Kenosis 虚己神学

General Information一般资料

Theodor H Gaster has pointed out two basic movements in rituals. The first he refers to as rituals of Kenosis, or emptying; the other, as rituals of Plerosis, or filling. Rituals of Kenosis portray the evacuating of the meaning of time as it approaches the end of a cycle. The wearing down of time at this moment produces noxious and defiling effects, and thus the appropriate response is an ascetic form of behavior accompanied with austerities.西奥多H法莫替丁指出两个基本动作的第一个仪式,他指的是作为Kenosis仪式,或排空;另一方面,作为Plerosis仪式,或填补Kenosis仪式刻画了时间的意义,因为它撤离的方法一个周期结束时的穿着时间在这一刻产生了有害的影响和亵渎,因而适当的反应是一个禁欲主义者的行为形成苦行陪同。In the rituals of Plerosis, the filling of time or the beginning again of the new time, dramas of excess and overabundance of power are portrayed in the rituals.在Plerosis,时间或开始填充新一次又一次的仪式,过剩和权力过多电视剧中被刻画的仪式。Specific dramatic roles in these rituals imitate the power of deities in bringing about the renewal of the time of the cosmos.在这些仪式的具体戏剧性的角色模仿神在对宇宙的时间重建带来的力量。

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Kenosis, Kenotic TheologyKenosis,Kenotic神学

Advanced Information先进的信息

"Kenosis" is a Greek term taken from Php.“Kenosis”是一个希腊词从php措施。2:7, where Christ is spoken of as having "emptied himself" (RSV) and taken human form. There has been much discussion about this entire crucial passage (2:6 - 11), and several interpretations exist today. 。2:7,其中基督是口语作为有“掏空自己”(RSV),并采取人形的人们关注这整个重要通道(2点06分- 11)大讨论,今天存在的几种解释。Kenotic theology is a theology that focuses on the person of Christ in terms of some form of self - limitation by the preexistent Son in his becoming man.Kenotic神学是神学上的基督的人集中在一些形式上的自我 - 由先在子限制在他成为男人。Kenotic theology at the theoretical level is a way of conceiving of the incarnation that is relatively new in the history of reflection on the person of Christ.在理论层面Kenotic神学是对的化身,是相对的反思基督的人的历史新构思方式。Some see this form of thought about Christ as the most recent advance in Christology; others see it as a blind alley.一些人认为,在基督最近推动这一约基督思想的形式;别人看到它作为一个死胡同。

History历史

Kenotic theology can be said to have begun as a serious form of reflection on Christology in the works of Gottfried Thomasius (1802 - 75), a German Lutheran theologian. Kenotic神学可以说是作为一种反思基督严重的形式开始在戈特弗里德托马修斯(1802 - 75)的作品,德国路德神学家。In general kenotic theology was formulated in the light of three crucial concerns.一般来说kenotic神学制定的三个关键问题轻。

The primary concern was to find a way of understanding the person of Christ that allowed his full humanity to be adequately expressed.主要关心的是要找到一个认识基督的人,允许他充分人类得到充分的表达方式。Biblical studies had given the church an intensified awareness that Christianity began in the earliest encounters with the man Jesus.圣经研究给了教会an加强意识,基督教与人耶稣最早遭遇开始的。Critical scholarship was "recapturing" him in the light of his environment.关键奖学金“夺回”,在他的环境光了。It was becoming more sensitive to the limitations of that "prescientific" era and was seeing more clearly the Synoptic portrait of the human personality of the man Jesus.它变得更加敏感,说:“前科学”时代的局限,并更清楚地看到了该名男子的基督人的个性天气肖像。All this conspired to force upon theologians the need to affirm in new ways that Christ was truly man.所有这一切阴谋强迫神学家的需要申明的基督是真正的人的新途径。He grew, he hungered, he learned, he appropriated his culture, and he exhibited its limitations.他长大,他渴望,他得知,他拨自己的文化,他表现出其局限性。

All this must be said about Christ himself, not merely about some abstract appendage called humanity "assumed" by God the Son.这一切不能不说对基督本人,而不是仅仅约称为人类“假设”上帝的儿子一些抽象的附属物。

A second, equally important concern was to affirm that God truly was in Christ.第二,同样重要的问题是要肯定,神在基督是真正的。The creeds are correct: very God, very man.的信条是正确的:很有神,很男人。The problem is how this can be said without turning Christ into an aberration.问题是如何可以不变成失常基督说。If to be human is to learn, grow, etc., and to be God is to be omniscient, then how can we speak of one person?如果是人类的学习,成长等,是神要无所不知,那么怎么能谈得上一个人呢?Must he not have had "two heads"?他一定不会有“两个头”?

The third concern stems in part from the first.第三个问题源于从第一部分。The age was learning to think in terms of the categories of psychology.年龄是学习思考的心理学方面的类别。Consciousness was a central category.意识是中央的类别。If at our "center" is our consciousness, and if Jesus was both omniscient God and limited man, then he had two centers and was thus fundamentally not one of us.如果在我们的“中心”是我们的意识,如果耶稣既是无所不知的上帝和有限的人,那么他有两个中心,因此根本不属于我们的。Christology was becoming inconceivable for some.基督是成为一些不可思议的。

The converging of these concerns led to kenotic theologies in a variety of forms.趋同导致了多种形式kenotic神学这些问题。All shared a need to affirm Jesus' real, limited humanity and limited consciousness along with the affirmation that he is very God and very man.所有国家的共同需要申明随着肯定耶稣的真实的,有限的人类和有限的意识,他很神,很男人。The varying forms of the theory of divine self - limitation were the way this was attempted.在神圣的自我理论的不同形式 - 限制是,这是尝试的方式。

All forms of classical orthodoxy either explicitly reject or reject in principle kenotic theology.一切形式的古典正统要么明确拒绝或拒绝在原则kenotic神学。This is because God must be affirmed to be changeless; any concept of the incarnation that would imply change would mean that God would cease to be God.这是因为上帝必须肯定是不变的,任何的化身,将意味着观念的转变将意味着,神不再是神。

Types类型

These concerns by no means force a uniformity of formulations; in fact, there are many different possibilities under the general category "kenotic theology."这些问题绝不是强制的配方均匀性,事实上,有许多在普通类不同的可能性“kenotic神学。”There is a variety of possibilities for a Christology in terms of the idea of a preincarnate self - limitation by God the Son.有一个在一个preinc​​arnate自我概念方面的各种可能性的基督 - 神限制的儿子。There are two broad categories for understanding kenotic theories.有两种理解kenotic理论两大类。One concerns the relation of the kenotic theory to traditional orthodox formulas.其中涉及到的kenotic理论传统正统的公式关系。A kenotic theory can have the function of being supportive modification of a traditional formula or it can be presented as an alternative.阿kenotic理论可以有被传统的公式支持修改功能,也可以作为替代呈现。This is key difference between the otherwise quite similar presentations given by Anglican Charles Gore in his Bampton Lectures, The Incarnation of the Son of God (1891), and Congregationalist PT Forsyth in his Person and Place of Jesus Christ (1909).这是由英国圣公会查尔斯戈尔之间在他的班普顿讲座,神(1891年)的儿子化身,公理PT福赛斯给予他的人与耶稣基督(1909年)将在其他方面非常相似演讲的主要区别。

Both writers clearly affirm a real commitment to an understanding of Christ as God and man, yet Gore's kenotic proposal functions to reinforce his consistent and articulate defense of Chalcedonian orthodoxy.这两个作家明确申明一个对基督作为上帝和人了解真正的承诺,但戈尔的kenotic建议职能,加强他的一贯和明确的Chalcedonian正统防御。 Forsyth sees his theory as a biblical alternative to a static, Greek, outmoded formula found in the Chalcedonian Definition.福赛斯将其视为圣经替代静态,希腊,陈旧的公式在Chalcedonian定义找到了自己的理论。Both Gore and Forsyth are altogether clear on their vision of Jesus' humanity, his growth, and limitations as part of the meaning of his identity.无论戈尔和福赛斯是他们对耶稣的人性,他的成长和限制视力完全清楚,作为他的身份意义的一部分。

A second distinction within kenotic theories concerns the place of the concept within the larger understanding of God's being and relation to the world.内kenotic第二个区别是关于理论的概念在上帝的福祉和世界的关系,以更大的理解的地方。The work of AE Garvie in Studies in the Inner Life of Jesus (1907) shows the influence of a conservative form of Hegelian speculation on the nature of the Trinity.而AE Garvie在耶稣内生活的研究工作(1907年)显示了对三位一体的投机性质黑格尔保守的形式的影响。Here there is seen to be a movement or dialectic within God between fullness (Father) and self - limitation / expression (Son) that finds its historic expression in the incarnation kenotically understood.这里有被认为是一个辩证运动或在神之间的丰满(父亲)和自我 - 限制/表达(儿子)的发现及其在历史的化身表达kenotically理解。

Thus kenotic theology is not intended to be an ad hoc device for making sense of the Christ event; rather the Christ event is the historic expression of the eternal dialectic within the Triune God.因此kenotic神学的目的不是成为用于制造基督事件感专案设备,而是基督事件是在三位一体神永恒的辩证历史的表达。Others also see the relation of God as Creator to creation as a form of self - limitation, thus providing genuine human freedom and the broad context for the more specific instance of divine self - limitation in Jesus Christ.其他人也看到了作为造物主上帝的关系,以创作为形式的自我 - 的限制,从而提供真正的人类自由和自我的神圣广泛的范围内更具体的实例 - 在耶稣基督的限制。The contrast to these more speculative forms of kenotic theology would naturally be those forms which focus more specifically on the incarnation as the exclusive act of divine self - limitation for our salvation.对神学的kenotic这些投机形式的对比自然是那些形式的重点放在作为神圣的自我排斥行为更具体的化身 - 我们得救的限制。

At least two broad areas of distinction can be made in understanding the potential range of kenotic theories.至少有两个广泛的领域区分,可在理解kenotic理论的潜在范围。First is the crucial distinction on the relation of a proposed kenotic theology to the history of Christology.首先是对拟议kenotic神学的基督历史关系的重要区别。Is the theory to be seen as an alternative to existing dogma (Forsyth, Mackintosh) or a reinforcing modification (Garvie, Weston)?是要为现有的教条(福塞斯,麦金托什)或加固改造(Garvie,韦斯顿)替代看到理论?Secondly, is a kenotic theology to be seen in its uniqueness as the act of divine self - limitation (Forsyth), or is it to be seen as either the culminating historical instance of the Trinitarian dialectic (Garvie) and / or the kenotic relation of God to creation in general?其次,是kenotic神学在其独特性看作是神圣的自我行为 - 限制(福赛思),或者是它作为最终无论是历史实例三位一体的辩证(Garvie)和/或kenotic关系的出现神一般的创造?

Criticism批评

Kenotic theology as formulated in Germany (1860 - 80) or in England (1890 - 1910) was clearly not without challenge.Kenotic神学在德国(1860 - 80)制定或英国(1890 - 1910),显然不无挑战。Indeed, many believe that the criticisms evoked have proven fatal.事实上,许多人认为,批评诱发证明是致命的。

A persistent criticism has been that kenotic theology is not biblical.一个持续的批评一直认为kenotic神学不是圣经。If one were to hold some sort of development theory about the emergence of NT Christology, as do R Bultmann, J Knox, RH Fuller, eg, then the most that could be said would be that kenotic theology could at best reflect one of the emerging models.如果一个人持有某种发展对NT基督的出现理论排序,作为执行读布特曼,J诺克斯,RH富勒,例如,那么最可能说将是kenotic神学可以在最能体现新兴one模型。 If one holds to the Christological unity of the NT, as do kenotic theorists in general, then the question is more pointed.如果持有至新台币基督团结一样,一般kenotic理论家,那么问题是比较尖。What advocates of kenotic theology would uniformly contend is that as an interpretative scheme their understanding allows one to see Jesus Christ as a real, growing, limited man without creating a sense that God is not somehow deeply involved in exactly this man.什么样的kenotic神学主张将统一抗衡的是,作为一项解释性计划的理解允许一看作为一个真正的,不断增长,有限的人没有创造一种感觉,上帝不是某种深深的正是这名男子涉及耶稣基督。

It is not a question of the interpretation of Php.这是不是PHP的解释问题。2, but a question of how one sees God and man in Jesus Christ.2,但对如何人们看到上帝和耶稣基督的人的问题。Did Christ know or not know the time of the end (Mark 13:32)?难道基督知道或不知道的结束时间(马克13时32分)?Orthodoxy said he must know, he is the presence of the omniscient God; however, for some reason he has chosen not to reveal this knowledge.正统说,他一定知道,他是无所不知的神的存在,但是,出于某种原因,他选择不透露这方面的知识。Kenotic theorists insist that the text says what it says.Kenotic理论家坚持认为,文中说说话是算数的。He limited himself to his human and real development; he was genuinely dependent on his Father; he did not know.他限制自己对他的人力和真正的发展,他是真正依赖于他的父亲,他不知道。The problem of who is biblical cuts more than one way.问题是谁的圣经削减不止一种方法。

A second criticism clearly must focus on the fundamental credibility of the concept of a divine self - limitation.第二次批评显然必须着眼于一个神圣的自我概念的基本可信度 - 限制。We must be clear here.在这里,我们必须明确。Theology has always countenanced a divine concealment for pedagogical purposes in Christ.神学一直纵容在基督神圣的教学目的,隐瞒。He concealed his divine radiance and became tangible so as to meet us in our darkened, fallen world on our terms (Augustine).他隐瞒了自己神圣的光芒,成为有形的,以满足我们的黑暗,堕落的世界上我们的条款(奥古斯丁)我们。Kenotic theology goes a crucial step beyond this; in the incarnation, however conceived, there was a preincarnate act of limitation, whether it be a "laying aside" (Gore) or a "concentration" (Forsyth). Kenotic神学去超越这关键的一步;的化身,然而设想,有一个限制preinc​​arnate行为,无论是“搁置”(戈尔)或“集中”(福赛思)。 It is something like whether or not a missionary were to take his two - way radio (and thus his link to his support system) with him into the jungle.它像一个传教士是否要采取他的两个东西 - 他进入丛林对讲机(因此他的链接他的支持系统)。How can Jesus Christ be God if we would simultaneously affirm that during the incarnate life he was not omniscient?如何耶稣基督是神,如果我们将同时申明,在生命的化身,他不是无所不知?

Following the lead of Thomasius, some argued that there are two kinds of attributes, internal (love, joy) and external (omnipotence, omnipresence, etc.).继多玛西乌斯铅,有些人认为有两种属性,内部(爱,欢乐)和外部(无所不能,无所不在,等等)。The eternal Son "set aside" the external attributes and revealed the internal.永恒之子“搁置”的外部属性和揭示了内部。 In him we see the love of Father - Son; in him we see God's "heart" made visible.在他身上我们看到了父亲的爱 - 儿子,在他身上我们看到了上帝的“心”可见。AM Fairbairn carefully works this out in his pioneering work, The Place of Christ in Modern Theology (1895).上午费尔贝恩仔细的作品在他的开创性的工作,基督的现代神学(1895年)将了这一点。

Others of a more speculative bent (eg, Garvie) contend that self - limitation is in God in his "innertrinitarian" life.一个更投机弯曲(例如,Garvie),其他人则认为自我 - 限制在神在他的“innertrinitarian”的生活。Thus what is revealed in Christ is not one act of self - limitation, but God the Son in his eternal self - limiting obedient relation to the Father.因此,什么是在基督里发现不是一个行为的自我 - 的限制,但上帝的儿子在他的永恒的自我 - 限制听话与父。The incarnation is thus seen to be the revelation of the eternal relation of Father to Son and the saving love that would include others.因此化身看作是永恒的父亲与儿子和节水爱将包括其他的启示。

The third response focuses on the importance of goal or intention for God.第三个反应的重点是目标或对上帝的意图的重要性。If God can be said to have as his fundamental goal to bring lost children back to himself, then his omnipotence / omniscience is precisely that which achieves the goal.如果上帝可以说已经为他的基本目标,使孩子失去了回自己,那么他的全能/无所不知,正是它实现的目标。The greatest act of omnipotence can then be seen as the Son's becoming "poor" that we may become rich in him.最伟大的全能行为可以被看作是儿子之所以成为“穷人”,我们可能会成为他的丰富。

Omnipotence is reconsidered more in terms of the goal in view than as an abstract category.万能是重新考虑在视图中的目标方面不是作为一个抽象类更多。Forsyth worked with this idea at length; he called it the "moralizing of dogma", that is, the reshaping of our view of God from what he called static categories to dynamic ones reflecting God's saving purposes seen in Christ.福赛斯同这个想法在长度,他把它称为“道德说教的教条”,也就是我们的上帝认为从他所谓的静态类,以反映神的储蓄目的看在基督动态的重塑。 Thus there were several ways those holding a kenotic theology would attempt to make the concept of self - limitation credible.因此,有几种方法的持有kenotic神学将试图使自我概念 - 限制可信的。Further, the challenge was reversed.此外,面临的挑战是扭转。How, it was asked, can one make sense of Jesus Christ as an omniscient being simultaneously living as a growing, learning, limited man without creating a "twoheaded" being?怎么样,有人问,才能使作为一个无所不知被同时作为一个成长,学习,生活的人有限,而无需创建一个“twoheaded”是耶稣基督的感觉? Is the union of natures conceivable without a divine self - limitation?工会的性质是不可以想象的一个神圣的自我 - 限制?Is not some form of docetism the only alternative?是不是一些docetism形式是唯一的选择?Did Jesus only look human?耶稣只能看人类吗?

The third criticism has focused on the supposed strength of kenotic theology, the consciousness of Jesus.第三个批评集中在kenotic神学,耶稣的意识应该实力。Perhaps, it would be conceded, the person of the Incarnate is more of a unity, but have we not created a new duality between the preincarnate Son and the historical Jesus?也许,这将是承认,人的化身,是一个团结的,但我们之间没有创建preinc​​arnate儿子和历史耶稣新的二重性? Was there not an inconceivable loss (of knowledge) at Bethlehem?在那里不是一个不可思议的损失在伯利恒(知识)?Further, if the Son simultaneously remained the transcendent Logos, is there not a radical, fatal discontinuity between the consciousness of the transcendent Logos and the earthly Jesus?此外,如果儿子同时仍然是超越标志,是不是有一个激进的,之间的超然标识意识和尘世耶稣致命的连续性?It can be argued that at this point kenotic theology is most strained.可以说,在这一点kenotic神学是最紧张的。However, the strain is fundamentally a relocation of the same strain orthodoxy faces when it attempts to affirm very God - very man in terms of the consciousness of the earthly Jesus.然而,应变基本上是一脉相承的正统面临搬迁,当它试图肯定很神 - 在尘世的耶稣意识方面非常人。

The problem cuts both ways.该问题的两面性。For kenotic theology the tension is in the cleavage between the preexistent and incarnate Son.对于kenotic神学的张力之间的先在和体现的儿子乳沟。For orthodoxy the tension is as great as it attempts to comprehend in some measure how Jesus can be both the presence of the omniscient God and a limited, growing man.对于正统的张力是很大的,因为它试图在一定程度上理解耶稣如何既可以是存在的无所不知的上帝和有限的,越来越多的人。

Summary摘要

Kenotic theology is in reality a variant but new form of orthodox, biblical faith. Kenotic神学是一个变种,但正统,圣经信仰的新形式的现实。It has appeared in a variety of forms over the last century.它已经出现在各种各样的形式在上个世纪。It has been vigorously debated, and interest in it remains.它已被热烈讨论,并在它的兴趣依然存在。From one angle it can be seen as an attempt to give conceptual substance to the great hymn of Charles Wesley that speaks in awe that the Son would "empty himself of all but love" and die for a fallen humanity.从一个角度也可以看作是试图给物质概念的伟大赞美诗查尔斯韦斯利,在敬畏的儿子“空所有本人,而是爱”死的堕落人类说话。 From another angle kenotic theology reprsents an attempt to give central place to Jesus' limited yet sinless humanity while affirming that the ultimate significance of that humanity was and is that here on earth God the eternal Son has come, truly come, to redeem.从另一个角度kenotic神学reprsents企图给中央地方耶稣的有限但人类同时申明无罪的,人类的终极意义,并认为在地球上的神永恒的儿子来了,真正来了,赎回。

SM Smith SM史密斯
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary)(Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 参考书目
C Welch, God and Incarnation in Mid Nineteenth Century German Theology; C Gore, Dissertations on Subjects Connected with the Incarnation; WI Walker, The Spirit and the Incarnation; F Weston, The One Christ; AB Bruce, The Humiliation of Christ; HEW Turner, Jesus the Christ; W Pannenberg, Jesus, God and Man.彗星韦尔奇,神和化身在十九世纪中期德国神学,C戈尔在与学位论文的化身关连的主题; WI沃克,精神和化身,F韦斯顿,一个基督; AB布鲁斯,基督的侮辱; HEW特纳,耶稣是基督,W潘内伯格,耶稣,上帝和人。


Kenosis Kenosis

Catholic Information天主教信息

A term derived from the discussion as to the real meaning of Phil.一个术语源自讨论,到菲尔的真正意义。2:6 sqq.: "Who being in the form of God, thought it not robbery to be equal with God: But emptied [ekenosen] himself, taking the form of a servant, being made in the likeness of men, and in habit found as man."2点06 SQQ:“谁在形神之中,以为这不是抢劫是与神同等:但是走光[ekenosen]自己,取了奴仆的形像,是在人的肖像制成,并在习惯由于人发现。“

Protestant opinions新教的意见

The early Reformers, not satisfied with the teaching of Catholic theology on this point, professed to a deeper meaning in St. Paul's words, but Luther and a Melanchton failed in their speculations.早期的改革者,不符合在这一点上天主教神学教学满意,自称在圣保罗的话的深层含义,但路德和Melanchton在他们的猜测失败。 John Brenz (d. 10 September, 1570), of Tübingen, maintained that as the Word assumed Christ's human nature, so His human nature not only possessed the Divinity, but also had the power to make use of the Divinity, though it freely abstained from such a use.约翰Brenz(卒于1570年9月10日)的图宾根,认为作为Word假定基督的人性,使他的人性,不仅具备了神,也有能力作出的神使用,但它随意弃权从这样的使用。 Chemnitz differed from this view.开姆尼茨不同于这一观点。He denied that Jesus Christ possessed the Divinity in such a way as to have a right to its use.他否认耶稣基督拥有这样一种方式,有其使用权的神。The kenosis, or the exinanition, of His Divine attributes was, therefore, a free act of Christ, according to Brenz; it was the connatural consequence of the Incarnation, according to Chemnitz.该kenosis,或荒废了他的神的属性,是,因此,基督的自由的行为,根据Brenz,它是道成肉身connatural后果,根据开姆尼茨。

Among modern Protestants the following opinons have been the most prevalent:在现代新教徒以下opinons一直是最普遍的:

Thomasius, Delitzcsh, and Kahnis regard the Incarnation as a self-emptying of the Divine manner of existence, as a self-limitation of the Word's omniscience, omnipresence, etc.多玛西乌斯,Delitzcsh和Kahnis视为神圣的存在方式自排空的化身,作为Word的无所不知,无所不在,等自我限制

Gess, Reuss, and Godet contend that the Incarnation implies a real depotentation of the Word; the Word became, rather than assumed, the human soul of Christ. Gess,罗伊斯,和戈代抗衡的化身意味着真正的Word depotentation;道成了,而不是假设,基督的人的灵魂。

Ebrard holds that the Divine properties in Christ appeared under the Kantian time-form appropriate to man; his kenosis consists in an exchange of the eternal for a time-form of existence. Ebrard认为,在基督的神圣属性下的康德时间的形式出现适当的人,他的kenosis在一个永恒的一种存在时间的形式交换组成。

Martensen and perhaps Hutton distingusih a double life of the Word: In the Man-Christ they see a kenosis and a real depotentiation of the Word; in the world the purely Divine Word carries the work of mediator and revealer.马敦生或许赫顿distingusih的Word双重生活:在满基督,他们看到一个kenosis和实际depotentiation的Word,在世界上纯粹的圣言进行的调解员和启示者的工作。 According to Godet, and probably also Gore, the Word in His kenosis strips Himself even of His immutable holiness, His infinite love, and His personal consciousness, so as to enter into a human development similar to ours.据戈代,可能还戈尔在他的kenosis字带,甚至他的一成不变的圣洁,他的无限热爱,他自己和他的个人意识,这样才能进入一个人的发展与我们相似。

Catholic teaching天主教教学

According to Catholic theology, the abasement of the Word consists in the assumption of humanity and the simultaneous occultation of the Divinity.据天主教神学的Word屈辱包括在人类和神同时掩星的假设。Christ's abasement is seen first in His subjecting Himself to the laws of human birth and growth and to the lowliness of fallen human nature.基督的屈辱,是在他第一次看到自己遭受的人类诞生​​和成长的规律和倒下的人性卑微。His likeness, in His abasement, to the fallen nature does not compromise the actual loss of justice and sanctity, but only the pains and penalties attached to the loss.他的肖像,在他的屈辱,要倒下的性质不妥协的正义和神圣的实际损失,但只有痛苦和处罚附加的损失。These fall partly on the body, partly on the soul, and consist in liability to suffering from internal and external causes.这些部分在身上,一定程度上的灵魂下降,包括在法律责任由内因和外因的痛苦。

As to the body, Christ's dignity excludes some bodily pains and states.至于身体,基督的尊严排除一些身体疼痛和状态。God's all-preserving power inhabiting the body of Jesus did not allow any corruption; it also prevented disease or the beginning of corruption.上帝的所有保电居住在耶稣的身体不容许任何腐败,它也阻止疾病或腐败的开始。Christ's holiness was not compatible with decomposition after death, which is the image of the destroying power of sin.基督的圣洁不符合死后,这是罪恶的破坏力量的图像分解兼容。In fact, Christ had the right to be free from all bodily pain, and His human will had the power to remove or suspend the action of the causes of pain.事实上,基督的权利,所有身体无痛苦,和他的人将有权力删除或暂停对疼痛的原因采取行动。But He freely subjected Himself to most of the pains resulting from bodily exertion and adverse external influences, eg fatigue, hunger, wounds, etc. As these pains had their sufficient reason in the nature of Christ's body, they were natural to Him.但他自己的自由受到来自身体劳累和不利外部影响,如疲劳,饥饿,创伤等造成由于这些痛苦有他们在基督的身体疼痛最本质的充分理由,他们自然要他。

Christ retained in Him also the weaknesses of the soul, the passions of His rational and sensitive appetites, but with the following restrictions: (a) Inordinate and sinful motions are incompatible with Christ's holiness.基督保留在他的灵魂也是弱点,他的理性和敏感的欲望的激情,但具有下列限制:(一)过度和罪孽深重的运动是与基督的圣洁是不相容的。 Only morally blameless passions and affections, eg fear, sadness, the share of the soul in the sufferings of the body, were compatible with His Divinity and His spiritual perfection.只有在道德上无可指责的激情和情感,如恐惧,悲伤,灵魂在身体的痛苦的份额,是与他的神和他的精神的完美兼容。 (b) The origin, intensity, and duration of even these emotions were subject to Christ's free choice. (二)起源,强度和持续时间甚至这些情绪受到基督的自由选择。Besides, He could prevent their disturbing the actions of His soul and His peace of mind.此外,他可以防止其扰乱了他的灵魂的行动和他的后顾之忧。To complete His abasement, Christ was subject to His Mother and St. Joseph, to the laws of the State and the positive laws of God; He shared the hardships and privations of the poor and the lowly.要完成他的屈辱,基督是受他的母亲和圣若瑟,以国家和上帝的积极法律法规;他共享的艰辛和匮乏的贫困和卑微。(See COMMUNICATO IDIOMATUM.) (见COMMUNICATO IDIOMATUM)。

Publication information Written by AJ Maas.出版信息AJ马斯写。Transcribed by Richard R. Pettys, Jr.转录由理查德R. Pettys,小。The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume VIII.天主教百科全书,音量八。Published 1910.发布1910年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, October 1, 1910. Nihil Obstat,1910年10月1日。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰farley枢机主教,大主教纽约

Bibliography参考书目

Lombard, lib.伦巴第,库。III, dist.三,区。XV-XVI, and Bonav., Scot., Biel on these chapters; St. Thomas, III, Q XIV-XV, and Salm., Suar., IV, xi-xii; Scheeben, Dogmatick, III, 266-74; Bruce, Humiliations of Christ, 113 sqq.; Gobe, Bampton Lectures (1891), 147; Hanna in The New York Review, I, 303 sqq.; the commentators on Phil., ii, 6, sqq.XV - XVI和Bonav,苏格兰人,在这些章节比尔;。圣托马斯,三,Q XIV - XV和的Salm,Suar,四,十一,十二; Scheeben,Dogmatick,三,266-74;布鲁斯,基督,113 SQQ屈辱; Gobe,班普顿讲座(1891年),147;在纽约检讨,我,303 SQQ汉娜,在菲尔的评论,二,六,SQQ。



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