Infallibility犯错误

General Information一般资料

Infallibility means, literally, immunity from error.犯错误的手段,从字面上看,从错误的免疫力。In Christian theology, the term is applied to the whole church, which, it is believed by many Christians, cannot err in its teaching of revealed truth because it is aided by the Holy Spirit.在基督教神学中,术语是适用于整个教会,其中,它是由许多基督徒认为,不能在其揭示真理的教学犯错,因为它是由圣灵资助。

Christians disagree, however, about how infallibility can be recognized.基督徒不同意,但是,如何犯错误可以得到承认。Some accept as infallible those doctrines universally taught and believed from antiquity.一些接受犯错的教导,从古代普遍认为这些学说。Others recognize as infallible the doctrinal decisions of the ecumenical councils of the church.其他承认犯错的教会的合一议会的理论的决定。

Roman Catholics believe that the pope can make infallible definitions on faith or morals when he speaks ex cathedra--as head of the church--and when he has the clear intention of binding the whole church to accept as dogma whatever he is defining.罗马天主教会认为,教皇可以使信仰或道德上犯错的定义,当他谈到前cathedra - 作为教会的头 - 当他有约束力的整个教会接受教条无论他是定义明确的意图。Papal infallibility was formally defined at the First Vatican Council (1870).教皇infallibility被正式定义在第一梵蒂冈理事会(1870年)。The doctrine was reaffirmed at the Second Vatican Council (1962-65), which also stressed that the entire body of bishops in union with the pope teach infallibly when all concur in a single viewpoint on matters of faith and morals.该学说是重申了第二次梵蒂冈会议(1962-1965),这也强调,工会主教与教宗的教导绝对无误时,整个身体都在一个单一的观点同意的信仰和道德的问题。

BELIEVE Religious Information Source web-site相信宗教信息来源
BELIEVE Religious Information Source相信宗教信息来源
Our List of 2,300 Religious Subjects

我们2300 宗教科目名单
E-mail电子邮件
Richard P. McBrien理查德P. McBrien

Bibliography 参考书目
Kirvan, John, ed., The Infallibility Debate (1971); Kung, Hans, Infallible? Kirvan,在犯错误辩论(1971年)约翰,编辑;西贡,汉斯,万无一失?An Inquiry (1971).一个调查(1971年)。


Infallibility犯错误

General Information一般资料

Infallibility, in Christian theology, is the doctrine that in matters of faith and morals the church, both in teaching and in believing, is protected from substantive error by divine dispensation.犯错误,在基督教神学,是在信仰和道德的教会事务,无论是在教学和相信,是由神的福音实质性错误保护学说。 The doctrine is generally associated with the Roman Catholic church, but it is also applied by the Orthodox church to decisions of ecumenical councils.该学说是一般与罗马天主教教堂,但它也是由东正教教会的合一议会决定应用。The doctrine is widely rejected by Protestants on the grounds that only God can be described as infallible.该学说被广泛拒绝的,只有上帝可以作为犯错的理由说明新教徒。

Roman Catholic theology asserts that the entire church is infallible (and therefore cannot err in matters of faith) when, from bishops to laity, it shows universal agreement in matters of faith and morals. Only the following persons in the church - those who hold its highest teaching office - are believed to proclaim Christian doctrine infallibly:罗马天主教神学断言,整个教堂是不变的真理(因此不能在信仰方面ERR)时,从以俗人主教,它显示了信仰和道德问题普遍的协议,只有在教堂下面的人-那些谁举行最高教学办公室-被认为是宣扬基督教教义绝对无误:

According to the definition promulgated in 1870 by the First Vatican Council the pope exercises an infallible teaching office only when根据定义,于1870年颁布的第一梵蒂冈教皇演习会的办公室只有一个犯错的教学时

The pope is never considered infallible in his personal or private views. Since the middle of the 19th century, only two ex cathedra pronouncements have been made in the Roman Catholic church: the definition of the dogma of the Immaculate Conception in 1854 by Pope Pius IX, and the definition of the Assumption of the Virgin in 1950 by Pope Pius XII.教皇是从来没有考虑过在他的个人或私人意见犯错自19世纪中叶,只有两个前cathedra声明已在罗马天主教会提出:由教皇庇护九世的定义,在1854年的圣母无原罪教条,而在1950年由罗马教皇庇护十二世处女假设的定义。

Infallibility is not regarded by its adherents as something miraculous or as a kind of clairvoyance.犯错误并不认为其信徒为神奇的东西,或作为一种的千里眼。Rather, it is considered a grace, or divine gift, that is biblically and theologically grounded.相反,它被认为是一种风度,或神圣的礼物,那就是圣经和神学为基础。Proponents point to many scriptural passages, such as the farewell discourses in John, especially the promise of the Spirit of truth (see John 14:17; 15:26; 16:13).支持者指向许多圣经经文,如约翰的告别话语,尤其是对真理的圣灵的承诺(见约14:17; 15时26分,16:13)。 They hold that the church derives this gift from God, who alone is the ultimate source of infallibility.他们认为,教会源自这个神,谁仅仅是一贯正确的最终来源的礼物。The matters subject to infallibility are doctrines rooted in Scripture and in the ancient traditions of the church, neither of which can be contradicted; thus, novel doctrines and other innovations are believed to be excluded.该事项须犯错误是在圣经和教会的古老传统根深蒂固的教义,都不可以违反,因此,新的教义和其他创新被认为是排除在外。 Infallibility is therefore seen as a gift that is to be exercised with the utmost care in the service of the gospel.犯错误,因此被视为礼物,是要以最大的关怀行使福音的服务。


Infallibility犯错误

Advanced Information先进的信息

Infallibility is the state of being incapable of error.犯错误是被错误的能力状态。The word "infallible" occurs in the AV in Acts 1:3 with reference to the resurrection of Christ.单词“万无一失”的行为发生在参照基督的复活1点03分在AV。There is no corresponding word in the Greek, however, and it is omitted in later versions.有没有在希腊,但相应的词,它是在以后的版本省略。

That the revelation of God in Jesus Christ is infallible, in the general sense that it presents mankind with the infallible way of salvation, would be accepted by all Christian, but the seat of infallibility is a matter of controversy.这是神在耶稣基督里的启示是不变的真理,在一般意义上,它呈现与拯救人类犯错的方式,将接受所有的基督徒,但犯错误的​​座位是一个有争议的问题。 Three main lines of thought may be discerned corresponding to the three main divisions of Christendom.三大思想主线可看出端倪对应的三个基督教的主要部门。The Eastern Orthodox Church believes that general councils of the Church are guided by the Holy Spirit so as not to err; the Roman Catholic Church believes that the pope is personally preserved from error by God; and Protestant thought relies on the sufficiency of Holy Scripture as the guide to God's self-revelation.东正教教会认为,教会,一般议会是由圣灵引导,以免犯错,罗马天主教会认为,教皇是上帝亲自从错误保存;和新教认为圣经上的自给自足的依赖对上帝的自我启示指导。 We can relate these three theories in the following way.我们可以通过以下方式与这三个理论。Christians of all traditions accord to Holy Scripture a unique place in the determination of the gospel, and there exists an extensive body of common belief derived from it.所有传统的协议基督徒圣经中的福音决心独特的地方,且存在一个共同的信念,从它派生的广泛的机构。This common belief is further described and defined by the councils held in the early centuries, four of which at any rate command universal approval.这一共同的信念是进一步描述和在世纪初举行的议会定义,其中四个无论如何命令普遍认同。The Orthodox Church continues to rely on councils, the Latin Church has finally come to define the seat of infallibility as the papacy, while Protestants look to the Scriptures as the ultimate source of authority.东正教教会继续依靠议会,拉丁美洲教会终于来定义为教皇犯错误座位,而新教徒期待作为权力的最终来源的圣经。 Particular attention must be given to the doctrine of papal infallibility, and the Protestant doctrine of the sufficiency and supremacy of Scripture.必须特别注意​​给予的教皇infallibility学说,以及圣经的充分性和至高无上的新教教义。

The doctrine of the infallibility of the pope was defined by the Roman Catholic Church in the year 1870.该学说的教皇犯错误的定义由罗马天主教教会在1870年。It declares that the pope is enabled by God to express infallibly what the church should believe concerning questions of faith and morals when he speaks in his official capacity as "Christ's vicar on earth," or ex cathedra.它宣称,教皇是上帝启用表示绝对无误什么教会应该相信有关的信仰和道德问题,当他在他的官方身份讲“基督在地上的副主教,”或前cathedra。

Behind this dogma lie three assumptions which are disputed by other Christians: (1) that Christ established an office of "vicar" for his church on earth; (2) that this office is held by the bishop of Rome; and (3) that Christ's vicar is infallible in his declarations of faith and morals.这背后的教条谎言三个被其他基督徒有争议的假设:(1)基督设立了一个“牧师”为他在地上的教会办公室;(2),这个办公室是由罗马主教举行;及(3)基督的副主教在他的信仰和道德声明万无一失。 The grounds upon which the Church of Rome bases these assumptions may be summarized as follows: (1) Our Lord's saying to Peter recorded in Matt.的理由后,其中的罗马教会基地这些假设可归纳如下:(1)我们的主的话说,在马特记录彼得。16:18, "Thou art Peter, and on this rock I will build my church," implies that Christ made Peter the head of the church, or his "vicar on earth."十六点18分,“你的艺术彼得,并在此岩石,我要建立我的教会,”意味着基督取得彼得教堂的负责人,或他的“地球上的牧师。” (2) Peter was bishop at Rome, and thereby constituted this see the supreme bishopric over the church, transmitting to his successors the prerogative of being Christ's vicar. (2)彼得主教在罗马,从而构成了这看到了教会的最高主教,传送到他的继任者被基督的副主教的特权。(3) The vicar of Christ must be infallible by the very nature of the case.(3)基督的副主教必须万无一失的案件的性质。 All three arguments are necessary to the doctrine of papal infallibility, and all three display a fallibility which makes it impossible for the Orthodox and Protestant churches to accept them.所有这三个参数是必要的教皇infallibility教义,所有三个显示易错这使得它不可能为东正教和新教教堂接受。

Recently, Roman Catholic attitudes toward papal infallibility have shifted somewhat in response to ecumenical dialogue, historical investigation, and most recently Hans Kung's book.最近,罗马天主教教皇对犯错误的态度已经有所转变响应合一对话,历史调查,以及最近汉斯昆的书。Kung's challenge, provoked by the papal ruling on contraception, set off a large and still unresolved debate inside Catholicism.公的挑战,由教皇统治激起避孕,掀起了天主教内仍未解决的大辩论。Kung argued that the papal teaching office (magisterium) had in fact made many contradictory and erroneous rulings over the centuries, and that Catholics should therefore speak only of an "indefectibility of the Church," a position strikingly similar to that of some Protestants, as many Catholics pointed out.龚认为,教皇教学办公室(训导)实际上已经作出了许多矛盾和几个世纪以来的错误裁决,因此,天主教徒应该只讲一个“教会indefectibility”的位置惊人地相似,一些新教徒,作为许多天主教徒指出。 The debate has forced all Catholics to define more clearly just what papal infallibility entails, thus cutting back many exaggerated notions of it; and many progressive Catholics have sought to include bishops, theologians, and even the whole church in their notion of an infallibly preserved tradition of the true faith.辩论已迫使所有天主教徒更明确地界定正是教皇犯错误的要求而这样切割回来许多夸张的概念和许多进步的天主教徒都力求包括主教,神学家,甚至在他们的传统观念绝对无误保存全教会在真正的信仰。 In the mean-time historians have shown that indefectibility of the church was the received view in the West down to about 1200, slowly replaced then by infallibility of the church and finally by infallibility of the papacy, a position first proposed around 1300 but hotly debated in the schools and never officially sanctioned until 1870.在平均时间历史学家表明,教会indefectibility是在西方接受观点下降到约1200,慢慢地取代了教会犯错误,最后由当时的教皇,首先提出了一个位置大约1300犯错误,但激烈的辩论在学校和从未正式认可,直到1870年。

When we turn to Protestant or evangelical thought on this matter, we find that, in so far as it is used at all, infallibility is ascribed to the OT and NT Scriptures as the prophetic and apostolic record.当我们转向新教或福音派认为在这个问题上,我们不难发现,在目前为止,因为它是用在所有的,犯错误是冲高的先知和使徒记录到OT和NT圣经。 It is so in the fourfold sense (1) that the word of God infallibly achieves its end, (2) that it gives us reliable testimony to the saving revelation and redemption of God in Christ, (3) that it provides us with an authoritative norm of faith and conduct, and (4) that there speaks through it the infallible Spirit of God by whom it is given.它是如此的四倍意识(1)神的话语绝对无误达到其目的,(2)它给我们可靠的证明了节约的启示和神在基督里赎回,(3),它提供了一个权威的我们信仰和行为准则,以及(4)有通过它讲神的人犯错的精神,它是给定的。

In recent years concentration upon historical and scientific questions, and suspicion of the dogmatic infallibility claimed by the papacy, has led to severe criticism of the whole concept even as applied to the Bible; and it must be conceded that the term itself is not a biblical one and does not play any great part in actual Reformation theology.近年来,在历史和科学问题,并声称由教皇犯错误的教条式的怀疑,集中导致了整个概念也适用于圣经的严厉批评,而且必须承认,这个词本身并不是一个圣经之一,并没有起到任何实际的改革神学的很大一部分。 Yet in the senses indicated it is well adapted to bring out the authority and authenticity of Scripture.但表示在感官是很好地适应带出圣经的权威性和真实性。The church accepts and preserves the infallible Word as the true standard of its apostolicity; for the Word itself, ie, Holy Scripture, owes its infallibility, not to any intrinsic or independent quality, but to the divine subject and author to whom the term infallibility may properly be applied.教会接受并保留作为其使徒的真正标准万无一失字;为Word本身,即圣经,欠其犯错误,不以任何内在的或独立的质量,而是神圣的主题和作者的词人犯错误可以适当应用。

Ironically, attacks upon biblical infallibility, which for over a century came mainly from liberal Protestants, have come in the last decade from conservatives, who argue that only "interrancy" (another word not found in Scripture) adequately protects the utter truthfulness and reliability of the Bible.讽刺的是,在圣经犯错误,这对于一个多世纪以来来自自由派新教徒为主,攻击在过去十年来从保守派,谁认为只有“interrancy”(不是圣经中发现了另一个字)充分保护的完全真实性和可靠性圣经。 Mainstream evangelicals, therefore, especially those who accept some of the methods and findings of modern scriptural study, are forced to defend the traditional concept of biblical infallibility over against liberals as a necessary basis for receiving divine revelation, and over against conservatives as an adequate basis.福音派的主流,因此,特别是那些谁接受的方法和现代圣经研究结果一些,被迫捍卫了对作为一个必要的基础自由主义者接受神的启示的圣经犯错误的传统观念,对危害,是否具有足够的基础保守派。

WCG Proctor and J Van EngenWCG普罗克特和J凡恩根
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography H. 参考书目 H.Kung, Infallible?公,万无一失?G. Salmon, The Infallibility of the Church; BB Warfield, The Inspiration and Authority of the Bible. G.,教会的犯错误三文鱼; BB沃菲尔德,灵感和圣经的权威。


Infallibility犯错误

Catholic Information天主教信息

In general, exemption or immunity from liability to error or failure; in particular in theological usage, the supernatural prerogative by which the Church of Christ is, by a special Divine assistance, preserved from liability to error in her definitive dogmatic teaching regarding matters of faith and morals.一般情况下,豁免或豁免权的法律责任的错误或故障;在神学的使用,特别是超自然的特权,其中基督的教会,由一个特别神圣的协助下,保存在她的法律责任明确的教条式的关于信仰方面的教学错误和道德。

In this article the subject will be treated under the following heads:在这篇文章中的主题将被视为根据以下元首:

I. True Meaning of Infallibility一,真正意义犯错误

II. II。Proof of the Church's Infallibility证明教会的犯错误

III. III。Organs of Infallibility机关犯错误

Ecumenical Councils基督教议会

The Pope教皇

Their Mutual Relations其相互关系

IV. IV。Scope and Object of Infallibility犯错误的范围和对象

V. What Teaching is Infallible?五,什么教学是犯错?

I. TRUE MEANING OF INFALLIBILITY一,真正意义犯错误

It is well to begin by stating the ecclesiological truths that are assumed to be established before the question of infallibility arises.它可以很好地说明了这首先被假定为前成立的一贯正确的问题是教会学的真理。It is assumed:假定:

that Christ founded His Church as a visible and perfect society; that He intended it to be absolutely universal and imposed upon all men a solemn obligation actually to belong to it, unless inculpable ignorance should excuse them;基督创立,可见他的教会和完善社会;,他打算到绝对普遍性,并呼吁所有男人的庄严义务,实际上属于它,除非inculpable无知应该借口罚款;

that He wished this Church to be one, with a visible corporate unity of faith, government, and worship; and that他希望这会成为一个具有明显的信仰,政府,企业和崇拜的统一;和

in order to secure this threefold unity, He bestowed on the Apostles and their legitimate successors in the hierarchy -- and on them exclusively -- the plenitude of teaching, governing, and liturgical powers with which He wished this Church to be endowed.为了保证这三方面的统一,他赋予使徒和层次结构中的合法继承者 - 和他们完全 - 充实的教学,管理和礼仪的权力,使他希望这教会被赋予。

And this being assumed, the question that concerns us is whether, and in what way, and to what extent, Christ has made His Church to be infallible in the exercise of her doctrinal authority.而这被假定,问题是我们关心的是,是否,以及以何种方式,以及在何种程度上,基督已经使他的教会在她的理论权威行使万无一失。

It is only in connection with doctrinal authority as such that, practically speaking, this question of infallibility arises; that is to say, when we speak of the Church's infallibility we mean, at least primarily and principally, what is sometimes called active as distinguished from passive infallibility.它只有在与教义的,这样的权威方面,实事求是地讲,这个一贯正确的问题出现了,这就是说,当我们在教会的犯错误说我们的意思是,至少主要和主要,有时被称为活跃区别于被动犯错误。 We mean in other words that the Church is infallible in her objective definitive teaching regarding faith and morals, not that believers are infallible in their subjective interpretation of her teaching.我们的意思,换句话说,教会是她的目标明确的关于信仰和道德教学犯错,不就是信徒在他们的主观解释她的教学万无一失。 This is obvious in the case of individuals, any one of whom may err in his understanding of the Church's teaching; nor is the general or even unanimous consent of the faithful in believing a distinct and independent organ of infallibility.这是显而易见的,在个人的情况下,任何一个人可能在他的教会的教学的理解出错,也不是在相信犯错误的独特和独立的机构忠实一般甚至一致同意。 Such consent indeed, when it can be verified as apart, is of the highest value as a proof of what has been, or may be, defined by the teaching authority, but, except in so far as it is thus the subjective counterpart and complement of objective authoritative teaching, it cannot be said to possess an absolutely decisive dogmatic value.Such consent事实上,如果它可以通过签名分开,是由于那被proof最高的价值,或者可能是,由教学权威定义,但是,除了在就其因此主观对应和补充客观权威的教学,就不能说是具有绝对的决定性教条式的价值。 It will be best therefore to confine our attention to active infallibility as such, as by so doing we shall avoid the confusion which is the sole basis of many of the objections that are most persistently and most plausibly urged against the doctrine of ecclesiastical infallibility.这将是最好的,因此对我们的注意力集中到主动犯错误,如这样做,我们应当避免混淆这是在反对那些最坚持,最振振有词地对犯错误的教会教义敦促许多的唯一依据。 Infallibility must be carefully distinguished both from Inspiration and from Revelation.犯错误,必须认真区分无论从灵感和启示。

Inspiration signifies a special positive Divine influence and assistance by reason of which the human agent is not merely preserved from liability to error but is so guided and controlled that what he says or writes is truly the word of God, that God Himself is the principal author of the inspired utterance; but infallibility merely implies exemption from liability to error.启示标志着一个特别积极的神圣影响力的原因和援助,其中人的代理人不只是保留的法律责任的错误,但如此制导和控制,就是他说或写的是真正的上帝的话,那上帝是主要作者话语的启发,但犯错误仅仅意味着免除法律责任的错误。 God is not the author of a merely infallible, as He is of an inspired, utterance; the former remains a merely human document.上帝是不是一个只是犯错的作者,因为他的灵感,话语是,前者仍然是一个纯粹的人力文件。

Revelation, on the other hand, means the making known by God, supernaturally of some truth hitherto unknown, or at least not vouched for by Divine authority; whereas infallibility is concerned with the interpretation and effective safeguarding of truths already revealed.启示,另一方面,是指决策称为上帝,超自然的一些真相至今不明,或至少不vouched的神圣权威的,而犯错误是有效的解释和揭示真理的维护已经关注。 Hence when we say, for example, that some doctrine defined by the pope or by an ecumenical council is infallible, we mean merely that its inerrancy is Divinely guaranteed according to the terms of Christ's promise to His Church, not that either the pope or the Fathers of the Council are inspired as were the writers of the Bible or that any new revelation is embodied in their teaching.因此,当我们说,例如,由教皇或由大公会议中定义的一些原则是不变的真理,我们仅仅意味着其无误是神保证按照基督的承诺,他的教会的条款,不就是无论是教皇或安理会作为父亲的启发是圣经的作家或任何新的启示是在自己的教学体现。

It is well further to explain:这是很好的进一步解释:

that infallibility means more than exemption from actual error; it means exemption from the possibility of error;这意味着犯错误比实际的错误豁免,它更意味着从错误的可能性豁免;

that it does not require holiness of life, much less imply impeccability in its organs; sinful and wicked men may be God's agents in defining infallibly; and finally that the validity of the Divine guarantee is independent of the fallible arguments upon which a definitive decision may be based, and of the possibly unworthy human motives that in cases of strife may appear to have influenced the result.它不要求对生活的圣洁,更意味着在其机关无罪,有罪的和邪恶的男子可能是在确定infallibly的神的代理​​人,最后认为,神圣的保证有效期是犯错误的论点独立后的最终决定可能依据,以及人类的动机可能不值得,在冲突情况下可能会出现影响了结果。 It is the definitive result itself, and it alone, that is guaranteed to be infallible, not the preliminary stages by which it is reached.这是最终的结果本身,孤军奋战,即保证是万无一失的,而不是由它达到初步的阶段。

If God bestowed the gift of prophecy on Caiphas who condemned Christ (John 11:49-52; 18:14), surely He may bestow the lesser gift of infallibility even on unworthy human agents.如果上帝赐予的Caiphas谁谴责基督(约翰福音11:49-52; 18点14分)预言的恩赐,当然他可以赠送甚至愧对人类代理商犯错误较少的礼物。It is, therefore, a mere waste of time for opponents of infallibility to try to create a prejudice against the Catholic claim by pointing out the moral or intellectual shortcomings of popes or councils that have pronounced definitive doctrinal decisions, or to try to show historically that such decisions in certain cases were the seemingly natural and inevitable outcome of existing conditions, moral, intellectual, and political.正是因此,一段时间对犯错误的对手仅仅是浪费,试图创造的教皇指出,或有明显的权威理论的决定会的道德或智力缺陷反对天主教的主张偏见,还是要尽量展现历史的在某些情况下这样的决定是对现有条件看似自然的和必然的结果,道德,智力和政治。 All that history may be fairly claimed as witnessing to under either of these heads may freely be granted without the substance of the Catholic claim being affected.所有的历史可能相当声称作为见证下,这些负责人没有任何可以自由地在天主教声称受到影响的物质理所当然的。

II. II。PROOF OF THE CHURCH'S INFALLIBILITY证明了教会的犯错误

That the Church is infallible in her definitions on faith and morals is itself a Catholic dogma, which, although it was formulated ecumenically for the first time in the Vatican Council, had been explicitly taught long before and had been assumed from the very beginning without question down to the time of the Protestant Reformation.这教会是信仰和道德上犯错的是她的定义本身就是一个天主教教条,其中,虽然它制定了在梵蒂冈理事会第一次ecumenically,已经明确地教长前,已经从一开始就假设没有问题下到新教改革的时间。 The teaching of the Vatican Council is to be found in Session III, cap.而梵蒂冈会教学是要在第三次会议,第发现。4, where it is declared that "the doctrine of faith, which God has revealed, has not been proposed as a philosophical discovery to be improved upon by human talent, but has been committed as a Divine deposit to the spouse of Christ, to be faithfully guarded and infallibly interpreted by her"; and in Session IV, cap. 4,它是宣称“信仰的主义,就是神透露,一直没有提出作为哲学的发现加以改进后的人才,但一直作为一个神圣的存款,以基督的配偶承诺,要忠实地守卫和infallibly的解释她的“,并在第四节,帽。 4, where it is defined that the Roman pontiff when he teaches ex cathedra "enjoys, by reason of the Divine assistance promised to him in blessed Peter, that infallibility with which the Divine Redeemer wished His Church to be endowed in defining doctrine regarding faith and morals". 4,它的定义是,罗马教皇时,他教前cathedra“享有受援助的神圣理由,答应给他的祝福彼得,即犯错误与该神圣的救世主希望他的教会是在界定学说和关于信仰赋予道德“。 Even the Vatican Council, it will be seen, only introduces the general dogma of the Church's infallibility as distinct from that of the pope obliquely and indirectly, following in this respect the traditional usage according to which the dogma is assumed as an implicate of ecumenical magisterial authority.即使是梵蒂冈会,我们将看到,只介绍了教会作为从教皇斜和间接的不同犯错误一般的教条,在这方面下的传统用法,根据该教条是假设作为牵连的普世权威性权威。

Instances of this will be given below and from these it will appear that, though the word infallibility as a technical term hardly occurs at all in the early councils or in the Fathers, the thing signified by it was understood and believed in and acted upon from the beginning.本实例将得到下面这些它会出现,虽然作为一个技术术语字犯错误几乎发生在所有的早期议会还是在父亲的事情,标志着由它的理解,并相信在采取行动,并呼吁从开始。 We shall confine our attention in this section to the general question, reserving the doctrine of papal infallibility for special treatment.我们会集中在这部分的一般问题我们的注意,保留的特殊待遇教皇犯错误的学说。This arrangement is adopted not because it is the best or most logical, but because it enables us to travel a certain distance in the friendly company of those who cling to the general doctrine of ecclesiastical infallibility while rejecting the papal claims.这项安排是不是因为它是采用最好的或最合乎逻辑的,而是因为它使我们的旅行在那些谁坚持到教会infallibility普遍主义而拒绝教皇索赔友好的公司一定的距离。 Taking the evidence both scriptural and traditional as it actually stands, one may fairly maintain that it proves papal infallibility in a simpler, more direct, and more cogent way than it proves the general doctrine independently; and there can be no doubt but that this is so if we accept as the alternative to papal infallibility the vague and unworkable theory of ecumenical infallibility which most High-Church Anglicans would substitute for Catholic teaching.以证据都圣经和传统,因为它实际上代表,人们可以比较认为它证明在一个更简单,更直接,更有力地证明了它比一般学说独立教皇犯错误,而且可以毫无疑问,但,这是因此,如果我们接受的替代教皇犯错误的基督教犯错误模糊的,也是行不通的理论,最高教会圣公会将取代天主教教学。 Nor are the Eastern schismatical Churches much better off than the Anglican in this respect, except that each has retained a sort of virtual belief in its own infallibility, and that in practice they have been more faithful in guarding the doctrines infallibly defined by the early ecumenical councils.也不是东部分裂的教会在这方面远远好于英国圣公会关闭,除了每个保留了自己的一贯正确,在虚拟的信念排序,并在实践中他们一直在守护infallibly的定义更多的理论由早期基督教信徒议会。 Yet certain Anglicans and all the Eastern Orthodox agree with Catholics in maintaining that Christ promised infallibility to the true Church, and we welcome their support as against the general Protestant denial of this truth.然而,某些圣公会和所有的东正教与天主教同意在维持基督承诺犯错误的真正的教会,我们欢迎对一般新教这个道理拒绝他们的支持。

PROOF FROM SCRIPTURE从圣经的证明

1 In order to prevent misconception and thereby to anticipate a common popular objection which is wholly based on a misconception it should be premised that when we appeal to the Scriptures for proof of the Church's infallible authority we appeal to them merely as reliable historical sources, and abstract altogether from their inspiration. 1为了防止误解,从而预见到一个共同的普遍反对,这是完全依靠一种错觉,基础应该是前提,当我们呼吁教会的犯错的权力证明圣经我们呼吁他们仅仅作为可靠的历史资料,并从他们的灵感完全抽象的。 Even considered as purely human documents they furnish us, we maintain, with a trustworthy report of Christ's sayings and promises; and, taking it to be a fact that Christ said what is attributed to Him in the Gospels, we further maintain that Christ's promises to the Apostles and their successors in the teaching office include the promise of such guidance and assistance as clearly implies infallibility.即使被视为纯粹的人的证件提供我们,我们维护了基督的说法和承诺,值得信赖的报告;,同时它是一个事实,即基督说什么,是因为在福音给他,我们进一步认为,基督的承诺使徒和在教学办公室的继任者包括这种指导和援助的承诺显然意味着犯错误。 Having thus used the Scriptures as mere historical sources to prove that Christ endowed the Church with infallible teaching authority it is no vicious circle, but a perfectly legitimate iogical procedure, to rely on the Church's authority for proof of what writings are inspired.因此,仅仅拥有作为历史资料来证明圣经的基督赋予教会与犯错的教学权威是没有的恶性循环,而是一个完全合法的iogical程序,依靠教会的著作的启发证明什么权威。

2 Merely remarking for the present that the texts in which Christ promised infallible guidance especially to Peter and his successors in the primacy might be appealed to here as possessing an a fortiori value, it will suffice to consider the classical texts usually employed in the general proof of the Church's infallibility; and of these the principal are: 2只为,该文本在基督承诺的首要地位犯错的指导,特别是对彼得和他的继任者可能会呼吁为藏有更不用说价值在座remarking,将足以考虑在一般证明通常采用的经典文本教会的犯错误,而这些主要是:

Matthew 28:18-20; Matthew 16:18; John 14, 15, and 16; I Timothy 3:14-15; and Acts 15:28 sq.马太福音28:18-20;马太福音16:18;约翰14,15和16,我提摩太3:14-15;和行为15时28平方米

Matthew 28:18-20马太福音28:18-20

In Matthew 28:18-20, we have Christ's solemn commission to the Apostles delivered shortly before His Ascension: "All power is given to me in heaven and in earth. Going therefore, teach ye all nations; baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost; teaching them to observe all things whatsoever I have commanded you: and behold I am with you all days, even to the consummation of the world."在马太福音28:18-20,我们有基督的严正委员会,不久之前他的阿森松岛发表的使徒:“权力是给在天上和地上给我走向因此,教你们所有国家;施洗在他们的名字父亲,和儿子,和圣灵;教训他们遵守一切事物凡我所吩咐你们:你看我与你所有的日子,甚至到了圆满的世界“。 In Mark 16:15-16, the same commission is given more briefly with the added promise of salvation to believers and the threat of damnation for unbelievers; "Go ye into the whole world, and preach the gospel to every creature. He that believeth and is baptized shall be saved; but he that believeth not shall be condemned."在马可福音16:15-16,同样赋予了更多的佣金是简单的拯救信徒和非信徒诅咒威胁为补充的承诺;“你们要去到整个世界,传福音给万民听他说,信而受洗的必然得救,但他说,信不是应予以谴责“。

Now it cannot be denied by anyone who admits that Christ established a visible Church at all, and endowed it with any kind of effective teaching authority, that this commission, with all it implies, was given not only to the Apostles personally for their own lifetime, but to their successors to the end of time, "even to the consummation of the world".现在,不能否认任何人谁也承认,基督建立了有形教会所有,并且赋予任何有效的教学权威样它,这与所有它意味着佣金,被赋予了自己的一生不仅使徒亲自,但他们的接班人结束的时间,“甚至到了圆满的世界”。 And assuming that it was the omniscient Son of God Who spoke these words, with a full and clear realization of the import which, in conjunction with His other promises, they were calculated to convey to the Apostles and to all simple and sincere believers to the end of time, the only reasonable interpretation to put upon them is that they contain the promise of infallible guidance in doctrinal teaching made to the Apostolic College in the first instance and then to the hierarchical college that was to succeed it.并假设它是神的无所不知的儿子讲这些话,用的是,在与他的其他承诺的同时,他们计算传达给使徒和所有简单而真诚的信徒的进口全面和清晰的认识年底的时候,唯一合理的解释后,他们提出的是,它们包含的犯错指导理论教学中的承诺作出一审使徒学院,然后到大学的层次是成功的。

In the first place it was not without reason that Christ prefaced His commission by appealing to the fullness of power He Himself had received: "All power is given to me", etc. This is evidently intended to emphasize the extraordinary character and extent of the authority He is communicating to His Church -- an authority, it is implied, which He could not personally communicate were not He Himself omnipotent.首先它不是没有原因的基督作序通过诉诸权力丰满,他本人曾收到他的委员会:“所有的权力,是给我”等,这显然是意在强调非凡的性质和程度权威他沟通,他的教会 - 一个权威,它是隐含的,他不能亲自沟通不是他自己无所不能。Hence the promise that follows cannot reasonably be understood of ordinary natural providential guidance, but must refer to a very special supernatural assistance.因此,承诺如下不能合理地理解为普通的自然天赐的指导,但必须提到一个非常特殊的超自然的援助。

In the next place there is question particularly in this passage of doctrinal authority -- of authority to teach the Gospel to all men -- if Christ's promise to be with the Apostles and their successors to the end of time in carrying out this commission means that those whom they are to teach in His name and according to the plenitude of the power He has given them are bound to receive that teaching as if it were His own; in other words they are bound to accept it as infallible.在未来的地方有尤其是在这个问题通过理论权威 - 权威教所有的人的福音 - 如果基督的承诺与使徒和他们的继承人履行本委员会,以结束的时间是指那些人,他们要教他的名字,并根据他所赋予他们权力的丰富性也必然接受这种教学就好像它是他自己的,换句话说,他们必然要接受犯错的。 Otherwise the perennial assistance promised would not really be efficacious for its purpose, and efficacious Divine assistance is what the expression used is clearly intended to signify.否则,长期援助承诺不会真的为它的目的有效,和有效的援助是神圣的表达式中使用显然是为了表示。Supposing, as we do, that Christ actually delivered a definite body of revealed truth, to be taught to all men in all ages, and to be guarded from change or corruption by the living voice of His visible Church, it is idle to contend that this result could be accomplished effectively -- in other words that His promise could be effectively fulfilled unless that living voice can speak infallibly to every generation on any question that may arise affecting the substance of Christ's teaching.假设,我们做的,实际交付的基督启示的真理一定的身体,教给所有的人在所有年龄段,并从改变或由他的有形教会生活的声音腐败把守,它是空闲的抗衡这个结果可能是有效完成的 - 换句话说,祂的承诺能够得到有效履行,除非是生活的声音可以对任何问题的发言绝对无误可能出现的影响基督的教学内容,以每一代人。Without infallibility there could be no finality regarding any one of the great truths which have been identified historically with the very essence of Christianity; and it is only with those who believe in historical Christianity that the question need be discussed.不犯错误不可能有任何终局就任何已确定与基督教的历史上伟大的真理的精髓之一,它是只与那些谁在历史的基督教认为,这个问题需要讨论。 Take, for instance, the mysteries of the Trinity and Incarnation.举个实例,三位一体和化身的奥秘。If the early Church was not infallible in her definitions regarding these truths, what compelling reason can be alleged today against the right to revive the Sabellian, or the Arian, or the Macedonian, or the Apollinarian, or the Nestorian, or the Eutychian controversies, and to defend some interpretation of these mysteries which the Church has condemned as heretical?如果初期教会在她的定义是不犯错就这些真理,什么令人信服的理由可以对被指控的权利,今天恢复Sabellian,或阿里安,或马其顿,或Apollinarian,或景教,或Eutychian争议,和捍卫其中的一些其中教会谴责为异端邪说奥秘的解释呢?

One may not appeal to the inspired authority of the Scriptures, since for the fact of their inspiration the authority of the Church must be invoked, and unless she be infallible in deciding this one would be free to question the inspiration of any of the New Testament writings.人们可能不上诉到灵感的圣经的权威,因为对他们的灵感其实教会的权威必须调用,除非她在决定这个人会犯错可以自由问题的任何新约启示著作。 Nor, abstracting from the question of inspiration, can it be fairly maintained, in face of the facts of history, that the work of interpreting scriptural teaching regarding these mysteries and several other points of doctrine that have been identified with the substance of historical Christianity is so easy as to do away with the need of a living voice to which, as to the voice of Christ Himself, all are bound to submit.也,从抽象的灵感问题,能不能保持公正,在历史的事实面前,该解释圣经的教学关于这些神秘主义的和其他几个已与历史基督教物质鉴定点工作那么容易,因为跟一个活生生的声音,正如基督自己的声音,都必然需要提交了。

Unity of Faith was intended by Christ to be one of the distinctive notes of His Church, and the doctrinal authority He set up was intended by His Divine guidance and assistance to be really effective in maintaining this unity; but the history of the early heresies and of the Protestant sects proves clearly, what might indeed have been anticipated a priori, that nothing less than an infallible public authority capable of acting decisively whenever the need should rise and pronouncing an absolutely final and irreformable judgment, is really efficient for this purpose.团结是为了信仰基督是教会了他与众不同的音符之一,而理论权威,他成立了由他的神圣的指导和帮助,真正做到在维护这个团结的有效预期,但初期的异端邪说的历史和新教教派的证明清楚,什么可能确实已经预见到了先验的,没有什么比一个犯错的公权力的果断行动,只要有需要,应该增加,最终宣告一个绝对的判断能力和irreformable少,真是为此效率。 Practically speaking the only alternative to infallibility is private judgment, and this after some centuries of trial has been found to lead inevitably to utter rationalism.实事求是地讲犯错误的唯一选择是私人的判断,而这几个世纪后的审判已发现不可避免地导致完全理性。If the early definitions of the Church were fallible, and therefore reformable, perhaps those are right who say today that they ought to be discarded as being actually erroneous or even pernicious, or at least that they ought to be re-interpreted in a way that substantially changes their original meaning; perhaps, indeed, there is no such thing as absolute truth in matters religious!如果教会的早期定义是犯错误,因此reformable,也许这些都是对谁今天说,他们应该被视为是实际的错误甚至有害的废弃,或至少他们应该的方式重新演绎大幅改变其原有的意义,也许,的确,不存在绝对真理的事务宗教这样的事情! How, for example, is a Modernist who takes up this position to be met except by insisting that definitive teaching is irreversible and unchangeable; that it remains true in its original sense for all time; in other words that it is infallible?怎么样,例如,是一个现代主义谁占用这个位置达到的坚持明确的教学是不可逆转的,不可改变的除外;它依然如此在其原来意义上的所有时间,因为它是不变的真理换句话说? For no one can reasonably hold that fallible doctrinal teaching is irreformable or deny the right of later generations to question the correctness of earlier fallible definitions and call for their revision or correction, or even for their total abandonment.因为没有人可以合理地认为,犯错误的理论教学是irreformable或否认后人有权询问了早期犯错误定义的正确性,并要求其修改或更正,甚至为他们彻底放弃。

From these considerations we are justified in concluding that if Christ really intended His promise to be with His Church to be taken seriously, and if He was truly the Son of God, omniscient and omnipotent, knowing history in advance and able to control its course, then the Church is entitled to claim infallible doctrinal authority.从这些考虑,我们有理由得出结论认为,如果基督真的想他承诺要与他的教会必须认真对待的,如果他是真正的上帝的儿子,无所不知,无所不能,知道历史在前进,并能控制其过程,那么,教会有权要求犯错的理论权威。 This conclusion is confirmed by considering the awful sanction by which the Church's authority is supported: all who refuse to assent to her teaching are threatened with eternal damnation.这一结论也证实了考虑可怕的制裁,其中教会的权威,是支持的:所有谁拒绝同意她的教学与永恒诅咒的威胁。This proves the value Christ Himself set upon His own teaching and upon the teaching of the Church commissioned to teach in His name; religious indifferentism is here reprobated in unmistakable terms.这证明自己的价值基督在自己的教学和委托后,教他的名字教会集教学,宗教indifferentism是在这里明白无误的条款reprobated。

Nor does such a sanction lose its significance in this connection because the same penalty is threatened for disobedience to fallible disciplinary laws or even in some cases for refusing to assent to doctrinal teaching that is admittedly fallible.这样的制裁也没有失去其在这方面的意义,因为同样的刑罚为不服从纪律处分的法律犯错误,甚至拒绝同意以理论教学是无可否认犯错误某些情况下威胁。 Indeed, every mortal sin, according to Christ's teaching, is punishable with eternal damnation.事实上,每一个弥天大罪,根据基督的教导,是永恒的诅咒惩罚。But if one believes in the objectivity of eternal and immutable truth, he will find it difficult to reconcile with a worthy conception of the Divine attributes a command under penalty of damnation to give unqualified and irrevocable internal assent to a large body of professedly Divine doctrine the whole of which is possibly false.但如果一个永恒的和不可改变的真理的客观性相信,他会发现难以调和的神圣属性值得概念下的诅咒惩罚命令,让不合格的和不可逆转的内部赞同一个自称神圣教义的大机构的其中整体可能是假的。 Nor is this difficulty satisfactorily met, as some have attempted to meet it, by calling attention to the fact that in the Catholic system internal assent is sometimes demanded, under pain of grievous sin, to doctrinal decisions that do not profess to be infallible.这个难度也不是令人满意的满足,如一些人试图满足提请注意,在天主教系统的内部同意,有时要求,根据严重罪恶痛苦,理论决定不自称是万无一失的事实它。 For, in the first place, the assent to be given in such cases is recognized as being not irrevocable and irreversible, like the assent required in the case of definitive and infallible teaching, but merely provisional; and in the next place, internal assent is obligatory only on those who can give it consistently with the claims of objective truth on their conscience -- this conscience, it is assumed, being directed by a spirit of generous loyalty to genuine Catholic principles.因为,首先,要在这种情况下给予同意暂时不确认为不可撤销的和不可逆转的,喜欢在明确和犯错的教学时所需的同意,而仅仅是临时和未来的地方,内部是赞同只有那些谁可以给自己的良心索赔客观真理始终强制性 - 这良心,这是假设,即由一个慷慨的忠诚精神引导到真正的宽容原则。

To take a particular example, if Galileo who happened to be right while the ecclesiastical tribunal which condemned him was wrong, had really possessed convincing scientific evidence in favour of the heliocentric theory, he would have been justified in refusing his internal assent to the opposite theory, provided that in doing so he observed with thorough loyalty all the conditions involved in the duty of external obedience.要采取特殊的例子,如果谁发生伽利略是正确的,而教会法庭谴责他错了,真的拥有令人信服的日心说理论的科学证据支持,他会一直有理由拒绝他的内部赞同到对面理论,但他这样做彻底的忠诚与观察中的所有外部条件所涉及服从的义务。 Finally it should be observed that fallible provisional teaching, as such, derives its binding force principally from the fact that it emanates from an authority which is competent, if need be, to convert it into infallible definitive teaching.最后,应当指出,犯错误的临时教学,因此,来自一个事实,它源于一个机构是主管,如果需要的话,将其转换成明确无误的教学主要是它的约束力。 Without infallibility in the background it would be difficult to establish theoretically the obligation of yielding internal assent to the Church's provisional decisions.如果没有在后台犯错误就难以建立理论上的内部收益赞同教会的临时决定的义务。

Matthew 16:18马修16:18

In Matthew 16:18, we have the promise that "the gates of hell shall not prevail" against the Church that is to be built on the rock; and this also, we maintain, implies the assurance of the Church's infallibility in the exercise of her teaching office.在马太福音16:18,我们有承诺,“地狱之门,应不会得逞”反对教会要建在岩石上,这也是我们维护,意味着教会的infallibility在锻炼的保证她的教学办公室。 Such a promise, of course, must be understood with limitations according to the nature of the matter to which it is applied.这样的承诺,当然,必须了解有限制根据它所适用事项的性质。As applied to sanctity, for example, which is essentially a personal and individual affair, it does not mean that every member of the Church or of her hierarchy is necessarily a saint, but merely that the Church, as whole, will be conspicuous among other things for the holiness of life of her members.适用于神圣性,例如,它本质上是一种个人与个人的事,但这并不意味着每一个教会或阶层的成员,她必然是一个圣人,而只是说,教会,作为一个整体,将突出等事情的对她的成员生活的圣洁。 As applied to doctrine, however -- always assuming, as we do, that Christ delivered a body of doctrine the preservation of which in its literal truth was to be one of the chief duties of the Church -- it would be a mockery to contend that such a promise is compatible with the supposition that the Church has possibly erred in perhaps the bulk of her dogmatic definitions, and that throughout the whole of her history she has been threatening men with eternal damnation in Christ's name for refusing to believe doctrines that are probably false and were never taught by Christ Himself.适用于教义,但是 - 总是假定,和我们一样,基督的教义发表了其中的保存在其字面的真相是成为教会的主要职责之一,身体 - 这将是一个嘲弄抗衡这种承诺与假设兼容,教会有可能错误地也许是她的教条式的定义批量,并贯穿于她的整个历史,她已经威胁拒绝相信教义是与基督的名字永远的诅咒男人可能是假,从未教的耶稣。 Could this be the case, would it not be clear that the gates of hell can prevail and probably have prevailed most signally against the Church?难道这是如此,岂不是明确表示,地狱之门可以占上风,可能对教会占了上风最signally?

John 14-16约翰14-16

In Christ's discourse to the Apostles at the Last Supper several passages occur which clearly imply the promise of infallibility: "I will ask the Father, and he shall give you another Paraclete, that he may abide with you forever. The spirit of truth he shall abide with you, and shall be in you" (John 14:16, 17).在基督的话语在最后的晚餐几个通道出现,清楚地暗示了犯错误的承诺使徒:“我会问父亲,他必给你一个圣灵,他可能与你遵守永远是真理的精神。 他必须遵守与你,并应在你“(约翰14时16分,17)。"But the Paraclete, the Holy Ghost, whom the Father will send in my name, he will teach you all things, and bring all things to your mind, whatsoever I shall have said to you" (ibid. 26). “但圣灵,圣灵,人的父因我的名字,他会教你所有的东西,把所有的东西你的头脑,任何我必须对你说”(同上26)。"But when he, the spirit of truth, is come, he will teach you all truth (John 16:13). And the same promise is renewed immediately before the Ascension (Acts 1:8). Now what does the promise of this perennial and efficacious presence and assistance of the Holy Ghost, the Spirit of truth, mean in connection with doctrinal authority, except that the Third Person of the Blessed Trinity is made responsible for what the Apostles and their successors may define to be part of Christ's teaching? But insofar as the Holy Ghost is responsible for Church teaching, that teaching is necessarily infallible: what the Spirit of truth guarantees cannot be false. “但是,当他,真理的精神,是来了,他会教你一切的真理(约16:13),而同样的承诺是立即重新升天之前(徒1:8),现在是什么这承诺常年和有效的存在和圣灵的协助下,真理的圣灵,指与理论权威的连接,除了保佑的三位一体的第三人是做什么的使徒和他们的继承人可以定义为基督的教学环节负责?但只要圣灵是教会负责教学,教学是必然犯错:什么是真理的保证精神不能是假的。

I Timothy 3:15提摩太前书3:15

In I Timothy 3:15, St. Paul speaks of "the house of God, which is the church of the living God, the pillar and ground of the truth"; and this description would be something worse than mere exaggeration if it had been intended to apply to a fallible Church; it would be a false and misleading description.在提摩太前书3:15,圣保罗说的是“神的家,这是活着的上帝,支柱和真理地面教会”,这说明会更糟糕的东西比单纯的夸张,如果它已被为了适用于犯错误的教会,那将是一种虚假和误导性的描述。 That St. Paul, however, meant it to be taken for sober and literal truth is abundantly proved by what he insists upon so strongly elsewhere, namely, the strictly Divine authority of the Gospel which he and the other Apostles preached, and which it was the mission of their successors to go on preaching without change or corruption to the end of time.圣保禄,但是,这意味着它是为真理的清醒和字面是十分后,他证明了如此强烈别处,即,对他和其他使徒宣扬福音严格神圣的权威,这是坚持其继任者的使命就不会去改变或贪污的时间结束说教。 "When you had received of us", he writes to the Thessalonians, "the word of the hearing of God, you received it not as the word of men, but (as it is indeed) the word of God, who worketh in you that have believed" (1 Thessalonians 2:13). “当你收到了我们”,他写信给帖撒罗尼迦“的神听到的话,你收到它不是男人的字,但(因为它确实是)上帝的话,谁在你worketh那些相信“(帖前2:13)。 The Gospel, he tells the Corinthians, is intended to bring "into captivity every understanding unto the obedience of Christ" (2 Corinthians 10:5).福音,他告诉哥林多前书,意在使“被掳所不欲,了解每一个基督的服从”(哥林多后书10时05)。Indeed, so fixed and irreformable is the doctrine that has been taught that the Galatians (1:8) are warned to anathematize any one, even an angel from heaven, who should preach to them a Gospel other than that which St. Paul had preached.事实上,这样的固定和irreformable是已经告诉我们,加拉太人(1:8)的警告,要诅咒任何一个主义,即使是从天上来的使者,谁应该向他们宣讲福音比其中圣保禄曾鼓吹其他。 Nor was this attitude -- which is intelligible only on the supposition that the Apostolic College was infallible -- peculiar to St. Paul.也不是这样的态度 - 这是只有在假设可理解的使徒学院犯错 - 特有的圣保罗。 The other Apostles and apostolic writers were equally strong in anathematizing those who preached another Christianity than that which the Apostles had preached (cf. 2 Peter 2:1 sqq.; 1 John 4:1 sqq.; 2 John 7 sqq.; Jude 4); and St. Paul makes it clear that it was not to any personal or private views of his own that he claimed to make every understanding captive, but to the Gospel which Christ had delivered to the Apostolic body.其他使徒和使徒作家也同样在anathematizing那些鼓吹另一个谁比这使徒曾鼓吹(参见彼得2时01分SQQ基督教强;约翰一书四点01 SQQ;约翰二书7 SQQ;裘德4 )和圣保罗很清楚,这是不以自己的任何个人或私人的看法,他声称尽一切理解俘虏,但对已交付给基督使徒的身体福音。 When his own authority as an Apostle was challenged, his defense was that he had seen the risen Saviour and received his mission directly from Him, and that his Gospel was in complete agreement with that of the other Apostles (see, vg, Galatians 2:2-9).当他作为一个使徒自己的权威受到了挑战,他的防守是他见过复活的救主,并获得直接从他自己的使命,他的福音与其他使徒的完全一致(见VG,加拉太2是: 2-9)。

Acts 15:28使徒15时28分

Finally, the consciousness of corporate infallibility is clearly signified in the expression used by the assembled Apostles in the decree of the Council of Jerusalem: "It hath seemed good to the Holy Ghost and to us, to lay no further burden upon you", etc. (Acts 15:28).最后,企业犯错误的意识显然是标志着由在耶路撒冷的议会法令的组装使徒使用的表情:“这祂所似乎好圣灵和我们,打好后,你不再负担”等(徒15:28)。 It is true that the specific points here dealt with are chiefly disciplinary rather than dogmatic, and that no claim to infallibility is made in regard to purely disciplinary questions as such; but behind, and independent of, disciplinary details there was the broad and most important dogmatic question to be decided, whether Christians, according to Christ's teaching, were bound to observe the Old Law in its integrity, as orthodox Jews of the time observed it.诚然,这里处理的具体点,主要是纪律,而不是教条,而没有犯错误索赔等方面为纯粹的纪律问题提出,但落后和,有纪律细节无关的广泛和最重要的教条式的问题作出决定,无论是基督徒,根据基督的教导,注定要观察其完整的旧法,作为正统犹太人的时间观察它。 This was the main issue at stake, and in deciding it the Apostles claimed to speak in the name and with the authority of the Holy Ghost.这是利害攸关的主要问题,并决定它使徒声称发言的名称,并与圣灵的权威。Would men who did not believe that Christ's promises assured them of an infallible Divine guidance have presumed to speak in this way?请问男人谁不相信基督的承诺保证,一个犯错的神圣指导他们有推定发言这样呢?And could they, in so believing, have misunderstood the Master's meaning?而且他们能在这样相信,误解了大师的意思?

PROOF FROM TRADITION证明由传统

If, during the early centuries, there was no explicit and formal discussion regarding ecclesiastical infallibility as such, yet the Church, in her corporate capacity, after the example of the Apostles at Jerusalem, always acted on the assumption that she was infallible in doctrinal matters and all the great orthodox teachers believed that she was so.如果在早期世纪,没有明确的和正式的讨论,这样就为教会犯错误,但教会,在她的法人资格后,使徒在耶路撒冷的例子,总是采取行动,前提是她在理论方面犯错和所有伟大的正统的教师认为,她是如此。 Those who presumed, on whatever grounds, to contradict the Church's teaching were treated as representatives of Antichrist (cf. 1 John 2:18 sq.), and were excommunicated and anathematized.这些谁推定,无论是何种理由,违背了教会的教学被视为敌基督的代表(见约翰一书2时18平方),并驱逐和诅咒。

It is clear from the letters of St. Ignatius of Antioch how intolerant he was of error, and how firmly convinced that the episcopal body was the Divinely ordained and Divinely guided organ of truth; nor can any student of early Christian literature deny that, where Divine guidance is claimed in doctrinal matters, infallibility is implied.它是由圣依纳爵的安提阿如何不能容忍他的错误,以及如何坚信主教遗体被真理的神灵保佑的,并受神引导机关字母清楚,也不可以任何早期基督教文学的学生否认的是,这里在神圣的指导理论问题声称,犯错误是不言而喻的。

So intolerant of error was St. Polycarp that, as the story goes, when he met Marcion on the street in Rome, he did not hesitate to denounce the heretic to his face as "the firstborn of Satan".所以,错误的不宽容的是圣波利卡普,由于故事是,当他在街上遇到马吉安在罗马,他毫不犹豫地谴责为“撒旦长子”的邪教,他的脸。 This incident, whether it be true or not, is at any rate thoroughly in keeping with the spirit of the age and such a spirit is incompatible with belief in a fallible Church.这一事件,无论是真还是假,是与在犯错误的教会信仰不相容的任何与时代精神,这种精神保持率彻底。

St. Irenaeus, who in the disciplinary Paschal question favoured compromise for the sake of peace, took an altogether different attitude in the doctrinal controversy with the Gnostics; and the great principle on which he mainly relies in refuting the heretics is the principle of a living ecclesiastical authority for which he virtually claims infallibility.圣爱任纽,谁在纪律问题的青睐逾越节为和平而妥协,采取了一个在与诺斯替教派教义的争论完全不同的态​​度和伟大的原则上,他主要是依靠在批驳异端是一个生活的原则教会的权威,他几乎声称对犯错误。 For example he says: "Where the Church is, there also is the Spirit of God, and where the Spirit of God is there is the Church, and every grace: for the Spirit is truth" (Adv. Haer. III, xxiv, 1); and again, Where the charismata of the Lord are given, there must we seek the truth, ie with those to whom belongs the ecclesiastical succession from the Apostles, and the unadulterated and incorruptible word.例如,他说:“凡教会,也有是神的精神,并在上帝的精神是有教会,每宽限期:对于精神是真理”(Adv. Haer三,二十四。 1);再次,凡主charismata给出,我们必须有追求真理,即与那些人属于从使徒教会的继承和纯正和清廉字。It is they who .这是他们谁。 ..are the guardians of our faith .是我们信仰的监护人。..and securely [sine periculo] expound the Scriptures to us" (op. cit., IV xxvi, 5).与安全[正弦periculo]阐述圣经给我们“(同前,四十六,5)。

Tertullian, writing from the Catholic standpoint, ridicules the suggestion that the universal teaching of the Church can be wrong: "Suppose now that all [the Churches] have erred . . . [This would mean that] the Holy Spirit has not watched over any of them so as to guide it into the truth, although He was sent by Christ, and asked from the Father for this very purpose -- that He might be the teacher of truth" (doctor veritatis -- "De Praescript", xxxvi, in PL, II, 49).良,从天主教的角度写作,嘲笑的建议,即教会的普及教学可以是错误的:“假设现在所有[教会]出现了偏差[这意味着]圣灵没有在任何观看。其中,以引导它的道理,虽然他被送往由基督,并从父亲要求这个目的 - 他可能是真理的老师“(医生veritatis - ”德Praescript“,三十六,在PL,II,49)。

St. Cyprian compares the Church to an incorruptible virgin: Adulterari non potest sponsa Christi, incorrupta est et pudica (De unitate eccl.).圣塞浦路斯比较教会廉洁处女:Adulterari非potest sponsa斯蒂,incorrupta EST等pudica(德unitate传道书)。

It is needless to go on multiplying citations, since the broad fact is indisputable that in the ante-Nicene, no less than in the post-Nicene, period all orthodox Christians attributed to the corporate voice of the Church, speaking through the body of bishops in union with their head and centre, all the fullness of doctrinal authority which the Apostles themselves had possessed; and to question the infallibility of that authority would have been considered equivalent to questioning God's veracity and fidelity.这是不用去乘以引文,由于广泛的事实是不争的事实,在宰前尼西亚,没有比在后尼西亚,期间所有东正教基督徒归因于教会企业的声音,通过主教的身体来说少在与他们的头部和中心,所有的理论权威丰满的使徒自己已拥有工会和质疑的权威犯错误会被视为等同于质疑神的真实性和保真度。 It was for this reason that during the first three centuries the concurrent action of the bishops dispersed throughout the world proved to be effective in securing the condemnation and exclusion of certain heresies and maintaining Gospel truth in its purity; and when from the fourth century onwards it was found expedient to assemble ecumenical councils, after the example of the Apostles at Jerusalem, it was for the same reason that the doctrinal decision of these councils were held to be absolutely final and irreformable.正是出于这个原因,在第一三个世纪的分散在世界各地的主教同时行动证明是安全的谴责和排斥某些异端邪说和维护福音的真理在其纯度有效,而当从第四世纪起它发现权宜组装合一议会之后,在耶路撒冷的使徒例如,有人出于同样的原因,这些议会决定举行教义是绝对的最后和irreformable。 Even the heretics, for the most part recognized this principle in theory; and if in fact they often refused to submit, they did so as a rule on the ground that this or that council was not really ecumenical, that it did not truly express the corporate voice of the Church, and was not, therefore, infallible.即使是大部分heretics,在理论上承认这一原则;如果事实上,他们往往拒绝提交,但他们作为一个在地面上规定,使这个或那个会是不是真的合一,它并没有真正表达企业的声音,教会,并没有,因此,不会犯错误的。 This will not be denied by anyone who is familiar with the history of the doctrinal controversies of the fourth and fifth centuries, and within the limits of this article we cannot do more than call attention to the broad conclusion in proof of which it would be easy to cite a great number of particular facts and testimonies.这是不容否认的人谁是随着第四和第五世纪的理论争议熟悉历史,并在本文的限制,我们不能做的比呼吁关注更多地在证明广泛缔结它会很容易举一个特别大量事实和证词。

OBJECTIONS ALLEGED反对意见指称

Several of the objections usually urged against ecclesiastical infallibility have been anticipated in the preceding sections; but some others deserve a passing notice here.一些平时的反对敦促对教会infallibility已在前面几节的预期,但有些值得在这里路过的通知。

1 It has been urged that neither a fallible individual nor a collection of fallible individuals can constitute an infallible organ. 1它已敦促既不是犯错误的人,也不是收集犯错误的个人可以构成一个犯错的器官。This is quite true in reference to natural knowledge and would be also true as applied to Church authority if Christianity were assumed to be a mere product of natural reason.这是完全正确的提法自然知识,并会也是如此适用于基督教教会的权威,如果被认为是自然原因仅仅是产品。But we set out from an entirely different standpoint.但是,我们制定了从一个完全不同的立场。We assume as antecedently and independently established that God can supernaturally guide and enlighten men, individually or collectively, in such a way that, notwithstanding the natural fallibility of human intelligence, they may speak and may be known with certainty to speak in His name and with His authority, so that their utterance may be not merely infallible but inspired.我们假设antecedently和独立设置的神超自然可以引导和启发人,单独或集体以这样一种方式,尽管人类智慧自然容易犯错,他们可能会说,可能与肯定地讲他的名字和已知,他的权威,使他们的话语可能不只是犯错,但启发。 And it is only with those who accept this standpoint that the question of the Church's infallibility can be profitably discussed.它只能与那些谁接受这个,该教会的犯错误的问题都可以获利的角度讨论。

2 Again, it is said that even those who accept the supernatural viewpoint must ultimately fall back on fallible human reasoning in attempting to prove infallibility; that behind any conclusion that is proposed on so-called infallible authority there always lurks a premise which cannot claim for itself more than a merely human and fallible certainty; and that, since the strength of a conclusion is no greater than that of its weaker premise, the principle of infallibility is a useless as well as an illogical importation into Christian theology. 2再次,这是说,即使是那些谁接受超自然的观点,最终必须落在犯错误的人的推理早在试图证明犯错误,后面的任何是所谓的犯错的权力提出的结论总是潜伏着一个前提,不能索赔本身只是多的人力和犯错误的肯定,并认为,由于没有一个结论实力较弱的前提下比其更大的一贯正确的原则是无用的,也是一个把基督教神学不合逻辑的进口。 In reply it is to be observed that this argument, if valid, would prove very much more than it is here introduced to prove; that it would indeed undermine the very foundations of Christian faith.在回答它是观察到这样的说法,如果有效,将被证明是非常多是在这里介绍给证明;它确实会削弱基督教信仰的基础。For example, on purely rational grounds I have only moral certainty that God Himself is infallible or that Christ was the infallible mediator of a Divine Revelation; yet if I am to give a rational defense of my faith, even in mysteries which I do not comprehend, I must do so by appealing to the infallibility of God and of Christ.例如,在纯粹理性的理由,我只有道德肯定,上帝是不变的真理,或基督是神的启示犯错的调停,然而如果我给了我信心,即使在合理的国防奥秘,但我不理解, ,我必须这样做,通过诉诸上帝和基督的犯错误。But according to the logic of the objection this appeal would be futile and the assent of faith considered as a rational act would be no firmer or more secure than natural human knowledge.但按照这个逻辑的反对上诉将是徒劳的,是信仰的同意作为一个理性的行为将被视为不坚定或大于人类自然知识更安全。 The truth is that the inferential process here and in the case of ecclesiastical infallibility transcends the rule of formal logic that is alleged.事实是,这里的推理过程,并在教会犯错误的情况下超越了形式逻辑就是所谓的规则。Assent is given not to the logical force of the syllogism, but directly to the authority which the inference serves to introduce; and this holds good in a measure even when there is question of mere fallible authority.给出不同意的三段论逻辑的力量,而是直接向管理局推理服务介绍,并在此拥有良好的措施,即使有问题的只是犯错误的权力。 Once we come to believe in and rely upon authority we can afford to overlook the means by which we were brought to accept it, just as a man who has reached a solid standing place where he wishes to remain no longer relies on the frail ladder by which he mounted.一旦我们来相信和依靠权威,我们可以忽视的是,使我们被带到了接受的意思,只是作为一个谁已经达到了坚实的站立的地方,他希望继续人不再依赖于体弱的阶梯他安装。 It cannot be said that there is any essential difference in this respect between Divine and ecclesiastical infallibility.不能说有任何神圣和教会之间的这种犯错误方面的本质区别。The latter of course is only a means by which we are put under subjection to the former in regard to a body of truth once revealed and to be believed by all men to the end of time, and no one can fairly deny that it is useful, not to say necessary, for that purpose.当然后者只是由我们所提出的关于在服从真理的身体,前一次揭示和被所有的人认为到年底的时候,没有人可以否认它是非常有用的手段,并不是说必要的目的。 Its alternative is private judgment, and history has shown to what results this alternative inevitably leads.其方法是私人的判断,历史已经证明什么样的结果必然导致这种替代。

3 Again, it is urged that the kind of submission demanded by infallible authority is incompatible with the rights of reason and of legitimate inquiry and speculation, and tends to give to one's faith in his Creed a dry, formal, proud, and intolerant character which contrasts unfavourably with the warmhearted, humble, and tolerant faith of the man who believes on conviction after free personal inquiry. 3再次,这是敦促提交实物犯错的权力要求与理性的和合法的调查和猜测的权利相抵触,而且往往给予他的信条,以一个人的信念干,正式的,自豪,不耐性质的对比不利与该名男子谁在查询后免费的个人信念相信热情,谦虚,宽容的信念。 In reply it is sufficient to say that submission to infallible authority implies no abdication of reason, nor does it impose any undue check on the believer's freedom to pursue inquiry and speculation.在回答这足以说,提交给犯错的权力意味着没有理由放弃,也不会施加任何信徒的自由过度检查,以追求查询和猜测。 Were it so, how could one believe in revealed doctrine at all without being accused, as unbelievers do accuse Christians, of committing intellectual suicide?要不是这样,怎么可能有信透露,目前所有的学说没有被指控,作为非信徒做指责犯智力自杀的基督徒?If one believes in revelation at all one does so in deference to God's authority an authority that is surely infallible; and so far as the principle of the objection is concerned there is no difference between ecclesiastical and Divine infallibility.如果在所有一人相信这样做是考虑到神的权威是权威的肯定万无一失的启示,也是迄今为止作为反对的原则而言,没有教会和神之间犯错误的区别。 It is somewhat surprising, therefore, that professing Christians should recur to such an argument, which, if consistently urged, would be fatal to their own position.这是有点令人惊讶,因此,自称基督徒应该再出现这样一种说法,而如果坚持要求,将是致命的给自己的定位。

And as regards freedom of inquiry and speculation in reference to revealed doctrines themselves, it should be observed that true freedom in this as in other matters does not mean unbridled licence.而至于调查和理论参考透露自己炒作的自由,它应当指出,在这真正的自由在其他事项并不意味着肆无忌惮许可证。Really effective authoritative control is always necessary to prevent liberty from degenerating into anarchy, and in the sphere of Christian doctrine -- we are arguing only with those who admit that Christ delivered a body of doctrine that was to be held as eternally true -- from the very nature of the case, the only effective barrier against Rationalism -- the equivalent of political anarchy -- is an infallible ecclesiastical authority.真正有效的权威控制始终是要防止陷入无政府状态,从堕落的自由,而在基督教的教义领域 - 我们只与那些谁承认基督的教义发表了机构,是真正为永恒举行争论 - 从政治无政府状态相当于 - - 的情况下,唯一有效的屏障对理性主义的本质是一个犯错的教会权威。This authority therefore, by its decisions merely curtails personal freedom of inquiry in religious matters in the same way, and by an equally valid title, as the supreme authority in the State, restricts the liberty of private citizens.这项权力,因此,由它决定只打断她们在以同样的方式宗教事务查询个人的自由,和一个同样有效的标题,作为国家最高权力机构,限制了公民个人的自由。

Moreover, as in a well ordered state there remains within the law a large margin for the exercise of personal freedom, so in the Church there is a very extensive domain which is given over to theological speculation; and even in regard to doctrines that have been infallibly defined there is always room for further inquiry so as the better to understand, explain, defend, and expand them.此外,在一个良好有序状态仍然存在在法律范围内为个人自由的行使大量下降,因此在教会有一个非常广泛的领域也就是给了神学投机;甚至对于已经教义infallibly的定义总是有空间作进一步调查,以便更好地理解,解释,辩护,并扩大它们。 The only thing one may not do is to deny or change them.唯一一个可能不会做的,是否定或更改。Then, in reply to the charge of intolerance, it may be said that if this be taken to mean an honest and sincere repudiation of Liberalism and Rationalism, infallibilists must plead guilty to the charge; but in doing so they are in good company.然后,在回答的不容忍充电,可以说,如果这意味着采取自由主义和理性诚实和真诚的否定,infallibilists必须认罪的收费,但在这样做,他们是在良好的公司。 Christ Himself was intolerant in this sense; so were His Apostles; and so were all the great champions of historical Christianity in every age.基督自己在这个意义上说不能容忍,所以被他的门徒,等等都是历史基督教在每一个时代伟大的冠军。Finally it is altogether untrue, as every Catholic knows and feels, that faith which allows itself to be guided by infallible ecclesiastical authority is less intimately personal or less genuine in any way than faith based on private judgment.最后是完全不真实的,因为每个天主教知道和感觉,这种信心,让自己受到犯错的教会权威指导较少密切的个人或任何私人的判断比少真正的信仰方式。 If this docile loyalty to Divine authority which true faith implies means anything, it means that one must listen to the voice of those whom God has expressly appointed to teach in His name, rather than to one's own private judgment deciding what God's teaching ought to be.如果这个温顺忠诚的神圣权力的真正的信仰意味着意味着什么,它意味着一个人要听这些人,上帝已明确获委任为教他的名字,而不是自己私人的判断决定语音神的教学应该。 For to this, in final analysis, the issue is reduced; and he who chooses to make himself, instead of the authority which God has instituted, the final arbiter in matters of faith is far from possessing the true spirit of faith, which is the foundation of charity and of the whole supernatural life.对于这一点,在最后的分析,这个问题是减少;他做出选择,而不是谁的上帝已制定自己的权威,在信仰方面的最后仲裁者是远远拥有信仰的真正精神,这是慈善基金会和整个超自然的生命。

4 Again it is urged by our opponents that infallibility as exercised by the Catholic Church has shown itself to be a failure, since, in the first place, it has not prevented schisms and heresies in the Christian body, and, in the second place, has not attempted to settle for Catholics themselves many important questions, the final settlement of which would be a great relief to believers by freeing them from anxious and distressing doubts. 4又是敦促我们的对手是由天主教会行使犯错误已表明自己是失败的,因为,首先,它并没有阻止在基督教的身体分裂和异端邪说,并在第二位,并没有试图解决自己为天主教徒的许多重要问题,最后结算将由摆脱焦虑和痛苦的怀疑他们极大的安慰信徒。 In reply to the first point it is enough to say that the purpose for which Christ endowed the Church with infallibility was not to prevent the occurrence of schisms and heresies, which He foresaw and foretold, but to take away all justification for their occurrence; men were left free to disrupt the unity of Faith inculcated by Christ in the same way as they were left free to disobey any other commandment, but heresy was intended to be no more justifiable objectively than homicide or adultery.在回答第一点是不够地说,目的是基督赋予犯错误教会不是要防止发生分裂和异端邪说,他预见和预言,而是要带走所有其发生的理由;男人留给自由,破坏团结的信念灌输以同样的方式由基督,因为他们可以自由离开任何其他违反戒律,但异端是为了不再有合理的客观比杀人或奸淫。 To reply to the second point we would observe that it seems highly inconsistent for the same objector to blame Catholics in one breath for having too much defined doctrine in their Creed and, in the next breath, to find fault with them for having too little.要回复到第二点,我们会看到,它似乎在同一高度反对者指责,一口气在他们的信条因过多定义天主教教义不符,并在接下来的气息,寻找与他们有太多的小故障。 Either part of the accusation, in so far as it is founded, is a sufficient answer to the other.无论是对指控的一部分,到目前为止,因为它是建立,是一个足够的答案,其他。Catholics as a matter of fact do not feel in any way distressed either by the restrictions, on the one hand, which infallible definitions impose or, on the other hand, by the liberty as to non-defined matters which they enjoy, and they can afford to decline the services of an opponent who is determined at all costs to invent a grievance for them.作为一个天主教徒其实并不感到苦恼,一方面的限制,而犯错的定义强加或另一方面的自由,以不义的事情,他们享受或任何方式,他们可以能力下降的是谁决心不惜一切代价为他们发明不满对手的服务。 The objection is based on a mechanical conception of the function of infallible authority, as if this were fairly comparable, for example, to a clock which is supposed to tell us unerringly not only the large divisions of time such as the hours, but also, if it is to be useful as a timekeeper, the minutes and even the seconds.反对意见是基于对犯错的权力功能的机械概念,仿佛这是相当类似,例如,一个本来是无误地告诉我们,不仅如大型部门的工作时间上的时钟,但也如果是作为一个计时器,分钟甚至秒有用。 Even if we admit the propriety of the illustration, it is obvious that a clock which records the hours correctly, without indicating the smaller fractions of time, is a very useful instrument, and that it would be foolish to refuse to follow it because it is not provided with a minute or a second hand on the dial.即使我们承认了插图礼,很明显,一个时钟,记录的时间正确的时间没有说明分数较小,是一个非常有用的工具,这将是愚蠢的拒绝遵循它,因为它是不提供一分钟或表盘上的秒针。 But it is perhaps best to avoid such mechanical illustrations altogether.但是,也许是最好完全避免这种机械的插图。The Catholic believer who has real faith in the efficiency of Christ's promises will not doubt but that the Holy Ghost Who abides in the Church, and Whose assistance guarantees the infallibility of her definitions, will also provide that any definition that may be necessary or expedient for the safeguarding of Christ's teaching will be given at the opportune moment, and that such definable questions as are left undefined may, for the time being at least, be allowed to remain so without detriment to the faith or morals of the faithful.天主教信徒谁在基督的承诺,工作效率真义不会怀疑但圣灵谁遵守在教会,和他们的帮助保证了她的定义犯错误,也将规定,任何定义,可能有必要或适宜的基督的教学保障将给予在适当时机,而这种定义的问题,因为是左未定义可能,暂时至少,被允许留在不损害信仰或道德的忠实如此。

5 Finally, it is objected that the acceptance of ecclesiastical infallibility is incompatible with the theory of doctrinal development which Catholics commonly admit. 5最后,它是反对的是,教会infallibility接受的理论是发展的理论,天主教徒普遍承认是不相容的。But so far is this from being true that it is impossible to frame any theory of development, consistent with Catholic principles, in which authority is not recognized as a guiding and controlling factor.但到目前为止,这是从正在诚然,就不可能发展任何理论框架,与天主教的原则,在哪个部门不作为公认的指导和控制因素。 For development in the Catholic sense does not mean that the Church ever changes her definitive teaching, but merely that as time goes on and human science advances, her teaching is more deeply analyzed, more fully comprehended, and more perfectly coordinated and explained in itself and in its bearings on other departments of knowledge.对于天主教意义上的发展并不意味着她最终会不断变化的教学,而只是,随着时间的推移和人类科学的进步,她的教学更深入的分析,更充分地理解,更加完美的协调和本身的解释和在对其他部门的知识的轴承。 It is only on the false supposition that development means change in definitive teaching that the objection has any real force.它是指在明确的教学发展变化,反对有任何真正的力量只有在虚假的假设。We have confined our attention to what we may describe as the rational objections against the Catholic doctrine of infallibility, omitting all mention of the interminable exegetical difficulties which Protestant theologians have raised against the Catholic interpretation of Christ's promises to His Church.我们只限于我们注意什么,我们可以形容为反对犯错误天主教教义的理性的反对,省略所有的新教神学家对基督的承诺天主教教会的解释,他提出了无休止的训诂困难只字不提。 The necessity for noticing these latter has been done away with by the growth of Rationalism, the logical successor of old-time Protestantism.对于后者的必要性已经注意到这些被废除了由理性的增长,老时新教逻辑的继承者。If the infallible Divine authority of Christ, and the historicity of His promises to which we have appealed be admitted, there is no reasonable escape from the conclusion which the Catholic Church has drawn from those promises.如果犯错的神圣权威的基督,以及他对我们所承诺的历史性呼吁被录取,有没有从其中天主教教会从这些承诺中得出的结论合理逃脱。

III. III。ORGANS OF INFALLIBILITY机关犯错误

Having established the general doctrine of the Church's infallibility, we naturally proceed to ask what are the organs through which the voice of infallible authority makes itself heard.经建立了教会的犯错误一般学说,我们自然要问什么进行的机关,通过它的犯错的权力使自己听到的声音。We have already seen that it is only in the episcopal body which has succeeded to the college of Apostles that infallible authority resides, and that it is possible for the authority to be effectively exercised by this body, dispersed throughout the world, but united in bonds of communion with Peter's successor, who is its visible head and centre.我们已经看到,它只是在主教的机构,已成功地在使徒的犯错的权力所在的大学,它有可能要有效地行使权力这个机构,分散在世界各地,但在美国的债券共融与彼得的继任者,谁是它的头部和中心可见。 During the interval from the council of the Apostles at Jerusalem to that of their successors at Nicaea this ordinary everyday exercise of episcopal authority was found to be sufficiently effective for the needs of the time, but when a crisis like the Arian heresy arose, its effectiveness was discovered to be inadequate, as was indeed inevitable by reason of the practical difficulty of verifying that fact of moral unanimity, once any considerable volume of dissent had to be faced.在从使徒在耶路撒冷局,在尼西亚这个普通的日常行使权力的主教被认为是足够的时间为接班人的需要,有效的时间间隔,但是当一个像亚略异端危机的出现,其效力被发现是不够的,因为确实是由道德的一致性验证实际困难的原因不可避免的事实,一旦相当数量的任何异议都必须面对的。 And while for subsequent ages down to our own day it continues to be theoretically true that the Church may, by the exercise of this ordinary teaching authority arrive at a final and infallible decision regarding doctrinal questions, it is true at the same time that in practice it may be impossible to prove conclusively that such unanimity as may exist has a strictly definitive value in any particular case, unless it has been embodied in a decree of an ecumenical council, or in the ex cathedra teaching of the pope, or, at least, in some definite formula such as the Athanasian Creed.虽然对于我们自己的一天下来以后年龄它仍然是理论上的确,教会可借这个普通的教学权威演习,最后和犯错regarding到达理论问题的决定,这是事实,同时在实践中它可能无法最终证明,这种一致可能存在有一个在特定情况下严格明确的价值,除非它已体现在一个大公会议法令,或前cathedra教学的教宗,或至少在一些如阿他那修信经一定的公式。 Hence, for practical purposes and in so far as the special question of infallibility is concerned, we may neglect the so called magisterium ordinarium ("ordinary magisterium") and confine our attention to ecumenical councils and the pope.因此,出于实际目的,在迄今为止的一贯正确的特殊问题方面,我们可能忽略了所谓的训导ordinarium(“普通训导”),并限制我们注意合一议会和教皇。

A. Ecumenical CouncilsA.基督教议会

1 An ecumenical or general, as distinguished from a particular or provincial council, is an assembly of bishops which juridically represents the universal Church as hierarchically constituted by Christ; and, since the primacy of Peter and of his successor, the pope, is an essential feature in the hierarchical constitution of the Church, it follows that there can be no such thing as an ecumenical council independent of, or in opposition to, the pope. 1一个基督教或一般,从一个特定的或省议会尊贵,是一个法律上的主教大会的代表普世教会由基督构成的层次结构,以及,因为彼得和他的继任者,教皇,首要地位是一个重要的在教会的层次的宪法功能,因此可以认为不可能有作为一个独立的大公会议这样的事,或反对,教皇。 No body can perform a strictly corporate function validly without the consent and co-operation of its head.没有任何机构可以执行严格有效的企业功能不同意和其头部合作。Hence:因此:

the right to summon an ecumenical council belongs properly to the pope alone, though by his express or presumed consent given ante or post factum, the summons may be issued, as in the case of most of the early councils, in the name of the civil authority.有权召唤大公会议属于正常的教皇虽然由他独自明示或推定同意给予事前或张贴factum,可发出传票,如在早期的议会多数情况下,在民事名称权威。 For ecumenicity in the adequate sense all the bishops of the world in communion with the Holy See should be summoned, but it is not required that all or even a majority should be present.对于在充分意义上ecumenicity所有与教廷共融的世界主教应传唤,但它不是必需的全部或大部分甚至应该存在。 As regards the conduct of the deliberations, the right of presidency, of course, belongs to the pope or his representative; while as regards the decisions arrived at unanimity is not required.至于进行的讨论,对总统的权利,当然,属于教皇或他的代表;而至于决定抵达一致并不是必需的。

Finally, papal approbation is required to give ecumenical value and authority to conciliar decrees, and this must be subsequent to conciliar action, unless the pope, by his personal presence and conscience, has already given his official ratification (for details see GENERAL COUNCILS).最后,罗马教皇的认可是需要给普世价值和权威conciliar的法令,而这必须以后conciliar的行动,除非教宗,由他个人的存在和良心,已经给他的正式批准(详见一般议会)。

2 That an ecumenical council which satisfies the conditions above stated is an organ of infallibility will not be denied by anyone who admits that the Church is endowed with infallible doctrinal authority. 2,一个大公会议并满足上述规定的条件,是一贯正确的器官不会被拒绝任何人谁也承认,教会与犯错的理论权威赋予。How, if not through such an organ, could infallible authority effectively express itself, unless indeed through the pope?怎么样,如果不通过这样的器官,可以有效地表达自己犯错的权力,除非确实通过教皇?If Christ promised to be present with even two or three of His disciples gathered together in His name (Matthew 18:20), a fortiori He will be present efficaciously in a representative assembly of His authorized teachers; and the Paraclete whom He promised will be present, so that whatever the council defines may be prefaced with the Apostolic formula, "it has seemed good to the Holy Ghost and to us."如果基督甚至承诺要与两个或两个门徒three聚集在他的名字(马太18:20),更不用说他将出席在他的授权教师代表一起出席大会efficaciously,以及圣灵人,他承诺将当前,无论安理会定义可能与使徒公式开头,“它似乎很好的圣灵和我们。” And this is the view which the councils held regarding their own authority and upon which the defender of orthodoxy insisted.这是认为该议会举行的关于自己的权威和赖以捍卫正统坚持。The councils insisted on their definitions being accepted under pain of anathema, while St. Athanasius, for example, says that "the word of the Lord pronounced by the ecumenical synod of Nicaea stands for ever" (Ep. ad Afros, n. 2) and St. Leo the Great proves the unchangeable character of definitive conciliar teaching on the ground that God has irrevocably confirmed its truth "universae fraternitatis irretractabili firmavit assensu" (Ep. 120, 1).议会坚持要痛下诅咒接受了他们的定义,而圣亚他那修,例如,说,“耶和华的话由尼西亚大公主教宣布永远代表”(插曲广告Afros,注2)和圣利奥大证明了在地面上的权威conciliar的教学不可改变的性格,上帝已经不可逆转地证实了它的真相“universae fraternitatis irretractabili firmavit assensu”(插曲120,1)。

3 It remains to be observed, in opposition to the theory of conciliar infallibility usually defended by High Church Anglicans that once the requisite papal confirmation has been given the doctrinal decisions of an ecumenical council become infallible and irreformable; there is no need to wait perhaps hundreds of years for the unanimous acceptance and approbation of the whole Christian world. 3,尚有待观察,反对的通常是高教会,一旦确认有必要的教皇被赋予成为犯错和irreformable一大公议会的决定圣公会教义辩护conciliar的犯错误的理论,而没有必要等待也许是数百为一致认同和赞许,整个基督教世界年。 Such a theory really amounts to a denial of conciliar infallibility, and sets up in the final court of appeal an altogether vague and ineffective tribunal.这样的理论真的相当于一个犯错误的conciliar的拒绝,并设置在上诉一种完全模糊的和无效的法庭最终法庭上。 If the theory be true, were not the Arians perfectly justified in their prolonged struggle to reverse Nicaea, and has not the persistent refusal of the Nestorians down to our own day to accept Ephesus and of the Monophysites to accept Chalcedon been sufficient to defeat the ratification of those councils?如果理论是正确的,并没有完全在他们的长期斗争,以扭转尼西亚合理的arians,并没有对景教顽固地拒绝了我们自己的天接受以弗所和该monophysites接受迦克墩已足以打败批准这些议会? No workable rule can be given for deciding when such subsequent ratification as this theory requires becomes effective and even if this could be done in the case of some of the earlier councils whose definitions are received by the Anglicans, it would still be true that since the Photian schism it has been practically impossible to secure any such consensus as is required -- in other words that the working of infallible authority, the purpose of which is to teach every generation, has been suspended since the ninth century, and that Christ's promises to His Church have been falsified.没有可行的规则可用于决定何时批准后作为这一理论的要求生效,即使这可能是在对那些由早期的定义圣公会收到议会的一些特定的情况下完成,它仍然是真实的,既然Photian分裂已经几乎不可能取得任何共识,是需要的 - 换句话说,该工作的犯错的权力,其目的是教导每一代,已经暂停自第九世纪,基督的承诺他教会了伪造的。It is consoling, no doubt, to cling to the abstract doctrine of an infallible authority but if one adopts a theory which represents that authority as unable to fulfil its appointed task during the greater part of the Church's life, it is not easy to see how this consolatory belief is anything more than a delusion.这是安慰,毫无疑问,要坚持一个犯错的权力抽象主义,但如果采用的理论代表,由于未能履行在教会的生活,大部份其指定任务的权威,是不容易看到这安慰的信念是什么比一个妄想了。

B. The PopeB.教皇

EXPLANATION OF PAPAL INFALLIBILITY解释教皇infallibility

The Vatican Council has defined as "a divinely revealed dogma" that "the Roman Pontiff, when he speaks ex cathedra -- that is, when in the exercise of his office as pastor and teacher of all Christians he defines, by virtue of his supreme Apostolic authority, a doctrine of faith or morals to be held by the whole Church -- is, by reason of the Divine assistance promised to him in blessed Peter, possessed of that infallibility with which the Divine Redeemer wished His Church to be endowed in defining doctrines of faith and morals; and consequently that such definitions of the Roman Pontiff are irreformable of their own nature (ex sese) and not by reason of the Church's consent" (Densinger no. 1839 -- old no. 1680).梵蒂冈理事会定义为“神透露教条”,即“罗马教皇,当他谈到前cathedra - 也就是说,当在与牧师和所有的基督徒,他定义了教师行使他的办公室由他的至高无上的美德,使徒的权威,信仰或将整个教堂举行道德学说 - 是,由承诺的祝福彼得对他的神圣援助的原因,拥有该犯错误与该神圣的救世主希望他的教会被赋予定义信仰和道德学说,并因此认为罗马教皇这样定义自己的性质(如塞塞),而不是由教会的同意“的理由(Densinger没有1839 - 老没有1680。)irreformable。For the correct understanding of this definition it is to be noted that:对于这个定义的正确理解它是要注意的是:

what is claimed for the pope is infallibility merely, not impeccability or inspiration (see above under I).什么是教皇自称是犯错误只是,没有无罪或启示(见上文)。

the infallibility claimed for the pope is the same in its nature, scope, and extent as that which the Church as a whole possesses; his ex cathedra teaching does not have to be ratified by the Church's in order to be infallible.对犯错误声称对教皇在其性质,范围和程度相同,即该教会作为一个整体拥有,他的前cathedra教学并非必须由教会的批准,才能万无一失。 infallibility is not attributed to every doctrinal act of the pope, but only to his ex cathedra teaching; and the conditions required for ex cathedra teaching are mentioned in the Vatican decree:犯错误并不归因于每一个教皇教义的行为,而只是他的前cathedra教学;和前cathedra教学所需的条件,在梵蒂冈的法令中提到:

The pontiff must teach in his public and official capacity as pastor and doctor of all Christians, not merely in his private capacity as a theologian, preacher or allocutionist, nor in his capacity as a temporal prince or as a mere ordinary of the Diocese of Rome.教宗必须教导他的公开和正式的牧师和所有的基督徒医生,而不是仅仅停留在他作为一个神学家,牧师或allocutionist私人身份的能力,也没有在他作为一个时间的王子或作为罗马教区只是普通能力。 It must be clear that he speaks as spiritual head of the Church universal.必须明确的是,他说,作为普遍的精神教会的头。

Then it is only when, in this capacity, he teaches some doctrine of faith or morals that he is infallible (see below, IV).然后,它是唯一的时候,在这方面的能力,他教的一些信仰或道德学说,他是不变的真理(见下文,四)。

Further it must be sufficiently evident that he intends to teach with all the fullness and finality of his supreme Apostolic authority, in other words that he wishes to determine some point of doctrine in an absolutely final and irrevocable way, or to define it in the technical sense (see DEFINITION).此外,必须充分表明,他打算教导所有丰满和他的最高使徒权威终结,因为他要确定最终的和不可改变的绝对主义的方式有些点,或定义在IT技术换句话说感(见定义)。 These are well-recognized formulas by means of which the defining intention may be manifested.这些都是公认的定义,其中的意图可能表现手段公式。

Finally for an ex cathedra decision it must be clear that the pope intends to bind the whole Church.最后一个当然cathedra决定它必须明确的是,教皇有意约束整个教会。To demand internal assent from all the faithful to his teaching under pain of incurring spiritual shipwreck (naufragium fidei) according to the expression used by Pius IX in defining the Immaculate Conception of the Blessed Virgin.要根据需求承担精神沉船(naufragium fidei)根据庇护九世用于界定圣母无原罪表达疼痛从所有忠实内部同意他的教学。Theoretically, this intention might be made sufficiently clear in a papal decision which is addressed only to a particular Church; but in present day conditions, when it is so easy to communicate with the most distant parts of the earth and to secure a literally universal promulgation of papal acts, the presumption is that unless the pope formally addresses the whole Church in the recognized official way, he does not intend his doctrinal teaching to be held by all the faithful as ex cathedra and infallible.理论上,这一意图可能作出足够明确在罗马教皇的决定,这是只解决某一教会,但在现今条件下,当它是很容易沟通与地球最遥远的地方,并争取从字面上普遍颁布罗马教皇的行为,推定是,除非教皇正式地址的方式,在整个教会正式承认,他不打算将他的理论教学的所有作为前cathedra和犯错的忠实举行。

It should be observed in conclusion that papal infallibility is a personal and incommunicable charisma, which is not shared by any pontifical tribunal.应当指出的结论是,教皇犯错误是个人和incommunicable魅力,这是不以任何宗座庭共享。It was promised directly to Peter, and to each of Peter's successors in the primacy, but not as a prerogative the exercise of which could be delegated to others.这是直接答应彼得,并在首要地位彼得的接班人每个,而不是作为一种特权的行使后者可以委托给他人。Hence doctrinal decisions or instructions issued by the Roman congregations, even when approved by the pope in the ordinary way, have no claim to be considered infallible.因此,理论的决定,或由罗马教会发出的指令,即使是被教皇批准的普通方式,没有考虑万无一失的要求。To be infallible they must be issued by the pope himself in his own name according to the conditions already mentioned as requisite for ex cathedra teaching.为了万无一失,他们必须以个人名义发出按已为前cathedra教学中提到的必要条件,由教皇本人。

PROOF OF PAPAL INFALLIBILITY FROM HOLY SCRIPTURE教皇犯错误证明由圣经

From Holy Scripture, as already stated, the special proof of the pope's infallibility is, if anything, stronger and clearer than the general proof of the infallibility of the Church as a whole, just as the proof of his primacy is stronger and clearer than any proof that can be advanced independently for the Apostolic authority of the episcopate.从圣经,如前所述,对教皇的一贯正确的特殊证明,如果有的话,更强,比的教会作为一个整体犯错误一般证明清晰,就像他的首要地位的证明,是强大,比任何更清晰证明可为先进的独立使徒权威的主教。

Matthew 16:18马修16:18

"Thou art Peter (Kepha)", said Christ, "and upon this rock (kepha) I will build my church, and the gates of hell shall not prevail against it" (Matthew 16:18). “你的艺术彼得(Kepha)”,基督说,“在这磐石(kepha)我要建立我的教会,阴间的权柄不能胜过他”(马太福音16:18)。Various attempts have been made by opponents of the papal claims to get rid of the only obvious and natural meaning of these words, according to which Peter is to be the rock-foundation of the Church, and the source of its indefectibility against the gates of hell.各种尝试已取得由教皇自称为摆脱这些话的意思只是明显和自然摆脱对手,根据该彼得是要教会岩石的基础,违背了门源的indefectibility地狱。 It has been suggested, for example, that "this rock" is Christ Himself or that it is Peter's faith (typifying the faith of future believers), not his person and office, on which the Church is to be built.有人建议,例如,“这块石头”是基督本人或者说它是彼得的信仰(典型化未来信徒的信仰),而不是他个人和办公室,对其中的教会是要建。 But these and similar interpretations simply destroy the logical coherency of Christ's statement and are excluded by the Greek and Latin texts, in which a kind of play upon the words Petros (Petrus) and petra is clearly intended, and still more forcibly by the original Aramaic which Christ spoke, and in which the same word Kêpha must have been used in both clauses.但这些和其他类似的解释简单地破坏了基督的陈述逻辑的一致性,是由希腊和拉丁文本,在其中发挥后话佩特罗斯(柏图斯)和佩特拉一种显然是旨在排除,还有更多的强行原阿拉姆基督发言,并在其中同一个词Kêpha必须已在这两个条款的使用。 And granting, as the best modern non-Catholic commentators grant, that this text of St. Matthew contains the promise that St. Peter was to be the rock-foundation of the Church, it is impossible to deny that Peter's successors in the primacy are heirs to this promise -- unless, indeed, one is willing to admit the principle, which would be altogether subversive of the hierarchial system, that the authority bestowed by Christ on the Apostles was not intended to be transmitted to their successors, and to abide in the Church permanently.和授予,是最好的现代非天主教评论家补助金,这种圣马太文本中包含的承诺,圣彼得成为教会的磐石基础,这是无法否认的首要地位,在彼得的继任者这一承诺的继承人 - 除非确实,一个人愿意承认的原则,这将是完全的颠覆等级的制度,即由基督赋予的使徒权威的目的不是要传送到他们的接班人,并遵守在教会永久。 Peter's headship was as much emphasized by Christ Himself, and was as clearly recognized in the infant Church, as was the enduring authority of the episcopal body; and it is a puzzle which the Catholic finds it hard to solve, how those who deny that the supreme authority of Peter's successor is an essential factor in the constitution of the Church can consistently maintain the Divine authority of the episcopate.彼得的校长是一样多的基督本人强调,并被明确在婴儿教会的认可,因为是对主教身体持久权威,这是一个难题而天主教认为难以解决的,如何将这些谁否认最高彼得的继任者的权力是在教会的宪法要素可以始终保持神圣的主教的权威。 Now, as we have already seen, doctrinal indefectibility is certainly implied in Christ's promise that the gates of hell shall not prevail against His Church, and cannot be effectively secured without doctrinal infallibility; so that if Christ's promise means anything -- if Peter's successor is in any true sense the foundation and source of the Church's indefectibility -- he must by virtue of this office be also an organ of ecclesiastical infallibility.现在,我们已经看到,理论indefectibility无疑是隐含在基督的承诺,地狱之门,应不会得逞反对他的教会,并不能有效地没有理论犯错误担保,因此,如果基督的承诺意味着什么 - 如果彼得的继任者在任何真正意义上的基础和教会的indefectibility源 - 他必须由这个办公室的美德也是教会infallibility器官。The metaphor used clearly implies that it was the rock-foundation which was to give stability to the superstructure, not the superstructure to the rock.使用明确的比喻意味着它是岩石基础,是让稳定的上层建筑,而不是上层建筑的岩石。

Nor can it be said that this argument fails by proving too much -- by proving, that is, that the pope should be impeccable, or at least that he should be a saint, since, if the Church must be holy in order to overcome the gates of hell, the example and inspiration of holiness ought to be given by him who is the visible foundation of the Church's indefectibility.也可以说,这种说法被证明太多失败 - 通过证明,也就是说,教皇应该是无可挑剔的,或者至少,他应该是一个圣人,因为,如果教会必须圣地,以克服地狱之门,例如和神圣的灵感应该由他谁是教会的indefectibility可见基础给出。 From the very nature of the case a distinction must be made between sanctity or impeccability, and infallible doctrinal authority.从案件的性质区分之间必须作出的神圣或无罪,而犯错的理论权威。Personal sanctity is essentially incommunicable as between men, and cannot affect others except in fallible and indirect ways, as by prayer or example; but doctrinal teaching which is accepted as infallible is capable of securing that certainty and consequent unity of Faith by which, as well as by other bonds, the members of Christ's visible Church were to be "compacted and fitly joined together" (Ephesians 4:16).个人的神圣本质上是作为男女之间incommunicable,并不能影响除了在犯错误和间接的方式如祈祷或例如,他人,但理论教学是犯错接受的是安全,其中,以及该信仰的确定性和由此产生的团结能力如其他债券,基督的有形教会的成员是“压缩和恰好连在一起”(以弗所书4:16)。 It is true, of course, that infallible teaching, especially on moral questions, helps to promote sanctity among those who accept, but no one will seriously suggest that, if Christ had made the pope impeccable as well as infallible, He would thereby have provided for the personal sanctity of individual believers any more efficiently than, on Catholic principles, He has actually done.这是事实,当然,那犯错的教学尤其是道德问题,有助于促进这些谁接受的神圣性,但没有人会认真地建议,如果基督取得了教皇无可挑剔以及犯错,他将因此提供对个别信徒个人尊严比任何更有效,对天主教的原则,他实际上已经完成。

Luke 22:31-32路加福音22:31-32

Here Christ says to St. Peter and to his successors in the primacy: "Simon, Simon, behold Satan hath desired to have you, that he may sift you as wheat: But I have prayed for thee, that thy faith fail not: and thou, being once converted, confirm thy brethren."在这里说,基督圣彼得和他的继任者在首要地位:“西蒙,西蒙,不料撒旦祂所期望有你,他可能会筛选小麦你:但我为你祈祷,那你的信念不会失败:和你,一旦被转换,确认你的兄弟。“ This special prayer of Christ was for Peter alone in his capacity as head of the Church, as is clear from the text and context; and since we cannot doubt the efficacy of Christ's prayer, it followed that to St. Peter and his successors the office was personally committed of authoritatively confirming the brethren -- other bishops, and believers generally -- in the faith; and this implies infallibility.这基督特别的祈祷是对彼得独自在他作为教会的头能力,是从文字和脉络清晰;因为我们不能怀疑基督的祈祷疗效,其次是圣彼得和他的继任者的办公室亲自犯下的权威确认的兄弟 - 其他主教和信徒一般 - 在信仰,这意味着犯错误。

John 21:15-17约翰21:15-17

Here we have the record of Christ's thrice-repeated demand for a confession of Peter's love and the thrice-repeated commission to feed the lambs and the sheep:在这里,我们有基督的三次重复了彼得的爱和三次重复的委员会,以饲料羔羊和绵羊供认需求记录:

When therefore they had dined, Jesus said to Simon Peter: Simon, son of John, do you love me more than these?因此,当他们共进晚餐,耶稣对西门彼得说:西蒙的儿子约翰,你爱我比这些?He said to him: Yes, Lord, you know that I love you.他对他说:是的,主啊,你知道我爱你。He said to him: Feed my lambs.他对他说:你喂养我的小羊。He said to him again: Simon, son of John, do you love me?他再次对他说:西蒙的儿子约翰,你爱我吗?He said to him: Yes, Lord, you know that I love you.他对他说:是的,主啊,你知道我爱你。He said to him: Feed my lambs.他对他说:你喂养我的小羊。He said to him the third time: Simon, son of John, do you love me?他说,他第三次:西蒙的儿子约翰,你爱我吗?Peter was grieved, because he had said to him the third time: Do you love me?彼得是悲痛,因为他说他的第三次:你爱我吗?And he said to him: Lord, you know all things: you know that I love you.他对他说:主啊,你知道所有的事情:你知道我爱你。He said to him: Feed my sheep.他对他说:你喂养我的羊。

Here the complete and supreme pastoral charge of the whole of Christ's flock -- sheep as well as lambs -- is given to St. Peter and his successors, and in this is undoubtedly comprised supreme doctrinal authority.在这里,完整的和最高的基督的羊群负责整个田园 - 羊和羔羊 - 是给圣彼得和他的继任者,并在这无疑是由最高理论权威。But, as we have already seen, doctrinal authority in the Church cannot be really effective in securing the unity of faith intended by Christ, unless in the last resort it is infallible.但是,正如我们已经看到,在教会教义的权威,不能真正在确保拟由基督信仰团结的有效,除非在万不得已是不会犯错误的。 It is futile to contend, as non Catholics have often done, that this passage is merely a record of Peter's restoration to his personal share in the collective Apostolic authority, which he had forfeited by his triple denial.这是徒劳的抗衡,非天主教徒经常做,那这段话仅仅是彼得的恢复记录他的个人共享集体的使徒权威,这是他通过他的三重否定没收。 It is quite probable that the reason why Christ demanded the triple confession of love was as a set-off to the triple denial; but if Christ's words in this and in the other passages quoted mean anything, and if they are to be understood in the same obvious and natural way in which defenders of the Divine authority of the episcopate understand the words elsewhere addressed to the Apostles collectively, there is no denying that the Petrine and papal claims are more clearly supported by the Gospels than are those of a monarchical episcopate.这是很可能的原因,基督要求爱三重供认作为抵销的三重否定的,但如果在这方面和在其他段落基督的话引述意味着什么,如果他们要在理解同样明显的和自然的方式,其中的权威捍卫神圣的主教了解其他地方的话给使徒集体,也没有否认,伯多禄和罗马教皇的索赔更清楚的福音比是一个君权主教的支持。 It is equally futile to contend that these promises were made, and this power given, to Peter merely as the representative of the Apostolic college: in the texts of the Gospel, Peter is individually singled out and addressed with particular emphasis, so that, unless by denying with the rationalist the genuineness of Christ's words, there is no logical escape from the Catholic position.同样徒劳的主张,提出了这些承诺,这赋予的权力,彼得只是作为使徒学院代表:在文本的福音,彼得被单独挑出来,并特别强调解决,因此,除非通过与理性主义的基督的话真实性否认,也没有从天主教会的立场逻辑逃脱。 Furthermore, it is clear from such evidence as the Acts of the Apostles supply, that Peter's supremacy was recognized in the infant Church (see PRIMACY) and if this supremacy was intended to be efficacious for the purpose for which it was instituted, it must have included the prerogative of doctrinal infallibility.此外,从这些证据作为使徒供应的行为,彼得的霸主地位是公认的婴儿教会(见首要地位),如果这种至高无上的目的是要为它为之设立的目的,有效的,它必须有明确的包括理论犯错误的特权。

PROOF OF PAPAL INFALLIBILITY FROM TRADITION从传统的证明教皇infallibility

One need not expect to find in the early centuries a formal and explicit recognition throughout the Church either of the primacy or of the infallibility of the pope in the terms in which these doctrines are defined by the Vatican Council.我们不必期望在世纪初发现在整个任的首要地位或对教皇在这些学说中,是由梵蒂冈会犯错误教会的正式定义的术语和明确的认识。 But the fact cannot be denied that from the beginning there was a widespread acknowledgment by other churches of some kind of supreme authority in the Roman pontiff in regard not only to disciplinary but also to doctrinal affairs.但事实不容否认,从一开始就出现了由一些其他类型的最高权威,在教会方面的广泛承认罗马教皇不仅纪律也较浓事务。 This is clear for example, from:例如,这是明确的,从:

Clement's Letter to the Corinthians at the end of the first century, the way in which, shortly afterwards, Ignatius of Antioch addresses the Roman Church;克莱门特的信在第一世纪末到科林蒂安,以何种方式,不久之后,依纳爵的安提阿地址罗马教会;

the conduct of Pope Victor in the latter half of the second century, in connection with the paschal controversy;在第二个世纪后半期进行教皇维克多,与逾越节争议的连接;

the teaching of St. Irenaeus, who lays it down as a practical rule that conformity with Rome is a sufficient proof of Apostolicity of doctrine against the heretics (Adv. Haer., III, iii);在圣爱任纽,谁奠定了它作为一种实用的规则下,与罗马一致是一个针对异端学说(。Adv. Haer,三,三)使徒充分证明教学;

the correspondence between Pope Dionysius and his namesake at Alexandria in the second half of the third century;教皇之间的修斯和他同名的亚历山大在第三个世纪下半叶的对应;

and from many other facts that might be mentioned (see PRIMACY).从许多可能提到(见首要)其他事实。

Even heretics recognized something special in the doctrinal authority of the pope, and some of them, like Marcion in the second century and Pelagius and Caelestius in the first quarter of the fifth, appealed to Rome in the hope of obtaining a reversal of their condemnation by provincial bishops or synods.即使是一些公认的异端在教皇理论权威特殊,其中的一些,如马吉安在第二世纪,伯拉纠,并在第五个季度Caelestius,呼吁在取得了他们的谴责逆转的希望罗马省主教或主教会议。 And in the age of the councils, from Nicaea onwards, there is a sufficiently explicit and formal acknowledgment of the doctrinal supremacy of the Bishop of Rome.而在从尼西亚起,议会,年龄,有一个在罗马主教的教义至上充分明确和正式的确认。

St. Augustine, for example, voices the prevailing Catholic sentiment when in reference to the Pelagian affair he declares, in a sermon delivered at Carthage after the receipt of Pope Innocent's letter, confirming the decrees of the Council of Carthage: "Rome's reply has come: the case is closed" (Inde etiam rescripta venerunt: causa finita est. Serm. 131, cx);圣奥古斯丁,例如,声音当时的天主教情绪时,参考了伯拉纠事他宣称,在迦太基交付后,诺森的信件后说教,证实了的迦太基理事会法令:“罗马的答复已经到来:此案是封闭的“(INDE etiam rescripta venerunt:causa finita估SERM 131,CX);

and again when in reference to the same subject he insists that "all doubt bas been removed by the letter of Pope Innocent of blessed memory" (C. Duas Epp. Pelag., II, iii, 5).并再次在参考了同一主题,他坚持认为,(C.杜阿斯Epp. Pelag。,二,三,五)“所有疑问BAS被教皇祝福内存信无辜删除”。

And what is still more important, is the explicit recognition in formal terms, by councils which are admitted to be ecumenical, of the finality, and by implication the infallibility of papal teaching.什么是更重要的是在正式条款明确承认,这是由议会承认是合一的终局性,并暗示了教皇教学犯错误。

Thus the Fathers of Ephesus (431) declare that they "are compelled" to condemn the heresy of Nestorius "by the sacred canons and by the letter of our holy father and co-minister, Celestine the Bishop of Rome."因此,以弗所的父亲(431)宣布,他们“被迫”谴责涅斯异端“的神圣大炮和我们神圣的父亲和合作部长,天青石罗马主教的信。” Twenty years later (451) the Fathers of Chalcedon, after hearing Leo's letter read, make themselves responsible for the statement: "so do we all believe . . . Peter has spoken through Leo."二十年后(451)的迦克墩的父亲听到后利奥的信件阅读,使自己负责的声明:“所以我们都相信彼得已通过利奥说。”

More than two centuries later, at the Third Council of Constantinople (680-681), the same formula is repeated: "Peter has spoken through Agatho."两个多世纪后,在君士坦丁堡(680-681)第三届理事会,重复相同的公式是:“彼得已通过Agatho发言。” After the lapse of still two other centuries, and shortly before the Photian schism, the profession of faith drawn up by Pope Hormisdas was accepted by the Fourth Council of Constantinople (869-870), and in this profession, it is stated that, by virtue of Christ's promise: "Thou art Peter, etc."; "the Catholic religion is preserved inviolable in the Apostolic See."后两个世纪依然失效,和前不久Photian分裂,信仰界引起了教皇卡尔米斯达斯接受了君士坦丁堡(869-870)第四届理事会,并在本行业,它是由表示基督的承诺美德:“你的艺术彼得等”,“天主教宗教是保存在使徒见不可侵犯。”

Finally the reunion Council of Florence (1438-1445), repeating what had been substantially contained in the profession of faith of Michael Palaeologus approved by the Second Council of Lyons (1274), defined "that the holy Apostolic see and the Roman pontiff holds the primacy over the whole world; and that the Roman pontiff himself is the successor of the blessed Peter Prince of the Apostles and the true Vicar of Christ, and the head of the whole Church, and the father and teacher of all Christians, and that to him in blessed Peter the full power of feeding, ruling and governing the universal Church was given by our Lord Jesus Christ, and this is also recognized in the acts of the ecumenical council and in the sacred canons (quemadmodum etiam . . . continetur. )最后,佛罗伦萨(1438年至1445年)团聚会,重复了大幅度的由里昂第二届理事会(1274)定义,批准迈克尔Palaeologus信仰界中“,认为神圣的使徒见和罗马教皇持​​有在整个世界的首要地位,并认为自己是罗马教皇的祝福彼得王子使徒和基督的真牧师继任,以及整个教会的头,父亲和老师的所有基督徒,而到他在祝福彼得饲养的全部功能,执政党和执政普世教会是给予我们的主耶稣基督,这也是在基督教会的行为,并在神圣的大炮承认(quemadmodum etiam。continetur)。

Thus it is clear that the Vatican Council introduced no new doctrine when it defined the infallibility of the pope, but merely re-asserted what had been implicitly admitted and acted upon from the beginning and had even been explicitly proclaimed and in equivalent terms by more than one of the early ecumenical councils.因此很明显,梵蒂冈会推出任何新的学说时,明确了教皇犯错误,而仅仅是重新断言什么已含蓄地承认,并呼吁采取行动,并从一开始甚至已经超过明确宣布,在同等条件其中的早期合一议会。 Until the Photian Schism in the East and the Gallican movement in the West there was no formal denial of papal supremacy, or of papal infallibility as an adjunct of supreme doctrinal authority, while the instances of their formal acknowledgment that have been referred to in the early centuries are but a few out of the multitude that might be quoted.直到在东方和西方高卢运动Photian分裂没有正式拒绝了罗马教皇至高无上的,或作为辅助的最高理论权威教皇犯错误,而其正式确认的情况下已经提到的早几个世纪,不过是对可能被引用数出许多。

OBJECTIONS ALLEGED反对意见指称

The only noteworthy objections against papal infallibility, as distinct from the infallibility of the Church at large, are based on certain historical instances in which it is alleged that certain popes in the ex cathedra exercise of their office have actually taught heresy and condemned as heretical what has afterwards turned out to be true.反对教皇犯错误,因为从整个教会犯错误不同,唯一值得注意的反对是基于一定在它是指在一定的前教皇cathedra行使他们的办公室,其实教导异端和邪教什么谴责的历史实例有事后被证明是正确的。 The chief instances usually appealed to are those of Popes Liberius, Honorius, and Vigilius in the early centuries, and the Galileo affair at the beginning of the seventeenth century.通常呼吁首席实例是教皇Liberius,挪,并Vigilius在世纪初,并在十七世纪初伽利略事理的人。

Pope Liberius教皇Liberius

Liberius, it is alleged, subscribed an Arian or Semi-Arian creed drawn up by the Council of Sirmium and anathematized St. Athanasius, the great champion of Nicaea, as a heretic. Liberius,据称,订阅an阿里安或半阿里安信条制定了由西锡尔米乌姆和诅咒的圣亚他那修,伟大的冠军的尼西亚,作为一个邪教组织会成立。 But even if this were an accurate statement of historical fact, it is a very inadequate statement.但即使这是一个历史事实的准确表述,它是一个非常不足的声明。The all-important circumstance should be added that the pope so acted under pressure of a very cruel coercion, which at once deprives his action of any claim to be considered ex cathedra, and that he himself, as soon as he had recovered his liberty, made amends for the moral weakness he had been guilty of.所有重要的情况下,应补充说,教皇让下一个非常残酷的强制,这一次剥夺他的任何被视为前cathedra索赔诉讼的压力采取行动,而他自己,只要他恢复了他的自由,作出道德的弱点,他已犯了修订。 This is a quite satisfactory answer to the objection, but it ought to be added that there is no evidence whatever that Liberius ever anathematized St. Athanasius expressly as a heretic, and that it remains a moot point which of three or four Sirmian creeds he subscribed, two of which contained no positive assertion of heretical doctrine and were defective merely for the negative reason that they failed to insist on the full definition of Nicaea.这是一个相当令人满意的答案的异议,但应该说,没有任何的Liberius不断诅咒圣athanasius明确作为一个邪教组织,而且它仍然是一个有争议的问题的三,四Sirmian信条,他订阅的证据,其中两个没有包含的邪教教义,并积极主张仅仅是为负的原因,他们没能坚持完整定义的尼西亚缺陷。

Pope Honorius教皇挪

The charge against Pope Honorius is a double one: that, when appealed to in the Monothelite controversy, he actually taught the Monothelite heresy in his two letters to Sergius; and that he was condemned as a heretic by the Sixth Ecumenical Council, the decrees of which were approved by Leo II.反对教皇挪收费是双重之一:,当呼吁在Monothelite争论到,他居然教他两个字母以谢尔盖的Monothelite异端,并认为他是作为一个邪教组织谴责第六大公会议的法令其中批准利奥二世。 But in the first place it is quite clear from the tone and terms of these letters that, so far from intending to give any final, or ex cathedra, decision on the doctrinal question at issue, Honorius merely tried to allay the rising bitterness of the controversy by securing silence.但摆在首位它是相当清楚的语气和这些字母,所以谈不上有意作出任何最终的,或前cathedra,对有争议的理论问题的决定规定,挪merely试图缓解不断上升的辛酸争议的安全沉默。 In the next place, taking the letters as they stand, the very most that can be clearly and incontrovertibly deduced from them is, that Honorius was not a profound or acute theologian, and that he allowed himself to be confused and misled by the wily Sergius as to what the issue really was and too readily accepted the latter's misrepresentation of his opponents' position, to the effect that the assertion of two wills in Christ meant two contrary or discordant wills.在未来的地方,采取信函,因为他们的立场,很大部分可以从他们清楚,雄辩地推断就是,挪不深刻或急性神学家,他不允许自己被混淆和误导的狡猾谢尔盖至于什么问题,真的是太容易被接受后者的失实陈述他的对手“的位置,其大意是两个在基督遗嘱说法意味着两种相反的或不协调的遗嘱。 Finally, in reference to the condemnation of Honorius as a heretic, it is to be remembered that there is no ecumenical sentence affirming the fact either that Honorius's letters to Sergius contain heresy, or that they were intended to define the question with which they deal.最后,在参考挪作为一个邪教组织的谴责,这是必须记住,有没有普世一句肯定的事实要么挪的信件,谢尔盖含有异端,或者说他们的目的来定义的问题与他们交易。 The sentence passed by the fathers of the council has ecumenical value only in so far as it was approved by Leo II; but, in approving the condemnation of Honorius, his successor adds the very important qualification that he is condemned, not for the doctrinal reason that he taught heresy, but on the moral ground that he was wanting in the vigilance expected from him in his Apostolic office and thereby allowed a heresy to make headway which he should have crushed in its beginnings.由议会通过的句子的父亲只在普世价值,因为它是迄今为止由利奥二世批准,但是,在批准挪谴责,他的继任者增加了非常重要的资格,他谴责,理由不为理论他教导异端,但在道义基础,他希望从他预计他的使徒办公室的警惕,从而允许异端取得进展,他应该有它的起点粉碎。

Pope Vigilius教皇Vigilius

There is still less reason for trying to found an objection to papal infallibility on the wavering conduct of Pope Vigilius in connection with the controversy of the Three Chapters; and it is all the more needless to delay upon this instance as most modern opponents of the papal claims no longer appeal to it.还有较少的努力就发现了教皇Vigilius动摇与争议的三个章节进行连接教皇infallibility反对的原因,以及它更是不必要的,作为最现代化的对手罗马教皇在这种情况下拖延声称不再上诉到它。

Galileo伽利略

As to the Galileo affair, it is quite enough to point out the fact that the condemnation of the heliocentric theory was the work of a fallible tribunal.至于伽利略事件,这是很不够指出一个事实,即谴责的日心说是一个犯错误法庭的工作。The pope cannot delegate the exercise of his infallible authority to the Roman Congregations, and whatever issues formally in the name of any of these, even when approved and confirmed in the ordinary official way by the pope, does not pretend to be ex cathedra and infallible.教宗不能代表他的犯错的权力行使到罗马教会,并正式在这些任何名义,即使批准,并在普通的正式方式确定由教皇什么问题,不假装是前cathedra和犯错。 The pope, of course, can convert doctrinal decisions of the Holy Office, which are not in themselves infallible, into ex cathedra papal pronouncements, but in doing so he must comply with the conditions already explained -- which neither Paul V nor Urban VIII did in the Galileo case.教皇,当然,可以转换理论的决定的圣地办公室,这本身就是不可能不犯错,进入前cathedra教皇的言论,但在这样做,他必须遵守的条件已经解释 - 这既不保罗V也没有城市第八在伽利略的情况。

Conclusion结论

The broad fact, therefore, remains certain that no ex cathedra definition of any pope has ever been shown to be erroneous.广大事实,因此,仍然可以肯定,没有任何教皇前cathedra的定义曾经被证明是错误的。

C. Mutual Relations of the Organs of Infallibility对犯错误的机关C.相互关系

A few brief remarks under this head will serve to make the Catholic conception of ecclesiastical infallibility still clearer.根据本头几个简短的讲话将有助于使天主教教会infallibility仍然清晰的概念。Three organs have been mentioned:三机关已提到:

the bishops dispersed throughout the world in union with the Holy See; ecumenical councils under the headship of the pope; and the pope himself separately.主教们分散在世界各地的工会与罗马教廷,教皇下的校长合一议会和教皇本人分开。

Through the first of these is exercised what theologians describe as the ordinarium magisterium, ie the common or everyday teaching authority of the Church; through the second and third the magisterium solemne, or undeniably definitive authority.通过对这些首先是行使什么神学家的ordinarium训导的描述,即教会共同或日常的教学权威,通过第二和第三的训导solemne,或无可否认,明确的权威。 Practically speaking, at the present day, and for many centuries in the past, only the decisions of ecumenical councils and the ex cathedra teaching of the pope have been treated as strictly definitive in the canonical sense, and the function of the magisterium ordinarium has been concerned with the effective promulgation and maintenance of what has been formally defined by the magisterium solemne or may be legitimately deduced from its definitions.实事求是地讲,在目前的一天,在过去几个世纪中,只有合一议会和前cathedra教学的教宗的决定已被严格规范的意义上确定的处理,以及训导ordinarium功能已关心的是有效的颁布和那被正式定义为训导solemne或可合法地从它的定义推导维护。

Even the ordinarium magisterium is not independent of the pope.即使是ordinarium训导不属于教皇的独立。In other words, it is only bishops who are in corporate union with the pope, the Divinely constituted head and centre of Christ's mystical body, the one true Church, who have any claim to share in the charisma by which the infallibility of their morally unanimous teaching is divinely guaranteed according to the terms of Christ's promises.换句话说,它只是主教谁在企业工会与教皇,受神构成头部和基督的奥体中心,一个真正的教会,谁拥有任何声称分享魅力,其中其道义上的一致犯错误教学是神圣保证按照基督的承诺条款。 And as the pope's supremacy is also an essential factor in the constitution of an ecumenical council -- and has in fact been the formal and determining factor in deciding the ecumenicity of those very councils whose authority is recognized by Eastern schismatics and Anglicans -- it naturally occurs to enquire how conciliar infallibility is related to papal.而作为教皇的优势也是在一个大公会议宪法的重要因素 - 而事实上已经在决定那些权威,是由东方schismatics和议会ecumenicity圣公会公认的非常正式和决定性因素 - 这自然出现询问如何conciliar的犯错误是与罗马教皇。Now this relation, in the Catholic view, may be explained briefly as follows:现在这种关系,在天主教认为,原因可能是简述如下:

Theories of conciliar and of papal infallibility do not logically stand or fall together, since in the Catholic view the co-operation and confirmation of the pope in his purely primatial capacity are necessary, according to the Divine constitution of the Church, for the ecumenicity and infallibility of a council.的conciliar的理论和教皇犯错误做逻辑上站立或不属于一起的,因为在天主教观点的合作和在他的纯粹primatial能力教皇的确认是必要的,根据教会神圣宪法,为ecumenicity和犯错误的一个议会。 This has, de facto, been the formal test of ecumenicity; and it would be necessary even in the hypothesis that the pope himself were fallible.这,事实上,一直是ecumenicity正式测试,它甚至会在设定的必要,教皇本人都难免出错。An infallible organ may be constituted by the head and members of a corporate body acting jointly although neither taken separately is infallible.一个犯错的器官可能构成的头部和企业共同行动,虽然采取了分开也不是万无一失的机构成员。Hence the pope teaching ex cathedra and an ecumenical council subject to the approbation of the pope as its head are distinct organs of infallibility.因此,教宗教学前cathedra和基督教会受教皇作为它的头赞许是犯错误不同器官。

Hence, also, the Gallican contention is excluded, that an ecumenical council is superior, either in jurisdiction or in doctrinal authority, to a certainly legitimate pope, and that one may appeal from the latter to the former.因此,另外,该gallican争被排除,一个大公会议优越,无论在司法管辖区或在理论权威,在一定的合法教皇,而且人们可以从后者呼吁前者。 Nor is this conclusion contradicted by the fact that, for the purpose of putting an end to the Great Western Schism and securing a certainly legitimate pope, the Council of Constance deposed John XXIII, whose election was considered doubtful, the other probably legitimate claimant, Gregory XII, having resigned.也不是事实,为制止西部大分裂,并确保一个绝对合法的教皇的目的,安理会的康斯坦茨废黜约翰二十三世,他的当选被认为可疑,可能是其他合法索赔,格雷戈里反驳了这一结论十二,有辞职。 This was what might be described as an extra-constitutional crisis; and, as the Church has a right in such circumstances to remove reasonable doubt and provide a pope whose claims would be indisputable, even an acephalous council, supported by the body of bishops throughout the world, was competent to meet this altogether exceptional emergency without thereby setting up a precedent that could be erected into a regular constitutional rule, as the Gallicans wrongly imagined.这是什么可能是作为一个额外的宪政危机的描述;,而作为教会在这样的情况下有权删除提供了合理的怀疑和教皇的索赔将争,即使是首领理事会,由主教支持整个身体世界,是没有能力来满足,从而建立一个先例,可以搭建成一个普通的宪法规则,作为Gallicans错误想象这完全特殊的紧急情况。

A similar exceptional situation might arise were a pope to become a public heretic, ie, were he publicly and officially to teach some doctrine clearly opposed to what has been defined as de fide catholicâ.类似的特殊情况可能会出现是一个教皇成为公众邪教,即是他公开正式教授明确反对什么一些学说已被取消真正catholicâ定义。 But in this case many theologians hoId that no formal sentence of deposition would be required, as, by becoming a public heretic, the pope would ipso facto cease to be pope.但在这种情况下,许多神学家hoId没有正式一句沉积将需要,因为,一旦成为公众邪教,教宗将依事实不再是教皇。This, however, is a hypothetical case which has never actually occurred; even the case of Honorius, were it proved that he taught the Monothelite heresy, would not be a case in point.然而,这是一个假设的案例,从来没有实际发生,甚至挪的情况下,被事实证明,他教的Monothelite异端,不会在一个例子。

IV. IV。SCOPE AND OBJECT OF INFALLIBILITY范围和一贯正确的对象

1 In the Vatican definition infallibility (whether of fhe Church at large or of the pope) is affirmed only in regard to doctrines of faith or morals; but within the province of faith and morals its scope is not limited to doctrines that have been formally revealed.在梵蒂冈的定义犯错误(不论FHE教堂大或教皇)1只肯定是在考虑到信仰或道德学说,但在信仰和道德省的范围并不限于已正式透露学说。 This, however, is clearly understood to be what theologians call the direct and primary object of infallible authority: it was for the maintenance and interpretation and legitimate development of Christ's teaching that the Church was endowed with this charisma.然而,这显然是理解为是什么神学家所说的犯错的权力直接和主要的对象:它的维护和解释和基督的教导合法的发展,教会被赋予了这一魅力。 But if this primary function is to be adequately and effectively discharged, it is clear that there must also be indirect and secondary objects to which infallibility extends, namely, doctrines and facts which, although they cannot strictly speaking be said to be revealed, are nevertheless so intimately connected with revealed truths that, were one free to deny the former, he would logically deny the latter and thus defeat the primary purpose for which infallibility was promised by Christ to His Church.但是,如果这个主要功能是充分和有效地排出,很显然,还必须有间接和次要对象的犯错误延伸,即,理论和事实,虽然他们不能严格来说可以说是发现,是不过如此密切的发现真理的,是​​一个免费否认前相连,他将在逻辑上否定后者,因而失败的首要目的而犯错误是由基督答应他的教会。 This principle is expressly affrmed by the Vatican Council when it says that "the Church, which, together with the Apostolic office of teaching received the command to guard the deposit of faith, possesses also by Divine authority (divinitus) the right to condemn science falsely so called, lest anyone should be cheated by philosophy and vain conceit (cf. Colossians 2:8)" (Denz., 1798, old no. 1845).这个原则是明确affrmed由梵蒂冈会时说,“教会,其中,再加上教学使徒办公室接到命令守卫信仰的存款,拥有的神圣的权力(divinitus)也有权谴责假科学所谓,以免有人应通过理念和徒劳的自负(参见歌罗西书2:8)“(Denz.,1798年,旧的没有。1845)受骗。

2 Catholic theologians are agreed in recognising the general principle that has just been stated, but it cannot be said that they are equally unanimous in regard to the concrete applications of this principle. 2天主教神学家都同意在承认的一般原则,刚刚所说,但不能说他们同样在考虑到这一原则的具体应用一致。Yet it is generally held, and may be said to be theologically certain, (a) that what are technically described as "theological conclusions," ie inferences deduced from two premises, one of which is revealed and the other verified by reason, fall under the scope of the Church's infallible authority.然而,一般认为,可能说是神学肯定,(a)在技术上有什么形容为“神学的结论”,即推论推导出两个前提,其中之一是发现和原因,坠落下的其他验证教会的犯错的权力范围。 (b) It is also generally held, and rightly, that questions of dogmatic fact, in regard to which definite certainty is required for the safe custody and interpretation of revealed truth, may be determined infallibly by the Church. (二)人们还普遍认为,这是正确,教条式的事实问题,在这方面的明确肯定的是为安全保管和揭示真理的解释规定,可能是由教会绝对无误。Such questions, for example, would be: whether a certain pope is legitimate, or a certain council ecumenical, or whether objective heresy or error is taught in a certain book or other published document.这些问题,例如,将是:是否一定教皇是合法的,或某局合一,还是客观的异端或错误是在一定的书或其他发布的文件任教。 This last point in particular figured prominently in the Jansenist controversy, the heretics contending that, while the famous five propositions attributed to Jansenius were rightly condemned, they did not truly express the doctrine contained in his book "Augustinus".尤其是最后这一点想通在简森派的争论突出,百家争鸣的异端,虽然著名的五点主张归结为Jansenius被正确地谴责,他们并没有真正表达他的著作“奥古斯丁”中的教义。 Clement XI, in condemning this subterfuge (see Denz., 1350, old no. 1317) merely reasserted the principle which had been followed by the fathers of Nicaea in condemning the "Thalia" of Arius, by the fathers of Ephesus in condemning the writings of Nestorius, and by the Second Council of Constantinople in condemning the Three Chapters.克莱门特十一谴责这种托词,(见Denz。,1350年,老没有。1317)只是重申了已被随后的尼西亚的父亲在谴责阿里乌斯的“塔利亚”的以弗所的父亲,在谴责著作原则对涅斯,由君士坦丁堡在谴责三章第二届理事会。 (c) It is also commonly and rightly held that the Church is infallible in the canonization of saints, that is to say, when canonization takes place according to the solemn process that has been followed since the ninth century. (三)它也经常和正确地认为,教会是在圣人,也就是说,当发生册封按照庄严的过程,一直以来,九世纪后册封万无一失。Mere beatification, however, as distinguished from canonization, is not held to be infallible, and in canonization itself the only fact that is infallibly determined is that the soul of the canonized saint departed in the state of grace and already enjoys the beatific vision.单纯的赐福,但是,从册封区分,不认为是万无一失的,并在封圣本身的唯一事实是绝对无误的是,决定册封圣人的灵魂在国家的宽限期,并已离开享有beatific视野。 (d) As to moral precepts or laws as distinct from moral doctrine, infallibility goes no farther than to protect the Church against passing universal laws which in principle would be immoral.(四)道德戒律或​​道德学说从不同的法律,犯错误云没有超出,以防止通过普遍的法律,原则上是不道德的教会。 It would be out of place to speak of infallibility in connection the opportuneness or the administration of necessarily changing disciplinary laws although, of course, Catholics believe that the Church receives appropriate Divine guidance in this and in similar matters where practical spiritual wisdom is required.这将是出位,以一贯正确的发言连接opportuneness或纪律处分的法律虽然不一定改变,当然,天主教徒认为教会接到此在实际的精神和智慧,需要适当的神圣类似问题的指导管理。

V. WHAT TEACHING IS INFALLIBLE?五,什么教学是犯错?

A word or two under this head, summarizing what has been already explained in this and in other articles will suffice.根据本头两句话,总结了什么已经在这方面及其他条款解释就足够了。

As regards matter, only doctrines of faith and morals, and facts so intimately connected with these as to require infallible determination, fall under the scope of infallible ecclesiastical teaching.至于问题,只有学说的信仰和道德,事实如此密切联系在一起,以这些要求下,犯错的教会教学范围犯错的决心,下降。 These doctrines or facts need not necessarily be revealed; it is enough if the revealed deposit cannot be adequately and effectively guarded and explained, unless they are infallibly determined.这些理论或事实不一定是透露,它的发现是不够的,如果存款不能得到充分和有效防护和解释,除非他们是infallibly的决定。

As to the organ of authority by which such doctrines or facts are determined, three possible organs exist.至于其中的权威理论或事实是这样确定的器官,存在三种可能的器官。One of these, the magisterium ordinarium, is liable to be somewhat indefinite in its pronouncements and, as a consequence, practically ineffective as an organ.其中之一,在训导ordinarium,即属违法,可在其声明有所无限期,并作为结果,实际上为机关无效。The other two, however, are adequately efficient organs, and when they definitively decide any question of faith or morals that may arise, no believer who pays due attention to Christ's promises can consistently refuse to assent with absolute and irrevocable certainty to their teaching.其他两个,但是,充分有效的器官,而当他们最终决定任何信仰或道德可能出现的问题,没有谁出钱信徒应有的重视,以基督的承诺能够始终拒绝与绝对的确定性和不可撤销他们的教学同意。

But before being bound to give such an assent, the believer has a right to be certain that the teaching in question is definitive (since only definitive teaching is infallible); and the means by which the definitive intention, whether of a council or of the pope, may be recognized have been stated above.但在此之前被势必会给这样的同意,信徒有权利肯定是有问题的教学是明确的(因为只有明确的教学是不变的真理),以及通过何种方式的明确意向,不论是议会或教皇,可能已被确认上述。 It need only be added here that not everything in a conciliar or papal pronouncement, in which some doctrine is defined, is to be treated as definitive and infallible.它只需添加在这里,并不是一切在conciliar的或教皇宣告,其中一些理论的定义,是要为明确和犯错的治疗。 For example, in the lengthy Bull of Pius IX defining the Immaculate Conception the strictly definitive and infallible portion is comprised in a sentence or two; and the same is true in many cases in regard to conciliar decisions.例如,在庇护九世漫长的牛市定义圣母无原罪严格明确和犯错的部分是由在一两句话,以及同样如此,在许多方面conciliar的决定的案件。 The merely argumentative and justificatory statements embodied in definitive judgments, however true and authoritative they may be, are not covered by the guarantee of infallibility which attaches to the strictly definitive sentences -- unless, indeed, their infallibility has been previously or subsequently established by an independent decision.而仅仅在议论和视为正当的最终判决,但真正的权威,他们可能会,体​​现报表不包括在其中的犯错误的重视,保证严格明确的刑罚 - 除非,事实上,他们犯错误之前已经或由随后成立独立的决定。

Publication information Written by PJ Toner.出版信息写PJ碳粉。The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume VII.天主教百科全书,体积七。Published 1910.发布1910年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, June 1, 1910. Nihil Obstat,1910年6月1日。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰farley枢机主教,大主教纽约



Also, see:此外,见:
Inerrancy inerrancy

This subject presentation in the original English language这在原来的主题演讲, 英语



Send an e-mail question or comment to us:发送电子邮件的问题或意见给我们:E-mail电子邮件

The main BELIEVE web-page (and the index to subjects) is at:的, 主要相信网页(和索引科目),是在:
BELIEVE Religious Information Source相信宗教信息来源
http://mb-soft.com/believe/beliecha.html