Jerusalem耶路撒冷

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Also Salem, Ariel, Jebus, the "city of God," the "holy city;" by the modern Arabs el-Khuds, meaning "the holy;" once "the city of Judah" (2 Chr. 25:28).此外萨利姆,碧浪,“神的城市”,耶布斯“圣城”;由现代阿拉伯人EL - Khuds,意为“圣洁的,”一次“城市犹大”(2 CHR 25:28)。This name is in the original in the dual form, and means "possession of peace," or "foundation of peace."这个名字是在原来的双重形式,手段“藏和平”,或“和平的基础。”

It is first mentioned in Scripture under the name Salem (Gen. 14:18; comp. Ps. 76:2).这是第一次提到在圣经的名义塞勒姆(创14:18;。排版诗76:2)。When first mentioned under the name Jerusalem, Adonizedek was its king (Josh. 10:1).当第一次提到耶路撒冷的名义下,Adonizedek是它的国王(约书亚记10:1)。the Tell-el-Amarna collection of tablets letters from Amorite king to Egypt, recording the attack of the Abiri about BC 1480.从信件的片亚摩利人告诉埃及王- EL -阿玛尔纳收集,记录了公元前1480年左右Abiri攻击。 The name is spelt Uru-Salim ("city of peace").这个名字拼写URU - 萨利姆(“和平之城”)。

It is named among the cities of Benjamin (Judg. 19:10; 1 Chr. 11:4); but in the time of David it was divided between Benjamin and Judah.它被命名的城市之间的本杰明(Judg. 19:10; 1 CHR 11:4),但在大卫的时间和犹大本杰明之间划分。After the death of Joshua, it was taken and set on fire by Judah (Judg. 1:1-8); but the Jebusites were not wholly driven out of it.后约书亚的死亡,它是采取和放火的犹大(Judg. 1:1-8),但不完全的耶布斯人赶出来。David led his forces against the Jebusites still residing within its walls, and drove them out, which he called "the city of David" (2 Sam. After the disruption of the kingdom on the accession to the throne of Rehoboam, Jerusalem became the capital of the kingdom of the two tribes. It was subsequently often taken and retaken by the Egyptians, the Assyrians, and by the kings of Israel (2 Kings 14:13, 14; 18:15, 16; 23:33-35; 24:14; 2 Chr. 12:9; 26:9; 27:3, 4; 29:3; 32:30; 33:11) after a siege of three years, it was taken and utterly destroyed, by Nebuchadnezzar, the king of Babylon (2 Kings 25; 2 Chr. 36; Jer. 39), BC 588. The desolation of the city was completed (Jer. 40-44), the final carrying captive into Babylon all that still remained, so that it was left without an inhabitant (BC 582).大卫领导的打击,仍然在其居住耶布斯人墙,他的部队,并开车出来,他被称为“大卫城”(2山姆后王国就到罗波安宝座加入中断,耶路撒冷成为资本,在这两个部落王国随后有人往往采取由埃及人,亚述人夺回,并经以色列国王(2国王14时13,14; 18:15,16; 23:33-35; 24 :14; 2 CHR 12点09分,26:9,27:3,4; 29:3,32:30,33:11后三年围困),它是采取和彻底销毁尼布甲尼撒的。巴比伦王(王下25; 2 CHR 36;耶39),公元前588城市的荒凉完成(耶40-44),最后进行到巴比伦俘虏所有仍然存在,因此,它剩下没有居民(公元前582)。

Jerusalem was again built, after a captivity of seventy years.耶路撒冷再次建成,经过70年囚禁。 This restoration was begun BC 536, "in the first year of Cyrus" (Ezra 1:2, 3, 5-11).这恢复公元前536年开始,“在古列元年”(以斯拉记1:2,3,5-11)。This restoration of the kingdom of the Jews, consisted of a portion of all the tribes.这个犹太人的王国恢复,包括了所有部落的一部分。The kingdom thus constituted was for two centuries under the dominion of Persia, till BC 331; and thereafter, for about a century and a half, under the rulers of the Greek empire in Asia, till BC 167.王国从而构成了两个世纪的波斯统治下,直到公元前331;其后,约一个世纪半,根据亚洲希腊帝国的统治者,直到公元前167。 For a century the Jews maintained their independence under native rulers, the Asmonean princes.一个世纪以来,犹太人保持其根据当地统治者,Asmonean诸侯的独立性。At the close of this period they fell under the rule of Herod and of members of his family, but practically under Rome, till the time of the destruction of Jerusalem, AD 70.在这一时期的结束,他们倒在了希律和他的家庭成员的规则,但实际上在罗马,到了耶路撒冷,公元70年毁灭的时间。The city was then laid in ruins.这个城市当时打下一片废墟。

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The modern Jerusalem by-and-by began to be built over the immense beds of rubbish resulting from the overthrow of the ancient city; Till AD 131 the Jews who still lingered about Jerusalem quietly submitted to the Roman sway.现代耶路撒冷和按开始超过从古城推翻造成垃圾的巨大床之上;直到公元131仍对耶路撒冷的犹太人谁悄悄徘徊提交给罗马挥洒。 But in that year the emperor (Hadrian), in order to hold them in subjection, rebuilt and fortified the city.但当年的皇帝(哈德良),以保持他们在服从,重建和强化城市。The Jews, however, took possession of it, having risen under the leadership of one Bar-Chohaba (ie, "the son of the star") in revolt against the Romans.犹太人,然而,拥有了它,下有一个酒吧,Chohaba(即“的明星儿子”)在对罗马人起义的领导上升。Some four years afterwards AD 135, they were driven out and the city was again destroyed; and over its ruins was built a Roman city called Aelia Capitolina, a name which it retained till it fell under the dominion of the Mohammedans, when it was called el-Khuds, ie, "the holy."大约四公元135年后,他们被赶出的城市又被摧毁,并在其废墟上建立了一个被称为Ael​​ia Capitolina罗马城市,它的名字,直到它保留下的伊斯兰教统治下跌,当它被称为EL - Khuds,即“神圣的”。

AD 326, Helena, mother of the emperor Constantine,公元326,拿,皇帝君士坦丁的母亲,

AD 614, the Persians, after defeating Roman emperor Heraclius公元614,波斯人,罗马击败皇帝赫拉克留

AD 637, it was taken by the Arabian Khalif Omar.公元637,它是由阿拉伯哈利奥马尔。

AD 960, under the dominion of the Fatimite khalifs of Egypt,公元960年,在埃及的Fatimite khalifs统治,

AD 1073 under the Turcomans.公元1073下Turcomans。

AD 1099 crusader Godfrey of Bouillon took the city from Moslems.公元1099戈弗雷十字军从穆斯林的布永城市了。

In AD 1187 the sultan Saladin wrested the city from the Christians.公元1187年萨拉丁夺取苏丹从基督徒的城市。From that time to the present day, with few intervals, Jerusalem has remained in the hands of the Moslems.从这个到现在一天的时间,很少有时间间隔,耶路撒冷一直保持在穆斯林手中。It has, however, during that period been again and again taken and retaken, demolished in great part and rebuilt, no city in the world having passed through so many vicissitudes.它,然而,在此期间被一再采取和夺回,在很大程度上拆除重建,世界上没有一个城市有这么多经过沧桑。In the year 1850 the Greek and Latin monks residing in Jerusalem had a fierce dispute about the guardianship of what are called the "holy places."在1850年希腊和拉丁僧人居住在耶路撒冷有一个关于什么是所谓的监护激烈纠纷“圣地”。In this dispute the emperor Nicholas of Russia sided with the Greeks, and Louis Napoleon, the emperor of the French, with the Latins.在这一争端,俄罗斯皇帝尼古拉站在希腊人,和路易拿破仑,法国皇帝,与拉丁人。This led the Turkish authorities to settle the question in a way unsatisfactory to Russia.这导致土耳其当局的方式来解决对俄罗斯不理想的问题。Out of this there sprang the Crimean War, which was protracted and sanguinary, but which had important consequences in the way of breaking down the barriers of Turkish exclusiveness.出于这种有窜出的克里米亚战争,这是长期和流血,但曾在土耳其的打破排他性的壁垒的方式产生重要影响。 Modern Jerusalem "lies near the summit of a现代耶路撒冷“谎言附近的一次首脑会议

Sennacherib's attack in BC 702.西拿基立的攻击在公元前702。The name Zion (or Sion) appears to have been, like Ariel ("the hearth of God"), a poetical term for Jerusalem,锡安的名称(或锡永)似乎已像林依晨(“神炉”),任期为耶路撒冷诗,

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary)(伊斯顿说明字典)


Jerusalem耶路撒冷

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The origins of the city are lost in antiquity; but evidence of civilization on the site stretches back to 3000 BC, and the city is referred to by name in Egyptian texts as early as the beginning of the second millennium BC According to Ezek.城市的起源迷失在古代,但在网站上文明的证据可追溯到公元前3000年,城市是指在埃及文字的名称只要在公元前第二个千年开始根据以西结书早。 16:3, the site was once populated by Amorites and Hittites; and, if it is to be identified with Salem (Gen. 14:18; Ps. 76:2), it was ruled in Abraham's day by the petty king Melchizedek, who was also "priest of God Most High." 16时03分,该网站曾一度被亚摩利人居住和赫梯;,如果它要与萨利姆(创14:18;诗76:2)确定,这是排除在亚伯拉罕的日子由小王麦基洗德,谁也“上帝至高的祭司。” Some hold that the "region of Moriah" (Gen. 22:2), where Abraham was tested with the sacrifice of Isaac, was what became the temple site, but this connection has not been proved.有舆论认为,“莫利亚山地区”(创22时02分),其中亚伯拉罕与以撒的牺牲测试,是什么成为了寺庙的网站,但此方面还没有得到证实。

Jerusalem in History耶路撒冷的历史

At the time of the conquest Jerusalem (otherwise known as Zion, the name originally given to the southeast hill where the earliest fortress was located) was populated by the Jebusites, a Semitic tribe ruled over by Adoni-zedek.在征服耶路撒冷(或称为锡安,原本给东南山所在的最早的要塞位于著名的名字)的时间是由耶布斯人居住,一个闪族部落统治的亚多尼洗,zedek。 Joshua soundly defeated an alliance of rulers headed by Adoni-zedek (Josh. 10) but never took Jerusalem, which became a neutral city between Judah and Benjamin.约书亚彻底击败一个由亚多尼洗,zedek(约书亚记10)为首的统治者的联盟,但从未发生耶路撒冷,这成为犹大和本杰明之间的中立城市。 It was still administered by Jebusites, even though the men of Judah overran and burned at least parts of the city (Judg. 1:8, 21).它仍然是管理的耶布斯人,即使犹大人侵占和焚烧的城市至少部分(Judg. 1:8,21)。This situation changed when King David decided to move his capital from Hebron.当这种情况发生了变化大卫王决定将他的资本从希伯伦。 He decisively conquered the Jebusites (II Sam. 5:6-10) and established Jerusalem (or Zion) as his strategic center and political capital.他果断地征服了耶布斯人(二山姆。5:6-10),建立战略中心,作为他的政治资本耶路撒冷(或锡安)。Calling it the City of David (II Sam. 5:9), he fortified and beautified it until his death, and his successor, Solomon, pursued the same course even more lavishly.调用它的城市大卫(二山姆。5:9),他设防,美化它,直到他去世,他的继任者,所罗门,追求相同的课程更加华丽。

The division of the kingdom immediately after Solomon's death marked the beginning of several stages of decline.王国后,立即所罗门死后分裂标志着下降几个阶段的开始。Now the capital of the southern kingdom only, Jerusalem was plundered by Egyptians under Shishak as early as the fifth year of Rehoboam (I Kings 14:25-26).现在,仅南部王国的首都,耶路撒冷被掠夺下希沙克只要在罗波安第五个年头(列王记14:25-26)早期的埃及人。 Fresh looting took place in Jehoram's reign, this time by a concert of Philistines and Arabs; and part of the walls were destroyed in skirmishes between Amaziah of the southern kingdom and Jehoash of the north.新鲜抢劫发生在约兰的统治,这一次地点由非利士人与阿拉伯人的音乐会,以及城墙的一部分人之间的小冲突亚玛谢王国和南部的北约阿施销毁。 Repairs enabled the city under Ahaz to withstand the onslaught of Syria and Israel, and again the city providentially escaped when the northern kingdom was destroyed by the Assyrians.维修亚哈斯下启用的城市承受叙利亚和以色列猛攻,并再次逃脱城市天意当北方王国被亚述人摧毁。But eventually the city was captured (597 BC) and then destroyed (586 BC) by the Babylonians, and most of the inhabitants killed or transported.但最终这个城市被抓获(597 BC),然后毁于巴比伦人和杀害或运送居民最(586 BC)。

Persian rule brought about the return of a few thousand Jews to the land and city, and the erection of a smaller temple than the majestic center built by Solomon; but the walls were not rebuilt until the middle of the fifth century under the leadership of Nehemiah.波斯统治所带来的数千犹太人返回到土地和城市,和一个比所罗门建造了雄伟的中心小寺庙勃起,但墙壁直到第五世纪中叶重建的领导下,尼希​​米。 Jerusalem's vassal status continued under the Greeks when Alexander the Great overthrew the Persian Empire; but after his untimely death (323 BC) Jerusalem became the center of a brutal conflict between the Seleucid dynasty in the north and the Ptolemies of Egypt in the south.耶路撒冷的附庸地位继续在希腊亚历山大大帝时,推翻了波斯帝国,但他的英年早逝之后(公元前323年)耶路撒冷成为之间的塞琉古王朝在北方和南方的埃及托勒密的残酷冲突的中心。 The struggle bred the Jewish revolt led by the Maccabees, who succeeded in rededicating the temple in 165 BC Infighting and corruption contributed to the decisive defeat of the city by the Romans in 63 BC and its pacification in 54 BC这场斗争孕育了犹太人起义的马加比,谁在重新致力于在公元前165内讧和贡献的,在公元前63年罗马人及其绥靖的城市决定性的失败在公元前54导致腐败的寺庙成功

Herod the Great came to power in 37 BC as a vassal king responsible to Rome, and embarked on the enlargement and beautification of the temple and other buildings, projects not completed until decades after his death.希律王大上台在公元前37年作为一个诸侯王负责罗马,并在扩大和庙宇等建筑物的美化开始,项目没有完成,直到他去世之后几十年。 The Jewish revolt that began in AD 66 inevitably led to the destruction of the city by the Romans in AD 70.犹太人的起义,在公元66开始不可避免地造成破坏的城市由罗马人在公元70年。A further revolt under Bar Cochba in AD 132 led to the city's destruction once again (135).一个由律师Cochba于公元132进一步的反抗导致了城市的毁灭再一次(135)。This time the Romans rebuilt the city on a smaller scale and as a pagan center, banning all Jews from living there, a ban that was not lifted until the reign of Constantine.这一次,罗马人重建的规模较小,并作为异教的中心城市,禁止所有生活在那里的犹太人,一个是直到君士坦丁统治解除禁令。 From the early fourth century on, Jerusalem became a "Christian" city and the site of many churches and monasteries.从第四世纪初,耶路撒冷成了“基督徒”的城市,许多教堂和修道院的网站。Successive occupiers, Persians, Arabs, Turks, Crusaders, British, Israelis, have left their religious and cultural stamp on the city, which since 1967 has been unified under Israeli military might.连续占用,波斯人,阿拉伯人,土耳其人,十字军,英国,以色列,都留在城市,自1967年以来一直处于以色列的军事实力统一他们的宗教和文化的印记。

The Centrality of Jerusalem耶路撒冷的掌

From the time that Jerusalem became both the political and the cultic capital of the children of Israel, it progressively served as a bifocal symbol: on the one hand it reflected the people and all their sinfulness and waywardness; on the other it represented the place where God made himself known and the anticipation of all the eschatological blessing that God had in store for his people.从时间,耶路撒冷成为在政治和以色列的儿童邪教资本,逐步担任了双焦符号:一方面它反映了人民和他们的罪恶和反复无常,另一方面它代表了地方神使自己已知和所有的末世论的祝福,上帝在商店为他的人的预期。 In Scripture, Zion is the city of God (Ps. 46:4; 48:1-2) and therefore the joy of the whole earth (Ps. 48:2).在圣经中,锡安是神的城市(诗篇46:4; 48:1-2),因此整个地球的喜悦(诗篇48:2)。The Lord himself has chosen Zion (Ps. 132:13-14), which consequently serves as his abode.主自己选择了锡安(诗132:13-14),它因此作为他的居留权服务。But if Jerusalem thus becomes virtually equivalent to "temple," it can in other images represent all of God's covenant people; indeed, to be "born in Zion" is to know God and experience his salvation (Ps. 87:5).但是,如果耶路撒冷也因此成为几乎等同于“庙”,它可以代表其他图像上帝的盟约人所有,事实上,是“生在锡安”是​​知道上帝和他的经验拯救(诗87:5)。 These strands come together at least in part because the temple is located on the holy hill called Zion (Ps. 15:1; Isa. 31:4; Joel 2:1); equally, the holy hill is set in parallel with Jerusalem (Isa. 45:13; Dan. 9:16-17).这些股来至少部分在一起,因为寺庙位于一个名为锡安(诗篇15:1。;赛31:4;乔尔2:1);同样神圣的山,神圣的山是在耶路撒冷平行设置( 。赛45:13;丹9:16-17)。Hence Jerusalem is the holy city (Neh. 11:1; Isa. 48:2; 52:1), so much so that going up to Zion is virtually equivalent to approaching Yahweh (Jer. 31:6) and salvation out of Zion is of course from the Lord (Ps. 14:7; cf. Pss. 128:5; 134:3).因此,耶路撒冷是圣城(尼11时01分;赛48:2; 52:1),以至于上升到锡安几乎相当于锡安,以接近耶和华(耶31:6)和拯救出来当然是从主(诗14:7;比照多糖128:5; 134:3)。

Jerusalem's Sin耶路撒冷的罪

Precisely because of these associations, the sin of its people is the more grievous.正因为这些协会,其人民的罪恶是更严重。The prophets (esp. Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, and Micah) speak of Jerusalem as a prostitute, fallen away from God, guilty of idolatry and of flagrant disregard of God's commandments.先知们(特别是以赛亚,耶利米,以西结,和米卡)谈到耶路撒冷为下降至神走了妓女,偶像崇拜和神的诫命,公然无视有罪。 The city must stand under the judgment of God (eg Isa. 1:21; 29:1-4; 32:9ff.; Jer. 6:22ff.).城市必须站在神的审判下(如赛1:21;。29:1-4,32:9 FF;耶6时22分几段)。Jerusalem's social and religious transgressions are so gross and persistent that Ezekiel labels it "the city of bloodshed" (Ezek. 22:2-3; 24:6).耶路撒冷的社会和宗教的越轨行为是如此严重和持续的标签,它以西结书“的流血之城”(以西结书22:2-3; 24:6)。 In its sin Jerusalem is counted as part of the pagan world (Ezek. 16:1-3).在其罪恶耶路撒冷是算作异教世界(结16:1-3)的一部分。 The citizens of Jerusalem are worse than Samaria and Sodom (Lam. 4:6; Ezek. 16:44-58; cf. Amos 2:4-5; Mal. 2:11).耶路撒冷的公民比撒马利亚和所多玛(Lam. 4:6;以西结书16:44-58;比照阿摩司书2:4-5;玛2:11)更糟。 The city taken by David will now be taken in judgment (Isa. 29:1-7).由大卫采取的城市现在采取的判断(赛29:1-7)。

Analogous to this bifocal casting of Jerusalem's symbolic significance stands the prophetic intertwining of threatened destruction and promised eschatological blessing.类似于这样的耶路撒冷的象征意义双光铸造矗立着预言破坏的威胁,并承诺末世祝福交织。Because Jerusalem is so sinful, it must be judged and destroyed (Isa. 1:21; 32:13-14; Ezek. 22:19); the guilty must be brought to account (Zeph. 1:12).由于耶路撒冷是如此罪孽深重,必须判断和销毁(以赛亚书1:21; 32:13-14;以西结书22:19);罪犯必须受到帐户(Zeph. 1:12)。At one level this judgment is executed in the horrors of the Exile (II Kings 24:13, 20; Jer. 42:18; 44:13; Lam. 1-5); but according to Jesus this is not the only judgment Jerusalem must face (Matt. 23:37-39).在一个层面上执行这个判决是在流亡的惨状(二国王24:13,20;耶42:18; 44:13;林1-5),但根据耶稣,这是不是唯一的判断耶路撒冷必须面对的(太23:37-39)。

Jerusalem's Glory耶路撒冷的荣耀

Yet all is not gloom.然而,一切并不悲观。Nations used by God to punish Jerusalem must themselves by called to account (Ps. 137:1, 4-9; Isa. 10:12).上帝用来惩罚耶路撒冷由联合国本身必须呼吁帐户(诗篇137:1,4-9;赛10:12)。Promises for the restoration of Jerusalem following the Exile become linked with promises of eschatological blessing (Isa. 40:1-5; 54:11-17; 60; cf. Hag. 2:19; Zech. 1:12-17).为耶路撒冷恢复的承诺后,流亡成为祝福的末世论的承诺(赛40:1-5; 54:11-17; 60;比照女巫2时19分;撒加利亚1:12-17)联系在一起的。Yahweh can no more forget Jerusalem than a woman can forget her child (Isa. 49:13-18).耶和华不能忘记耶路撒冷更比女人可以忘记她的孩子(以赛亚书49:13-18)。Ezekiel anticipates the return of Yahweh to Zion (43:1-9).以西结预计到锡安的耶和华回报(43:1-9)。In Zion, Yahweh will inaugurate his eschatological rule (Pss. 146:10; 149:2; Isa. 24:23; 52:7; Obad. 21; Mic. 4:7; Zeph. 3:15; Zech. 14:9), whether personally or through Messiah (Zech. 9:9-10), his servant (Isa. 40-66).在锡安,耶和华将开创他的末世论治(Pss. 146:10,149:2;赛24:23; 52:7; Obad 21;麦克风4点07分,Zeph 3:15;撒加利亚14。。。。: 9),不论亲自或通过弥赛亚(撒迦利亚9:9-10),他的仆人(以赛亚书40-66)。

Although there are frequent demands that Jerusalem (and by metonymy all Israel) repent as a presage of the eschatological glory, yet ultimately Jerusalem's glory rests on God's saving intervention (Isa. 62; 66:10-15).虽然也有频繁的要求,耶路撒冷(和转喻所有以色列)悔改作为预示着末世的荣耀,但最终耶路撒冷的荣耀上帝的拯救干预(以赛亚书62; 66:10-15)休息。He it is who washes away the filth of Zion's sin (Isa. 4:4).他是谁冲走了锡安的罪(赛4:4)藏污纳垢。Jerusalem will become the eschatological capital (Isa. 16:1; 45:14), will be awarded a new name expressive of Yahweh's delight and rights (Isa. 62:4, 12; Jer. 3:17; 33:16; Ezek. 48:35; Zech. 8:3), will be built with unfathomable opulence (Isa. 54:11-17), and will be secure from all enemies (Isa. 52:1; Joel 2:32; 3:17).耶路撒冷将成为末世论资本(赛16:1; 45:14),将获得一个新的名字耶和华的喜悦和权利(以赛亚书62:4,12个表现;耶3:17;。33:16;以西结书。48:35;撒加利亚8:3),将建成与深不可测的富裕(赛54:11-17),并会确保所有敌人(以赛亚书52:1;乔尔2时32分,3时17分)。 The redeemed who return to Zion constitute the holy remnant (II Kings 19:31; Isa. 4:3; 35:10; 51:11), a theme which suggests that the early return to Jerusalem after the Exile constitutes an anticipation of an eschatological return (Isa. 27:13; 62:11; Zech. 6:8, 15).谁的赎回返回锡安构成神圣残余(二国王19:31;赛4:3; 35:10,51:11),一个主题,表明早日回归后,流亡国外耶路撒冷构成的预期末世论的回报(以赛亚书27:13; 62:11;撒加利亚6点08分,15岁)。The temple is central to the city (Ezek. 40-48; cf. Isa. 44:28; Zech. 1:16).寺庙是中央的城市(结40-48;比照赛44:28;撒加利亚1:16)。

The eschatological glory to be experienced by Zion is accompanied by a transformation of nature and by long and abundant life, heroic strength, economic prosperity, joy, and thankful praise (Isa. 11; 12:4-6; 61:3; 62:8-9; 65:20; Jer. 33:11; Zech. 2:4, 5).荣耀的末世论是由经验丰富的锡安是伴随着对自然的改造和长和丰富的生活,英雄的力量,经济繁荣,欢乐,赞美和感谢(以赛亚书11; 12:4-6,61:3,62: 8-9; 65:20;耶33:11;撒加利亚2:4,5)。Although there is repeated assurance that the nations that have savaged Jerusalem will themselves be ravaged, in another emphasis the nations of the earth, after an unsuccessful campaign against Jerusalem (Isa. 29: 7-8; Mic. 4:11), join in a great pilgrimage to Zion, where they are taught by Yahweh to live according to his will (Isa. 2:2-4; Jer. 33:9; Mic. 4:1-3; Zech. 2:11).虽然一再保证,有savaged耶路撒冷被蹂躏的国家将自己在另一个重点,地球后,国家对耶路撒冷不成功运动(以赛亚书29:7-8;麦克风4:11),加入一个伟大的朝圣锡安,耶和华在那里他们被教导要根据他的生活会(以赛亚书2:2-4;耶33:9;麦克风4:1-3;撒加利亚2:11)。 In all this Jerusalem retains a central place.在所有这耶路撒冷保留了中心位置。

Jerusalem in NT Teachings耶路撒冷在NT教

In the NT "Zion" occurs only seven times: Rom.在NT“锡安”只发生七次:ROM。9:33 and I Pet. 9点33分,我的宠物。2:6 (citing Isa. 28:16), Rom.2点06(援引伊萨。28:16),ROM。11:26 (citing Isa. 59:20), Matt. 11时26分(援引伊萨。59:20),马特。21:5 and John 12:15 (cf. Zech. 9:9; Isa. 40:9; 62:11, all with reference to the inhabitants addressed as the daughter of Zion), and in two independent uses, Heb. 21时05和约翰12时15(参见撒加利亚9点09;赛40:9; 62:11,所有参考作为解决居民锡安的女儿),并在两个独立使用,希伯来书。 12:22 and Rev. 14:1 (both "Mount Zion").12:22和14:1牧师(包括“锡安山”)。But "Jerusalem" occurs 139 times.但“耶路撒冷”发生139次。Even many of the occurrences in the Gospels and Acts that at first glance seem to bear nothing more than topographical significance tend to fall into identifiable patterns.即使是在福音和行为,乍看似乎没有什么比承担更多的地形意义的事件很多往往会陷入识别模式。Jerusalem is still "the holy city" (Matt. 4:5; 27:53), the home of the temple and its priestly service, as well as the center of rabbinic authority.耶路撒冷仍然是“圣城”(太4:5; 27:53),在寺庙和它的祭司服务家庭,以及在拉比的权威中心。Jesus must die in the Jerusalem area (Matt. 16:21; Mark 10:33-34; Luke 9:31), in direct conflict with these central Jewish institutions.耶稣必须死在耶路撒冷地区(太16时21分,马可福音10:33-34,路加福音9时31),与这些中央犹太机构的直接冲突。 His death and resurrection stand in fulfillment of all they represented; but the irony and tragedy of the sacrifice is that the people connected with these institutions recognized little of this salvation-historical fulfillment.他的死和复活的所有履行他们所代表的立场,但具有讽刺意味和悲剧的牺牲是,与这些机构有关的人认识到这救恩历史的履行很少。 The temple had become a den of thieves (Mark 11:17), and Jerusalem itself lived up to its reputation as killer of the prophets (Matt. 23:37-39; cf. Luke 13:33).寺庙已成为贼窝(马可福音11:17),和耶路撒冷本身辜负作为先知(太23:37-39;比照路加福音13:33)杀手的美誉。 Jerusalem must be destroyed by foreign invaders (Matt. 23:38; Luke 19:43-44; 21:20, 24).耶路撒冷必须销毁(太23时38分,路加福音19:43-44;二十一时20分,24)外国侵略者。In Acts, Jerusalem is the hub from which the gospel radiates outward (Acts 1:8), the site both of Pentecost and of the apostolic council; but if it is the moral and salvation-historical center of Christianity, it is also the ideological home of Judaizers who wish to make the entire Mosaic code a precondition for Gentile conversion to Jesus Messiah, a position Paul condemns (Gal. 1:8-9).在行为,耶路撒冷是从该中心向外辐射的福音(徒1:8),圣灵降临节的既有和使徒议会的网站,但如果它是基督教的道德和拯救历史的中心,也是思想家Judaizers谁希望使整个马赛克代码转换为耶稣为弥赛亚外邦人,保罗谴责的立场(加拉太书1:8-9)的先决条件。 Paul himself, however, is quick to recognize how beholden all other believers are to the Christian remnant of Jerusalem (Gal. 2:10; II Cor. 8-9) which in a salvation-historical sense is truly the mother church.保罗自己,但是,很快就认识到如何感激所有其他信徒在耶路撒冷的基督教遗迹(加拉太书2:10;二肺心病8-9),它在救恩历史意义是真正的母亲教会。

A still deeper connection links OT treatment of Jerusalem to the "heavenly Jerusalem" (Heb. 12:22), to which Christian believers have already come, and to "Jerusalem above" (Gal. 4:26), which in an extended typology embraces new covenant believers and relegates geographical Jerusalem and its children to slavery: Jesus fulfills and to that extent replaces the OT types and shadows that anticipated him.一个OT耶路撒冷治疗仍更深的联系链接到“天上的耶路撒冷”(希伯来书12:22),对此基督教信徒已经来了,并以“耶路撒冷以上”(加拉太书4:26),这在一个扩展类型拥抱新约信徒和relegates地理耶路撒冷及其子奴隶:耶稣履行的程度,并取代OT类型和阴影预期他。 Jesus enters Jerusalem as messianic king (Mark 11:1-11 par.) and is concerned to see Jerusalem's temple pure (Mark 11:15-17 par.) precisely because the city and temple anticipate his own impending death and resurrection, events that shift the focal meeting place between God and man to Jesus himself (Mark 14:57-58; John 2:19-22).耶稣作为救世主进入国王(马克11:1-11相提并论。)耶路撒冷,并关切地看到耶路撒冷的圣殿纯(马克11:15-17相提并论。)正是因为这个城市和寺庙预见自己即将到来的死亡和复活,事件移神与人之间,以耶稣(马可福音14:57-58;约翰2:19-22)联络聚会场所。 This constitutes part of a broader pattern, worked out in some detail in the Epistle to the Hebrews, in which the gospel and its entailments simultaneously fulfill OT institutions and expectations and render them obsolete (eg, Heb. 8:13).这就构成了更广泛的模式的一部分,工作中的一些书信中详细列出的希伯来人,其中福音,同时履行其蕴含OT机构和期望,使它们过时的(例如,希伯来书8:13)。 The ultimate goal is the new Jerusalem.最终的目标是新耶路撒冷。

Jerusalem and the Church耶路撒冷和教会

Difficulties in rightly relating OT and NT materials on Jerusalem have contributed to the church's changing perceptions regarding itself, the Jews, and Jerusalem.在正确地有关在耶路撒冷OT和NT材料困难,促进了教会的看法就改变自己,犹太人和耶路撒冷。Especially in the wake of the destruction of AD 132-35 Christians saw themselves as the exclusive heirs of the covenant people of old: Christians constituted the true Jerusalem.特别是在AD的破坏之后132-35基督教徒视为该公约的老人们自己的独家继承人:基督徒构成了真正的耶路撒冷。 Geographical Jerusalem became a focal point for Christian piety and tradition, an ideal location for monasteries and basilicas, especially after Helena, mother of Constantine, devoted so much attention to Christian sites around the city.地理耶路撒冷成为一个虔诚的基督徒和传统的焦点,为寺庙和大教堂的理想场所,尤其是在海伦娜,康斯坦丁的母亲,这么多的关注投入到各地市基督教网站。 The Constantinian settlement (early fourth century) continued to see Christianity as the legitimate heir of Judaism, but its mingling of ecclesiastical and spiritual authority led both to persecution of Jews and to substantial disillusionment when Rome, perceived as the successor of Jerusalem, was ransacked by barbarians.该Constantinian结算(四世纪初)继续看作是犹太教基督教合法的继承人,但其宗教和精神权威混杂导致双方对犹太人的迫害,并大幅幻灭时,罗马,耶路撒冷的继任者认为,在洗劫了野蛮人。 The latter event prompted Augustine to write his famous City of God, which shifted the focus of the true city from either Jerusalem or Rome to the spiritual dimension; but this stance was easily overlooked during the height of medieval Catholicism, when Rome's authority frequently extended itself to all temporal spheres.后者事件促使奥古斯丁写了著名的上帝之城,它转移了真正的城市无论从耶路撒冷或罗马的精神层面的重点,但这一立场是很容易被忽视在中世纪天主教的高度,当罗马的权威经常延长本身所有的时间领域。 The Reformation, and especially the Puritan awakening in England, while preserving a certain harshness toward Jews, became progressively interested in Jewish evangelism, not in order to restore the Jews to Jerusalem, but to reincorporate them into the people of God and thus (in the case of the Puritan hope) to usher in the expected millennial age.宗教改革,特别是在英国清教徒的觉醒,同时保存对犹太人的某些生硬,逐步成为有兴趣在犹太人传福音,不是为了恢复到耶路撒冷的犹太人,但reinc​​orporate成神的人,因此他们(在案件清教徒希望)在预期的千禧年时代的到来。

Modern theological treatments frequently focus on the replacement theme (WD Davies, Gospel and Land) or use the city as a cipher for a colorful intermingling of sociology and Barthianism (J. Ellul, The Meaning of the City).现代神学的治疗常常集中在更换主题(WD戴维斯,福音和土地)或使用作为一个社会学和Barthianism(J.埃吕尔,城市的意思)多彩的交织密码的城市。 Conservatives tend to dispute how much of the OT promises regarding Jerusalem's restoration are taken up in NT typological fulfillment.保守党往往纠纷就如何将OT耶路撒冷的恢复承诺有多少是采取NT类型的实现了。 Positions range from a thoroughgoing affirmation of typology (various forms of amillennialism) to equally thoroughgoing disjunction (various forms of dispensationalism) .位置范围从类型学彻底的肯定(各种形式的amillennialism),以同样彻底分离(各种形式的dispensationalism)。 The typological cannot be ignored, nor can the NT's substantial silence on the future of Jerusalem and the land; but some passages, notably Luke 21:21-24, seem to anticipate the restoration of Jerusalem's fortunes.该类型的不可忽视的,也可以在NT的对耶路撒冷和土地未来相当沉默,但一些段落,尤其是路加福音21:21-24,似乎预见到耶路撒冷的命运恢复。

DA Carson DA卡森
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary)(Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 参考书目
FF Bruce, "Paul and Jerusalem," TB 19:3-23; M. Burrows, IDB, II, 843-66; G. Fohrer and E. Lohse, TDNT, VII, 292-338; J. Jeremias, Jerusalem in the Time of Jesus; KM Kenyon, Digging up Jerusalem B. Mazar, The Mountain of the Lord; J. Munck, Paul and the Salvation of Mankind; GF Oehler, Theology of the OT, 509-21; DF Payne, IBD, II, 752-60; JB Payne, ZPEB, III, 459-95; GNH Peters, The Theocratic Kingdom, III, 32-63; NW Porteous, "Jerusalem-Zion: the Growth of a Symbol," in Living the Mystery; GA Smith, Jerusalem, 2 vols.; Y. Yadin, ed., Jerusalem Revealed. FF布鲁斯,“保罗和耶路撒冷,”结核病19:3-23; M.挖洞,美洲开发银行,二,843-66; G. Fohrer和E. Lohse,TDNT,VII,292-338; J.赫雷米亚斯,耶路撒冷耶稣的时间; KM凯尼恩,挖耶路撒冷B.马扎,耶和华的山; J. Munck,保罗和人类的救赎; GF奥勒尔,对OT,509-21神学; DF佩恩,鸡传染性法氏囊病,II ,752-60; JB佩恩,中原石油勘探局,三,459-95; GNH彼得斯,神权王国,三,32-63; NW波蒂厄斯,“耶路撒冷锡安:符号的增长”,在生活的奥秘; GA史密斯,耶路撒冷,2卷;。Y.也丁主编,耶路撒冷显现出来。



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