Jainism耆那教

General Information一般资料

Jainism is a religious faith of India that is usually said to have originated with Mahavira, a contemporary of the Buddha (6th century BC).耆那教是印度的宗教信仰,通常说有马哈维亚,当代的佛(公元前6世纪)起源。Jains, however, count Mahavira as the last of 24 founders, or Tirthamkaras, the first being Rishabha.耆那教徒,但是,​​算作最后的24创始人,或Tirthamkaras,第一个是Rishabha马哈维亚。 In 1990 the number of Jains worldwide was estimated at 3,650,000, almost all of whom live in India. 1990年,全世界的耆那教徒人数估计在365万,几乎所有的人生活在印度。Jainism has been present in India since Mahavira's time without interruption, and its influence has been significant.耆那教目前已在印度,因为大雄的时间不中断,其影响力已经显着。

The major distinction within Jainism is between the Digambara and Svetambara sects, a schism that appears to date from about the 1st century AD.耆那教内之间的主要区别是Digambara和Svetambara教派,一个分裂的出现至今大约从公元1世纪。The major difference between them is that whereas the Svetambaras wear white clothes, the Digambaras traditionally go naked.它们之间的主要区别是,而Svetambaras穿白色衣服,赤身裸体的Digambaras传统去。Fundamentally, however, the views of both sects on ethics and philosophy are identical.从根本上讲,然而,在道德和哲学的两个派别的意见是一致的。

The most notable feature of Jain ethics is its insistence on noninjury to all forms of life. Jain philosophy finds that every kind of thing has a soul; therefore strict observance of this precept of nonviolence (ahimsa) requires extreme caution in all activity. 耆那教伦理学的最显着的特点是其对非暴力主义的所有生命形式的坚持耆那教哲学认为,每一个事情都有一个灵魂所以严格的这种非暴力(不杀生)遵守戒律需要在所有活动格外小心。 Jain monks frequently wear cloths over their mouths to avoid unwittingly killing anything by breathing it in, and Jain floors are kept meticulously clean to avert the danger of stepping on a living being.耆那教僧人经常穿在他们的嘴布,以避免无意中杀死了它在呼吸什么,和耆那层精心保持清洁,以避免对生活的危险正在加大。 Jains regard the intentional taking of life, or even violent thoughts, however, as much more serious.耆那教徒的生活方面故意服用,甚至暴力的想法,但是,由于严重得多。Jain philosophy posits a gradation of beings, from those with five senses down to those with only one sense.耆那教哲学假定的生命层次,从五个感官下降到只有一个意义上的人。

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Ordinary householders cannot help harming the latter, although they should strive to limit themselves in this regard by refraining from eating meat, certain fruits, or honey or from drinking wine.普通住户不禁损害后者,虽然他们要努力限制在这方面吃的肉类,某些水果或蜂蜜或喝葡萄酒不搞自己。In addition Jain householders are expected to practice other virtues, similar to those in Hinduism.此外耆那户主预计实践等美德,类似印度教的。The vows taken by the Jain monks are more severe.由耆那教僧人所采取的誓言更严重。They eventually involve elements of Asceticism: fasting, peripatetic begging, learning to endure bodily discomfort, and various internal austerities constituting a Jain variety of Yoga. Jainism is unique in allowing the very spiritually advanced to hasten their own death by certain practices (principally fasting) and under specified circumstances.他们最终涉及的禁欲主义因素:空腹,巡回乞讨,学习忍受身体不适,以及各种构成了各种内部苦行瑜伽耆那教耆那教是在精神上让非常先进的某些做法,以加快自己的死亡是唯一的(主要是空腹)。并在特定情况下。

Jain philosophy is based on a fundamental distinction between living and nonliving matter.耆那教哲学的基础是与无生命物质生活和根本的区别。Living souls are divided into bound and liberated; the living souls are found in both mobile and immobile loci.活的灵魂分为约束和解放;生活的灵魂在移动和静止位点发现。Nonliving matter is composed of karman or very fine particles that enter a soul and produce changes in it, thus causing its bondage.无生命物质是由卡门或很细的颗粒,进入灵魂和它产生的变化,从而导致它的束缚。This influx of karman is induced by activity and has to be burned off by experience.这卡门涌入是诱发活动,并已被烧毁的经验了。Karmans are of infinitely numerous varieties and account for all distinctions noted in the world. Karmans是无限多个品种,在世界上所有的区别指出帐户。By nonattachment, however, an individual can prevent influx of further karmans and thus escape from the bonds of action.通过nonattachment,但是,一个人可以阻止进一步karmans涌入,从而逃避行动的债券。A soul, which is thought of as having the same size as its body, at liberation has lost the matter that weights it down and thus ascends to the top of the universe, where it remains forever.一个灵魂,这被认为具有相同的大小为主体,在解放已经失去了重量事项下来,从而登到宇宙的,它永远保持最高的。

Jainism recognizes no supreme deity; its ideal is the perfection attained by the 24 Tirthamkaras.耆那教承认任何至高无上的神,它的理想是由24 Tirthamkaras达到了完美。Numerous temples have been built celebrating the perfected souls; a notable example is the temple at Mount Abu in Rajasthan.许多寺庙已建成庆祝完善的灵魂,一个明显的例子是在阿布山拉贾斯坦邦庙宇。

Karl H. Potter卡尔H.波特

Bibliography 参考书目
Chatterjee, AK, A Comprehensive History of Jainism, 2 vols.查特吉,AK,A耆那教的通史,2卷。(1978); Gopalan, Subramania, Outlines of Jainism (1973); Humphrey, C., ed., The Assembly of Listeners (1990); Marathe, MP, et al., eds., Studies in Jainism (1986); Roy, AK, A History of the Jains (1984); Stevenson, ST, The Heart of Jainism (1915; repr. 1970); Vahar, PC, and Shosh, KC, eds., An Encyclopedia of Jainism (1988).(1978年); Gopalan,Subramania,耆那教纲要(1973年);汉弗莱,C.,教育署,听众大会(1990年);。Marathe,MP等人合编,在耆那教研究(1986年);罗伊,AK,A的耆那教徒的历史(1984年);史蒂文森,ST,耆那教的心脏(1915年,再版1970年); Vahar,PC和Shosh,KC,EDS,耆那教的一个百科全书(1988年)。


Jainism耆那教

General Information一般资料

Introduction简介

Jainism is a religion of India concentrated largely in Gujarât and Râjasthân, in parts of Mumbai (formerly Bombay), and in the state of Karnâtaka (Mysore), as well as in the larger cities of the Indian peninsula.耆那教是印度宗教主要集中在古吉拉特邦和拉贾斯坦邦,在孟买地区(前孟买),并在卡纳塔克邦(迈索尔)状态,以及在印度半岛的大城市。 The Jains totaled about 3.7 million as the 1990s began, but they exert an influence in the predominantly Hindu community far out of proportion to their numbers; they are mainly traders, and their wealth and authority have made their comparatively small sect one of the most important of living Indian religions.在耆那教徒总计约370万元,上世纪90年代开始,但他们中的一个主要发挥印度教社会远不成比例,其数量的影响,他们主要是商人,他们的财富和权力取得的最重要的比较小教派one印度的宗教生活。

Origins起源

Jainism is somewhat similar to Buddhism, of which it was an important rival in India.耆那教是有点类似佛教,其中它是一个在印度重要竞争对手。It was founded by Vardhamana Jnatiputra or Nataputta Mahavira (599-527BC), called Jina (Spiritual Conqueror), a contemporary of Buddha.它是由Vardhamana Jnatiputra或Nataputta马哈维亚(599 - 527BC)呼吁集纳(精神征服者),当代的佛。As do the Buddhists, the Jains deny the divine origin and authority of the Veda and revere certain saints, preachers of Jain doctrine from the remote past, whom they call tirthankaras ("prophets or founders of the path").由于做的佛教徒,耆那教徒否认神圣的起源和尊敬的吠陀某些圣人,耆那教教义的传教士,从遥远的过去,他们所呼叫tirthankaras(“先知或路径创始人”)的权威。 These saints are liberated souls who were once in bondage but became free, perfect, and blissful through their own efforts; they offer salvation from the ocean of phenomenal existence and the cycle of rebirths.这些圣徒是谁曾经在束缚而成为自由,完善,并通过自己的努力幸福解放的灵魂,他们提供从现象存在和轮回周期拯救海洋。 Mahavira is believed to have been the 24th tirthankara.大雄被认为是得到了24 tirthankara。Like adherents to their parent sect, Brahmanism, the Jains admit in practice the institution of caste, perform a group of 16 essential rites, called samskaras, prescribed for the first three varna (castes) of Hindus, and recognize some of the minor deities of the Hindu pantheon; nevertheless, their religion, like Buddhism, is essentially atheistic.像他们的父母节,婆罗门教的信徒中,耆那教徒承认,在实践中种姓制度,执行了16个基本礼仪组,称为samskaras,前三个瓦尔纳(种姓)印度教徒规定,并承认该未成年人的神通印度教的神殿,然而, 他们的宗教,如佛教,本质上是无神论的。

Fundamental to Jainism is the doctrine of two eternal, coexisting, independent categories known as jiva (animate, living soul: the enjoyer) and ajiva (inanimate, nonliving object: the enjoyed).耆那教的根本是两个永恒的,共存的灵魂(动画,活的灵魂:在享乐)已知的,独立的分类原则和ajiva(无生命,无生命对象:享受)。 Jains believe, moreover, that the actions of mind, speech, and body produce subtle karma (infra-atomic particles of matter), which become the cause of bondage, and that one must eschew violence to avoid giving hurt to life.耆那教徒相信,此外,心灵的行为,言语和身体产生微妙的因果报应(物质的红外线原子粒子),这成为了束缚的原因,人们必须避免暴力,以避免给受伤的生命。 The cause of the embodiment of the soul is thought to be karmic matter; one can attain salvation (moksha) only by freeing the soul of karma through the practice of the three "jewels" of right faith, right knowledge and right conduct.而灵魂的化身原因被认为是业力的问题;可以达到只有通过释放通过三个“宝石”的权利的信念,正确认识和正确的行为实践的业力的灵魂救赎(解脱)。

Differences in Doctrine差异学说

These principles are common to all, but differences occur in the religious obligations of the monastic orders (whose members are called yatis) and the laity (sravakas).这些原则是共同所有,但分歧在寺院的订单(其称为yatis成员)和俗人(sravakas)发生的宗教义务。 The yatis must observe five great vows (panca-mahavrata): refusal to inflict injury (ahimsa), truthfulness (satya), refusal to steal (asteya), sexual restraint (brahmacarya), and refusal to accept unnecessary gifts (aparigraha). In keeping with the doctrine of nonviolence, they carry the Jainist reverence for animal life to its most extreme lengths; the yati of the Svetambara sect, for example, wears a cloth over his mouth to prevent insects from flying into it and carries a brush to sweep the place on which he is about to sit, to remove any living creature from danger. The observation of the nonviolent practices of the yatis was a major influence on the philosophy of the Indian nationalist leader Mohandas Gandhi.该yatis必须遵守五大誓言(panca - mahavrata):拒绝造成伤害(不杀生),真实性(萨蒂亚),拒绝窃取(asteya),性约束(brahmacarya),并拒绝接受(aparigraha)不必要的赠品与非暴力主义保持一致,他们携带动物生命的最极端的长度的Jainist崇敬;的Svetambara教派阿亚提,例如,穿在他嘴里的布,以防止到它的飞行昆虫和带有刷子扫地方上,他即将坐,删除任何危险生物,对非暴力行为的yatis观察是对印度民族主义领袖圣雄甘地哲学的重大的影响。 The secular sravaka, in addition to his observance of religious and moral duties, must engage in theadoration of the saints and of his more pious brethren, the yatis.世俗sravaka,除了他的宗教和道德义务的遵守,必须从事的圣人theadoration和他的弟兄们更虔诚的yatis。

The two main sects of Jainism, the Digambara (space-clad, or naked) and the Svetambara (white-clad, wearers of white cloth), have produced a vast body of secular and religious literature in the Prakrit and Sanskrit languages.两个主要派别的耆那教中,Digambara(空包,或裸)和Svetambara(白包,佩戴白色布),已经产生了世俗和宗教的Prakrit梵文语言和大量文献。 The art of the Jains, consisting primarily of cave temples elaborately decorated in carved stones and of illustrated manuscripts, usually follows Buddhist models but has a richness and fertility that mark it as one of the peaks of Indian art.的耆那教徒组成的精心雕刻在石头和插图手稿装饰石窟寺为主,艺术通常遵循佛教的模型,但有丰富性和生育的标志作为印度艺术的高峰之一。 Some sects, particularly the Dhundia and the Lunka, which reject the worship of images, were responsible for the destruction of many works of art in the 12th century, and Muslim raids were responsible for the looting of many temples in northern India.有些教派,特别是Dhundia和Lunka,其中拒绝崇拜的图像,是为许多艺术作品在12世纪的破坏负责,穆斯林行动是为许多寺庙在印度北部的掠夺负责。 In the 18th century another important sect of Jainism was founded; it exhibited Islamic inspiration in its iconoclasm and rejection of temple worship.在18世纪的耆那教的另一个重要教派成立,它表现在它的反偶像崇拜和排斥伊斯兰寺庙的灵感。Complex rituals were abandoned in favor of austere places of worship called sthanakas, from which the sect is called Sthanakavasi.复杂的仪式被遗弃在严峻的崇拜所谓sthanakas,从该教派被称为Sthanakavasi地方青睐。

Royal W. Weiler皇家W.维勒
Rasik Vihari JoshiRasik Vihari乔希


Jainism耆那教

Catholic Information天主教信息

A form of religion intermediate between Brahminism and Buddhism, originated in India in pre-Christian times, and has maintained its heretical attitude towards Brahminism down to the present day.一个宗教婆罗门教和佛教之间,在印度起源于前基督教时代的中间形式,并一直保持其对婆罗门教异端的态度到现在的一天。The name is derived from jina, conqueror, one of the epithets popularly applied to the reputed founder of the sect.这个名字是来自集纳,征服者,是普遍适用于该教派创始人的绰号名震之一。Jainism bears a striking resemblance to Buddhism in its monastic system, its ethical teachings, its sacred texts, and in the story of its founder.耆那教蕴藏着惊人的相似之处,以佛教的寺院制度,其道德教义,其神圣的文本,并在其创始人的故事。This closeness of resemblance has led not a few scholars-such as Lassen, Weber, Wilson, Tiele, Barth-to look upon Jainism as an offshoot of Buddhism and to place its origin some centuries later than the time of Buddha.这种相似性接近,导致不是学者,如拉森数,韦伯,威尔逊,铁勒,巴特,耆那教的眼光来看待作为一个佛教分支,并放置它的起源几个世纪晚于佛陀时代。 But the prevailing view today-that of Bühler, Jacobi, Hopkins, and others-is that Jainism in its origin is independent of Buddhism and, perhaps, is the more ancient of the two.但是,今天那比勒,雅可比,霍普金斯,和其他普遍的看法,是耆那教在其原产地是佛教独立,或许更多的是两个古老的。The many points of similarity between the two sects are explained by the indebtedness of both to a common source, namely the teachings and practices of ascetic, monastic Brahminism.两个教派之间的许多相似点是两者共同的解释,债务来源,即教义和苦行,寺院婆罗门教的做法。Of the reputed founder of Jainism we have but few details, and most of these are so like what we read of the beginnings of Buddhism that one is strongly led to suspect that here at least one is dealing with a variation of the Buddha-legend.耆那教的创始人被誉为但我们几个细节,其中大部分是像我们这样的佛教开始读,一个是强烈的怀疑,导致这里至少有一个是与佛,传说的变化处理。 According to Jainist tradition, the founder lived in the sixth century BC, being either a contemporary or a precursor of Buddha.据Jainist传统,创办人生活在公元前六世纪,即无论是当代或佛的前兆。His family name was Jnatriputra (in Prakrit, Nattaputta), but, like Gotama, he was honoured with the laudatory names of Buddha, the enlightened, Mahavira, the great hero, and Jina, the conqueror.他的姓是Jnatriputra(在Prakrit,Nattaputta),而像乔达摩,他与佛陀的美称名称,开明,大雄,伟大的英雄,集纳,征服者荣幸。 These last two epithets came to be his distinctive titles, while the name Buddha was associated almost exclusively with Gotama.最后两个形容词来是他独特的头衔,而这个名字是与佛陀乔达摩几乎完全。Like Buddha, Jina was the son of a local raja who held sway over a small district in the neighbourhood of Benares.像佛,集纳是当地拉贾儿子谁当道了一个小的贝拿勒斯附近地区。While still a young man he felt the emptiness of a life of pleasure, and gave up his home and princely station to become an ardent follower of the Brahmin ascetics.虽然还是一个年轻的男子,他感受到了生活的乐趣空虚,并放弃了他的家和王子站成为婆罗门修道者殷切的追随者。If we may trust the Jainist scriptures, he carried the principle of self-mortification to the extent that he went about naked, unsheltered from the sun, rain, and winds, and lived on the rudest vegetarian fare, practising incredible fasts.如果我们可以信任Jainist经文,他进行自我屈辱原则的范围内,他走遍裸体,来自太阳,雨,风遮蔽,并住在无礼素食车费,练习难以置信的斋戒。 Accepting the principle of the Brahmin ascetics, that salvation is by personal effort alone, he took the logical step of rejecting as useless the Vedas and the Vedic rites.接受了婆罗门修道者,即通过个人努力拯救单独的原则,他采取了作为无用的吠陀和吠陀仪式拒绝合乎逻辑的步骤。For this attitude towards the Brahmin traditions he was repudiated as a heretic.对于这种对婆罗门传统否定态度,他作为一个邪教组织。He gathered eleven disciples around him, and went about preaching his doctrine of salvation.他的弟子聚集在他周围eleven,约说教他的救赎教义去了。Like Buddha he made many converts, whom he organized under a monastic rule of life.他提出了许多像佛转换,其中他在寺院的生活规则的组织。Associated with them were many who accepted his teaching in theory, but who in practice stopped short of the monastic life of extreme asceticism.与之相关的许多谁接受他的教学理论,但在实践中停止了谁的极端苦行修道寿命短。These were the lay Jainists, who, like the lay Buddhists, contributed to the support of the monks.这些是奠定Jainists,谁像居士,促进了僧人的支持。

The Jainists seem never to have been so numerous as the Buddhists.该Jainists似乎从来没有被如此众多的佛教徒。Though they claim a membership of over a million believers, laity included, recent statistics of India show that their number is not greater than half a million.虽然他们声称超过一百万信徒的成员,俗人在内,印度最近的统计数字表明,其数量不超过五十万更大。On the question of the propriety of going about naked, the Jainist monks have for ages been split into two sects.在赤裸裸的约去是否合适的问题时,Jainist僧人有年龄被分成两个派别。The White-Robed Sect, whose monks.在白袍教,其僧人。are clothed in white garments, is the more numerous, flourishing chiefly in NW India.在穿白色服装,是比较多,主要是印度西北繁荣。To this sect belong a few communities of Jainist nuns.为了达到这个教派的Jainist修女属于少数群体。The naked ascetics, forming the other sect, are strongest in the South of India, but even here they have largely restricted the custom of nakedness to the time of eating.赤裸裸的修道者,形成了其他教派,在印度南部最强的,但即使在这里,他们在很大程度上制约了下体习惯吃的时间。As the Buddhist creed is summed up in three words, Buddha, the Law, the Order, so the Jainist creed consists of the so-called three jewels, Right Belief, Right Knowledge, Right Conduct.由于佛教教义是三句话概括起来,佛,法,顺序,所以Jainist信条包括所谓的三宝,右信念,正确的知识,权利的行为。 Right Belief embraces faith in Jina as the true teacher of salvation and the acceptance of the Jainist scriptures as his authoritative teaching.右信仰拥抱作为拯救真正的教师和他的权威,作为教学的Jainist经文验收集纳信心。These scriptures are less extensive, less varied, than the Buddhist, and, while resembling the latter to a large degree, lay great stress on bodily mortification.这些经文是范围较小,较少变化,比佛教,并且,而类似后者在很大程度上,突出身体屈辱巨大压力。The canon of the White-robed Sect consists of forty-five Agamas, or sacred texts, in the Prakrit tongue.该白袍教典由45 Agamas,或神圣的文本在Prakrit舌头。Jacobi, who has translated some of these texts in the "Sacred Books of the East", is of the opinion that they cannot be older than 300 BC According to Jainist tradition, they were preceded by an ancient canon of fourteen so-called Purvas, which have totally disappeared.雅可比,谁翻译的“神圣的东方书”这些文本部分,认为他们不能比公元前300年老年据Jainist传统,他们之前由十四个所谓的Purvas古代经典,这已经完全消失了。 With the Jainist, "Right Knowledge" embraces the religious view of life together with the end of man, while "Right Conduct" is concerned with the main ethical precepts and with the ascetic, monastic system.随着Jainist,“正确的知识”拥抱生命的宗教观与人的结束,而“权利的行为”是与主体的道德戒律与苦行,寺院系统有关。

The Jainist, like the Buddhist and the pantheistic Brahmin, takes for granted the doctrine of Karma and its implied rebirths.该Jainist,如佛教和泛神论婆罗门,理所当然的因果报应和轮回学说的暗示。He, too, views every form of earthly, bodily existence as misery.他也视为痛苦的每一个尘世,身体的存在形式。Freedom from rebirth is thus the goal after which he aspires.因此,从重生自由的目标后,他渴望。But, while the pantheistic Brahmin and the primitive Buddhist looked for the realization of the end in the extinction of conscious, individual existence (absorption in Brahma, Nirvana), the Jainist has always tenaciously held to the primitive traditional belief in a final abode of bliss, where the soul, liberated from the necessity of rebirth on earth, enjoys forever a spiritual, conscious existence.但是,尽管泛神论婆罗门和原始佛教的最终实现看着自觉,个别存在(在梵天,涅磐吸收)灭绝,Jainist一直顽强地在举行到原始的幸福最终居留权的传统观念,这里的灵魂,从地球上重生的必要性解放,享有永久的精神,意识的存在。 To attain this end, the Jainist, like the Buddhist and the pantheistic Brahmin, holds that the traditional gods can aid but little.为了达到这个目的,Jainist,如佛教和婆罗门的泛神论,认为传统的神灵可以帮助,但很少。The existence of the gods is not denied, but their worship is held to be of no avail and is thus abandoned.神灵的存在并不否认,但他们的崇拜是认为是无济于事的,因而放弃了。Salvation is to be obtained by personal effort alone.救世军是由个人独自努力获得。To reach the longed-for goal, it is necessary to purify the soul of all that binds it to a bodily existence, so that it shall aspire purely and solely after a spiritual life in heaven.为了实现渴望已久的目标,就必须净化所有绑定到一个身体存在的灵魂,因此,它应当追求纯粹和完全后,在天堂的精神生活。 This is accomplished by the life of severe mortification of which Jina set the example.这是通过严重屈辱,其中集纳为榜样生活。Twelve years of ascetic life as a Jainist monk and eight rebirths are necessary to constitute the purgatorial preparation for the Jainist heaven.十二苦行生活年的Jainist僧人和八轮回是必要的构成为Jainist天堂炼狱准备。While the Jains are not worshippers of the Hindu gods, they erect imposing temples to Jina and other venerated teachers.耆那教徒虽然不属于印度教神的信徒,他们竖立气势寺庙集纳和其他崇敬的教师。The images of these Jainist saints are adorned with lights and flowers, and the faithful walk around them while reciting sacred mantras.这些Jainist圣人的图像装饰着灯光和鲜花,和他们周围的忠实走,而背诵的神圣咒语。 Jainist worship is thus little more than a veneration of a few saints and heroes of the past. Jainist崇拜因此只不过是少数圣人和过去英雄崇拜更多。

On its ethical side-the sphere of Right Conduct-Jainism is largely at one with Brahminism and Buddhism.在其道德方面,对权利的行为,耆那教球,主要是在与婆罗门教和佛教之一。There are, however, a few differences in the application of the principle of not killing.有,但是,在不杀人原则的适用一些差异。The sacredness of all kinds of life implied in the doctrine of metempsychosis has been more scrupulously observed in practice by the Jain than by the Brahmin or the Buddhist.对生活中所有的轮回学说暗示种神圣已在实践中更严格遵守的不是由婆罗门或耆那教的佛教徒。The Brahmin tolerates the slaughter of animals for food, to provide offerings for the sacrifice, or to show hospitality to a guest; the Buddhist does not scruple to eat meat prepared for a banquet; but the Jain reprobates meat-food without exception as involving the unlawful taking of life.婆罗门容忍食品的动物屠宰,为牺牲的产品,或显示招待客人,佛教不顾忌吃宴会准备肉,但耆那教reprobates无一例外肉食品如涉及非法获取的生活。 For similar reasons the Jain does not content himself with straining his drinking water and with remaining at home during the rainy season, when the ground is swarming with lower forms of life, but when he goes forth, he wears a veil before his mouth, and carries a broom with which he sweeps the ground before him to avoid destruction of insect life.出于类似的原因,耆那教不紧张他的内容与饮用水和其余在家在雨季时,地面与生活初中蜂拥自己,但是当他又提出,他戴着面纱之前,他的嘴,和携带扫帚扫,使他在他面前的地面,以避免昆虫生活的破坏。 The Jainist ascetic allows himself to be bitten by gnats and mosquitoes rather than risk their destruction by brushing them away.该Jainist苦行允许自己被小昆虫和蚊子,而不是风险刷牙他们离开他们的破坏咬伤。Hospitals for animals have been a prominent feature of Jainist benevolence, bordering at times on absurdity.动物医院一直是Jainist仁突出的特点,在时间上的荒谬接壤。For example, in 1834 there existed in Kutch a temple hospital which supported 5000 rats.例如,在1834年存在着在卡奇寺庙医院,支持5000只。With all this scrupulous regard for animal life the Jain differs from the Buddhist in his view of the lawfulness of religious suicide.有了这些严格的动物生活在不同方面的耆那教他的自杀是否合法的宗教从佛教观点。According to Jainist ethics a monk who has practised twelve years of severe asceticism, or who has found after long trial that he cannot keep his lower nature in control, may hasten his end by self-destruction.据Jainist伦理的谁已实行十二年严重的禁欲主义,或谁拥有经过长期试验发现,他不能保住自己的性质,控制较低,年和尚会加速由自我毁灭他的结局。

Publication information Written by Charles F. Aiken.出版信息写查尔斯F艾肯。Transcribed by Douglas J. Potter.转录由道格拉斯J.波特。Dedicated to the Sacred Heart of Jesus Christ The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume VIII.献给耶稣基督的圣心天主教百科全书,音量八。Published 1910.发布1910年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, October 1, 1910. Nihil Obstat,1910年10月1日。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰farley枢机主教,大主教纽约

Bibliography参考书目

JACOBI, The Jaina Sutras, vols.雅可比,耆那教佛经,二卷。XXII and XLV of the Sacred Books of the East; HOPKINS, The Religions of India (Boston, 1895); HARDY, Der Buddhismus nach älteren Paliwerken (Münster, 1890); MONIER WILLIAMS, Buddhism (London, 1889); BARTH, The Religions of India (London. 1891). XXII和XLV的东方圣书;霍普金斯,印度的宗教(波士顿,1895年); HARDY,DER Buddhismus nach älteren Paliwerken(明斯特,1890年);莫尼尔WILLIAMS,佛教(伦敦,1889年);巴特,在宗教印度(London. 1891年)。



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