æon, sometimes they are different; sometimes Christ and the Holy Ghost are identified.他有时等同于基督,有时与耶稣,有时基督耶稣是相同的永旺,有时它们是不同的,有时基督和圣灵标识。Gnosticism did its best to utilize the Christian concept of the Holy Ghost, but never quite succeeded.诺斯替主义尽了最大努力利用基督教的圣灵的概念,但从来没有完全成功。She made him the Horos, or Methorion Pneuma (Horos, Metherion Pneuma), the Boundary-Spirit, the Sweet Odour of the Second Filiation, a companion æon with Christos, etc., etc. In some systems he is entirely left out.她让他在一些他完全忽略了系统的Horos,或Methorion牛马(Horos,Metherion牛马),边界的精神,第二届亲子关系甜气味,与克里斯托同伴永旺,等等,等等。

(d) Eschatology(四)末世论

It is the merit of recent scholarship to have proved that Gnostic eschatology, consisting in the soul's struggle with hostile archons in its attempt to reach the Pleroma, is simply the soul's ascent, in Babylonian astrology, through the realms of the seven planets to Anu.这是最近奖学金的好处,以证明诺斯底末世,在灵魂与它试图达到Pleroma敌对执政官斗争的组成,简直就是灵魂的上升,在巴比伦的占星术,通过七个行星阿努的领域。

Origen (Contra Celsum, VI, xxxi), referring to the Ophitic system, gives us the names of the seven archons as Jaldabaoth, Jao, Sabaoth, Adonaios, Astaphaios, Ailoaios, and Oraios, and tells us that Jaldabaoth is the planet Saturn.奥利(魂斗罗Celsum,六,三十一),指的是Ophitic系统,使我们作为Jaldabaoth,饶宗颐,千万军马,Adonaios,Astaphaios,Ailoaios和Oraios七执政官的名字,并告诉我们,Jaldabaoth是土星。 Astraphaios is beyond doubt the planet Venus, as there are gnostic gems with a female figure and the legend ASTAPHE, which name is also used in magic spells as the name of a goddess. Astraphaios是毋庸置疑的金星,因为有一个女性人物和传说ASTAPHE,这名字也作为一个女神的名字紧箍咒用诺斯底宝石。In the Mandaean system Adonaios represents the Sun.在Mandaean系统Adonaios代表太阳。Moreover, St. Irenæus tells us: "Sanctam Hebdomadem VII stellas, quas dictunt planetas, esse volunt."此外,圣irenæus告诉我们:“Sanctam Hebdomadem第七广告板,quas dictunt planetas,Esse品牌volunt。”It is safe, therefore, to take the above seven Gnostic names as designating the seven stars, then considered planets,它是安全的,因此,采取上述七个诺斯底名称作为指定的七星,然后考虑行星,

Jaldabaoth (Child of Chaos? -- Saturn, called "the Lion-faced", leontoeides) is the outermost, and therefore the chief ruler, and later on the Demiurge par excellence. Jaldabaoth(儿童混沌 - 土星,被称为“狮子脸”,leontoeides)是最外层,因此主要的统治者,后来就造物主出类拔萃。

Jao (Iao, perhaps from Jahu, Jahveh, but possibly also from the magic cry iao in the mysteries) is Jupiter.饶(佑,也许从Jahu,Jahveh,但也可能从魔术的奥秘哭IAO)是木星。

Sabaoth (the Old-Testament title -- God of Hosts) was misunderstood; "of hosts" was thought a proper name, hence Jupiter Sabbas (Jahve Sabaoth) was Mars.千万军马(旧全书的标题 - 万军之神)被误解的“主机”被认为适当的名称,因此木星Sabbas(Jahve千万军马)是火星。

Astaphaios (taken from magic tablets) was Venus.Astaphaios(从魔术片服用)是金星。

Adonaios (from the Hebrew term for "the Lord", used of God; Adonis of the Syrians representing the Winter sun in the cosmic tragedy of Tammuz) was the Sun; Adonaios(从对“上帝”的神使用,希伯来文词;的叙利亚人阿多尼斯代表了宇宙的塔穆兹悲剧冬季太阳)是太阳;

Ailoaios, or sometimes Ailoein (Elohim, God), Mercury; Ailoaios,有时Ailoein(耶洛因,神),汞;

Oraios (Jaroah? or light?), the Moon.Oraios(Jaroah?或轻?),月球。

In the hellenized form of Gnosticism either all or some of these names are replaced by personified vices.在希腊化的诺斯替主义的形式,在这些名称的全部或部分被替换人格化恶习。Authadia (Authades), or Audacity, is the obvious description of Jaldabaoth, the presumptuous Demiurge, who is lion-faced as the Archon Authadia. Authadia(Authades)或Audacity的,是Jaldabaoth明显的描述,放肆造物主,谁是为执政官Authadia狮面。 Of the Archons Kakia, Zelos, Phthonos, Errinnys, Epithymia, the last obviously represents Venus.在这执政官Kakia,Zelos,Phthonos,Errinnys,Epithymia,最后显然代表金星。The number seven is obtained by placing a proarchon or chief archon at the head.数字7是通过放置一个proarchon或头部首席执政官。That these names are only a disguise for the Sancta Hebdomas is clear, for Sophia, the mother of them, retains the name of Ogdoas, Octonatio.这些名称只是一种变相的Sancta Hebdomas索菲亚是明确的,对他们的母亲,保留了Ogdoas,Octonatio名称。Occasionally one meets with the Archon Esaldaios, which is evidently the El Shaddai of the Bible, and he is described as the Archon "number four" (harithmo tetartos) and must represent the Sun.偶尔一会见了执政官Esaldaios,这显然是圣经的厄尔尼诺Shaddai,他被描述为执政官“排名第四”(harithmo tetartos),必须代表太阳。

In the system of the Gnostics mentioned by Epiphanius we find, as the Seven Archons, Iao, Saklas, Seth, David, Eloiein, Elilaios, and Jaldabaoth (or no. 6 Jaldaboath, no. 7 Sabaoth).在系统的诺斯替教派所提到的埃皮法尼乌斯我们发现,由于七执政官,佑,Saklas,塞斯,大卫,Eloiein,Elilaios和Jaldabaoth(或无6 Jaldaboath,没有7千万军马)。Of these, Saklas is the chief demon of Manichaeism; Elilaios is probably connected with En-lil, the Bel of Nippur, the ancient god of Babylonia.其中,Saklas是摩尼教的首席恶魔; Elilaios可能与恩LIL,倍儿的尼普尔,巴比伦古神的关连。In this, as in several other systems, the traces of the planetary seven have been obscured, but hardly in any have they become totally effaced.在这方面,在其他几个系统,七个行星的痕迹已经模糊,但几乎在任何有他们成为完全抹去。What tended most to obliterate the sevenfold distinction was the identification of the God of the Jews, the Lawgiver, with Jaldabaoth and his designation as World-creator, whereas formerly the seven planets together ruled the world.什么往往最能抹杀了七倍的区别是犹太人,立法者与Jaldabaoth和他为世界创造者称号,神识别,而以前的七个行星一起统治世界。 This confusion, however, was suggested by the very fact that at least five of the seven archons bore Old-Testament names for God -- El Shaddai, Adonai, Elohim, Jehovah, Sabaoth.这种混乱,然而,有人提出了这个事实,至少有七个执政官five孔旧全书的名称为神 - EL Shaddai,阿多奈,罗欣,耶和华,千万军马。

(e) Doctrine of the Primeval Man(五)主义的原生文

The speculations on Primeval Man (Protanthropos, Adam) occupy a prominent place in several Gnostic systems.在原生的人(Protanthropos,亚当)的猜测占据了几个诺斯底系统突出的位置。

According to Irenaeus (I, xxix, 3) the Æon Autogenes emits the true and perfect Anthrôpos, also called Adamas; he has a helpmate, "Perfect Knowledge", and receives an irresistible force, so that all things rest in him.根据爱任纽(I,二十九,3)永旺Autogenes发出真实而完美的Anthrôpos,也叫阿达玛斯,他有一个伴侣,“完善的知识”,并接收一种不可抗拒的力量,让所有的事情在他身上休息。 Others say (Irenaeus, I, xxx) there is a blessed and incorruptible and endless light in the power of Bythos; this is the Father of all things who is invoked as the First Man, who, with his Ennœa, emits "the Son of Man", or Euteranthrôpos.也有人说(爱任纽,我,XXX)有一个幸福的Bythos权力,廉洁和无尽的光,这是所有谁是第一人,谁,与他的Ennœa,发出“子事父的调用人“,或Euteranthrôpos。 According to Valentinus, Adam was created in the name of Anthrôpos and overawes the demons by the fear of the pre-existent man (tou proontos anthropou).据Valentinus,亚当被创造的Anthrôpos和overawes恶魔名称的预先存在的人(投proontos anthropou)的恐惧。In the Valentinian syzygies and in the Marcosian system we meet in the fourth (originally the third) place Anthrôpos and Ecclesia.在瓦伦蒂安syzygies和Marcosian系统满足我们在第四(原三)地方Anthrôpos和教会。In the Pistis Sophia the Æon Jeu is called the First Man, he is the overseer of the Light, messenger of the First Precept, and constitutes the forces of the Heimarmene.在Pistis索菲亚的永旺Jeu被称为第一人,他是轻,第一信条信使监督员,并构成了Heimarmene的力量。 In the Books of the Jeu this "great Man" is the King of the Light-treasure, he is enthroned above all things and is the goal of all souls.在本丛书的Jeu“伟人”是光宝王,他登基高于一切的东西,是所有灵魂的目标。According to the Naassenes, the Protanthropos is the first element; the fundamental being before its differentiation into individuals.据Naassenes的Protanthropos是第一要素;基本进入个人前分化之中。"The Son of Man" is the same being after it has been individualized into existing things and thus sunk into matter.他说:“人子”是一样的被后,它已被纳入现有的个性化的东西,从而把事情沉没。The Gnostic Anthrôpos, therefore, or Adamas, as it is sometimes called, is a cosmogonic element, pure mind as distinct from matter, mind conceived hypostatically as emanating from God and not yet darkened by contact with matter.在诺斯底Anthrôpos,因此,或阿达玛斯,因为它有时被称为,是一种宇宙起源的元素,纯洁的思想,从不同的事,心中设想hypostatically从神产生和与物质接触尚未变黑。 This mind is considered as the reason of humanity, or humanity itself, as a personified idea, a category without corporeality, the human reason conceived as the World-Soul.这种心态被认为是人类的原因,还是人类本身,作为一个人格化的想法,一个没有形体类,人类理性视为世界的灵魂。

This speculation about the Anthrôpos is completely developed in Manichaeism, where, in fact, it is the basis of the whole system.这对Anthrôpos猜测是完全开发的摩尼教,在那里,事实上,它是整个系统的基础。God, in danger of the power of darkness, creates with the help of the Spirit, the five worlds, the twelve elements, and the Eternal Man, and makes him combat the darkness.神,在黑暗的力量的危险,创建具有的精神,五个世界,十二个元素,永恒之人的帮助,使他战斗的黑暗。But this Man is somehow overcome by evil and swallowed up by darkness.但是,这人是有点克服邪恶,黑暗吞噬了。The present universe is in throes to deliver the captive Man from the powers of darkness.现在的宇宙是提供从黑暗的权力的俘虏男性在阵痛。In the Clementine Homilies the cosmogonic Anthrôpos is strangely mixed up with the historical figure of the first man, Adam.在克莱门汀讲道奇怪的宇宙起源Anthrôpos是混在一起的第一人,亚当的历史人物。Adam "was the true prophet, running through all ages, and hastening to rest"; "the Christ, who was from the beginning and is always, who was ever present to every generation in a hidden manner indeed, yet ever present".亚当“是真正的先知,贯穿各年龄段,并加速休息”,“基督,谁是从一开始,并且始终,谁是有史以来在一个隐藏的方式确实,但无时不在目前的每一代”。 In fact Adam was, to use Modernist language, the Godhead immanent in the world and ever manifesting itself to the inner consciousness of the elect.其实亚当,用现代主义的语言,神在世界内在和不断体现自身的内在意识的选举。

The same idea, somewhat modified, occurs in Hermetic literature, especially the "Poimandres".同样的想法,有些修改,发生在全封闭的文献,特别是“Poimandres”。It is elaborated by Philo, makes an ingenious distinction between the human being created first "after God's image and likeness" and the historic figures of Adam and Eve created afterwards.它是由斐洛阐述,使人类之间建立的首个“后神的形象和肖像”和亚当与夏娃的历史人物创建后巧妙的区别。Adam kat eikona is: "Idea, Genus, Character, belonging to the world, of Understanding, without body, neither male nor female; he is the Beginning, the Name of God, the Logos, immortal, incorruptible" (De opif. mund., 134-148; De conf. ling.,146).亚当吉eikona是:“理念,属,特性,属于世界上没有身体,谅解,或男或女,他是起点,以上帝的名义,在标识,不朽,不朽”(德opif mund。 。,134-148;。机密德玲,146)。These ideas in Talmudism, Philonism, Gnosticism, and Trismegistic literature, all come from once source, the late Mazdea development of the Gayomarthians, or worshipper of the Super-Man.在Talmudism,Philonism,诺斯替主义和Trismegistic文学这些想法,都来自一次源,对Gayomarthians后期Mazdea发展,或超文的崇拜者。

(f) The Barbelo(六)Barbelo

This Gnostic figure, appearing in a number of systems, the Nicolaites, the "Gnostics" of Epiphanius, the Sethians, the system of the "Evangelium Mariae" and that in Irenaeus, I, xxix, 2 sq., remains to a certain extent an enigma.这诺斯底的身影,在一个系统中,Nicolaites的“诺斯替教派”的埃皮法尼乌斯的Sethians,对“Evangelium Mariae”制度,这一数字仍然出现在一定程度上在爱任纽,我二十九,2平,是个谜。The name barbelo, barbeloth, barthenos has not been explained with certainty.这个名字barbelo,barbeloth,barthenos尚未解释肯定。In any case she represents the supreme female principle, is in fact the highest Godhead in its female aspect.在任何情况下,她代表着最高女的原则,实际上是在女性方面的最高神。Barbelo has most of the functions of the ano Sophia as described above.Barbelo有索菲亚的ANO如上所述的大部分功能。 So prominent was her place amongst some Gnostics that some schools were designated as Barbeliotae, Barbelo worshippers of Barbelognostics.因此,突出的是她的诺斯替教派之间的一些地方,一些学校为Barbeliotae,Barbelo指定的Barbelognostics崇拜者。 She is probably none other than the Light-Maiden of the Pistis Sophia, the thygater tou photos or simply the Maiden, parthenos.她大概没有比Pistis索菲亚的thygater头照片或单纯的少女,parthenos光少女等。In Epiphanius (Haer., xxvi, 1) and Philastrius (Haer., xxxiii) Parthenos (Barbelos) seems identical with Noria, whoplays a great role as wife either of Noah or of Seth.在埃皮法尼乌斯(Haer.,二十六,1)和Philastrius(Haer.,三十三)Parthenos(Barbelos)似乎与诺里亚相同,whoplays作为妻子任诺亚或赛斯的巨大作用。 The suggestion, that Noria is "Maiden", parthenos, Istar, Athena, Wisdom, Sophia, or Archamoth, seems worthy of consideration.有人建议,即诺里亚是“少女”,parthenos,伊斯塔,雅典娜,智慧,索菲亚,或Archamoth,似乎值得考虑的。

RITES仪式

We are not so well informed about the practical and ritual side of Gnosticism as we are about its doctrinal and theoretical side.我们没有那么消息灵通关于诺斯替主义实际和仪式的一面,我们谈论它的教义和理论方面的。However, St. Irenæus's account of the Marcosians, Hippolytus's account of the Elcesaites, the liturgical portions of the "Acta Thomae", some passages in the Pseudo-Clementines, and above all Coptic Gnostic and Mandaean literature gives us at least some insight into their liturgical practices.不过,圣irenæus的的Marcosians,希波吕托斯的帐户的Elcesaites,其中的“文献Thomae”礼仪部分,在伪柑橘一些段落,而最重要的科普特诺斯底和Man​​daean文学帐户可让我们进入他们的至少一些见解礼仪的做法。

(a) Baptism(一)洗礼

All Gnostic sects possessed this rite in some way; in Mandaeism daily baptism is one of the great practices of the system.诺斯底教派的所有拥有以某种方式这个仪式,在Mandaeism每天洗礼是本系统的伟大实践之一。The formulae used by Christian Gnostics seem to have varied widely from that enjoyed by Christ.由基督教诺斯替教派所使用的公式似乎各不相同,由基督所享有的广泛。The Marcosians said: "In [eis] the name of the unknown Father of all, in [eis] the Truth, the Mother of all, in him, who came down on Jesus [eis ton katelthonta eis Iesoun]".该Marcosians说:“在[EIS]的所有未知的父亲的名字,在[EIS]真相,所有的母亲,在他身上,谁在耶稣来了[EIS吨katelthonta EIS Iesoun]”。The Elcesaites said: "In [en] the name of the great and highest God and in the name of his Son, the great King".The Elcesaites说:“[EN]伟大的和最高的神,在他的儿子,伟大的国王的名字命名”。 In Irenaeus (I, xxi, 3) we find the formula: "In the name that was hidden from every divinity and lordship and truth, which [name] Jesus the Nazarene has put on in the regions of light" and several other formulae, which were sometimes pronounced in Hebrew or Aramaic.在爱任纽(一,二十一,3)我们发现的公式:“在那是从每一个神和贵族身份和真理,这[名称]耶稣的拿撒勒已投入轻地区隐名”和其他几个公式,它有时在希伯来文或阿拉姆明显。 The Mandaeans said: "The name of the Life and the name of the Manda d'Haye is named over thee".该曼德安说:“生命的名字和曼达D'海牙你的名字是在名为”。In connection with Baptism the Sphragis was of great importance; in what the seal or sign consisted wherewith they were marked is not easy to say.在与洗礼连接Sphragis是非常重要的,在什么印章或签署包括wherewith他们明显是不容易的说。There was also the tradition of a name either by utterance or by handing a tablet with some mystic word on it.还有一个无论是话语或移交了一些神秘的字就可以了片剂名称的传统。

(b) Confirmation(b)确认

The anointing of the candidate with chrism, or odoriferous ointment, is a Gnostic rite which overshadows the importance of baptism.此次与chrism,或芳香软膏候选人恩膏,这是一个诺斯底仪式的洗礼黯然失色的重要性。In the "Acta Thomae", so some scholars maintain, it had completely replaced baptism, and was the sole sacrament of initiation.在“文献Thomae”,因此有些学者认为,它已完全取代的洗礼,并且是唯一的启动圣餐。This however is not yet proven.然而,这还没有得到证实。The Marcosians went so far as to reject Christian baptism and to substitute a mixture of oil and water which they poured over the head of the candidate.该Marcosians竟然拒绝基督教的洗礼和替代的石油和水的混合物,他们对候选人的头上浇。By confirmation the Gnostics intended not so much to give the Holy Ghost as to seal the candidates against the attacks of the archons, or to drive them away by the sweet odour which is above all things (tes uter ta hola euodias).通过确认的诺斯替教派意与其说给圣灵以对密封的执政官的攻击候选人,或开车由甜气味高于一切事物(TES uter HOLA euodias TA)是他们离开。The balsam was somehow supposed to have flowed from the Tree of Life, and this tree was again mystically connected with the Cross; for the chrism is in the "Acta Thomae" called "the hidden mystery in which the Cross is shown to us".该香脂在某种程度上应该从生命之树流出,这树又被神​​秘的交叉连接;为chrism在“文献Thomae”称为“隐藏的奥秘,其中交叉显示给我们”。

(c) The Eucharist(三)圣体

It is remarkable that so little is known of the Gnostic substitute for the Eucharist.值得注意的是,这么少的是对圣体的诺斯底替代闻名。In a number of passages we read of the breaking of the bread, but in what this consisted is not easy to determine.在一些段落,我们读出的面包打破,但在这个包括什么是不容易确定。The use of salt in this rite seems to have been important (Clem., Hom. xiv), for we read distinctly how St. Peter broke the bread of the Eucharist and "putting salt thereon, he gave first to the mother and then to us".盐的使用在这个仪式似乎已不重要(Clem.,坎。十四),因为我们清楚如何读圣彼得打破了面包和圣体“把盐就此,他给了第一次给妈妈,然后我们“。 There is furthermore a great likelihood, though no certainty, that the Eucharist referred to in the "Acta Thomae" was merely a breaking of bread without the use of the cup.而且有很大的可能性,虽然没有把握,即圣体中提到的“文献Thomae”只是没有用的杯子打破了面包。This point is strongly controverted, but the contrary can hardly be proven.这一点是非常controverted,但反之也很难被证明。It is beyond doubt that the Gnostics often substituted water for the wine (Acta Thomae, Baptism of Mygdonia, ch. cxxi).正因为如此,诺斯替教派经常替代酒(ACTA Thomae,对Mygdonia洗礼,CH。cxxi)水毋庸置疑的。 What formula of consecration was used we do not know, but the bread was certainly signed with the Cross.什么样的奉献公式用于我们不知道,但肯定是面包用交叉签署。It is to be noted that the Gnostics called the Eucharist by Christian sacrificial terms -- prosphora, "oblation", Thysia (II bk. of Jeû, 45).这是必须指出,所谓的诺斯替教派的基督教圣体献祭条款 - prosphora,“祭品”,Thysia(II BK的Jeû,45)。In the Coptic Books (Pistis Sophia, 142; II Jeû, 45-47) we find a long description of some apparently Eucharistic ceremonies carried out by Jesus Himself.在科普特图书(Pistis索菲亚,142;二Jeû,45-47),我们发现一个由耶稣自己出一些明显圣体仪式的详细说明。 In these fire and incense, two flasks, and also two cups, one with water, the other with wine, and branches of the vine are used.在这些火灾和香,二瓶,也两杯,与水,与其他酒之一,与藤分支使用。Christ crowns the Apostles with olive wreaths, begs Melchisedech to come and change wine into water for baptism, puts herbs in the Apostles' mouths and hands.基督冠与橄榄花圈使徒,乞求Melchisedech来,变成水洗礼酒,放入使徒“嘴和手草药。Whether these actions in some sense reflect the ritual of Gnosticism, or are only imaginations of the author, cannot be decided.无论是在某种意义上这些行动反映了诺斯替主义仪式,或仅是作者的想像力,不能决定。The Gnostics seem also to have used oil sacramentally for the healing of the sick, and even the dead were anointed by them to be rendered safe and invisible in their transit through the realms of the archons.在诺斯替教派似乎也有用于石油sacramentally病人愈合,甚至死了膏由他们来呈现通过执政官的领​​域安全和过境无形。

(d) The Nymphôn(四)Nymphôn

They possessed a special Gnostic sacrament of the bridechamber (nymphon) in which, through some symbolical actions, their souls were wedded to their angels in the Pleroma.他们拥有了对bridechamber(nymphon),其中,通过一些象征性的行动,他们的灵魂都执着于自己的天使在Pleroma特殊诺斯底圣餐。 Details of its rites are not as yet known.其仪式的详情没有定论。Tertullian no doubt alluded to them in the words "Eleusinia fecerunt lenocinia".良无疑暗示他们的话说“Eleusinia fecerunt len​​ocinia”。

(e) The Magic Vowels(五)魔术元音

An extraordinary prominence is given to the utterance of the vowels: alpha, epsilon, eta, iota, omicron, upsilon, omega.给出一个非常突出的元音发话:α,EPSILON,ETA,丝毫,OMICRON,埃普西隆,欧米茄。The Saviour and His disciples are supposed in the midst of their sentences to have broken out in an interminable gibberish of only vowels; magic spells have come down to us consisting of vowels by the fourscore; on amulets the seven vowels, repeated according to all sorts of artifices, form a very common inscription.救主和他的弟子都应该在他们要打破在一个只有元音无休止的胡言乱语出来的句子中间;紧箍咒已回落到我们的元音组成的fourscore;对护身符的七个母音,反复按各种的手腕,形成一个非常普遍的题词。 Within the last few years these Gnostic vowels, so long a mystery, have been the object of careful study by Ruelle, Poirée, and Leclercq, and it may be considered proven that each vowel represents one of the seven planets, or archons; that the seven together represent the Universe, but without consonants they represent the Ideal and Infinite not yet imprisoned and limited by matter; that they represent a musical scale, probably like the Gregorian 1 tone re-re, or d, e, f, g, a, b, c, and many a Gnostic sheet of vowels is in fact a sheet of music.在过去的几年里这些诺斯底元音,只要是个谜,一直是由Ruelle,Poirée和勒克莱尔仔细研究对象,它可能被视为证明,每个代表一个元音的七个行星,或执政官;的seven一起代表宇宙,但没有辅音,他们代表的理想和无限尚未被监禁和物质限制;他们代表了音阶可能像公历1调重重,或D,E,F,G,A ,B,C,以及许多的诺斯底元音表实际上是一个乐谱。But research on this subject has only just begun.但是,关于这一问题的研究才刚刚开始。Among the Gnostics the Ophites were particularly fond of representing their cosmogonic speculations by diagrams, circles within circles, squares, and parallel lines, and other mathematical figures combined, with names written within them.其中诺斯替教派的Ophites特别代表的宇宙起源的猜测图,内圆,正方形和平行线界和其他数学与数字相结合的名字写在其中,喜欢。 How far these sacred diagrams were used as symbols in their liturgy, we do not know.多远这些神圣图是在他们的礼仪使用的符号,我们不知道。

SCHOOLS OF GNOSTICISM学校的诺斯替主义

Gnosticism possessed no central authority for either doctrine or discipline; considered as a whole it had no organization similar to the vast organization of the Catholic Church.诺斯替主义拥有没有任何学说或纪律中央权威;作为一个整体,它没有组织类似的天主教教会的庞大组织考虑。It was but a large conglomeration of sects, of which Marcionism alone attempted in some way to rival the constitution of the Church, and even Marcionism had no unity.它只不过是一个大教派聚集,其中仅试图以某种方式向对手教会的宪法,甚至Marcionism Marcionism没有统一。 No other classification of these sects is possible than that according to their main trend of thought.没有这些教派比其他分类是根据自己的思想的主要趋势可能。We can therefore distinguish: (a) Syrian or Semitic; (b) Hellenistic or Alexandrian; (c) dualistic; (d) antinomian Gnostics.因此,我们可以区分:(一)叙利亚或犹太人的;(二)希腊或亚历山大;(三)二元;(四)唯信仰论诺斯替教派。

(a) The Syrian School(一)叙利亚学校

This school represents the oldest phase of Gnosticism, as Western Asia was the birthplace of the movement.这所学校代表着最古老的诺斯替主义阶段,作为西亚是该运动的发源地。Dositheus, Simon Magus, Menander, Cerinthus, Cerdo, Saturninus Justin, the Bardesanites, Sevrians, Ebionites, Encratites, Ophites, Naassenes, the Gnostics of the "Acts of Thomas", the Sethians, the Peratae, the Cainites may be said to belong to this school. Dositheus,西蒙法师,米南德,Cerinthus,Cerdo,Saturninus贾斯汀的Bardesanites,Sevrians,以便尼派,Encratites,Ophites,Naassenes,其中的“托马斯行为”,是Sethians的Peratae的诺斯替教派的Cainites可以说是属于这所学校。

The more fantastic elements and elaborate genealogies and syzygies of æons of the later Gnosis are still absent in these systems.更奇妙的元素和精心族谱和对后来的灵知æons syzygies仍然没有在这些系统。The terminology is some barbarous form of Semitic; Egypt is the symbolic name for the soul's land of bondage.该术语是一些犹太人的野蛮的形式,埃及是灵魂的束缚土地的符号名称。

The opposition between the good God and the World-Creator is not eternal or cosmogonic, though there is strong ethical opposition to Jehovah the God of the Jews.之间的良好上帝和世界的反对也不是永恒的造物主或宇宙起源,虽然有强烈的伦理反对耶和华上帝是犹太人。He is the last of the seven angels who fashioned this world out of eternally pre-existent matter.他是谁派的七位天使的永恒预先存在的问题进行最后的这个世界。The demiurgic angels, attempting to create man, created but a miserable worm, to which the Good God, however, gave the spark of divine life.天使的造物,试图创建人,创建,但只有可怜虫,哪个好神,但是,给了神圣的生命的火花。 The rule of the god of the Jews must pass away, for the good God calls us to his own immediate service through Christ his Son.而犹太人的神规则必须绕道走,为好神呼召我们去他自己通过他的儿子基督即时服务。We obey the Supreme Deity by abstaining from flesh meat and marriage, and by leading an ascetic life.我们遵守由肉肉类和婚姻弃权的最高神,并领导一个苦行生活。

Such was the system of Saturninus of Antioch, who taught during the reign of Hadrian (c. AD 120).这是大的安提阿,谁统治期间,哈德良(约公元120)教Saturninus系统。The Naassenes (from Nahas, the Hebrew for serpent) were worshippers of the serpent as a symbol of wisdom, which the God of the Jews tried to hide from men.该Naassenes(从纳哈斯,为蛇希伯来文)是蛇的崇拜者作为智慧的象征,这是犹太人的上帝试图躲避男子。The Ophites (ophianoi, from ophis, serpent), who, when transplanted on Alexandrian soil, supplied the main ideas of Valentinianism, become one of the most widely spread sects of Gnosticism.该Ophites(ophianoi,从ophis,蛇),谁当上亚历山大土移植,提供了Valentinianism的主要思路,成为诺斯替主义流传最广的教派之一。 Though not strictly serpent-worshippers, they recognized the serpent as symbol of the supreme emanation, Achamoth or Divine Wisdom.虽然没有严格蛇崇拜者,他们认识到作为最高的化身,Achamoth或神圣智慧的象征蛇。They were styled Gnostics par excellence.他们自称诺斯替教派出类拔萃。The Sethians saw in Seth the father of all spiritual (pneumatikoi) men; in Cain and Abel the father of the psychic (psychikoi) and hylic (hylikoi) men.赛斯的Sethians看到的一切精神(pneumatikoi)男子的父亲,在该隐和亚伯的心灵(psychikoi)和物质的(hylikoi)男子的父亲。 According to the Peratae there exists a trinity of Father, Son, and Hyle (Matter).据Peratae存在的父亲,儿子,和Hyle(物)三位一体。The Son is the Cosmic Serpent, who freed Eve from the power of the rule of Hyle.儿子是宇宙巨蛇,谁摆脱了Hyle统治权力夏娃。

The universe they symbolized by a triangle enclosed in a circle.他们象征着宇宙中一个圆圈封闭三角形。 The number three is the key to all mysteries.而排名第三的是所有奥秘的关键。There are three supreme principles: the not-generated, the self-generated, the generated.有三个至上原则:不生成,自我生成,生成的。There are three logoi, of gods; the Saviour has a threefold nature, threefold body, threefold power, etc. They are called Peretae (peran) because they have "crossed over" out of Egypt, through the Red Sea of generation.有三种logoi,神,救世主具有三重性,一举三得的身体,三重电源等,他们被称为Peretae(peran),因为他们有“越过”出埃及通过一代红海。 They are the true Hebrews, in fact (the word comes from the Hebrew meaning "to cross over").他们是真正的希伯来人,其实(这个词从希伯来文,意为“跨越”的由来)。The Peratae were founded by Euphrates and Celbes (Acembes?) and Ademes.该Peratae的成立由幼发拉底河和Celbes(Acembes?)和Ademes。This Euphrates, whose name is perhaps connected with the name Peratae itself, is said to be the founder of the Ophites mentioned by Celsus about AD 175.这幼发拉底河,他的名字也许是本身的名称Peratae相连,据说是由约公元175塞尔苏斯提到Ophites创始人。The Cainites were so called because they venerated Cain, and Esau, and the Sodomites, and Core, and Judas, because they had all resisted the god of the Jews.该Cainites是所谓的,因为他们崇敬的该隐,以扫和多玛和核心,和犹大,因为他们都抵制犹太人的神。

(b) The Hellenistic or Alexandrian School(二)希腊或亚历山大学校

These systems were more abstract, and philosophical, and self-consistent than the Syrian.这些系统是比较抽象,和哲学,比叙利亚自洽。The Semitic nomenclature was almost entirely replaced by Greek names.闪米特命名几乎完全取代希腊名字。The cosmogonic problem had outgrown all proportions, the ethical side was less prominent, asceticism less strictly enforced.在宇宙起源问题已不下所有比例,道德方面是不那么突出,不严格执行禁欲主义。

The two great thinkers of this school were Basilides and Valentinus.这所学校的两个伟大的思想家们巴西里德和Valentinus。

Though born at Antioch, in Syria, Basilides founded his school in Alexandria (c. AD 130), and was followed by his son Isidorus.虽然在安提阿在叙利亚出生,巴西里德成立于亚历山大(约公元130),他的学校,和由他的儿子Isidorus其次。 His system was the most consistent and sober emanationism that Gnosticism ever produced.他的系统是最稳定的和清醒的emanationism的诺斯替主义生产过。His school never spread so widely as the next to be mentioned, but in Spain it survived for several centuries.他的学校从来没有流传广泛的被提及未来,但是它在西班牙几个世纪活了下来。

Valentinus, who taught first at Alexandria and then at Rome (c. AD 160), elaborated a system of sexual duality in the process of emanation; a long series of male and female pairs of personified ideas is employed to bridge over the distance from the unknown God to this present world. Valentinus,谁教首先在亚历山大和罗马(约公元160),那么,阐述了在流溢过程性的双重性的系统,一个人格化的思想和女性对男性长系列是采用了桥梁的距离从未知的神目前这个世界。 His system is more confused than Basilidianism, especially as it is disturbed by the intrusion of the figure or figures of Sophia in the cosmogonic process.他的系统比Basilidianism混乱,特别是因为它是由数字或在天体演化过程索菲亚数字入侵不安。Being Syrian Ophitism in Egyptian guise, it can claim to be the true representative of the Gnostic spirit.作为幌子在埃及叙利亚Ophitism,它可以称得上是真正的诺斯底精神的代表。

The reductio ad absurdum of these unbridled speculations can be seen in the Pitis Sophia, which is light-maidens, paralemptores, spheres, Heimarmene, thirteen æons, light-treasures, realms of the midst, realms of the right and of the left, Jaldabaoth, Adamas, Michael, Gabriel, Christ, the Saviour, and mysteries without number whirl past and return like witches in a dance.这些肆无忌惮的投机反证法可以看出,在Pitis索菲亚,这是轻的少女,paralemptores,球体,Heimarmene,十三æons,光宝,对中间领域,领域的权利和左,Jaldabaoth ,阿达玛斯,迈克尔,加布里埃尔,基督,救世主,没有数量抡过去,像在舞蹈女巫回报的奥秘。The impression created on the same reader can only be fitly described in the words of "Jabberwocky": "gyre and gimble on the wabe".在同读者造成的印象只能是恰好说明了“Jabberwocky”的话:“在wabe环流和gimble”。

We learn from Hippolytus (Adv. Haer., IV, xxxv), Tertullian (Adv. Valent., iv) and Clemens Alex.我们从希波吕托斯(Adv. Haer。,四,三十五),良(Adv.价。,IV)和克莱门斯亚历克斯。(Exc. ex Theod., title) that there were two main schools of Valentinianism, the Italian and the Anatolian or Asiatic.(Exc.前Theod。,职称),有两个主要流派的Valentinianism,意大利和安纳托利亚或亚洲。 In the Italian school were teachers of note: Secundus, who divided the Ogdoad within the Pleroma into two tetrads, Right and Left; Epiphanes, who described this Tetras as Monotes, Henotes, Monas, and To Hen; and possibly Colorbasus, unless his name be a misreading of Kol Arba "All Four".在意大利的学校是教师的注意:Secundus,谁在Pleroma划分为两个四分体,左,右的Ogdoad;皮法尼斯,谁形容Monotes,Henotes,莫纳斯,并为母鸡这个Tetras;和可能Colorbasus,除非他的名字阿尔巴是一个KOL“所有四”的误读。 But the most important were Ptolemy and Heracleon.但最重要的是托勒密和Heracleon。

Ptolemy is especially known to fame by his letter to Flora, a noble lady who had written to him as Prom Presbyter (Texte u. Unters., NS, XIII, Anal. z. alt. Gesch. d. Chr.) to explain the meaning of the Old Testament.托勒密是众所周知的,尤其是他的成名信植物,一个贵族小姐谁写的舞会长老对他(Texte美国Unters。,NS,十三,肛门。Z. ALT。Gesch。D.染色体。)解释所指的旧约。This Ptolemy split up the names and numbers of the æons into personified substances outside the deity, as Tertullian relates.这托勒密分成人格化物质的æons姓名和号码以外的神,作为良有关。He was given to Biblical studies, and was a man of unbridled imagination.他给圣经研究,并且是肆无忌惮的想象力的人。

Clemens Alex.克莱门斯亚历克斯。(Strom., IV, ix, 73) calls Heracleon the most eminent teacher of the Valentinian school. (Strom.,四,九,73)调用Heracleon的瓦伦蒂安学校最杰出的老师。Origen devotes a large part of his commentary on St. John to combating Heracleon's commentary on the same Evangelist.奥利致力于在圣约翰他的评论很大程度上打击Heracleon的评论在同一个福音。Heracleon called the source of all being Anthropos, instead of Bythos, and rejected the immortality of the soul -- meaning, probably, the merely psychic element. Heracleon呼吁所有被Anthropos源,而不是Bythos,并拒绝了不朽的灵魂 - 这意味着,也许只是心理的元素。He apparently stood nearer to the Catholic Church than Ptolemy and was a man of better judgment.他显然是站在靠近比托勒密天主教教会,是一个更好的判断力的人。

Tertullian mentions two other names (Valent., iv), Theotimus and (De Carne Christ, xvii) Alexander.良提到另外两个名字(Valent.,IV),Theotimus和(德卡尔内基督,十七)亚历山大。

The Anatolian school had as a prominent teacher Axionicus (Tertullian, Adv. Valent., iv; Hipp., Adv. Haer., VI, 30) who had his collegium at Antioch about AD 220, "the master's most faithful disciple".在安纳托利亚学校有一个突出的教师Axionicus(良,高级价,四;。。HIPP,高级Haer,六,30)谁曾在他的COLLEGIUM安提约公元220“的主人最忠实的门徒”。 Theodotus is only known to us from the fragment of his writings preserved by Clement of Alexandria.西奥多托斯只知道我们是从由克莱门特亚历山大保留他的著作片段。Marcus the Conjuror's system, an elaborate speculation with ciphers and numbers, is given by Irenaeus (I, 11-12) and also by Hippolytus (VI, 42).马库斯的魔石的系统,一个密码和数字阐述炒作,是给予爱任纽(I,11-12),并通过希波吕托斯(VI,42)。Irenaeus's account of Marcus was repudiated by the Marcosians, but Hippolytus asserts that they did so without reason.爱任纽的马库斯帐户是否定的Marcosians,但希波吕托斯声称,他们并没有道理的。Marcus was probably an Egyptian and a contemporary of Irenaeus.马库斯可能是埃及和当代的爱任纽。A system not unlike that of the Marcosians was worked out by Monoimus the Arabian, to whom Hippolytus devotes chapters 5 to 8 of Book VIII, and who is mentioned only by Theodoret besides him.一个没有什么不同的Marcosians该系统是由Monoimus制定了阿拉伯,向谁希波吕托斯致力于图书5至第八,谁8只由他Theodoret除了上述章节。 Hippolytus is right in calling these two Gnostics imitations of Pythagoras rather than Christians.希波吕托斯是正确的调用这两个诺斯替教派的毕达哥拉斯模仿,而不是基督徒。According to the Epistles of Julian the Apostate, Valentinian collegia existed in Asia Minor up to his own times (d. 363).据朱利安的叛教者,瓦伦蒂安collegia存在于小亚细亚到他(草363)自己的时代的书信。

(c) The Dualistic School(三)二元学校

Some dualism was indeed congenital with Gnosticism, yet but rarely did it overcome the main tendency of Gnosticism, ie Pantheism.有些确实与诺斯替主义二元论先天性的,但就很少它克服了诺斯替主义的主要趋势,即泛神论。This, however, was certainly the case in the system of Marcion, who distinguished between the God of the New Testament and the God of the Old Testament, as between two eternal principles, the first being Good, agathos; the second merely dikaios, or just; yet even Marcion did not carry this system to its ultimate consequences.然而,这是毋庸置疑的事实中的马吉安,谁之间的新约上帝和旧约的神区别开来,作为永恒的两个原则,第一是良好的,agathos系统,第二只dikaios,或只是,然而即使马吉安没有进行这一制度的最终后果。 He may be considered rather as a forerunner of Mani than a pure Gnostic.他可能会考虑而不是作为一种纯粹的玛尼诺斯底的先驱。 Three of his disciples, Potitus, Basilicus, and Lucanus, are mentioned by Eusebius as being true to their master's dualism (HE, V, xiii), but Apelles, his chief disciple, though he went farther than his master in rejecting the Old-Testament Scriptures, returned to monotheism by considering the Inspirer of Old-Testament prophecies to be not a god, but an evil angel.他的弟子,Potitus,Basilicus和Lucanus,三都提到尤西比乌斯作为是忠于自己的主人的二元论(HE,V,十三),但阿佩莱斯,他的主要弟子,尽管他去拒绝远超过他的师傅老旧约圣经,回到神论的考虑老遗嘱预言启发者是不是神,而是一种邪恶的天使。 On the other hand, Syneros and Prepon, also his disciples, postulated three different principles.另一方面,Syneros和Prepon,也是他的弟子,假设三种不同的原则。A somewhat different dualism was taught by Hermogenes in the beginning of the second century at Carthage.一种略为不同的二元论是由教授在迦太基在第二世纪初Hermogenes。The opponent of the good God was not the God of the Jews, but Eternal Matter, the source of all evil.好神的对手不是犹太人的神,但永恒的事,一切罪恶的根源。This Gnostic was combatted by Theophilus of Antioch and Tertullian.这是combatted由诺斯底的安提阿和良西奥菲勒斯。

(d) The Antinomian School(四)唯信仰论学校

As a moral law was given by the God of the Jews, and opposition to the God of the Jews was a duty, the breaking of the moral law to spite its give was considered a solemn obligation.作为一个道德法律赋予的犹太人的神,反对犹太人的上帝是责任,对触犯法律的道德关系一直被认为是其给庄严义务。 Such a sect, called the Nicolaites, existed in Apostolic times, their principle, according to Origen, was parachresthai te sarki.这样的一个宗派,称为Nicolaites,在使徒时代,他们的原则存在,根据俄,德sarki是parachresthai。 Carpocrates, whom Tertullian (De animâ, xxxv) calls a magician and a fornicator, was a contemporary of Basilides. Carpocrates,其中良(德灵魂,三十五)调用一个魔术师和fornicator,是一个巴西里德当代。One could only escape the cosmic powers through discharging one's obligations to them by infamous conduct.人们只能通过放电逃脱由臭名昭著的行为人的责任,他们的宇宙权力。To disregard all law and sink oneself into the Monad by remembering one's pre-existence in the Cosmic Unit -- such was the Gnosis of Carpocrates.要不顾一切法律和沉入单子通过记住在宇宙单元一个人的前生自己 - 例如是Carpocrates灵知。His son Epiphanes followed his father's doctrine so closely that he died in consequence of his sins at the age of seventeen.他的儿子皮法尼斯跟着父亲的学说如此密切,他在他的罪孽而死亡在17岁。Antinomian views were further maintained by the Prodicians and Antitactae.唯信仰论意见进一步维护了Prodicians和Antitactae。No more ghastly instance of insane immorality can be found than the one mentioned in Pistis Sophia itself as practised by some Gnostics.没有疯狂的不道德行为更可怕的实例可以发现比Pistis索菲亚本身所提到的一些诺斯替教派实行。St. Justin (Apol., I, xxvi), Irenaeus (I, xxv, 3) and Eusebius (HE, IV, vii) make it clear that "the reputation of these men brought infamy upon the whole race of Christians".圣贾斯汀(Apol.,我XXVI),爱任纽(一,二十五,3)和优西比乌(HE,四,七)作出明确表示,“这些人的声誉带来了基督徒后,整场比赛骂名”。

LITERATURE文学

The Gnostics developed an astounding literary activity, which produced a quantity of writings far surpassing contemporary output of Catholic literature.开发了一个惊人的诺斯替教派的文学活动,它产生了远远超越了天主教当代文学著作的输出量。They were most prolific in the sphere of fiction, as it is safe to say that three-fourths of the early Christians romances about Christ and His disciples emanated from Gnostic circles.他们是最丰富的小说领域,因为它是安全地说,关于基督和他的弟子诺斯底界所发出早期基督徒恋情的四分之三。Besides these -- often crude and clumsy -- romances they possessed what may be called "theosophic" treatises and revelations of a highly mystical character.除了这些 - 往往原油和笨拙 - 恋情他​​们拥有什么可以称为“theosophic”论文和高度神秘人物的启示。These are best described as a stupefying roar of bombast occasionally interrupted by a few words of real sublimity.这是最好的形容为高调愚民偶尔真正崇高的轰鸣声打断了几句话。Traine remarks with justice: "Anyone who reads the teachings of the Gnostics breathes in an atmosphere of fever and fancies himself in a hospital, amongst delirious patients, who are lost in gazing at their own teeming thought and who fix their lustrous eyes on empty space" (Essais de crit. et d'histoire, Paris, 1904). Traine言论与正义:“谁读的诺斯替教派的教义呼吸在发烧气氛,幻想自己在医院之间病人神志不清,谁是在凝视着自己丰富的丢失,思想和谁固定在空白的有光泽的眼睛“(Essais DE暴击。ET D' histoire,巴黎,1904年)。Gnostic literature, therefore, possesses little or no intrinsic value, however great its value for history and psychology.诺斯底文献,因此,拥有很少或根本没有内在价值,然而伟大的历史和心理学的价值。It is of unparalleled importance in the study of the surroundings in which Christianity first arose.它是在环境中,基督教研究首次出现前所未有的重要性。The bulk of it is unfortunately no longer extant.其中大部分是不幸不再现存。With the exception of some Coptic translations and some expurgated or Catholicized Syriac versions, we possess only a number of fragments of what once must have formed a large library.随着一些科普特翻译和一些删减或Catholicized叙利亚文版本外,我们所拥有的唯一的东西一旦形成,必须有一个大片段的数字图书馆。 Most of this literature will be found catalogued under the names of Gnostic authors in the articles BASILIDES; BARDESANES; CERINTHUS; MARCION; SIMON MAGUS; PTOLEMY; VALENTINUS.这种文学大部分会被发现的诺斯底根据作者在文章巴西里德的名称编目; BARDESANES; CERINTHUS;马吉安; SIMON法师,托勒密; VALENTINUS。We shall enumerate in the following paragraphs only anonymous Gnostic works and such writings as are not attributed to any of the above authors.我们将列举唯一匿名诺斯底工程等著作并不属于上述作者的任何下文。

The Nicolaites possessed "some books under the name of Jaldabaoth", a book called "Nôria" (the mythical wife of Noah), prophecy of Barcabbas, who was a soothsayer among the Basilidians, a "Gospel of the Consummation", and a kind of apocalypse called "the Gospel of Eva" (Epiph., Adv. Haer., xxv, xxvi; Philastr., 33).该Nicolaites拥有,被称为“诺里亚”(神话中的诺亚的妻子),预言Barcabbas,谁是其中的Basilidians占卜者,一个“完善的福音”一书中“一些下Jaldabaoth名书”,和一个样被称为“福音的伊娃”(Epiph.,高级Haer,二十五,二十六。; Philastr,33)启示。The Ophites possessed "thousands" of apocrypha, as Epiphanius tells us; among these he specially mentions: "Questions of Mary, great and small" (some of these questions are perhaps extant in the Pistis Sophia); also many books under the name of "Seth", "Revelations of Adam", Apocryphal Gospels attributed to Apostles; an Apocalypse of Elias, and a book called "Genna Marias".该Ophites拥有的伪经“千”,作为埃皮法尼乌斯告诉我们,其中他特别提到:“玛利亚的问题,大,小”(其中的一些问题也许在Pistis索菲亚现存)的名义下,也有许多书籍“赛斯”,“亚当的启示”,归结为猜测福音使徒;一个埃利亚斯启示,并称之为“根纳玛丽亚斯”一书。 Of these writings some revelations of Adam and Seth, eight in number, are probably extant in an Armenian translation, published in the Mechitarist collection of the Old-Testament apocrypha (Venice, 1896).这些著作在数量上有亚当和Seth,八个启示,可能是现存在亚美尼亚翻译在旧全书伪经(威尼斯,1896年)Mechitarist收集出版。 See Preuschen "Die apocryph. Gnost. Adamschr."见普罗伊申“模具apocryph。Gnost。Adamschr。”(Giessen, 1900). (吉森,1900)。The Cainites possessed a "Gospel of Judas", an "Ascension of Paul" (anabatikon Paulou) and some other book, of which we do not know the title, but which, according to Epiphanius, was full of wickedness.该Cainites拥有了“犹大福音”,一个“保升天”(anabatikon Paulou)和一些其他的书,我们不知道的标题,但据埃皮法尼乌斯,是充满邪恶。The Prodicians, according to Clem.该Prodicians,根据克莱姆。Alex., possessed apocrypha under the name of Zoroaster (Strom., I, xv, 69).亚历克斯。,拥有下琐罗亚斯德的名称(Strom.,我十五,69)伪经。The Antinomians had an apocryphon "full of audacity and wickedness" (Strom., III, iv, 29; Origen, "In Matth,", xxviii).该Antinomians有一个apocryphon“的大胆和充满邪恶”(Strom.,三,四,29;“在Matth,”奥利,,二十八)。 The Naassenes had a book out of which Hippolytus largely quotes, but of which we do not know the title.该Naassenes了一本书,其中大部分希波吕托斯报价,但我们不知道的称号。It contained a commentary on Bible texts, hymns, and psalms.它载有关于圣经文本,赞美诗和圣歌的评论。The Peratae possessed a similar book.该Peratae拥有类似的书。The Sethians possessed a "Paraphrasis Seth", consisting of seven books, explanatory of their system, a book called Allogeneis, or "Foreigners", an "Apocalypse of Adam", a book attributed to Moses, and others.该Sethians拥有一个“Paraphrasis赛斯”,七书组成,其系统的解释,所谓Allogeneis一书,或“外国人”,一个“亚当的启示”一书中归因于摩西,和其他人。 The Archontians possessed a large and small book entitled "Symphonia"; this possibly extant in Pitra's "Analecta Sacra" (Paris, 1888).该Archontians拥有大大小小的书,书名“交响曲”,这可能在Pitra的“Analecta萨克拉”(巴黎,1888)现存。 The Gnostics attacked by Plotinus possessed apocrypha attributed to Zoroaster, Zostrian, Nichotheus, Allogenes (the Sethian Book "Allogeneis"?), and others.普罗提诺的诺斯替教派攻击具有伪经归因于琐罗亚斯德,Zostrian,Nichotheus,Allogenes(即Sethian书“Allogeneis”?),等等。

In addition to these writings the following apocrypha are evidently of Gnostic authorship:除了这些著作以下是明显的诺斯底伪经作者:

"The Gospel of the Twelve" -- This is first referred to by Origen (Hom. I, in Luc.), is identical with the Gospel of the Ebionites, and is also called the "Gospel according to Matthew", because in it Christ refers to St. Matthew in the second person, and the author speaks of the other Apostles and himself as "we".他说:“十二福音” - 这是第一次提到了奥利(Hom.我,在吕克),与相同的以便尼派福音,也是所谓的“马太福音”,因为它基督圣马太是指在第二的人,和作者的其他使徒和他本人说,作为“我们”。 This Gospel was written before AD 200, and has no connection with the so-called Hebrew St. Matthew or the Gospel according to the Hebrews.这福音写在公元200年,并没有所谓的希伯来文圣马太的福音连接或根据希伯来人。

"The Gospel according to the Egyptians", ie Christian countryfolk of Egypt, not Alexandrians.他说:“按照埃及人的福音”,即基督教countryfolk埃及,不Alexandrians。It was written about AD 150 and referred to by Clem.这是书面约公元150,并提到了克莱姆的。Alex.亚历克斯。(Strom., III, ix, 63; xiii, 93) and Origen (Hom. I, in Luc), and was largely used in non-Catholic circles. (Strom.,三,九,63;十三,93)和奥利(Hom.我,在吕克),并主要用于非天主教界。Only small fragments are extant in Clem.只有小片段在克莱姆现存。Alex.亚历克斯。(Strom. and Excerp. ex Theod.). (Strom.和Excerp。前Theod)。Some people have referred the Oxyrhynchus "Logia" and the Strasburg Coptic papyri to this Gospel, but this is a mere guess.有人提到了Oxyrhynchus“Logia”和斯特拉斯堡科普特纸莎草纸本福音,但这仅仅是一种猜测。

"The Gospel of Peter", written about AD 140 in Antioch (see DOCETAE).他说:“彼得福音”,写在安提约公元140(见DOCETAE)。Another Petrine Gospel, see description of the Ahmin Codex.另一个伯多禄福音,看到Ahmin法典说明。

A "Gospel of Matthias" written about AD 125, used in Basilidian circles (see BASILIDES).A“的马提亚福音”约公元125,在Basilidian界使用(见巴西里德)编写的。

A "Gospel of Philip" and a "Gospel of Thomas".A“菲利普福音”和“托马斯福音”。According to the Pistis Sophia, the three Apostles Matthew [read Matthias], Thomas, and Philip received a Divine commission to report all Christ's revelations after His Resurrection.据Pistis索菲亚,三个使徒马太[阅读马蒂亚斯],托马斯和菲利普接到一个神圣的委员会报告后,他的复活的基督的启示。

The Gospel of Thomas must have been of considerable length (1300 lines); part of it, in an expurgated recension, is possibly extant in the once popular, but vulgar and foolish, "Stories of the Infancy of Our Lord by Thomas, an Israelite philosopher", of which two Greek, as Latin, a Syriac, and a Slavonic version exist.而托马斯福音必须是相当长(1300线);它的一部分,在删减校订,是在一次流行,而是庸俗和愚蠢的“,对婴儿的故事可能是我们的主现存的托马斯,一个以色列人哲学家“,其中两个希腊,为拉丁文,叙利亚文,和斯拉夫版本存在。

"Acts of Peter" (Praxis Petrou), written about AD 165.“使徒彼得”(实践彼得鲁),约公元165写的。 Large fragments of this Gnostic production have been preserved to us in the original Greek and also in a Latin translation under the title of "Martyrdom of the Holy Apostle Peter", to which the Latin adds, "a Lino episcopo conscriptum".这种诺斯底生产大片段已被保存到我们在希腊原文,并在以“殉难圣使徒彼得”,对此,拉美补充说,“一个利诺episcopo conscriptum”称号的拉丁翻译也。Greater portions of this apocryphon are translated in the so-called "Actus Petri cum Simone", and likewise in Sahidic and Slavonic, Arabic, and Ethiopic versions.本apocryphon大的部分是翻译成所谓的“ACTUS的Petri暨西蒙娜”,同样在Sahidic和斯拉夫语,阿拉伯语和埃塞俄比亚的版本。

These fragments have been gathered by Lipsius and Bonnet in "Acta apostolorum apocr."这些碎片已收集到Lipsius和阀盖“文献apostolorum apocr。”(Leipzig, 1891), I. Though these recensions of the "Acts of Peter" have been somewhat Catholicized, their Gnostic character is unmistakable, and they are of value for Gnostic symbolism. (莱比锡,1891),一,虽然是“彼得行为”这些的recensions已经有点Catholicized,他们的性格是明白无误的诺斯底,他们为诺斯底象征价值。

Closely connected with the "Acts of Peter" are the "Acts of Andrew" and the "Acts of John", which three have perhaps one and the same author, a certain Leucius Charinus, and were written before AD 200.紧密联系在一起的“彼得行为”是“安德鲁行为”和“约翰行为”,其中三个有可能是同一个作者,一定Leucius Charinus,并在公元200年写的。They have come down to us in a number of Catholic recensions and in different versions.他们已回落到我们在一个天主教的recensions数量和不同的版本。For the Acts of Andrew see Bonnet, "Acta", as above (1898), II, 1, pp. 1-127; for "Acts of John", ibid., pp. 151-216.对于安德鲁的行为看博内,“文献”上面,(1898年),二,1,第1-127;为“约翰行为”,同上,第151-216。 To find the primitive Gnostic form in the bewildering variety and multiplicity of fragments and modifications is still a task for scholars.要查找的品类和碎片和修改原始诺斯底形式的多样性仍然是学者的任务。

Of paramount importance for the understanding of Gnosticism are the "Acts of Thomas", as they have been preserved in their entirety and contain the earliest Gnostic ritual, poetry, and speculation.为最重要的诺斯替主义的理解是“托马斯行为”,因为它们一直保存在自己的全部,包含最早的诺斯底仪式,诗歌和猜测。 They exist in two recensions, the Greek and the Syriac.它们存在于两个的recensions,希腊和叙利亚。It seems most likely, though not certain, that the original was Syriac; it is suggested that they were written about AD 232, when the relics of St. Thomas were translated to Edessa.看来最有可能的,虽然不是肯定的,那原来是叙利亚,它建议,他们大约在公元232,当圣托马斯的遗物被翻译成书面埃德萨。 Of the greatest value are the two prayers of Consecration, the "Ode to Wisdom" and the "Hymn of the Soul", which are inserted in the Syriac narrative, and which are wanting in the Greek Acts, though independent Greek texts of these passages are extant (Syriac with English translation by W. Wright, "Apocr. Acts of the Apost.", London, 1871).其中最大的价值是奉献两个祈祷,“智慧颂”和“灵魂的歌”,这是在叙利亚的叙事插入,这是在希腊的行为希望,虽然是独立的这些经文的希腊文是现存(由W.莱特英语翻译叙利亚,“Apocr。行为的Apost ”,伦敦,1871年)。The "Hymn to the Soul" has been translated many times into English, especially, by A. Bevan, "Texts and Studies", Cambridge 1897; cf.在“歌的灵魂”已被翻译成英文了很多次,特别是由A.贝文,“文本和研究”,剑桥1897年;比照。F. Burkitt in "Journal of Theological Studies" (Oxford, 1900).F.伯基特(牛津,1900年)中的“神学研究杂志”。The most complete edition of the Greek Acts is by M. Bonnet in "Acta", as above, II, 2 (Leipzig, 1903; see BARDESANES).希腊行为最完整的版本是由M.阀盖在“文献”,同上,第二,2(莱比锡,1903年,见BARDESANES)。 The Acts, though written in the service of Gnosticism, and full of the weirdest adventures, are not entirely without an historical background.的行为,虽然对诺斯替主义服务,以及最古怪的冒险全写的,并非完全没有历史背景。

There are a number of other apocrypha in which scholars have claimed to find traces of Gnostic authorship, but these traces are mostly vague and unsatisfactory.还有一些其他伪经中,学者们声称找到作者的诺斯底的痕迹,但是这些痕迹大多是模糊的,不能令人满意。 In connection with these undoubtedly Gnostic apocrypha mention must be made of the Pseudo-Clementine Homilies.在这些无疑诺斯底伪经提连接必须由伪克莱门汀讲道。It is true that these are more often classed under Judaistic than under strictly Gnostic literature, but their affinity to Gnostic speculations is at least a first sight so close and their connection with the Book of Elxai (cf. ELCESAITES) so generally recognized that they cannot be omitted in a list of Gnostic writings.诚然,这些都是根据Judaistic归类往往比在严格诺斯底文献,但他们的亲和力,诺斯底猜测至少是一见钟情这么密切,随着Elxai书(见ELCESAITES),因此普遍承认,他们无法连接在一个被忽略的诺斯底著作清单。 If the theory maintained by Dom Chapman in "The Date of the Clementines" (Zeitschrift f. N. Test. Wiss., 1908) and in the article CLEMENTINES in the Catholic Encyclopedia be correct, and consequently Pseudo-Clemens be a crypto-Arian who wrote AD 330, the "Homilies" might still have at least some value in the study of Gnosticism.如果理论保持在“日期的柑橘”((杂志)F. N.测试。WISS。,1908),并在文章柑橘由Dom查普曼在天主教百科全书是正确的,因此伪克莱门斯是一个加密阿里安公元330谁写的“颂歌”可能还有至少在一定的价值的诺斯替主义研究。 But Dom Chapman's theory, though ingenious, is too daring and as yet too unsupported, to justify the omission of the "Homilies" in this place.但大教堂查普曼的理论,虽然巧妙,太大胆和尚未太不支持,证明了“颂歌”在这个地方遗漏。

A great, if not thegreatest, part of Gnostic literature, which has been saved from the general wreck of Gnostic writings, is preserved to us in three Coptic codices, commonly called the Askew, the Bruce, and the Akhmim Codex.一个伟大的,如果不是最大的,诺斯底文学,已经从一般的诺斯底著作沉船保存,部分保存在三个科普特抄本给我们,俗称歪,布鲁斯,和Akhmim法典。 The Askew Codex, of the fifth of sixth century, contains the lengthy treatise "Pistis Sophia", ie Faith-Wisdom.食品法典委员会的歪歪,六世纪的第五位,包含冗长的论文“Pistis索菲亚”,即信心,智慧。This is a work in four books, written between AD 250 and 300; the fourth book, however, is an adaptation of an earlier work.这是在公元250和300份四书,工作,第四册,但是,是一个较早的作品的改编。The first two books describe the fall of the Æon Sophia and her salvation by the Æon Soter; the last two books describe the origin of sin and evil and the need of Gnostic repentance.前两书描述了永旺索菲亚和她的永旺梭特尔拯救下降;最后两书描述了罪恶的起源和诺斯底悔改的需要。In fact the whole is a treatise on repentance, as the last two books only apply in practice the example of penance set by Sophia.事实上,整个是一个悔改的论文,作为最后两书只适用于实践,来自Sophia设置苦修的例子。The work consists of a number of questions and answers between Christ and His male and female disciples in which five "Odes of Solomon", followed by mystical adaptations of the same, are inserted.这项工作由一个问题与基督和他的男女弟子的答案,其中五“所罗门诗经”,其次是相同的神秘修改,插入的数目。As the questioning is mostly done by Mary, the Pistis Sophia is probably identical with the "Questions of Mary" mentioned above.由于质疑主要是由玛丽做,Pistis索菲亚可能是与“玛丽问”上面提到的相同。The codex also contains extracts from the "Book of the Saviour".该法典还包含了“救世主书”的摘录。The dreary monotony of these writings can only be realized by those who have read them.这些著作沉闷单调,只能实现那些谁看过他们。An English translation of the Latin translation of the Coptic, which itself is a translation of the Greek, was made by GRS Mead (London, 1896).一个的科普特人,这本身就是一个希腊翻译拉丁文翻译英文翻译,是由GRS米德(伦敦,1896年)。The Bruce papyrus is of about the same date as the Askew vellum codex and contains two treatises:布鲁斯纸莎草是大致相同的日期作为歪歪羊皮纸抄本,并包含两个论文:

the two books of Jeû, the first speculative and cosmogonic, the second practical, viz., the overcoming of the hostile world powers and the securing of salvation by the practice of certain rites: this latter book is styled "Of the Great Logos according to the mystery". 这本书是后者风格的大标志“按:在Jeû,投机性和宇宙起源的第一,第二实用,即,在克服敌对世界大国和由某些礼仪实践得救确保两书其中的奥秘“。

A treatise with unknown title, as the first and last pages are lost.一个未知题的论文,作为第一个和最后一个页面都将丢失。This work is of a purely speculative character and of great antiquity, written between AD 150 and 200 in Sethian or Archontian circles, and containing a reference to the prophets Marsanes, Nikotheus, and Phosilampes.这项工作是一个纯粹的投机性和非常古老,在公元150和200写在Sethian或Archontian圈,并包含一个引用到先知Marsanes,Nikothe​​us和Phosilampes。

No complete English translations of these treatises exist; some passages, however, are translated in the aforesaid GRS Mead's "Fragments of a Faith Forgotten".这些论文没有完整的英文翻译存在,有的段落,然而,在上述GRS米德的“被遗忘的片段一种信仰”翻译。Both the Bruce and Askew Codices have been translated into German by C. Schmidt (1892) in "Texte u. Unters" and (1901) in the Berlin "Greek Fathers".无论是布鲁斯和艾斯丘抄本已被翻译C.施密特(1892年)在“Texte美国Unters”,并在柏林“希腊教父”(1901年)到德国。 A Latin translation exists of the "Pistis Sophia" by Schwartze and Petermann (Berlin, 1851) and a French one of the Bruce Codex by Amélineau (Paris, 1890).一个拉丁翻译中存在的“Pistis索菲亚”的Schwartze和彼得曼(柏林,1851年)和一个由Amélineau布鲁斯法典(巴黎,1890年)法国之一。 The Akhmim Codex of the fifth century, found in 1896, and now in the Egyptian Museum at Berlin, contains第五世纪Akhmim法典,于1896年发现,并在埃及博物馆现在在柏林,包含

a "Gospel of Mary", called in the subscriptions "An Apocryphon of John": this Gospel must be of the highest antiquity, as St. Irenæus, about AD 170, made use of it in his description of the Barbelo-Gnostics;一个“玛利亚福音”,在订阅“一个约翰Apocryphon”之称:这福音必须是最高的古代,作为圣爱任纽约公元170,在他的Barbelo - 诺斯替教派描述它的使用;

a "Sophia Jesu Christi", containing revelations of Christ after His Resurrection;一个“索菲亚Jesu斯蒂”,载后,他的复活基督的启示;

a "Praxis Petri", containing a fantastic relation of the miracle worked on Peter's daughter.一个“实践的Petri”,包含一个梦幻般的奇迹就在彼得工作的女儿。

The study of Gnosticism is seriously retarded by the entirely unaccountable delay in the publication of these treatises; for these thirteen years past we possess only the brief account of this codex published in the "Sitzungsber. dk preus. Acad."对诺斯替主义研究严重,在这些论文发表完全不负责任的拖延迟缓;为这13个过去几年我们所拥有的只有这个抄本简介公布在“Sitzungsber DK价格范围科学院。”(Berlin, 1896), pp. 839-847.(柏林,1896年),页839-847。

This account of Gnostic literature would be incomplete without reference to a treatise commonly published amongst the works of Clement of Alexandria and called "Excerpta ex Theodoto".这种诺斯底文献帐户将是不完整的出版之间的不常用的克莱门特亚历山大工程,被称为“前Theodoto文摘”引用的论文。 It consists of a number of Gnostic extracts made by Clement for his own use with the idea of future refutation; and, with Clement's notes and remarks on the same, form a very confusing anthology.它包括一个由克莱门特作出他与未来的反驳诺斯底思想自用提取物数量,以及与克莱门特的笔记,并在同言论,形成一个非常混乱的文集。 See O. Bibelius, "Studien zur Gesch. der Valent."见O. Bibelius“(研究)楚Gesch。DER价。”in "Zeitschr. f. N. Nest. Wiss."在“Zeitschr。F. N.巢。WISS。”(Giessen, 1908). (吉森,1908年)。

Oriental non-Christian Gnosticism has left us the sacred books of the Mandaeans, viz.,东方非基督教诺斯替教给我们留下的曼德安,即神圣的书籍。,

the "Genzâ rabâ" or "Great Treasure", a large collection of miscellaneous treatises of different date, some as late, probably, as the ninth, some as early, perhaps, as the third century.在“Genzâ拉巴”或“大宝”,一个杂论着不同的日期,一些大型的集合,晚,大概,作为第九,有些早,也许,作为第三个世纪。 The Genzâ was translated into Latin, by Norberg (Copenhagen, 1817), and the most important treatises into German, by W. Brandt (Leipzig, 1892).该Genzâ被译成拉丁文,由贝里(哥本哈根,1817),将德国最重要的论文,由W.勃兰特(莱比锡,1892)。

Kolasta, hymns and instructions on baptism and the journey of the soul, published in Mandaean by J. Euting (Stuttgart, 1867).Kolasta,赞美诗和洗礼和灵魂旅程的指示,在Mandaean出版的J. Euting(斯图加特,1867)。

Drâshê d'Jahya, a biography of John the Baptist "ab utero useque ad tumulum" -- as Abraham Echellensis puts it -- not published.Drâshê D' Jahya,有施洗约翰“AB宫内useque广告tumulum”传记 - 亚伯拉罕Echellensis所说的那样 - 没有公布。

Alexandrian non-Christian Gnosticism is perceptible in Trismegistic literature, published in English translation by GRS Mead (London and Benares, 1902, three volumes).亚历山大非基督教灵知是在Trismegistic文学的GRS米德(伦敦和贝拿勒斯,1902年,三卷)出版的英文翻译,可感知。 Specifically Jewish Gnosticism left no literature, but Gnostic speculations have an echo in several Jewish works, such as the Book of Enoch, the Zohar, the Talmudic treatise Chagiga XV.具体来说犹太诺斯替主义没有留下文学,但诺斯底揣测有几个犹太人的作品,如以诺书,佐哈尔,塔木德论文Chagiga第十五回音。 See Gförer, "Philo", Vol.见Gförer,“斐洛”,卷。I, and Karppe, "Etudes sur. ore. nat. d. Zohar" (Paris, 1901).我和Karppe,“练习曲河畔。矿石。NAT。D.佐哈尔”(巴黎,1901年)。

REFUTATION OF GNOSTICISM驳斥诺斯替主义

From the first Gnosticism met with the most determined opposition from the Catholic Church.从第一诺斯替主义会见了由天主教教会最坚决的反对。

The last words of the aged St. Paul in his First Epistle to Timothy are usually taken as referring to Gnosticism, which is described as "Profane novelties of words and oppositions of knowledge falsely so called [antitheseis tes pseudonomou gnoseos -- the antitheses of so-called Gnosis] which some professing have erred concerning the faith".老年圣保罗在他的第一书信给提摩太最后的话,通常作为参考诺斯替主义,这是作为“字和知识对立亵渎新奇虚假描述所谓[antitheseis TES pseudonomou gnoseos - 如此的对立所谓灵知]其中一些自称犯了错误关于信仰“。Most probably St. Paul's use of the terms pleroma, the æon of this world, the archon of the power of the air, in Ephesians and Colossians, was suggested by the abuse of these terms by the Gnostics.最大的可能是圣保罗的使用条款pleroma,这个世界的永旺,在空气动力执政官在以弗所和歌罗西书,建议由这些条款的诺斯替教派的滥用。 Other allusions to Gnosticism in the New Testament are possible, but cannot be proven, such as Titus 3:9; 1 Timothy 4:3; 1 John 4:1-3.其他典故在新约诺斯替主义是可能的,但不能证明,如提多3:9,;提摩太前书4:3;约翰一书4:1-3。

The first anti-Gnostic writer was St. Justin Martyr (dc 165).第一个反诺斯底作家是圣贾斯汀烈士(直流165)。His "Syntagma" (Syntagma kata pason ton gegenemenon aireseon), long thought lost, is substantially contained in the "Libellus adv. omn. haeres.", usually attached to Tertullian's "De Praescriptione"; such at least is the thesis of J. Kunze (1894) which is largely accepted.他的“宪法广场”(锡塔玛卡塔pason吨gegenemenon aireseon),长陷入了沉思,是大幅所载,通常隶属德尔图良的“德Praescriptione”“Libellus高级OMN haeres ”,这样至少是J.论文坤泽(1894),其中主要是接受。Of St. Justin's anti-Gnostic treatise on the Resurrection (Peri anastaseos) considerable fragments are extant in Methodius' "Dialogue on the Resurrection" and in St. John Damascene's "Sacra Parellela".在圣贾斯汀的反诺斯底伤寒论复活(PERI anastaseos)是现存的大量碎片Methodius“的”复活的对话“,并在圣约翰大马士革的”萨克拉Parellela“。St. Justin's "Comendium against Marcion", quoted by St. Irenæus (IV, vi, 2; V, xxvi, 2), is possibly identical with his Syntagma". Immediately after St. Justin, Miltiades, a Christian philosopher of Asia Minor, is mentioned by Tertullian and Hippolytus (Adv. Valent., v, and Eusebius, HE, V., xxviii, 4) as having combated the Gnostics and especially the Valentinians. His writings are lost. Theophilus of Antioch (dc 185) wrote against the heresy of Hermogenes, and also an excellent treatise against Marcion (kata Markionos Logos). The book against Marcion is probably extant in the "Dialogus de rectâ in Deum fide" of Pseudo-Origen. For Agrippa Castor see BASILIDES.圣贾斯汀的“Comendium对马吉安”,由圣爱任纽(四,六,2,V,二十六,2)引用,可能是与他的锡塔玛相同的“后立即圣贾斯汀,Miltiades,一个小亚细亚基督教哲学家。是提到良和希波吕托斯(Adv.价。,V和尤西比乌斯,HE,五,二十八,4)为具有打击的诺斯替教派,特别是Valentinians,他的著作都将丢失。安提西奥菲勒斯(直流185)写反对Hermogenes异端,也是对马吉安(卡塔Markionos标志)优秀论文。打击马吉安书可能是现存的“Dialogus DE直肠在Deum真正的”伪奥利对于阿格里帕蓖麻看到巴西里德。

Hegesippus, a Palestinian, traveled by way of Corinth to Rome, where he arrived under Anicetus (155-166), to ascertain the sound and orthodox faith from Apostolic tradition. Hegesippus,巴勒斯坦,走遍了罗马的科林斯的方式,在那里他受到Anicetus(155-166)抵达,以确定从使徒传统的声音和正统的信仰。 He met many bishops on his way, who all taught the same faith and in Rome he made a list of the popes from Peter to Anicetus.他会见了他的方式,谁所有教同样的信念,并在罗马,他做了教皇名单由彼得Anicetus许多主教。In consequence he wrote five books of Memoirs (Upomnemata) "in a most simple style, giving the true tradition of Apostolic doctrine", becoming "a champion of the truth against the godless heresies" (Eusebius, HE, IV, vii sqq., xxi sqq.).因此在他写了“以最简单的风格,给人以使徒教义的真正的传统”五书的回忆录(Upomnemata),成为“对不信神的异端邪说的真相冠军”(尤西比乌斯,HE,四,七SQQ。, XXI SQQ)。Of this work only a few fragments remain, and these are historical rather than theological.这项工作只有几个片段依然存在,而这些,而不是神学的历史。

Rhodon, a disciple of Tatian, Philip, Bishop of Gortyna in Crete, and a certain Modestus wrote against Marcion, but their writings are lost. Rhodon,一个塔蒂安,菲利普,主教在克里特岛Gortyna弟子,并有一定Modestus对马吉安写,但他们的作品都将丢失。Irenaeus (Adv. Haer., I, xv, 6) and Epiphanius (xxxiv, 11) quote a short poem against the Oriental Valentinians and the conjuror Marcus by "an aged" but unknown author; and Zachaeus, Bishop of Caesarea, is said to have written against the Valentinians and especially Ptolemy.爱任纽(。Adv. Haer,我十五,六)和埃皮法尼乌斯(三十四,11)引述“一岁”,但未知作者对东方Valentinians和魔术师马库斯首小诗,并Zachaeus,在凯撒利亚主教,据说有书面反对Valentinians,特别是托勒密。

Beyond all comparison most important is the great anti-Gnostic work of St. Irenæus, Elegchos kai anatrope tes psudonymou gnoseos, usually called "Adversus Haereses".除了最重要的是所有比较大的反诺斯底的圣irenæus,Elegchos偕anatrope TES psudonymou gnoseos,通常被称为“Adversus Haereses”的工作。It consists of five books, evidently not written at one time; the first three books about AD 180; the last two about a dozen years later.它由五本书显然不是在同一时间写;前三约公元180书籍,近两年约十几年后。The greater part of the first book has come down to us in the original Greek, the rest in a very ancient and anxiously close Latin translation, and some fragments in Syriac.第一个书大部份已回落在希腊原文,其余的我们在一个非常古老而焦急地接近拉丁语翻译,并在叙利亚的一些碎片。

St. Irenæus knew the Gnostics from personal intercourse and from their own writings and gives minute descriptions of their systems, especially of the Valentinians and Barbelo-Gnostics.圣irenæus知道从个人交往和自己的著作的诺斯替教派,并给出特别是Valentinians和Barbelo,诺斯替教派分钟说明他们的系统。 A good test of how St. Irenæus employed his Gnostic sources can be made by comparing the newly found "Evangelium Mariae" with Adv.关于如何雇用他的圣irenæus诺斯底源的良好测试,可通过比较高级的新发现“Evangelium Mariae”。 Haer., I, xxiv.Haer ,我,二十四。Numerous attempts to discredit Irenaeus as a witness have proved failures (see SAINT IRENAEUS).许多企图诋毁作为证人已经证明失败的爱任纽(见圣爱任纽)。Besides his great work, Irenaeus wrote an open letter to the Roman priest Florinus, who thought of joining the Valentinians; and when the unfortunate priest had apostatized, and had become a Gnostic, Irenaeus wrote on his account a treatise "On the Ogdoad", and also a letter to Pope Victor, begging him to use his authority against him.除了他的伟大的工作,爱任纽写了一封给罗马教士Florinus,谁加入Valentinians认为公开信,而当不幸的神父apostatized,并已成为一个诺斯底,爱任纽他的账户上写道:“在Ogdoad”的论文,也是教皇维克多的信,请求他对他使用他的权威。 Only a few passages of these writings are extant.只有这些著作是现存几段。

Eusebius (HE, IV, xxiii, 4) mentions a letter of Dionysius of Corinth (c. 170) to the Nicomedians, in which he attacks the heresy of Marcion.尤西比乌斯(HE,四,二十三,4)提到的科林斯(约170)的狄奥尼修斯信Nicomedians,他在攻击的马吉安异端。 The letter is not extant.信中没有现存。Clement of Alexandria (dc 215) only indirectly combated Gnosticism by defending the true Christian Gnosis, especially in "Paedagogos", Bk.亚历山大(直流215)克莱门特只能间接打击通过捍卫真正的基督教灵知诺斯替主义,特别是在“Paedagogos”,浅滩。 I, "Stromateis", Bk.我,“Stromateis”,浅滩。II, III, V, and in the so-called eighth book or "Excerpta ex Theodoto".II,III,V,并在所谓的第八册或“前Theodoto文摘”。 Origen devoted no work exclusively to the refutation of Gnosticism but his four books "On First Principles" (Peri archon), written about the year 230, and preserved to us only in some Greek fragments and a free Latin translation by Rufinus, is practically a refutation of Gnostic dualism, Docetism, and Emanationism.奥利致力于专门为没有工作的诺斯替主义反驳,但他的四书“论第一原理”(PERI执政官),约230年写的,只保留在一些希腊的碎片和一个免费的Rufinus拉丁文翻译给我们,实际上是一个诺斯替二元论的驳斥,Docetism和Emanationism。

About the year 300 an unknown Syrian author, sometimes erroneously identified with Origen, and often called by the literary pseudonym Adamantius, or "The Man of Steel", wrote a long dialogue of which the title is lost, but which is usually designated by the words, "De rectâ in Deum fide".关于一年300不明叙利亚作家,有时错误地确定了奥利,并经常被称为文学化名Adamantius,或“钢人”,写了长对话,其中的标题是输了,但它通常是由指定也就是说,“德直肠真正在Deum”。 This dialogue, usually divided into five books, contains discussions with representatives of two sects of Marcionism, of Valentinianism, and of Bardesanism.这种对话,通常划分为五个书,载有两个教派的Marcionism的Valentinianism,代表讨论和Bardesanism。 The writer plagiarizes extensively from Theophilus of Antioch and Methodius of Olympus, especially the latter's anti-Gnostic dialogue "On Free Will" (Peri tou autexousiou).作家抄袭广泛从安提阿和Methodius奥林巴斯西奥菲勒斯,尤其是后者的反诺斯底对话“论自由意志”(围头autexousiou)。 The greatest anti-Gnostic controversialist of the early Christian Church is Tertullian (b. 169), who practically devoted his life to combating this dreadful sum of all heresies.最大的反诺斯底的早期基督教会争论者是特土良(生于169),谁几乎毕生致力于打击这种可怕的一切歪理邪说的总和。 We need but mention the titles of his anti-Gnostic works: "De Praescriptione haereticorum"; "Adversus Marcionem"; a book "Adversus Valentinianos"; "Scorpiace"; "De Carne Christi"; "De Resurrectione Carnis"; and finally "Adversus Praxeam".我们需要,但提到他的反诺斯底工程的标题:“德Praescriptione haereticorum”,“Adversus Marcionem”,一书“Adversus Valentinianos”,“Scorpiace”,“德卡尔内基督”,“德Resurrectione Carnis”,最后“ Adversus Praxeam“。

A storehouse of information rather than a refutation is the great work of Hippolytus, written some time after AD 234, once called "Philosophoumena" and ascribed to Origen, but since the discovery of Books IV-X, in 1842, known by the name if its true author and its true title, "Refutation of All Heresies" (katapason aireseon elegchos).一个信息库,而不是反驳是希波吕托斯伟大的工作,写了一段时间后,公元234,一度被称为“Philosophoumena”,并归因于渊源,但由于受名称,如果图书IV - X,​​在1842年发现,已知其真正的作者和它的真实名称,“驳斥所有异端”(katapason aireseon elegchos)。

The publication of the Athos Codex by E. Miller (Oxford, 1851) revolutionized the study of Gnosticism and rendered works published previous to that date antiquated and almost worthless.该圣山法典由E.米勒出版(牛津,1851)彻底改变了诺斯替主义研究和出版的作品呈现在该日期以前陈旧的,几乎一文不值。 To students of Gnosticism this work is as indispensable as that of St. Irenæus.为了学生的诺斯替主义这项工作是不可缺少的圣爱任纽的。 There is an English translation by J. MacMahon in "The Ante-Nicene Library" (Edinburgh, 1868).有一个由J.麦克马洪在“前厅尼西亚库”(爱丁堡,1868)英语翻译。Hippolytus tried to prove that all Gnosticism was derived from heathen philosophy; his speculations may be disregarded, but, as he was in possession of a great number of Gnostic writings from which he quotes, his information is priceless.希波吕托斯试图证明所有诺斯底主义哲学的产生是从异教徒,他的猜测可能被忽略,但是,正如他在一个诺斯底著作,从他引用大量占有了,他的信息是无价的。 As he wrote nearly fifty years after St. Irenæus, whose disciple he had been, he describes a later development of Gnosis than the Bishop of Lyons.当他将近五十年后圣irenæus,他的弟子曾写道,他描述了一个比里昂主教灵知以后的发展。Besides his greater work, Hippolytus wrote, many years previously (before 217), a small compendium against all heresies, giving a list of the same, thirty-two in number, from Dositheus to Noetus; also a treatise against Marcion.除了他更大的工作,西波吕写道,许多年以前(前217),对所有的异端邪说小简,给人一种相同的,32在数量上,从Dositheus到Noetus名单;还对马吉安论文。

As, from the beginning of the fourth century, Gnosticism was in rapid decline, there was less need of champions of orthodoxy, hence there is a long interval between Adamantius's dialogue and St. Epiphanius's "Panarion", begun in the year 374.为,从第四世纪初,诺斯替主义在迅速下降,有较少的正统冠军的需要,因此有Adamantius之间的对话和圣埃皮法尼乌斯的“Panarion”,在374年开始长的时间间隔。 St. Epiphanius, who is his youth was brought into closest contact with Gnostic sects in Egypt, and especially the Phibionists, and perhaps even, as some hold, belonged to this sect himself, is still a first-class authority.圣埃皮法尼乌斯,谁是他的青年被带到最接近与诺斯底教派在埃及,特别是Phibion​​ists接触,也许甚至有人认为,自己属于这个教派,仍然是一个一流的权威。 With marvelous industry he gathered information on all sides, but his injudicious and too credulous acceptance of many details can hardly be excused.随着他奇妙产业聚集各方面的信息,但他的不明智和很多细节太轻信接受难以原谅。

Philastrius of Brescia, a few years later (383), gave to the Latin Church what St. Epiphanius had given to the Greek. Philastrius布雷西亚,数年后(383),给的拉丁教会了什么圣埃皮法尼乌斯给希腊。He counted and described no fewer than one hundred and twenty-eight heresies, but took the word in a somewhat wide and vague sense.他计算,并介绍了不下128异端邪说,但发生在一个有点宽,隐约感受到这个词。Though dependent on the "Syntagma" of Hippolytus, his account is entirely independent of that of Epiphanius.虽然在“宪法广场”的希波吕托斯依赖,他的帐户是完全独立的埃皮法尼乌斯的。

Another Latin writer, who probably lived in the middle of the fifth century in Southern Gaul, and who is probably identical with Arnobius the Younger, left a work, commonly called "Praedestinatus", consisting of three books, in the first of which he describes ninety heresies from Simon Magus to the Praedestinationists.另一个拉美作家,谁可能是在第五世纪中叶,居住在南部高卢,谁可能与Arnobius相同的雅戈尔,留下了工作,其中第一个,他介绍了俗称“Praedestinatus”,三本书组成, ninety歪理邪说从西蒙法师到Praedestinationists。This work unfortunately contains many doubtful and fabulous statements.不幸的是这项工作包含很多疑问和美妙的语句。Some time after the Council of Chalcedon (451) Theodoret wrote a "Compendium of Heretical Fables" which is of considerable value for the history of Gnosticism, because it gives in a very concise and objective way the history of the heresies since the time of Simon Magus.一段时间后,Chalcedon委员会时间(451)Theodoret写了“邪教寓言汇编”,这为大量的诺斯替主义的历史价值,因为它给出了一个非常简洁的,客观的方式以来,西蒙当时的异端邪说的历史法师。 St. Augustine's book "De Haeresibus" (written about 428) is too dependent on Philastrius and Epiphanius to be of much value.圣奥古斯丁的书“德Haeresibus”(约428书面)过于依赖Philastrius和埃皮法尼乌斯依赖多大的价值。 Amongst anti-Gnostic writers we must finally mention the neo-Platonist Plotinus (d. AD 270), who wrote a treatise "Against the Gnostics".当中反诺斯底作家,我们最终必须提到新柏拉图主义者普罗提诺(卒于公元270),谁写了“反对诺斯替教派”的论文。 These were evidently scholars who frequented his collegia, but whose Oriental and fantastic pessimism was irreconcilable with Plotinus's views.这些是明显的学者经常光顾他的collegia谁,但其东方神奇的悲观是与普罗提诺的意见不可调和的。

CONCLUSION结论

The attempt to picture Gnosticism as a mighty movement of the human mind towards the noblest and highest truth, a movement in some way parallel to that of Christianity, has completely failed.企图以图片作为人的心灵走向高贵和最高的真理,在某种方式并行的运动强大的基督教灵知主义运动,已经完全失败了。It has been abandoned by recent unprejudiced scholars such as W. Bousset and O. Gruppe, and it is to be regretted that it should have been renewed by an English writer, GRS Mead, in "Fragments of a Faith Forgotten", an unscholarly and misleading work, which in English-speaking countries may retard the sober and true appreciation of Gnosticism as it was in historical fact.它已被抛弃,如W. Bousset和O GRUPPE最近不带偏见的学者,而且是令人感到遗憾的是本来应该由英国​​作家,GRS米德在新的“被遗忘的片段一种信仰”,一个unscholarly和误导性的工作,以英语为母语的国家可能会延缓诺斯替主义清醒和真正的升值,因为它在历史事实的。

Gnosticism was not an advance, it was a retrogression.诺斯替主义不是一个进步,这是一个倒退。It was born amidst the last throes of expiring cults and civilizations in Western Asia and Egypt.它的诞生之中的到期邪教和在西亚和埃及文明的最后挣扎。Though hellenized, these countries remained Oriental and Semitic to the core.虽然希腊化,这些国家仍然东方和犹太人的核心。 This Oriental spirit -- Attis of Asia Minor, Istar of Babylonia, Isis of Egypt, with the astrological and cosmogonic lore of the Asiatic world -- first sore beset by Ahuramazda in the East, and then overwhelmed by the Divine greatness of Jesus Christ in the West, called a truce by the fusion of both Parseeism and Christianity with itself.这个东方的精神 - 阿迪斯小亚细亚,伊斯塔的巴比伦,埃及伊希斯,与亚洲和世界的占星宇宙起源传说 - 第一疮在东Ahuramazda困扰,然后不知所措的耶稣基督神圣伟大的西方,所谓的由两个Parseeism和基督教本身融合了停火协议。It tried to do for the East what Neo-Platonism tried to do for the West.它试图做什么东新柏拉图主义试图做西方。During at least two centuries it was a real danger to Christianity, though not so great as some modern writers would make us believe, as if the merest breath might have changed the fortunes of Gnostic, as against orthodox, Christianity.在至少两个世纪它是一个真正的危险,基督教,虽然不如一些现代作家的伟大将使我们相信,仿佛呼吸的微薄可能已经改变了命运的诺斯底对正统基督教。

Similar things are said of Mithraism and neo-Platonism as against the religion of Jesus Christ.类似的事情说Mithraism和新柏拉图主义作为对耶稣基督的信仰。But these sayings have more piquancy than objective truth.但这些说法都超过客观真理辣味。Christianity survived, and not Gnosticism, because the former was the fittest -- immeasurably, nay infinitely, so.基督教生存,而不是诺斯替主义,因为前者是优胜劣汰 - 没法比,不仅如此无限,所以。Gnosticism died not by chance, but because it lacked vital power within itself; and no amount of theosophistic literature, flooding English and German markets, can give life to that which perished from intrinsic and essential defects.诺斯替主义死不是偶然的,而是因为它缺乏内部本身的重要力量,并没有theosophistic文献量,洪水英国和德国市场,可以给生活的这从内在的和必要的缺陷消灭。

It is striking that the two earliest champions of Christianity against Gnosticism -- Hegesippus and Irenaeus -- brought out so clearly the method of warfare which alone was possible, but which also alone sufficed to secure the victory in the conflict, a method which Tertullian some years later scientifically explained in his "De Praescriptione".令人吃惊的是最早的两个冠军基督教反对诺斯替主义 - Hegesippus和爱任纽 - 带出如此明确的作战方法,仅是可能的,但也仅足以确保在冲突中的胜利,德尔图良的一些方法,年后,科学​​地解释了他的“德Praescriptione”。 Both Hegesippus and Irenaeus proved that Gnostic doctrines did not belong to that deposit of faith which was taught by the true succession of bishops in the primary sees of Christendom; both in triumphant conclusion drew up a list of the Bishops of Rome, from Peter to the Roman bishop of their day; as Gnosticism was not taught by that Church with which the Christians everywhere must agree, it stood self-condemned.双方Hegesippus和爱任纽证明,诺斯底教义不属于该信仰的存款是由主教真正继承讲授的主要基督教认为,在胜利的结论都制定了对罗马的主教名单,由彼得的罗马主教的一天,因为诺斯替主义是不是由该教会与世界各地的基督徒必须同意教,它主张自我谴责。

A just verdict on the Gnostics is that of O. Gruppe (Ausführungen, p. 162); the circumstances of the period gave them a certain importance.一个公正裁决的诺斯替教派是O. GRUPPE(Ausführungen,第162页)认为,这一时期的情况下给他们一定的重要性。But a living force they never were, either in general history or in the history of Christendom.但他们从来没有被生活的力量,无论是在一般的历史还是在基督教的历史。Gnosticism deserves attention as showing what mention dispositions Christianity found in existence, what obstacles it had to overcome to maintain its own life; but "means of mental progress it never was".诺斯替主义显示什么值得一提的部署基督教中发现的存在,它有什么障碍要克服,以保持自己的生命的关注,但“它永远不会进步的精神是指”。

Publication information Written by JP Arendzen.出版信息书面由JP Arendzen。Transcribed by Christine J. Murray.转录由恭J.默里。The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume VI.天主教百科全书,第六卷。Published 1909.1909年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, September 1, 1909. Nihil Obstat,1909年9月1日。Remy Lafort, Censor.人头马lafort,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰米farley,大主教纽约



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