Transliteration of Hebrew Letters in the Bible希伯来圣经中的字母音译

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As is well known, only the consonants were written in early Hebrew and, in general, the consonants are of more importance in carrying the meaning of a Hebrew word while the vowels are more significant in marking the form. There are twenty-two consonants (twenty-three if Sin and Shin are distinguished) and most of these have a parallel in the English alphabet. 众所周知,只有辅音早期希伯来文写成,并在一般情况下,辅音的更承载着一个希伯来字的意思,而元音形式更标志着具有重大意义的。有22辅音( 23若仙和Shin区分),其中大部分都在英文字母平行。The Hebrew letters Zayin, Lamed, Mem, Nun, Samekh, Qoph, Resh and Shin are easily represented as the English letters z, l, m, n, s, q, r, and sh.希伯来字母Zayin,Lamed,纪念品,尼姑,Samekh,Qoph,Resh和Shin很容易表示为英文字母Z,L,M,N,S,Q,R,和sh。 See the transliteration table.见音译表。

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There are six Hebrew consonants whose pronunciation may be "hard" or "soft."有六个辅音字母的发音希伯来语可能是“硬”或“软”。 These are the so-called Beghadh- Kephath letters, b, g, d, k, p, t: the Hebrew letters Beth, Gimel, Daleth, Kaph, Pe and Taw.这些都是所谓的Beghadh - Kephath字母,B,G,D,K,P,T:希伯来字母贝丝,Gimel,Daleth,Kaph,PE和托。When written with a hardening dot in the middle, these letters are pronounced like their English equivalents.当与硬化点写在中间,这些字母的发音类似英语等值。If there is a vowel sound before them (and if they are not doubled) they are pronounced differently, but mean exactly the same thing (ie they differ phonetically, but not phonemically).如果他们之前有一个元音的声音(如果他们不加倍),他们的发音不同,但意思完全一样的东西(即它们的不同发音,但不phonemically)。

Technically speaking, these six letters are stops, but they receive a fricative pronunciation, ie the point of articulation is not entirely closed, if a vowel sound precedes them.从技术上讲,这六个字母停止,但他们收到即关节点擦音发音,也不是完全封闭的,如果一个元音之前他们。This variant pronunciation may be represented approximately as b/v, g/gh, d/th (as th in "that"), k/kh, p/f, and t/th (as th in "thin").这种变异可能代表约发音为B / V,G / GH,D /日(如“的”TH),K / KH,P / F,和t /日(如“薄”TH)。Some systems of transliteration represent this variation of these six stops.有些系统的音译代表这六站的变化。But since it makes no difference at all in the meaning of the words, it has been judged better to represent all these letters always by their sound as stops - the "hard" pronunciation.但由于它没有在字义差别可言,它已被判定更好地代表他们的声音所有这些信件总是停 - “硬”的发音。 So Beth is always b; Gimel, g; Daleth, d; Kaph, k; Pe, p; and Taw, t.所以贝丝总是B; Gimel,克; Daleth,D; Kaph,K,PE,P和托,T.(In some systems of transliteration the soft pronunciation is represented thus, bh, gh, dh, kh, ph, th; in others it is b, g, d, k, p, and t.) (在某些系统中的音译发音为代表的软因此,BH,GH,卫生署,KH,pH值,日,有些是B,G,D,K,P和t)

Two consonants are called emphatics.两个辅音称为emphatics。Their ancient pronunciation is difficult to determine accurately, but the Teth is some kind of a "t" and the Tsadhe some kind of an "s."他们古老的发音是很难准确判断,但Teth是某种形式的“T”和Tsadhe一些的“S”类样They are represented as t and s respectively.他们都表示为T和S分别。(In some systems of transliteration the Tsadhe is written "ts".)(在某些系统中的Tsadhe音译写“TS”)。

Three more consonants have no equivalent in English.另外三个辅音没有英文等效。They are guttural sounds made in the larynx.他们在喉了喉音的声音。They are usually represented thus: 'Aleph by an apostrophe ('), and 'Ayin by a reverse apostrophe (`), and Heth by a h.他们通常表示为:'由单引号阿莱夫(')和“阿银的反向单引号(')和赫一小时。There is another kind of "h" used in Ugaritic, Arabic and Akkadian, not in Hebrew, which is made with the tongue not quite against the roof of the mouth (technically a voiceless palatal fricative).还有一种“H”实物乌加里特文,阿拉伯文和阿卡,在希伯来文没有,这与用不太反对口(技术上清音腭擦音)屋面舌头作出。 This is represented, when it occurs, by h.这是代表,当它发生时,由H.

A second "s" apparently was pronounced exactly like Samekh, "s," though it looks like Shin (having a dot over the left upper corner instead of the right).第二个“S”显然是明显的酷似Samekh,“S”,尽管它像新(已在左边,而不是一个点右上角)看起来。To distinguish this letter Sin from the Samekh we use an acute accent over the Sin, thus: s.为了区别于Samekh此信仙,我们使用过的仙音符,从而:S.

The remaining three consonants, He, Waw, and Yodh are sometimes pronounced and sometimes silent, being used in conjunction with vowels.其余三个辅音,他,WAW,并Yodh有时明显,有时​​沉默,​​正在与元音结合使用。When they are pronounced, their pronunciation is like that of their English equivalents.当他们宣布,他们的发音就像是他们的英语等值的。He, h; Waw, w; and Yodh, y.他,H,WAW,W;和Yodh,Y.In some systems of transliteration the Waw is called Vav and pronounced "v" because of past German influence on Hebrew studies.在一些系统的音译WAW称为VAV和明显的“V”,因为过去在希伯来语研究德国的影响力。If, however, these letters are used as vowels, the long vowel resulting is always (and only then) marked with a circumflex accent ^.但是,如果这些字母作为元音使用,造成永远长元音(也才)用抑扬口音^标记。Examples will be given below.下面的例子将给予。

All double consonants (those marked in Hebrew by a doubling dot in the middle of the letter) are simply written twice in the transliteration.全部(特点是在希伯来文在信中加倍点的)双辅音只是写两次在音译。

The consonantal transliterations may be listed as follows:该辅音译音可能被列为如下:

   'Aleph '“阿莱夫”
   Beth b贝丝b
   Gimel gGimel克
   Daleth dDaleth ð
   He (pronounced hay) h他(发音干草)H
   Waw wWAW瓦特
   Zayin zZayin ž
   Heth (or Het) h赫(或HET)H
   Teth tTeth吨
   Yodh (or Yod) yYodh(或Yod)Y
   Kaph kKaph k
   Lamedh lLamedh升
   Mem m纪念品米
   Nun (pronounced noon) n修女(发音中午)N
   Samekh sSamekh s
   Ayin `阿银`
   Pe (pronounced pay) pPE(发音支付)P
   Tsadhe sTsadhe s
   Qoph (English q, but not qu) qQoph(英文Q,但不能屈)Q
   Resh rResh ř
   Sin (pronounced seen) s仙(发音看到)S
   Shin (pronounced sheen) sh新(发音光泽)SH
   Taw t托吨

There are thirteen full vowels in Hebrew and four half-vowels.有thirteen在希伯来文和四个半元音充分元音。Another sign, which marks the end of a syllable (the silent shewa) has no sound and is not marked in the present system.另一个迹象,这标志着一个音节(沉默的蛇洼)结束没有健全,在现行制度不显着。The transliterations of these vowels and also their pronunciation following the letter "m" are as follows:这些元音和他们的发音以下字母“M”的音译如下:

   Pathah a ma as in manPathah妈在人
   Qames a ma as in maQames在马妈
   Final Qames with vocalic He a ma as in ma与元音他妈最后Qames如麻
   Hiriq i mi as in pinHiriq我MI如针
   Hiriq with Yodh i mi as ee in seenHiriq与Yodh我在看到的EE英里
   Seghol e me as in metSeghol Ë我在会见
   Sere e me as ay in may干枯Ë我作为AY 5月
   Sere with Yodh e me as ay in may与Yodh Ë我干枯的AY 5月
   Qames-HatuphQames - Hatuph
   (in closed syllable) o mo as au in naught(在闭音节)O钼化为乌有为AU
   Holem o mo as in moleHolem Ø莫在摩尔
   Holem with Waw o mo in moleHolem与WAW Ø钼痣
   Qibbus (short in closed syllable) u mu oo in nookQibbus(在闭音节短)U亩OO在角落
   Shureq (always with Waw) u mu as oo in foolShureq(总是WAW)U亩,如傻瓜OO

Various other combinations of vowels and silent consonants are self-explanatory:元音和辅音的其他各种组合沉默不言自明:

   Qames with final consonantal He ah mah与最后的辅音Qames他啊麻将
   Qames with final vocalic 'Aleph a' ma'Qames与最后的元音“阿莱夫的”马“
   Sere with final vocalic He eh meh干枯与他最后的元音EH MEH
   Seghol with final vocalic He eh mehSeghol与他最后的元音EH MEH

The half-vowels are all pronounced virtually alike -- like "o" in Democrat:半元音发音都几乎一样 - 像“O”在民主党:

   Shewa e me蛇洼Ë我
   Hateph-pathah a maHateph - pathah妈
   Hateph-seghol e meHateph - seghol Ë我
   Hateph-qames o moHateph - qames Ø莫

A few examples of transliterated words are : ______, dabar,音译词的几个例子:______,达巴尔,
                                             ______, dober,______, dober,
                                             ______, dobera,______, dobera,
                                             ______, dabur,______, Dabur公司,
                                             ______, medabber,______, medab​​ber,
                                             ______, adubbar.______, adubbar。

For those less familiar with the use of Hebrew in transcription, a little attention to the above tables will make the visualization of the equivalent Hebrew letters easy.对于那些不具有的希伯来语在转录使用熟悉的,稍不注意上述表格将会使相当于希伯来语字母容易可视化。For those less familiar with the Hebrew characters, the use of transcription will make the word studies fully usable.对于那些不太熟悉的希伯来文字符,对转录的使用将使得字的研究完全可用。

It may here be added that the transliteration is the same for Aramaic and similar for Arabic, Ugaritic, and Akkadian.它可以在这里添加的音译是相同的阿拉姆语和阿拉伯语,乌加里特语和阿卡相似。In Ugaritic and Arabic there are a few extra consonants: Ha, h for another kind of palatal "h" already mentioned; Ghain, g or g for another kind of Ayin; d and d for other kinds of "d"; z for another emphatic sibilant; and s often used for "sh."在乌加里特语和阿拉伯语有一些额外的辅音:哈,H为另一腭“H”已经提到的那种; Ghain,G或g另一种的阿银,D和D的“D”等多种;再Ž有力的咝咝声,和S通常用于“SH”。The system found in LH Gray, Introduction to Semitic Comparative Linguistics (Columbia Univ., 1934) is followed.在LH灰色,介绍发现犹太人(哥伦比亚大学,1934年)比较语言学系统后面。

The asterisk preceding a verbal root indicates that although this root is quoted in the Qal form, it only appears in the derived stems, Piel, Hiphil, etc.星号前面的口头根表示,尽管这根是在QAL形式引用,它只出现在派生茎,彼尔,Hiphil等。

The dagger before a word indicates that this word is specifically treated in the discussions of meaning below.前一个字匕首表明这个字是具体的含义如下讨论处理。

In Hebrew there is considerable freedom in writing the Holem with Waw (full writing) or without Waw (defective writing).在希伯来文中有书面WAW(全写)的Holem或不WAW(有缺陷的写作)相当大的自由度。The same applies to the Hiriq with or without the Yodh.同样适用于Hiriq有或没有Yodh。In most cases, both forms are given and are alphabetized accordingly in two different places.在大多数情况下,这两种形式,并给出了按字母顺序排列在两个不同的地方相应。Sometimes, however, if the variant spelling is quite minor it may have been overlooked.有时,但是,如果变异拼写是相当轻微的,可能被忽视了。So if, for instance, ___ hor is not found under Heth, Waw and Yodh, it would be advisable to look under ___ hor where it does appear.所以,如果,例如,___贺是没有根据赫,WAW和Yodh发现,这将是最好看的地方在___贺它出现。Remember always that to find a word in the Hebrew alphabetization that has been transcribed into English, it is necessary to consider only the consonants, but this includes the vowel letters which are indicated by the circumflex.始终记住,要找到一个在希伯来字母化已转录成英文单词,有必要考虑只辅音,但是这包括元音音调是由字母表示。 Thus, megora, mentioned above, would be alphabetized under Mem "m", Gimel "g", Waw "w", Resh "r", and He "h."因此,megora,上面提到的,将按照字母顺序排列MEM“M”,Gimel“G”,WAW“W”,Resh“R”,和他“H”

In cases where there is a difference in the Hebrew text between the written consonants (the Kethib) and the vowels attached (the Qere), both forms are not always noted, but an effort has been made to list one or the other reading.在情况下,有一个之间的书面辅音(即Kethib)和连接(即Qere)元音希伯来文的差别,这两种形式并不总是注意到,但努力已列出一个或其他阅读。

Also, see:此外,见:
Romanized Bible Text罗马圣经文本
Literal Translation直译
Septuagint and early Manuscriptsseptuagint和早期手稿
Translating the Bible翻译圣经
A Thorough Presentation of Jewish Genesis 1 text详细介绍了犹太人的成因一文

This subject presentation in the original English language这在原来的主题演讲, 英语

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