Theology of Hope, Hope Theology希望 神学

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Professor of systematic theology at the University of Tubingen, West Germany, since 1967, Jurgen Moltmann, b.有系统的神学教授,自1967年以来的蒂宾根大学,西德,于尔根莫尔特曼,B.Apr. 8, 1926, is one of the leading proponents of the "theology of hope."1926年4月8日,是在领先的倡导者之一的“希望神学”。 He believes that God's promise to act in the future is more important than the fact that he has acted in the past.他认为,上帝的承诺,在未来的行动比他在过去担任重要事实。What is implied by this focus on the future, however, is not withdrawal from the world in the hope that a better world will somehow evolve, but active participation in the world in order to aid in the coming of that better world.什么是本着眼于未来暗示,然而,是不是从世界撤回,希望更美好的世界会以某种方式进化,但在世界上积极参与,以帮助该未来更美好的世界。 Moltmann's works include Theology of Hope (1964), Hope and Planning (1971), Man (1971), The Experiment of Hope (1975), Experience of God (1979), On Human Dignity (1984), and God in Creation (1986).莫尔特曼的作品包括神学的希望(1964),希望和规划(1971年),文(1971),希望的实验(1975),神(1979)的经验,对人的尊严(1984年),上帝在创造(1986年)。

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Bibliography 参考书目
AJ Conyers, God, Hope, and History (1988); MD Meeks, Origins of the Theology of Hope (1974).AJ科尼尔斯,上帝,希望和历史(1988年); MD米克斯,对神学的希望(1974)的起源。

Theology of Hope神学的希望

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In the late 1960s a new approach to theology emerged.在60年代后期的新方法神学出现了。Its early leaders were Germans who attempted to do theology and understand the mission of the church from a shift in interpretative perspective.它的早期领导人是德国人谁试图做神学和理解教会从一个解释性观念的转变任务。 This new approach is a resurrection - centered theology, in the awareness that Christ's resurrection is the beginning and promise of that which is yet to come.这种新方法是一种复活 - 为中心的神学,在认识到基督的复活是开始,该是尚未到来的承诺。The Christian is to be seen as a "hoper," who is impatient with evil and death in this present age.基督教是作为“hoper,”谁是恶,目前这个年龄死亡不耐烦看到。The church is seen as a disquieting entity, confronting society with all its human securities, empires, and contrived absolutes.教会被视为一个令人不安的实体,面临着所有的人的证券,帝国和做作绝对的社会。The church awaits a coming city and, therefore, exposes all the cities made with hands.教会期待着未来的城市,因此,公开所有的人手所造的城市。This form of theology exists in dialogue with other visions of the future, especially Marxism, and it stands against the individualism of liberal pietist and existential theologies.这种神学的形式存在与未来,特别是马克思主义的其他看法的对话,它违背了自由虔信和生存神学个人主义立场。 In some ways it is orthodox, and yet politically it can be quite radical.在某些方面它是正统,然而政治上可以很激进。Third World churches have been deeply influenced by the theology of hope.第三世界教会一直深受神学的希望。

Undoubtely a central figure of this new theology is Jurgen Moltmann. Undoubtely这种新神学的核心人物是于尔根莫尔特曼。The most influential work by Moltmann is his Theology of Hope, published in English in 1967.由莫尔特曼最有影响力的作品是他的神学的希望,在1967年以英文出版。This book is merely part of a wealth of material now being produced by Moltmann.这本书只不过是一个物质现正由莫特曼产生财富的一部分。 It is a work of sustained spiritual force and systematic power, written when Western culture was in great ferment.这是一个持续的精神动力和电力系统的工作,书面当西方文化的伟大发酵了。Theology of Hope speaks of an understanding of God as being ahead of us and the one who will make all things new.希望之神学谈到对神的理解,是摆在我们面前的一个谁将会使所有新事物。He is known now in his promises.他知道现在他的诺言。It speaks to a world vividly aware of the "not yet" dimensions of human and social existence, and of the fact that hope at its human level is of the stuff of meaningful existence.它向世界生动地讲了“尚未”人类和社会存在层面了解和事实,在其希望的人水平存在的东西是有意义的。Within this sort of situation, sustained by a renewed confidence in the eschatological or apocalyptic vision of Scripture, and reacting to the individualistic exaggerations of theological existentialism (eg, Bultmann), Moltmann has sought to rethink theology.在这种情况下,持续了一个圣经的末世论或世界末日的视力恢复信心,并作出反应的存在主义神学(例如,布特曼)个人主义夸张排序,莫尔特曼设法重新思考神学。

Eschatology is not to be seen as the last chapter in a theology textbook but the perspective from which all else is to be understood and given its proper meaning.末世不是作为一个神学教科书但是从哪个角度看一切是要理解并给予其应有之义的最后一章看到。For Moltmann eschatology is the key or central concept from which everything else in Christian thought is set.对于莫尔特曼末世是关键或核心概念,从它在基督教思想一切设置。

Moltmann sees the entire story of Israel as a unique historic pilgrimage as Israel is confronted by the God of promise.莫尔特曼认为作为一个独特的历史性的朝圣因为以色列是上帝的承诺面对以色列的整个故事。 Israle's entire identity is in light of the promises of God.Israle的整个身份是在神的应许光。In Jesus Christ the future kingdom is present, but as future kingdom.在耶稣基督的未来王国存在,但作为未来的王国。His resurrection is the firstfruits of the resurrection and can have meaning only within that universal horizon of meaning.他的复活是复活初熟的果子,可以有含义内的普遍意义的视野只。Christian life and salvation are firstfruits, living in the promise of the future of God in Christ.基督徒的生活和救赎是初熟的果子,在神在基督未来生活的承诺。

The church is to be seen as the people of hope, experiencing hope in the God who is present in his promises.教会是被视为希望的人看到,经历神是谁在他的承诺存在的希望。The coming kingdom gives the church a much broader vision of reality than a "merely" private vision of personal salvation.即将到来的王国给教会一个比一个“仅仅是”个​​人得救私人视野更广阔的视野的现实。The church is to contest all the barriers that have been constructed by man for security; it challenges all structures that absolutize themselves, and all barriers erected between peoples in the name of the reality that is to come in Jesus Christ.教会是比赛的所有被人建造了安全屏障,它的所有结构,绝对化的挑战自己,和所有人民之间架设障碍在现实中是来耶稣基督的名。 The coming kingdom creates confronting and transforming vision for the mission of the people of God.面对即将到来的王国创造和转化为上帝的子民的使命愿​​景。

Although Moltmann is perhaps most conspicuous, he is not the only theologian of hope.虽然莫尔特曼也许是最突出,他不是唯一的希望神学家。Lutheran theologian Wolfhart Pannenberg is another who has become quite well known in the United States since the late 60s.路德神学家Wolfhart潘内伯格是另一个谁也成为自60年代末相当不错,在美国闻名。His editorship of a programmatic work, Revelation as History (1968), and his Jesus, God and Man (1968) have already given him a significant place on the theological map.他的一个纲领性的工作,因为历史(1968年),他的耶稣启示的编辑,神与人(1968年)已经给了他对神学地图举足轻重的地位。 In Revelation as History, Pannenberg has produced a key essay containing "Dogmatic Theses on the Doctrine of Revelation."作为历史的启示,潘内伯格产生了重要的文章包含了“关于启示教义教条式的论文。”In this work we find an understanding of all reality in terms of the eschaton, the Christ event as the beginning, proleptically, of that future, and of the concept of God as the God of the future.在这项工作中,我们发现在eschaton,像基督事件的开始,今后,proleptically,和上帝的作为未来神的观念上的所有现实的理解。

Apocalyptic is the key theological category, for only at the end will God be seen as God, and only in the light of this end is the resurrection of Jesus Christ seen in its proper universal context.启示是关键神学范畴,只是在年底将看到上帝为上帝,只有在这个尽头的亮光是耶稣基督的复活在适当的普遍性角度来看待。 Pannenberg's massive work on Christology is a further attempt to rethink this crucial doctrine "from the end."潘内伯格对基督大量工作,是进一步尝试重新思考这个关键学说“从结束。”Jesus Christ is defended as very God and very man, and the resurrection is defended as an event in history and given meaning by placing it within an apocalyptic conceptual horizon.耶稣基督是上帝和辩护,非常非常的人,复活是一个历史和赋予意义的事件辩护放置在一个世界末日的概念地平线它。Here, indeed, is a new and promising attempt to defend and affirm the church's witness to Christ as God and man.在这里,确实是一个新的和有前途的企图,捍卫和确认为神和人的教会的见证基督。

From a much more political emphasis comes the work of Catholic theologian Johannes B Metz.从政治上更加强调随之而来的天主教神学家约翰内斯乙梅斯工作。In his Theology of the World (1968) we have a serious attempt to rethink the mission of the church in light of the future orientation of bibical faith.在他的世界神学(1968)我们有一个严重的尝试重新考虑在未来的bibical信仰取向光教会的使命。Lutheran theologian Carl Braaten is perhaps the leading American advocate of this sort of theology and its meaning for theology and church.路德神学家卡尔Braaten可能是导致这种神学及其神学和教会的意义排序美国的​​主张。His programmatic work is The Future of God (1969).他的编程工作是神(1969)未来。

It is, of course, true that since the publication of Albert Schweitzer's The Quest of the Historical Jesus at the turn of the century, the church has been vividly aware of eschatology.这是,当然,真正的,自史怀哲出版的的历史耶稣在世纪之交的任务,教会已生动地意识到末世。But what was to be done with it?但是,什么是必须与它做什么?Was it merely a first century conceptual "husk" (Harnack)?当时它只是一世纪概念“壳”(哈纳克)?Was it the vivid mythological language of existential ultimacy (Bultmann)?当时它的生动语言的存在ultimacy神话(布特曼)? Was it merely a mistake replaced by the church (Loisy)?当时它只是由教会(卢瓦西)取代了错误呢?No, say the theologians of hope.不,说希望的神学家。They have studied the bibical witness long and hard.他们研究了bibical见证漫长而艰难的。They have listened seriously to the philosophical climate of their time, especially sharpening their historical awareness through the left wing of the Hegelian tradition (Feuerbach, Marx, and Bloch).他们认真听取了他们的时间哲学的气候,特别是锐化通过黑格尔的传统左翼(费尔巴哈,马克思和布洛赫)他们的历史意识。 They contend that the time has come to rethink theology in light of the telos.他们争辩说,时间已经到了重新考虑的终极目的光神学。

Theological reflection can take several styles.神学思考可以采取几种风格。One approach is to take one doctrine as central and think from it to the rest of one's theological agenda.一种方法是把一个作为学说,认为从中央到一个人的神学议程休息。The central doctrine becomes the hub and other doctrines are the spokes of a conceptual wagon wheel.中央学说成为枢纽和其他学说是一个概念车车轮辐条。Luther did this with great power with the doctrine of justification; Barth, likewise, with the incarnation of the Son.路德也与成义教义的大国本,巴特,同样,随着儿子的化身。Theologians of hope have made eschaton their conceptual center.希望神学家已eschaton其概念的中心。Their first move is to use this center to affirm the meaning and significance of Jesus Christ.他们的第一个举动就是用这个中心,以肯定的意义和耶稣基督的意义。The eschaton is not an embarrassment; rather, it gives Christianity both personal and universal significance in a world that thinks, plans, and dreams in terms of future fears, hopes, and schemes.该eschaton不是一个尴尬,相反,它使基督教在未来的恐惧,希望和计划条款的个人和普遍意义的世界中认为,计划和梦想。 Further, this form of doing theology provides a way of seeing the mission of the church in terms of the larger issues of man in community and the question of revolution.此外,这种做法神学的形式提供了一个看到的人在较大的社会和革命的问题问题方面的教会使命的方式。The promise of this effort remains to be fully seen.这一努力的承诺仍然要充分看到。Surely from their own perspective no theological model can be absolute.当然从自己的角度没有神学模型可以是绝对的。

On the critical side, questions certainly arise.在关键的方面,问题一定出现。It seems that with all the focus on the end, a simple question arises about the beginning.这似乎与所有的最终焦点,一个简单的问题开始出现有关。How does the creation and fall fit in?如何创造和秋季适合?Would it be as easy to conceptualize a sort of dualism with God finally "winning" in the end?难道那样容易概念化的二元论与神终于“赢”到底排序?Surely this is not contemplated, but what is?这肯定是不考虑,但究竟是什么?Further, Moltmann seems to have much difficulty incorporating any thought of a future judgment as condemnation.此外,莫尔特曼似乎能有多大的困难,采用任何谴责作为未来判断的思想。But if the Christ - event is the "presence of the future" and if it is the clue to the destiny of all, then is the church in its witness and mission anything more than the harbinger of the truth of all men?但如果基督 - 事件是“未来的存在”,如果它是对所有的命运线索,然后是其见证和使命什么比所有男人更教会真理的先兆?Is there no real discussion to be made?有没有真正的讨论会呢?Is there no real discussion to be made?有没有真正的讨论会呢?Is there no condemnation in the future?有没有在未来的谴责?

Resurrection in the Bible is unto either life or condemnation.圣经中的复活所不欲,无论是生活或谴责。 Finally, is this theology no more than a sign of the times?最后,这是神学只不过是时代的标志更多?Because our materialism and narcissism have blinded us to God as a living presence, have we now conjured a theology to somehow account for this by putting him into the future?因为我们的唯物论和自恋有蒙蔽作为我们生活的存在上帝,我们现在唤出的神学以某种方式对这个帐户将在未来呢?Has virtue (hope) become the child of tragic necessity?有美德(希望)成为悲惨的必要性的孩子吗?Criticisms such as these, however necessary, need not keep us from exploring the possibilities of thinking "from the telos."如这些批评,但必要时需要从探索跟不上思维的可能性,我们“从终极目的。”

SM Smith SM史密斯
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary)(Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 参考书目
F Herzog, ed., The Future of Hope; ME Marty and DG Peerman, eds., New Theology No. 5; W Capps, Time Invades the Cathedral; J McQurrie, Thinking about God; DP Scaer, "Theology of Hope," in Tensions in Contemporary Theology; JM Robinson and JB Cobb, eds., Theology As History.F赫尔佐格,教育署,未来的希望; ME马蒂和DG Peerman,EDS,新神学第5期;,W卡普斯,时间侵占大教堂〔J McQurrie,对上帝的思考; DP Scaer,“希望神学”在当代神学的紧张关系; JM罗宾逊和JB科布,EDS,历史神学。

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