Saint Jerome圣杰罗姆

General Information一般资料

Jerome (Eusebius Hieronymus), c.347-420, was a Father of the Church and Doctor of the Church, whose great work was the translation of the Bible into Latin, the edition known as the Vulgate (see Bible).杰罗姆(尤西比乌斯海欧纳莫斯),c.347 - 420,是一个教会和教会的博士,他的伟大的工作是翻译成拉丁文的圣经,作为著名的武加大版本 (见圣经)父亲。He was born at Stridon on the borders of Dalmatia and Pannonia of a well-to-do Christian family.他出生在达尔马提亚和潘诺尼亚的边界良好的待办事项基督教家庭。在StridonHis parents sent him to Rome to further his intellectual interests, and there he acquired a knowledge of classical literature and was baptized at the age of 19.他的父母送他到罗马,进一步他的智力兴趣,并且有他获得了古典文学知识,并在19岁受洗。Shortly thereafter he journeyed to Trier in Gaul and to Aquileia in Italy, where he began to cultivate his theological interests in company with others who, like himself, were ascetically inclined.此后不久,他远航在高卢特里尔和Aquileia在意大利,在那里他开始培养与谁,像他一样,其他公司都ascetically倾向于他的神学利益。

About 373, Jerome set out on a pilgrimage to the East.关于373,杰罗姆载于一个东方朝圣。In Antioch, where he was warmly received, he continued to pursue his humanist and monastic studies.在安提阿,在那里他受到热烈欢迎,他继续追求他的人文主义和寺院的研究。He also had a profound spiritual experience, dreaming that he was accused of being "a Ciceronian, not a Christian."他也产生了深刻的精神体验,做梦,他被指控“的Ciceronian,而不是一个基督徒。”Accordingly, he determined to devote himself exclusively to the Bible and theology, although the translator Rufinus (345-410), Jerome's close friend, suggested later that the vow was not strictly kept.因此,他决心投身专门的圣经和神学,虽然翻译Rufinus(345-410),杰罗姆的亲密朋友,建议后说,发誓不严格把握。 Jerome moved to the desert of Chalcis, and while practicing more rigorous austerities, pursued his studies, including the learning of Hebrew.杰罗姆移到哈尔基斯沙漠,而更严格的苦行修炼,追求他的研究,包括希伯来文学习。 On his return to Antioch in 378 he heard Apollinaris the Younger (c.310-c.390) lecture and was admitted to the priesthood (379) by Paulinus, bishop of Antioch.在他的回归在378至安提阿,他听到Apollinaris雅戈尔(c.310 - c.390)讲座和被承认的Paulinus,安提阿的主教圣职(379)。In Constantinople, where he spent three years around 380, he was influenced by Gregory of Nazianzus.在君士坦丁堡,在那里他度过了大约380三年,他受的nazianzus格雷戈里。

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When Jerome returned to Rome Pope Damasus I appointed him confidential secretary and librarian and commissioned him to begin his work of rendering the Bible into Latin.当杰罗姆返回罗马教皇达玛斯我任命他的机要秘书和库,并委托他开始他的渲染成拉丁文圣经的工作。After the death (384) of Damasus, however, Jerome fell out of favor, and for a second time he decided to go to the East.后达玛斯死亡(384),然而,杰罗姆失宠,并为第二次,他决定到东方。He made brief visits to Antioch, Egypt, and Palestine.他做了简短的访问安提阿,埃及和巴勒斯坦。In 386, Jerome settled at Bethlehem in a monastery established for him by Paula, one of a group of wealthy Roman women whose spiritual advisor he had been and who remained his lifelong friend.在386,杰罗姆定居在伯利恒为他建立了保,一个富裕的精神顾问,他曾和谁仍然是他终身的朋友的罗马女子组寺院之一。 There he began his most productive literary period, and there he remained for 34 years, until his death.在那里,他开始了他的文学最旺盛的时期,他仍然有34年,直到他的死亡。From this period come his major biblical commentaries and the bulk of his work on the Latin Bible.从这个时期来评论他的主要圣经和他的拉丁圣经的大量工作。

The writings of Jerome express a scholarship unsurpassed in the early church and helped to create the cultural tradition of the Middle Ages.杰罗姆表达的著作,在早期教会的奖学金,帮助创造无与伦比的中世纪的文化传统。He developed the use of philological and geographical material in his exegesis and recognized the scientific importance of archaeology.他发展了语言学和地理材料在他的注释使用和认可的考古科学的重要性。In his interpretation of the Bible he used both the allegorical method of the Alexandrian and the realism of the Antiochene schools.在他的圣经解释,他用两个寓言方法的亚历山大和安提阿学派学校的现实主义。A difficult and hot-tempered man, Jerome made many enemies, but his correspondence with friends and enemies alike is of great interest, particularly that with Saint Augustine. His greatest gifts were in scholarship, and he is a true founder of scientific biblical exegesis in the West. Feast day: Sept. 30 (Western).一个困难,脾气暴躁的人,杰罗姆提出了许多敌人,但他的朋友和敌人都对应的是极大的兴趣,尤其是与圣奥古斯丁, 他的最大的礼物是在奖学金,他是一个真正的科学圣经注释创始人。西方节日:9月30(西方)。

Ross Mackenzie罗斯麦肯齐

Bibliography 参考书目
Berschin, W., Greek Letters and the Latin Middle Ages, rev. Berschin,W.,希腊字母和拉丁中世纪,转。ed.编辑。(1989); Kelly, JND, Jerome, His Life, Writings, and Controversies (1975); Steinmann, Jean, Saint Jerome and His Times (1959); Wiesen, David S., St. Jerome as a Satirist (1949; repr. 1964). (1989年);凯利,他的生活,写作,和争论(1975)JND,杰罗姆;斯氏,让,圣杰罗姆和他的时代(1959年);维森,大卫S,圣作为讽刺作家杰罗姆(1949年,再版1964)。


Saint Jerome圣杰罗姆

General Information一般资料

Saint Jerome, [in Latin, Eusebius Hieronymus] (347?-419 or 420), was Father of the Church, Doctor of the Church, and biblical scholar, and whose most important work was a translation of the Bible into Latin (see Vulgate).圣杰罗姆,[在拉丁美洲,尤西比乌斯海欧纳莫斯](347?-419或420),是父亲教会,教会的医生,和圣经学者,而其最重要的工作是一个圣经翻译成拉丁文(见武加大)。 Jerome was born in Stridon, on the border of the Roman provinces of Dalmatia and Pannonia, about 347.杰罗姆出生于Stridon,在达尔马提亚和潘诺尼亚的罗马省边境,约347。After a period of literary study in Rome, he withdrew to the desert, where he lived as an ascetic and pursued the study of Scripture.经过在罗马文学研究期间,他撤回到沙漠,在那里他作为一个禁欲主义者追求的生活和学习经文。 In 379 he was ordained a priest.在379他被任命一名神父。He then spent three years in Constantinople (present-day Ýstanbul) with the Eastern church father, Saint Gregory of Nazianzus.然后,他花了三年时间在君士坦丁堡(今Ýstanbul)与东方教会的父亲,圣的nazianzus格雷戈里。 In 382 he returned to Rome, where he was made secretary to Pope Damasus I and became an influential figure.在382他回到罗马,在那里他被做秘书教皇达玛斯我,成为一个有影响力的人物。Many people placed themselves under his spiritual direction, including a noble Roman widow named Paula and her daughter, both of whom followed him to the Holy Land in 385 after the death of Damasus.很多人划归他的精神指导自己,包括高尚的罗马遗孀名为保拉和她的女儿,他们两人跟着他到了385后,达玛斯死亡圣地。 Jerome fixed his residence at Bethlehem in 386, after Paula (later Saint Paula) founded four convents there, three for nuns and one for monks; the latter was governed by Jerome himself.杰罗姆固定在伯利恒他的住所在386之后,保拉(后来圣保拉)创办four修道院那里,三个尼姑和僧人之一,后者是由杰罗姆自己管辖。 There he pursued his literary labors and engaged in controversy not only with heretics Jovinian and Vigilantius and the adherents of Pelagianism, but also with monk and theologian Tyrannius Rufinus and with Saint Augustine.在那里,他的劳动和他的文学追求,不仅与异端Jovinian和Vigilantius和伯拉纠主义的信徒从事争议,但也与和尚和神学家Tyrannius Rufinus和圣奥古斯丁。Because of his conflict with the bishop of Jerusalem, by about 395 Jerome found himself threatened with expulsion by the Roman civil authorities.由于他与耶路撒冷主教,约395杰罗姆冲突发现自己与罗马民事当局驱逐的威胁。Although this threat was averted, Jerome's later years were overshadowed by the sack of Rome in 410, the death of Paula and her daughter, and his own increasing isolation.虽然这种威胁被避免了,杰罗姆的晚年被蒙上了一层阴影,在410袋罗马的保拉和她的女儿死亡,而他自己越来越孤立。

In addition to his work on the Bible, Jerome's literary activity was extensive and varied.除了他对圣经的翻译工作,杰罗姆的文学活动是广泛的和多样。He continued the Chronicle of Eusebius of Caesarea, which covered sacred and profane history from the birth of Abraham to AD303, bringing the narrative to the year 378.他延续了尤西比乌斯的恺撒,涵盖从亚伯拉罕出生的神圣和亵渎历史AD303,使叙事一年378纪事。For his De Viris Illustribus (On Famous Men), Jerome drew upon the Ecclesiastical History of the same Eusebius.对于他的德Viris Illustribus(在著名男性),杰罗姆借鉴了同一尤西比乌斯教会历史。He also wrote a number of commentaries on various books of the Bible, as well as polemical treatises against various theological opponents.他还写了各种书籍的圣经,以及对各种神学论战论文对手的评论数量。Jerome was a brilliant and prolific correspondent; more than 150 of his letters survive.杰罗姆是一个辉煌,多产记者,超过他的信件150生存。His feast day is September 30.他的宗教节日是9月30日。


Saint Jerome圣杰罗姆

Advanced Information先进的信息

(ca. 347-419)(约347-419)

Jerome was a Biblical scholar and translator who aimed to introduce the best of Greek learning to Western Christianity.杰罗姆是一个圣经学者,翻译家谁旨在介绍希腊学习的最佳西方基督教。 He sensed the inferiority of the West, and he labored to add scholarship to the public glory of the church.他感觉到西方的自卑,他吃力增加奖学金,在教会的公共荣耀。

Jerome, whose Latin name was Eusebius Hieronomous, was born in the little town of Strido near the border of Italy and Dalmatia (today's Yugoslavia).杰罗姆,其拉丁学名是尤西比乌斯Hieronomous,是出生在Strido靠近意大利和达尔马提亚(今天的南斯拉夫)边境小镇。 His parents were well-to-do Catholics who sent their son to Rome for his higher education.他的父母也到做天主教徒谁送他的高等教育他们的儿子到罗马。There he heard the great grammarian Donatus, laid the foundation of his library of classical Latin authors, and adopted Cicero as his model of Latin style.在那里,他听到了很大的语法学家那图斯,奠定了他对古典拉丁作家库的基础,并通过了作为他的拉丁风格模型西塞罗。At the end of his studies, when about twenty years of age, he set off for Gaul.在他的研究结束时,大约二十岁时,他掀起了高卢。 In Treves, the imperial capital, he experienced a type of conversion, renouncing a secular career for meditation and spiritual work.在特雷韦斯,帝国的首都,他经历了一个类型的转换,放弃了世俗的沉思和精神的工作生涯。This change of career led him back to his home and to neighbouring Aquilia, where he met Rufinus and other clergymen and devout women interested in asceticism.这种变化导致了他的职业生涯回到他的家和邻近Aquilia,在那里他遇到了Rufinus和其他神职人员和禁欲主义感兴趣的虔诚的妇女。 Thus began his career of cultivating ascetic and scholarly interests.就这样开始了他的苦行培养和学术利益的职业生涯。

In 373 Jerome decided to travel to the East.在373杰罗姆决定前往该地区。He settled for a time in the Syrian desert southeast of Antioch.一时间,他定居在叙利亚的安提阿沙漠东南。There he mastered Hebrew and perfected his Greek.在那里,他掌握了希伯来语和完善他的希腊。After ordination at Antioch he went to Constantinople and studied with Gregory of Nazianzus.在安提阿协调后,他到君士坦丁堡和格雷戈里的nazianzus研究。In 382 he returned to Rome, where he became the friend and secretary of Pope Damasus.在382他回到罗马,在那里他成为了朋友和教皇达玛斯书记。We have Damasus to thank for the first impulse toward Jerome's Latin translation of the Bible, the Vulgate.我们达玛斯感谢对杰罗姆的拉丁文翻译的圣经,先冲武加大。

When Damasus died, late in 384, Jerome for the second time decided to go to the East.当达玛斯死亡,后在384,第二次杰罗姆决定前往东方。After some wandering, first to Antioch then Alexandria, he settled in Bethlehem, where he remained for the rest of his life.经过一番徘徊,首先要安提然后亚历山大,他定居在伯利恒,他在那里为他的余生依然存在。He found companions in a monastery and served as a spiritual adviser to some wealthy women who had followed him from Rome.他发现在寺院的同伴和作为精神顾问,一些谁曾跟随他从罗马富裕的妇女担任。

Jerome's greatest accomplishment was the Vulgate.杰罗姆的最大成就是武加大。The chaos of the older Latin translation was notorious.在老年人的拉丁翻译混乱是臭名昭著。Working from the Hebrew OT and the Greek NT, Jerome, after twenty-three years of labor, gave Latin Christianity its Bible anew.从旧约的希伯来文和希腊新台币,杰罗姆,工作后的劳动23年,给拉美基督教圣经其重新。Although the text became corrupted during the Middle Ages, its supremacy was reaffirmed by the Council of Trent in 1546, and it remains to this day the classical Latin Bible.虽然文本在中世纪成为损坏,其优势是重申了安理会的遄达在1546年,它仍然是这一天的古典拉丁文圣经。

A second and related part of Jerome's heritage lies in his expositions of Scripture.的杰罗姆的遗产第二和相关部分掌握在他的论述圣经。Like all biblical interpreters of the early church, Jerome affirmed a threefold (historical, symbolic, and spiritual) meaning of Scripture and repudiated an exclusively historical interpretation as "Jewish."像早期教会所有的圣经翻译,杰罗姆肯定了圣经三倍(历史,象征性的,和精神)的意义和否定作为一个专门的历史解释“犹太人”。 The mere letter kills.单单信杀死。What he demanded was only that the historical interpretation should not be considered inferior to the allegorical (or spiritual).他要求什么,只是说,历史解释不应该被认为逊色于寓言(或精神)。

Jerome was no creative theologian, no great teacher of the church.杰罗姆是没有创造性的神学家,没有教会伟大的老师。He engaged in one bitter controversy after another with vindictive passion.他在一个从事一场激烈的争论后,怀恨在心的激情另一个。 Yet for all his personal weaknesses, Jerome's reputation as a biblical scholar endures.然而,他的所有个人的弱点,杰罗姆作为一个圣经学者的声誉下去。

BL Shelley BL雪莱
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary)(Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 参考书目
H. von Campenhausen, Men Who Shaped the Western Church; JND Kelly, Jerome; CC Mierow, Saint Jerome: The Sage of Bethlehem; FX Murphy, ed. H.冯Campenhausen,谁塑造了西方教会的人; JND凯利,杰罗姆; CC Mierow,圣杰罗姆:在伯利恒圣人; FX墨菲,编辑。 A Monument to Saint Jerome; JG Nolan, Jerome and Jovinian; J. Steinmann, Saint Jerome and His Times.A到圣杰罗姆纪念碑; JG诺兰,杰罗姆和Jovinian的J.斯氏,圣杰罗姆和他的时代。


St. Jerome圣杰罗姆

Catholic Information天主教信息

Born at Stridon, a town on the confines of Dalmatia and Pannonia, about the year 340-2; died at Bethlehem, 30 September, 420.出生于Stridon,一份关于达尔马提亚和潘诺尼亚的框框镇,大约一年340-2;在伯利恒死亡,9月30日420。

He went to Rome, probably about 360, where he was baptized, and became interested in ecclesiastical matters.他去到罗马,大概是360,他在那里接受洗礼,并于教会事务感兴趣。From Rome he went to Trier, famous for its schools, and there began his theological studies.他从罗马前往特里尔,为学校而闻名,并有开始了他的神学研究。Later he went to Aquileia, and towards 373 he set out on a journey to the East.后来他去Aquileia,以及对他设置在373到东方旅程。He settled first in Antioch, where he heard Apollinaris of Laodicea, one of the first exegetes of that time and not yet separated from the Church.他首先解决在安提阿,在那里他听到Apollinaris的老底嘉,对当时的第一个注释者之一,尚未从教会分离。From 374-9 Jerome led an ascetical life in the desert of Chalcis, south-west of Antioch.从374-9杰罗姆率领的哈尔基斯,西南安提阿黄沙上的苦修生活。Ordained priest at Antioch, he went to Constantinople (380-81), where a friendship sprang up between him and St. Gregory of Nazianzus.祝圣司铎在安提阿,他到君士坦丁堡(380-81),其中友谊窜出他与圣格雷戈里的nazianzus起来。 From 382 to August 385 he made another sojourn in Rome, not far from Pope Damasus.从382至八月385他在罗马逗留另外,不远处的教皇达玛斯。When the latter died (11 December, 384) his position became a very difficult one.当后者死亡(12月11日,384)他的立场变得非常困难。His harsh criticisms had made him bitter enemies, who tried to ruin him.他严厉批评了让他痛苦的敌人,谁试图破坏他。After a few months he was compelled to leave Rome.几个月后,他被迫离开罗马。By way of Antioch and Alexandria he reached Bethlehem, in 386.通过安提阿和亚历山大的方式他到达伯利恒,在386。He settled there in a monastery near a convent founded by two Roman ladies, Paula and Eustochium, who followed him to Palestine.他在那里定居在罗马附近的两个女士,保拉和Eustochium,谁跟着他向巴勒斯坦建立了修道院修道院。Henceforth he led a life of asceticism and study; but even then he was troubled by controversies which will be mentioned later, one with Rufinus and the other with the Pelagians.此后,他率领的禁欲主义和学习生活,但即使这样,他被这后面会提到,一个与Rufinus和与Pelagians其他争议的困扰。

CHRONOLOGY大事记

The literary activity of St. Jerome, although very prolific, may be summed up under a few principal heads: works on the Bible; theological controversies; historical works; various letters; translations.该圣杰罗姆文学活动,虽然很丰富的,可以概括几个主要负责人下:在圣经工程;神学争论,历史著作,各种信件;翻译。 But perhaps the chronology of his more important writings will enable us to follow more easily the development of his studies.但也许是他更重要的著作年表将使我们能够更容易地跟踪了他研究的发展。

A first period extends to his sojourn in Rome (382), a period of preparation.第一个时期延伸到他的​​逗留在罗马(382),一段时间的筹备。From this period we have the translation of the homilies of Origen on Jeremias, Ezechiel, and Isaias (379-81), and about the same time the translation of the Chronicle of Eusebius; then the "Vita S. Pauli, prima eremitae" (374-379).从这个时期,我们对赫雷米亚斯,Ezechiel和伊萨亚斯(379-81)的奥利的颂歌翻译,大约在同一时间内的尤西比乌斯纪事翻译;那么“维他S.圣保利,表面eremitae”( 374-379)。A second period extends from his sojourn in Rome to the beginning of the translation of the Old Testament from the Hebrew (382-390).第二期延伸到了从希伯来文(382-390)开始翻译旧约从他在罗马逗留。During this period the exegetical vocation of St. Jerome asserted itself under the influence of Pope Damasus, and took definite shape when the opposition of the ecclesiastics of Rome compelled the caustic Dalmatian to renounce ecclesiastical advancement and retire to Bethlehem.在此期间,训诂的天职圣杰罗姆断言下,教皇达玛斯影响本身,并形成了一定的时候,罗马教区的反对迫使苛性达尔马提亚放弃教会进步和退休伯利恒。 In 384 we have the correction of the Latin version of the Four Gospels; in 385, the Epistles of St. Paul; in 384, a first revision of the Latin Psalms according to the accepted text of the Septuagint (Roman Psalter); in 384, the revision of the Latin version of the Book of Job, after the accepted version of the Septuagint; between 386 and 391 a second revision of the Latin Psalter, this time according to the text of the "Hexapla" of Origen (Gallican Psalter, embodied in the Vulgate).在384我们有四个福音拉丁美洲版本改正;在385,书信的圣保罗,在384,一个拉丁诗篇第一次修订根据该septuagint(罗马诗篇)接受文本,在384中,对约伯记后接受的版本的译本,拉丁版的修订; 386和391之间的拉丁诗篇,这时候按了“Hexapla”的奥利(高卢诗篇第二次修改文本,在武加大体现)。It is doubtful whether he revised the entire version of the Old Testament according to the Greek of the Septuagint.这是令人怀疑他是否修改了旧约整个版本根据希腊的译本。In 382-383 "Altercatio Luciferiani et Orthodoxi" and "De perpetua Virginitate B. Mariae; adversus Helvidium".在382-383“Altercatio Luciferiani等Orthodoxi”和“德perpetua Virginitate B. Mariae; adversus Helvidium”。In 387-388, commentaries on the Epistles to Philemon, to the Galatians, to the Ephesians, to Titus; and in 389-390, on Ecclesiastes.在387-388,上至腓利门书,向加拉太,到以弗所,到提多书信评注,以及在389-390,在传道书。

Between 390 and 405, St. Jerome gave all his attention to the translation of the Old Testament according to the Hebrew, but this work alternated with many others. 390和405之间,圣杰罗姆给所有他的注意旧约根据希伯来文翻译,但这项工作与其他许多交替。Between 390-394 he translated the Books of Samuel and of Kings, Job, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, the Canticle of Canticles, Esdras, and Paralipomena. 390-394之间,他翻译的塞缪尔和国王,工作,谚语,传道书中,canticle的canticles,埃斯德拉斯和Paralipomena的书籍。 In 390 he translated the treatise "De Spiritu Sancto" of Didymus of Alexandria; in 389-90, he drew up his "Quaestiones hebraicae in Genesim" and "De interpretatione nominum hebraicorum."在390他翻译的论文“德Spiritu Sancto”的亚历山大Didymus,在389-90,他画了他的“Quaestiones hebraicae在Genesim”和“德interpretatione Nominum公司hebraicorum。”In 391-92 he wrote the "Vita S. Hilarionis", the "Vita Malchi, monachi captivi", and commentaries on Nahum, Micheas, Sophonias, Aggeus, Habacuc.在391-92,他写下了“维他S. Hilarionis”中,“维他Malchi,monachi captivi”,在那鸿和评论,Micheas,Sophonias,Aggeus,Habacuc。In 392-93, "De viris illustribus", and "Adversus Jovinianum"; in 395, commentaries on Jonas and Abdias; in 398, revision of the remainder of the Latin version of the New Testament, and about that time commentaries on chapters 13-23 of Isaias; in 398, an unfinished work "Contra Joannem Hierosolymitanum"; in 401, "Apologeticum adversus Rufinum"; between 403-406, "Contra Vigilantium"; finally from 398 to 405, completion of the version of the Old Testament according to the Hebrew.在392-93,“德viris illustribus”和“Adversus Jovinianum”,在395上,乔纳斯和Abdias评论,在398,在对新约修订拉丁美洲版本的其余部分,13章,约在当时的评论-23的伊萨亚斯,在398,一个未完成的工作“魂斗罗Joannem Hierosolymitanum”,在401“Apologeticum adversus Rufinum”;间403-406,“魂斗罗Vigilantium”,最后从398到405,完成了旧约版本根据希伯来文。In the last period of his life, from 405 to 420, St. Jerome took up the series of his commentaries interrupted for seven years.在他生命的最后时期,从405到420,圣杰罗姆讨论了七年打断了他的系列评论。In 406, he commented on Osee, Joel, Amos, Zacharias, Malachias; in 408, on Daniel; from 408 to 410, on the remainder of Isaias; from 410 to 415, on Ezechiel; from 415-420, on Jeremias.在406,他评论Osee,乔尔,阿莫斯,撒迦利亚,玛拉基亚亚,在408上,丹尼尔,从408到410,在其余的伊萨亚斯,从​​410到415,在Ezechiel,从415-420,在赫雷米亚斯。 From 401 to 410 date what is left of his sermons; treatises on St. Mark, homilies on the Psalms, on various subjects, and on the Gospels; in 415, "Dialogi contra Pelagianos".从401到410日期什么是他的布道中;在圣马可的论文,在诗篇颂歌,在各学科,并在福音书,在415“Dialogi禁忌Pelagianos”。

CHARACTERISTICS OF ST.ST特征。JEROME'S WORK杰罗姆的工作

St. Jerome owes his place in the history of exegetical studies chiefly to his revisions and translations of the Bible.圣杰罗姆欠的训诂史研究他的地方,主要是他的修订和翻译的圣经。Until about 391-2, he considered the Septuagint translation as inspired.直到大约391-2,他认为译本翻译的启发。But the progress of his Hebraistic studies and his intercourse with the rabbis made him give up that idea, and he recognized as inspired the original text only.但他Hebraistic研究和他的交往与拉比的进展使他放弃了这个想法,他认为是灵感的原始文本。It was about this period that he undertook the translation of the Old Testament from the Hebrew.这是有关这一时期,他承担了从希伯来文旧约译本。But he went too far in his reaction against the ideas of his time, and is open to reproach for not having sufficiently appreciated the Septuagint.但他走得太远在他对他当时的思想反应,是开放的责备没有充分赏识的译本。This latter version was made from a much older, and at times much purer, Hebrew text than the one in use at the end of the fourth century.这后一个版本是由一个大年纪了,有时更纯粹,希伯来文比在第四世纪末一个使用文本。 Hence the necessity of taking the Septuagint into consideration in any attempt to restore the text of the Old Testament.因此,在考虑任何企图恢复旧约文字的译本的必要性。With this exception we must admit the excellence of the translation made by St. Jerome.有了这个例外,我们必须承认由圣杰罗姆取得卓越的翻译。His commentaries represent a vast amount of work but of very unequal value.他的评论代表了工作,但非常不平等的大量价值。 Very often he worked exceedingly rapidly; besides, he considered a commentary a work of compilation, and his chief care was to accumulate the interpretations of his predecessors, rather than to pass judgment on them.很多时候,他工作非常迅速,另一方面,他认为是评论的编译工作,他的主要关怀是积累了他的前辈的解释,而不是通过对他们的判决。 The "Quaestiones hebraicae in Genesim" is one of his best works.而“Quaestiones在Genesim hebraicae”是他最好的作品之一。It is a philological inquiry concerning the original text.这是一个语言学查询有关原始文字。It is to be regretted that he was unable to continue, as had been his intention, a style of work entirely new at the time.这是值得遗憾的是,他无法继续下去,因为曾经是他的意图,工作作风完全在当时新的。Although he often asserted his desire to avoid excessive allegory, his efforts in that respect were far from successful, and in later years he was ashamed of some of his earlier allegorical explanations.虽然他经常宣称他的欲望,以避免过多的寓言,在这方面的努力远未成功,并在晚年,他对他以前的寓言解释一些惭愧。 He himself says that he had recourse to the allegorical meaning only when unable to discover the literal meaning.他自己说,他曾诉诸寓言的意义只有在无法发现的字面意思。His treatise, "De Interpretatione nominum hebraicorum", is but a collection of mystical and symbolical meanings.他的论文,“德Interpretatione Nominum公司hebraicorum”,不过是神秘和象征意义的集合。

Excepting the "Commentarius in ep. ad Galatas", which is one of his best, his explanations of the New Testament have no great value.除外的“在EP Commentarius。广告Galatas”,这是他最好的之一,他的解释新约​​已经没有太大价值。Among his commentaries on the Old Testament must be mentioned those on Amos, Isaias, and Jeremias.在旧约上他的评论就必须提到阿莫斯,伊萨亚斯,并赫雷米亚斯的。There are some that are frankly bad, for instance those on Zacharias, Osee, and Joel.有一些是坦率地说不好,例如,在撒迦利亚,Osee,和乔尔的。To sum up, the Biblical knowledge of St. Jerome makes him rank first among ancient exegetes.综上所述,在圣杰罗姆圣经的知识使他成为第一个跻身古代注释者。In the first place, he was very careful as to the sources of his information.首先,他很以他的信​​息来源小心。He required of the exegete a very extensive knowledge of sacred and profane history, and also of the linguistics and geography of Palestine.他要求的注释家的神圣和世俗的历史非常广泛的知识,也是语言学和巴勒斯坦地理。 He never either categorically acknowledged or rejected the deuterocanonical books as part of the Canon of Scripture, and he repeatedly made use of them.他从来不是断然拒绝承认或作为佳能的经文部分次经书,他多次使用它们。On the inspiration, the existence of a spiritual meaning, and the freedom of the Bible from error, he holds the traditional doctrine.在灵感,一种精神意义,并从错误的圣经自由的存在,他认为传统的学说。Possibly he has insisted more than others on the share which belongs to the sacred writer in his collaboration in the inspired work.可能是他一直坚持比别人的份额属于神圣的作家在他的启发更多的工作协作。His criticism is not without originality.他的批评不是没有独创性。The controversy with the Jews and with the Pagans had long since called the attention of the Christians to certain difficulties in the Bible.与犹太人与异教徒的争论早已称为基督徒注意在圣经一定的困难。St. Jerome answers in various ways.圣杰罗姆的答案以不同的方式。Not to mention his answers to this or that difficulty, he appeals above all to the principle, that the original text of the Scriptures is the only one inspired and free from error.更何况他的回答这样或那样的困难,他呼吁上述所有的原则,认为圣经的原文是唯一一个启发和错误。Therefore one must determine if the text, in which the difficulties arise, has not been altered by the copyist.因此,必须确定该文本,其中的困难出现时,并没有被改变的抄写员。Moreover, when the writers of the New Testament quoted the Old Testament, they did so not according to the letter but according to the spirit.此外,当新约的作者引用了旧约,他们这样做不是按字母,但根据精神。There are many subtleties and even contradictions in the explanations Jerome offers, but we must bear in mind his evident sincerity.有许多细微之处,甚至在解释杰罗姆提供了矛盾,但我们必须牢记他的明显的诚意。He does not try to cloak over his ignorance; he admits that there are many difficulties in the Bible; at times he seems quite embarrassed.他并不试图超过他的无知的外衣,他也承认,在圣经中有许多困难;有时他显得相当尴尬。 Finally, he proclaims a principle, which, if recognized as legitimate, might serve to adjust the insufficiencies of his criticism.最后,他宣布的原则,而如果是合法的认可,可能有助于调整他的批评的不足。He asserts that in the Bible there is no material error due to the ignorance or the heedlessness of the sacred writer, but he adds: "It is usual for the sacred historian to conform himself to the generally accepted opinion of the masses in his time" (PL, XXVI, 98; XXIV, 855).他断言,在圣经并无重大错误由于无知或神圣的作家heedlessness,但他补充说:“这是神圣的历史学家通常在他的时间,以符合自己的群众普遍接受的意见” (PL,二十六,98; XXIV,855)。

Among the historical works of St. Jerome must be noted the translation and the continuation of the "Chronicon Eusebii Caesariensis", as the continuation written by him, which extends from 325 to 378, served as a model for the annals of the chroniclers of the Middle Ages; hence the defects in such works: dryness, superabundance of data of every description, lack of proportion and of historical sense.在圣杰罗姆的历史著作的翻译必须注意和“Chronicon Eusebii Caesariensis”的延续,由他撰写的延续,延伸,从325到378,作为对在史册的编年史典范中世纪,因此在这些工程的缺陷:干燥,形形色色的数据,比例和缺乏历史感过剩。 The "Vita S. Pauli Eremitae" is not a very reliable document.而“维他S.圣保利Eremitae”是不是一个很可靠的文件。The "Vita Malchi, monachi" is a eulogy of chastity woven through a number of legendary episodes.而“维他Malchi,monachi”是贞洁悼词通过编织传奇的发作次数。As to the "Vita S. Hilarionis", it has suffered from contact with the preceding ones.至于“维他S. Hilarionis”,它饱受接触前面的。It has been asserted that the journeys of St. Hilarion are a plagiarism of some old tales of travel.据声称,圣伊拉里的旅程是一些老的旅游故事抄袭。But these objections are altogether misplaced, as it is really a reliable work.但这些反对意见是完全错误的,因为它确实是一个可靠的工作。The treatise "De Viris illustribus" is a very excellent literary history.该论文“德Viris illustribus”是一个非常优秀的文学史。It was written as an apologetic work to prove that the Church had produced learned men.这是写成一个歉意的工作证明,教会已生产有学问的人。For the first three centuries Jerome depends to a great extent on Eusebius, whose statements he borrows, often distorting them, owing to the rapidity with which he worked.首三个世纪的杰罗姆上取决于尤西比乌斯,他借用的陈述,他们往往扭曲,由于速度与他合作很大程度上。His accounts of the authors of the fourth century however are of great value.在第四世纪的作家,他不过是占很大的价值。 The oratorical consist of about one hundred homilies or short treatises, and in these the Solitary of Bethlehem appears in a new light.该演说由约百颂歌或短论文,并在这些孤立的伯利恒在新的光出现。He is a monk addressing monks, not without making very obvious allusions to contemporary events.他是一个和尚和尚解决,不是没有做很明显的典故,以当代事件。The orator is lengthy and apologizes for it.冗长的演说家,是和它道歉。He displays a wonderful knowledge of the versions and contents of the Bible.他显示的版本和圣经内容精彩的知识。His allegory is excessive at times, and his teaching on grace is Semipelagian.他的寓言是有时过度,和他的恩典教学Semipelagian。A censorious spirit against authority, sympathy for the poor which reaches the point of hostility against the rich, lack of good taste, inferiority of style, and misquotation, such are the most glaring defects of these sermons.一个反对权威,为穷人反对富人的到达,缺乏良好的品味,风格自卑,和misquotation敌对点同情吹毛求疵的精神,这样的是这些说教的最明显的缺陷。 Evidently they are notes taken down by his hearers, and it is a question whether they were reviewed by the preacher.显然,他们均是由他的听众下笔记,这是一个问题是否是由牧师审查。The correspondence of St. Jerome is one of the best known parts of his literary output.圣杰罗姆对应的是,他的文学输出最有名的地区之一。It comprises about one hundred and twenty letters from him, and several from his correspondents.它由大约120信从他,从他的记者数。Many of these letters were written with a view to publication, and some of them the author even edited himself; hence they show evidence of great care and skill in their composition, and in them St. Jerome reveals himself a master of style.这些信件许多书面意见,以出版,其中一些作者甚至编辑自己,因此他们表现出的极大关怀和其组成技能的证据,并在其中圣杰罗姆显露自己的风格大师。 These letters, which had already met with great success with his contemporaries, have been, with the "Confessions" of St. Augustine, one of the works most appreciated by the humanists of the Renaissance.这些信件,这已经与他同时代的伟大的成功举行,已,与“忏悔录”的圣奥古斯丁,大部分由文艺复兴时期的人文主义者赞赏的作品之一。 Aside from their literary interest they have great historical value.除了他们的文学兴趣,他们有很大的历史价值。Relating to a period covering half a century they touch upon most varied subjects; hence their division into letters dealing with theology, polemics, criticism, conduct, and biography.有关一个时期覆盖半世纪,他们涉及品种最多的学科,因此其与神学论战,批评,行为,处理信件和传记分工。In spite of their turgid diction they are full of the man's personality.在他们的肿胀文辞尽管它们是人的个性十足。It is in this correspondence that the temperament of St. Jerome is most clearly seen: his waywardness, his love of extremes, his exceeding sensitiveness; how he was in turn exquisitely dainty and bitterly satirical, unsparingly outspoken concerning others and equally frank about himself.正是在此对应的是,圣杰罗姆气质是最清楚地看到:他的反复无常,他的极端的爱,他超过的敏感性,他又将如何玲珑纤巧和苦涩的讽刺,unsparingly直言不讳关于他人和同样对自己坦白了。

The theological writings of St. Jerome are mainly controversial works, one might almost say composed for the occasion.圣杰罗姆的神学著作,主要是有争议的作品,人们几乎可以说组成的场合。He missed being a theologian, by not applying himself in a consecutive and personal manner to doctrinal questions.他错过了作为一个神学家,通过不连续的,并应用在个人地理论问题自己。In his controversies he was simply the interpreter of the accepted ecclesiastical doctrine.在他的争论,他只是接受了教会的教义解释。Compared with St. Augustine his inferiority in breadth and originality of view is most evident.相对于他的圣奥古斯丁在广度和原创性的观点是最明显的劣势。

His "Dialogue" against the Luciferians deals with a schismatic sect whose founder was Lucifer, Bishop of Cagliari in Sardinia.他的“对话”对一个分裂教派的创始人是路西弗,主教在撒丁岛卡利亚里的Luciferians交易。The Luciferians refused to approve of the measure of clemency by which the Church, since the Council of Alexandria, in 362, had allowed bishops, who had adhered to Arianism, to continue to discharge their duties on condition of professing the Nicene Creed.该Luciferians拒绝批准的宽大处理措施,其中教会,自亚历山大会,362,已经让主教,谁坚持到阿里乌斯教,继续履行对自称尼西亚信条条件的职责。 This rigorist sect had adherents almost everywhere, and even in Rome it was very troublesome.这rigorist教派信徒已几乎无处不在,甚至在罗马是很麻烦的。Against it Jerome wrote his "Dialogue", scathing in sarcasm, but not always accurate in doctrine, particularly as to the Sacrament of Confirmation.反对杰罗姆写了他的“对话”,在讽刺尖刻,但并不总是准确的学说,特别以圣事的确认。

The book "Adversus Helvidium" belongs to about the same period.书中“Adversus Helvidium”属于大约同一时期。Helvidius held the two following tenets:Helvidius举行了以下两个原则:

Mary bore children to Joseph after the virginal birth of Jesus Christ;玛丽生了孩子以后,约瑟夫处女耶稣基督诞生;

from a religious viewpoint, the married state is not inferior to celibacy.从宗教的角度来看,已婚状态并不逊色于独身。Earnest entreaty decided Jerome to answer.认真恳求决定杰罗姆回答。In doing so he discusses the various texts of the Gospel which, it was claimed, contained the objections to the perpetual virginity of Mary.在这样做时,他讨论了其中,据称福音的各种文本,载有永久的童贞玛利亚的反对。 If he did not find positive answers on all points, his work, nevertheless, holds a very creditable place in the history of Catholic exegesis upon these questions.如果他没有找到所有点正面回答,他的工作,然而,持有了这些问题后,天主教训诂学史非常可信的地方。

The relative dignity of virginity and marriage, discussed in the book against Helvidius, was taken up again in the book "Adversus Jovinianum" written about ten years later.贞操和婚姻的相对尊严,在打击Helvidius书讨论,被带到了再书“Adversus Jovinianum”写了十年之后。Jerome recognizes the legitimacy of marriage, but he uses concerning it certain disparaging expressions which were criticized by contemporaries and for which he has given no satisfactory explanation.杰罗姆认识到婚姻的合法性,但关于他使用它的某些贬低其中批评同时代和他完全没有表现令人满意的解释。Jovinian was more dangerous than Helvidius.Jovinian超过Helvidius危险。Although he did not exactly teach salvation by faith alone, and the uselessness of good works, he made far too easy the road to salvation and slighted a life of asceticism.虽然他没有完全教导因信得救,仅和无用的优秀作品,他太容易的道路,拯救和轻视的禁欲主义的生活。Every one of these points St. Jerome took up.每一个这些点之一圣杰罗姆了起来。

The "Apologeticum adversus Rufinum" dealt with the Origenistic controversies.而“Apologeticum adversus Rufinum”处理与Origenistic争议。St. Jerome was involved in one of the most violent episodes of that struggle, which agitated the Church from Origen's lifetime until the Fifth Ecumenical Council (553).圣杰罗姆参与了这场斗争,这激动的渊源的,直到第五次大公会议(553)生前教会的最猛烈的事件之一。The question at issue was to determine if certain doctrines professed by Origen and others taught by certain pagan followers of Origen could be accepted.所讨论的问题是要确定,如果某些教义宣称由奥利和一定的渊源异教信徒教导别人可以接受。In the present case the doctrinal difficulties were embittered by personalities between St. Jerome and his former friend, Rufinus.在本案中的理论困难之间圣杰罗姆和他以前的朋友,Rufinus个性苦。To understand Origen were by far the most complete exegetical collection then in existence, and the one most accessible to students.要了解奥利是迄今为止最完整的训诂然后收集存在,和一个最容易给学生。Hence a very natural tendency to make use of them, and it is evident that St. Jerome did so, as well as many others.因此很自然的倾向,使他们的使用,很显然,圣杰罗姆这样做,以及许多其他人。But we must carefully distinguish between writers who made use of Origen and those who adhered to his doctrines.但是,我们必须仔细区分作家谁利用了奥利和那些谁坚持他的学说。This distinction is particularly necessary with St. Jerome, whose method of work was very rapid, and consisted in transcribing the interpretations of former exegetes without passing criticism on them.这种区别是特别圣杰罗姆,其方法是非常迅速的工作需要,并在没有经过他们抄写批评前解经的解释组成。Nevertheless, it is certain that St. Jerome greatly praised and made use of Origen, that he even transcribed some erroneous passages without due reservation.不过,可以肯定的是圣杰罗姆大大赞扬,并提出使用的奥利,他甚至没有适当保留一些转录错误的通道。But it is also evident that he never adhered thinkingly and systematically to the Origenistic doctrines.但它也很明显,他从来没有坚持thinkingly和系统地向Origenistic学说。

Under these circumstances it came about that when Rufinus, who was a genuine Origenist, called on him to justify his use of Origen, the explanations he gave were not free from embarrassment.在这种情况下,来到约当Rufinus,谁是真正的Origenist,要求他证明他使用的渊源,他给的解释并没有从尴尬的自由。 At this distance of time it would require a very subtle and detailed study of the question to decide the real basis of the quarrel.在这时候距离它需要一个非常微妙的问题,并详细研究,决定对争吵的真正基础。However that may be, Jerome may be accused of imprudence of language and blamed for a too hasty method of work.但是,这种可能,杰罗姆可能被指责为轻率的语言和过于草率的工作方法受到指责。With a temperament such as his, and confident of his undoubted orthodoxy in the matter of Origenism, he must naturally have been tempted to justify anything.有了气质,比如他,和他在Origenism问题勿庸置疑的正统信心,他自然必须有被诱惑来证明什么。This brought about a most bitter controversy with his wily adversary, Rufinus.这带来了与他的老谋深算的对手,Rufinus最苦的争议。But on the whole Jerome's position is by far the stronger of the two, even in the eyes of his contemporaries.但总体上是杰罗姆的立场,到目前为止,这两个强,即使在他同时代的眼睛。It is generally conceded that in this controversy Rufinus was to blame.人们普遍承认,在这场争论中Rufinus,无可厚非。It was he who brought about the conflict in which he proved himself to be narrow-minded, perplexed, ambitious, even timorous.这是谁,他对冲突中,他证明了自己是狭隘的,困惑,雄心勃勃,甚至胆怯带来的。St. Jerome, whose attitude is not always above reproach, is far superior to him.圣杰罗姆,他们的态度并不总是无可指责,远远优于他。

Vigilantius, the Gascon priest against whom Jerome wrote a treatise, quarrelled with ecclesiastical usages rather than matters of doctrine. Vigilantius,所针对的加斯科涅语牧师杰罗姆写了一篇论文,而不是与教会的教义事项用法吵架。What he principally rejected was the monastic life and the veneration of saints and of relics.他拒绝了什么,主要是寺院生活和崇拜圣徒和文物。In short, Helvidius, Jovinian, and Vigilantius were the mouthpieces of a reaction against asceticism which had developed so largely in the fourth century.总之,Helvidius,Jovinian和Vigilantius都是反对禁欲主义而制定了在第四世纪所以在很大程度上反应的喉舌。 Perhaps the influence of that same reaction is to be seen in the doctrine of the monk Pelagius, who gave his name to the principal heresy on grace: Pelagianism.或许,同样的反应的影响要在和尚伯拉纠,谁给他的名字在宽限期主要异端学说认为:伯拉纠主义。On this subject Jerome wrote his "Dialogi contra Pelagianos".在这个问题上杰罗姆写了他的“Dialogi禁忌Pelagianos”。 Accurate as to the doctrine of original sin, the author is much less so when he determines the part of God and of man in the act of justification.至于原罪教义准确,笔者要少得多所以当他决定了行为的理由是神和人的一部分。 In the main his ideas are Semipelagian: man merits first grace: a formula which endangers the absolute freedom of the gift of grace.在他的主要思想是Semipelagian:男人的优点首先宽限期:一个公式危害的恩赐绝对的自由。 The book "De situ et nominibus locorum hebraicorum" is a translation of the "Onomasticon" of Eusebius, to which the translator has joined additions and corrections.书中“德原地等nominibus locorum hebraicorum”是一个“Onomasticon”的尤西比乌斯,哪个译者加入了补充和修正翻译。The translations of the "Homilies" of Origen vary in character according to the time in which they were written.的“颂歌”的渊源不同性质的翻译照在他们被写入的时间。As time went on, Jerome became more expert in the art of translating, and he outgrew the tendency to palliate, as he came across them, certain errors of Origen.随着时间的推移,杰罗姆成为更多的翻译艺术专家,他傲然挺立的倾向缓和,因为他遇到了他们,奥利某些错误。We must make special mention of the translation of the homilies "In Canticum Canticorum", the Greek original of which has been lost.我们必须对“在Canticum Canticorum”的颂歌翻译特别提到,希腊原已遗失。

St. Jerome's complete works can be found in PL, XXII-XXX.圣杰罗姆的完整作品中可以发现,PL,XXII - XXX。

Publication information Written by Louis Saltet.出版信息路易斯Saltet写。Transcribed by Sean Hyland.转录由Sean海仑。The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume VIII.天主教百科全书,音量八。Published 1910.发布1910年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, October 1, 1910. Nihil Obstat,1910年10月1日。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰farley枢机主教,大主教纽约



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