Theological Liberalism, Modernism神学自由主义

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Also known as modernism, this is the major shift in theological thinking that occurred in the late nineteenth century.也被称为现代主义,这是在神学思想的重大转变,在十九世纪末发生。It is an extremely elusive concept.这是一个非常难以捉摸的概念。A variety of shades of liberal thinking exist, it has changed in character during the passage of time, and the distinctions between liberalism in Europe and North America are considerable.阿的自由主义思想存在的各种色调,它改变了性格在时间的推移,两国在欧洲和北美自由主义的区别是相当大的。 Main Features.主要特点。The major distinctive is the desire to adapt religious ideas to modern culture and modes of thinking.主要特色是宗教观念的愿望,以适应现代文化和思维模式。Liberals insist that the world has changed since the time Christianity was founded so that biblical terminology and creeds are incomprehensible to people today.自由主义者坚持认为,世界已经改变,因为当时基督教成立,使圣经术语和信仰的人是难以理解的今天。

Although most would start from the inherited orthodoxy of Jesus Christ as the revelation of a savior God, they try to rethink and communicate the faith in terms which can be understood today.虽然大多数人都从正统继承耶稣基督开始作为一个救世主上帝的启示,他们试图重新思考和沟通,在这可以理解今天的条款信心。 As Harry Emerson Fosdick put it, we must express the essence of Christianity, its "abiding experiences," but we must not identify them with the "changing categories" by which they were expressed in the past.由于哈里艾默生福斯迪克所说的那样,我们必须对基督教的,其本质“守法的经验,”但我们绝不能认同“改变类别”,其中他们在过去曾表示它们。 Liberals maintain that Christianity has always adapted its forms and language to particular cultural situations and the "modernists" in any given age have merely been those who were most candid and creative in doing this.自由党认为,基督教始终适应其特定的形式和语言文化情况和“现代主义”在任何特定的年龄都只是被那些谁在做这个最坦率和创造性。

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A second element of liberalism is its rejection of religious belief based on authority alone.一个自由主义的第二个因素是其对权力的仅基于宗教信仰的拒绝。All beliefs must pass the tests of reason and experience, and one's mind must be open to new facts and truth, regardless of where these may originate.所有的信仰必须通过理性和经验的考验,一个人的头脑必须打开新的事实和真相,无论在哪里这些可能起源。No questions are closed or settled and religion must not protect itself from critical examination.任何问题都关闭或解决,宗教必须严格审查不能保护自己。As the Bible is the work of writers who were limited by their times, it is neither supernatural nor an infallible record of divine revelation and thus does not possess absolute authority.由于圣经是谁是他们的时间有限的作家的作品,它既不神圣的超自然的,也不是万无一失的启示记录,因此不具备绝对的权威。 The "essence of Christianity" replaces the authority of Scripture, creeds, and the church.在“基督教的本质”取代了圣经,信仰,和教会的权威。This means there is no inherent contradiction between the kingdoms of faith and natural law, revelation and science, the sacred and the secular, or religion and culture.这意味着两者之间没有信仰的王国和自然法,启示和科学的,神圣与世俗或宗教和文化的内在矛盾。

A central idea of liberal theology is divine immanence.自由主义神学的中心思想是神圣的内在性。God is seen as present and dwelling within the world, not apart from or elevated above the world as a transcendent being.上帝被看作是目前世界上住宅内,而不是除了高架或超过世界作为一个超然的福祉。He is its soul and life as well as the creator.他是它的灵魂和生命,以及创作者。Thus God is found in the whole of life and not just in the Bible or a few revelatory events.因此,上帝被发现在整个生命,而不仅仅是在圣经或几个启示事件。Because he is present and works in all that happens, there can be no distinction between the natural and supernatural.因为他是目前在所有出现这种情况的作品,不可能有自然和超自然之间的区别。The divine presence is disclosed in such things as rational truth, artistic beauty, and moral goodness.神圣的存在是披露的理性真理,艺术美和道德善良这样的事情。Although most liberals attempt to hold on to a core of Christian doctrine, some did carry immanence to its logical end, which is pantheism.虽然大多数自由主义者试图扶住了基督教教义的核心,有些人携带其内在逻辑的结束,这是泛神论。

Immanence contributed to such common liberal beliefs as the existence of a universal religious sentiment that lay behind the institutions and creeds of particular religions and the superiority of good works (both in individual and collective terms) over professions and confessions.内在促成这种共同作为一个普遍的宗教情绪的背后,机构和特定的宗教信条和优势的优秀作品(包括个人和集体而言)奠定了专业和口供存在自由主义信仰。 God is seen as the one who enables man to integrate his personality and thereby achieve perfection.上帝被看作是一个人谁能够整合他的个性,从而达到完美。This of course required the restatement of many traditional Christian doctrines.当然,这需要许多传统的基督教教义重述。The incarnation was the entrance into the world through the person of Jesus Christ of a molding and redeeming force in humanity, and it signified and ratified the actual presence of God in humanity.化身是进入世界通过耶稣的成型和挽救人类的力量在基督人的入口,它标志着和批准了神在人类的实际存在。His prophetic personality is the clearest and most challenging demonstration of the divine power in the world, and he is both the revelation of God and the goal of man's longing.他的预言的个性是世界上最清晰的神力和最具挑战性的示范,他既是神的启示和人的向往的目标。Just as Jesus' resurrection was the continuation of his spirit and personality, so it is with all mortals after the death of the physical body.正如耶稣的复活是他的精神和人格的延续,因此它与所有凡人是后身体的死亡。

Sin or evil is seen as imperfection, ignorance, maladjustment, and immaturity, not the fundamental flaw in the universe.善或恶,被视为缺陷,无知,适应不良,和不成熟,而不是在宇宙的根本缺陷。These hindrances to the unfolding of the inner nature may be overcome by persuasion and education, and salvation or regeneration is their removal.这些对自然展开的内在障碍可能是克服说服教育,和拯救或再生是他们的职务。 Religion represents the dimension of life in which personal values receive their highest expression, and its power possesses spiritually therapeutic qualities.宗教代表的生活层面中,接受他们的个人价值的最高体现,它的权力拥有精神上的治疗品质。Prayer, for example, heightens one's spiritual sensitivity and confers the moral benefits of stability, self - control, and peace of mind.祈祷,例如,加剧了人的精神赋予的灵敏度和稳定性,自我的道德优势 - 控制和安心。

Liberalism also manifests a humanistic optimism.自由主义也体现了一种人文乐观。Society is moving toward the realization of the kingdom of God, which will be an ethical state of human perfection.社会正朝着神的国度的实现,这将是人类道德完美的状态。The church is the movement of those who are dedicated to following the principles and ideals set forth by Jesus, the one who provided the ultimate example of an unselfish life of love, and the members of this fellowship work together to build the kingdom.教会的那些谁是致力于以下的原则和耶稣,谁提供了无私的爱人生的终极理想为例提出,而本团契的成员共同打造的王国运动。 Liberal eschatology views God's work among men as that of redemption and salvation, not punishment for sin, and this end will be reached in the course of a continuous, ascending progress.末世论观点之间的自由赎回和拯救男人上帝的工作,而不是惩罚犯罪,并为此将达到在一个连续的,递增进步的过程。

Sources and Development来源与发展

Theological liberalism originated in Germany, where a number of theological and philosophical currents converged in the nineteenth century.神学自由主义起源于德国,在那里的神学和哲学的电流数在十九世纪的融合。German thought had a profound impact on British and American theology, but indigenous movements in both places, the Broad Church tradition in Britain and Unitarianism in America, significantly shaped liberalism's development there.德国的思想产生了对英国和美国神学的深刻影响,但土著运动在这两个地方,在英国和美国广泛的一神论教会的传统,大大形自由主义的发展有。

Kant's ethical idealism and rejection of all transcendental reasoning about religion had the effect of limiting knowledge and opening the way for faith.康德的道德理想主义和一切有关宗教的先验推理拒绝有限制开放的知识和信仰方式的效果。Schleiermacher introduced the idea of religion as a condition of the heart whose essence is feeling.施莱尔马赫介绍了作为一种心灵感受,其实质是对宗教的思想状况。This made Christian doctrine independent of philosophical systems and faith a matter of individual experience of dependence upon God.这使得基督教教义的哲学体系和信仰的神的依赖于个人经验的问题无关。Jesus was the perfect realization of the ideal of a new life of spiritual communion with God, and this possibility also existed for those who were drawn into fellowship with him in the church.耶稣是一个心灵与上帝交流的新生活理想的完美实现,而这种可能性也为那些谁是他绘制成团契在教会存在。

Hegel went off in another direction with his absolute idealism, as this emphasized the existence of a rational structure in the world apart from the individual minds of its inhabitants.黑格尔在另一个方向去关他的绝对唯心主义,这强调了在世界上除了其居民的个人头脑中的理性结构的存在。That which is real is rational, and all reality is the manifestation of the absolute idea or the divine mind.这是真实的,是理性的,所有的现实是绝对理念或神圣的心灵的体现。Through a dialectical process of the ebb and flow of historical struggle, reason is gradually overcoming the irrational and good is triumphing over evil.通过一系列的低潮和流动的历史斗争的辩证过程,原因正在逐步克服战胜邪恶是战胜非理性和良好的。The main contributions of Hegelian idealism were support for the idea of divine immanence and the fostering of historical and biblical criticism.黑格尔唯心主义的主要贡献是支持的内在理念和神圣的历史和圣经批评的培养。

The ideas of FC Baur and the Tubingen School on the origins and early development of Christianity and the NT followed the principles of Hegelian historical evolution, and the same was true with Graf and Welhausen in OT studies.关于基督教的起源和早期发展和NT的FC鲍尔和蒂宾根学校遵循了黑格尔思想的历史演变的原则,同样是与格拉夫和Welhausen在OT的研究如此。 Higher criticism questioned the authorship and dating of much of the biblical literature and rejected the traditional understanding of the Scriptures as divinely revealed oracles.高等批评质疑的圣经文学作者和许多约会,拒绝透露神谕作为神圣的圣经的传统理解。Christianity was simply seen as the historical fulfillment of natural religion, the culminating self - disclosure of immanent Spirit.基督教只是被看作是自然的宗教,历史最终实现自我 - 披露的内在精神。Beginning with DF Strauss, carried forward by E Renan and JR Seeley, and reaching a high point with Harnack, the "life of Jesus" was studied with the intent of stripping off the dogmatic formulations of the church and getting back to the concrete, historical human personage.开始与DF施特劳斯,进行电子勒南和JR西利前进,达到一个高点与哈纳克的“耶稣的生活”进行了研究与剥离教会的教条式的配方和找回的具体的,历史的意图人类的人士。 They found hidden behind the smoke - screen of theology and hellenistic philosophy the teaching of a simple ethical religion summed up in the fatherhood of God and brotherhood of man.他们发现背后隐藏的烟 - 神学和希腊哲学的一个简单的道德概括为上帝的父亲和兄弟情谊的人最多的宗教教学画面。Insisting that Christianity must be founded upon the exact type of person he was, they felt it necessary to get behind the "Christ of the creeds" to the "Jesus of history."必须坚持基督教的人后,他创立的确切类型,他们认为有必要背后的“基督的信仰”到“历史的耶稣”。

The sway of Hegel was broken by Ritschl, who emphasized the importance of faith and religious experience.黑格尔的摇摆是按里奇尔,谁强调信仰和宗教经验的重要性。He upheld Christianity's claim to uniqueness but argued that Christian experience should be based on the objective data of history, not personal feeling.他坚持基督教的独特性,但自称基督徒的经验认为,应是对历史的客观数据,而不是基于个人的感觉。He saw Christianity as a life of action which would free man from the enslaving passions of his own nature and the determinism of his physical enviroment.他认为这是一个自由的行动,会从他自己的本性和他的物理环境决定人的生命激情的奴役基督教。Religious statements are value judgments relating to one's spiritual situation and have practical consequences.宗教报表的价值判断与一个人的精神状况,并有实际的后果。His theology of moral values relates the gospel to two poles, the redemptive work of Christ and the fellowship of redeemed persons (the kingdom of God).他的道德观念有关的福音神学的两极,基督的救赎工作和赎回的人(神的国)奖学金。In the kingdom one achieves moral perfection and thus is like Christ.在王国之一就可以完成道德完善,从而像基督。God is immanent, transcendent, and personal all at the same time.神是内在的,超越和个人都在同一时间。

Liberals welcomed the findings of science and readily accommodated to the challenge of Darwinism.自由党欢迎科学的发现和易于安置到达尔文主义的挑战。Evolution vindicated divine immanence, since this explained how God had slowly built the universe through natural law.神圣的内在演化平反,因为这解释了上帝通过自然法则慢慢建立的宇宙。He also revealed himself through an evolutionary process, as the Israelites began with backward, blood - thirsty ideas and gradually came to understand that the righteous God could be served only by those who are just, merciful, and humble.他还透露,自己通过一个渐进的过程,作为以色列人开始落后,血 - 渴的思想,逐渐认识到,公义的神只能由那些谁是公正,仁慈,谦和服务。At last, Jesus portrayed him as the loving Father of all men.最后,耶稣描绘成所有男人爱他的父亲。Thus, redemption was the gradual transformation of man from a primitive state to that of obedient sonship to God.因此,赎回的人逐渐转变,从原始状态到服从sonship上帝的。The scientific approach was applied to theology and biblical criticism, and they were regarded as open to all truth.科学方法应用到神学和圣经的批评,他们被视为开放给所有的真理。Just like the physical realm, culture and religion had evolved, and there was no fundamental antagonism between the kingdoms of faith and natural law.就像物理领域,文化和宗教演变了,也没有信仰和自然之间的法律根本对立的王国。

Liberalism was prevalent in French Protestantism, where Auguste Sabatier taught that religion must be understood as life rather than doctrine.自由主义在法国新教,其中教授奥古斯特萨巴蒂尔,宗教必须为生命,而不是教条的理解普遍。It is to be grasped through religious psychology and the historical study of the documents in which the religious consciousness of the past has left an imprint.它是通过宗教的心理和在其中了过去宗教意识留下了印记文件历史研究掌握。According to the Catholic Alfred Loisy, the essence of Christianity is in the ongoing faith of the church rather than exclusively in the teachings of Jesus, and it is constantly reshaped by the present.根据阿尔弗雷德卢瓦西天主教,基督教的实质是在教会的信仰,而不是目前只在耶稣的教诲,并不断由目前的重塑。Catholic modernism had a strong foothold in France as well as in Britain and to a lesser extent in the United States, but it was effectively quashed by papal action in the early twentieth century.天主教现代主义在法国产生了强烈的立足之地,以及在英国和在美国的程度较轻,但它是由罗马教皇的行动有效地撤销在二十世纪初。

British liberalism was related to the latitudinarian tradition and was found among the Broad Churchmen such as Benjamin Jowett, who stressed a loose definition of dogma.英国的自由主义是与传统的latitudinarian是其中如本杰明乔伊特,谁强调的教条松散定义的广泛牧师发现。 Anglican modernism was distinctly British, individualistic and compromising, tending to combine Jesus' natural manhood with a doctrine of his divinity.现代主义的英国圣公会,个人主义和妥协,抚育结合起来,他的神性学说耶稣的自然男子汉气概。Perhaps the most controversial liberal was RJ Campbell, a Methodist who criticized orthodox doctrine for its "practical dualism" in making people think of God as above and apart from his world instead of expressing himself through his world.也许最有争议的自由是RJ坎贝尔卫谁批评其“实际二元论”在使人们想到上帝从他的世界,除了以上,而不是通过他的世界表达自己的正统学说。 He stressed instead the inward unity of God, man, and the universe almost to the point of pantheism.他强调,而不是外来的神的统一,人,宇宙几乎到了泛神论点。By and large, British liberalism tended to be theoretical and academic and more subdued in its overt humanistic enthusiasm.总的来说,英国的自由主义往往是在其公开的人文和学术理论的热情和更柔和。

In the United States the major source of liberal religious ideas was Unitarianism, and it had already modified the doctrines of divine sovereignty, human sin, and biblical revelation before German thought began to make itself felt.在美国的自由宗教思想的主要来源是一神论,它已经修改了神圣的主权,人的罪,圣经启示的教义开始之前,德国思想,使自己感觉。 By the 1890s most of the major theologians had studied in Germany, and many of them had come to accept the principles of higher criticism and Darwinism.到19世纪90年代的最重要的神学家曾留学德国,其中不少是来接受高等教育的批评和达尔文主义的原则。American liberalism was characterized by a strong sense of activism and a feeling that God is present and active in the great forward movements of human culture.美国自由主义的特点是一个激进主义和神是一种感觉,现在和在人类文化的伟大前进运动活跃的强烈意识。

Liberal theologians concerned themselves with building the kingdom of God and promoting the applied liberalism known as the social gospel.自由神学家关注的建设神的国度,促进应用的自由主义的社会福音已知自己。This emphasized the need to modify the corrupt society that in turn was corrupting man.这强调了需要修改的腐败社会,又是败坏的人。Social gospelers talked of the kingdom where men would live as brothers in a spirit of cooperation, love, and justice.社会福音谈到这个王国里的男子将生活中的合作,爱和正义的精神兄弟。The church must turn from saving individual sinners to the collective action of saving society.教会必须把节约个人从罪人到节约型社会的集体行动。Achieving a better life on earth replaced the concern for the afterlife, and it was expected that Christ and Christian values would conquer the world.实现地球上更好的生活取代了来世的关注,并预期基督和基督教价值观会征服世界。Progress could be seen in the advance of political democracy, the movement for world peace, and efforts to end racial discrimination.进展可以看出,在政治民主,对世界和平运动,并努力结束种族歧视的进步。

Decline and Persistence衰落和持久性

By the time of World War I liberalism had made considerable inroads in the Protestant churches in Europe and North America, but it rested on shaky foundations.到了第一次世界大战自由主义的时间已在欧洲和北美的新教教会很大的削弱,但它在摇摇欲坠的基础休息。World War I shattered the heady optimism that was its stock in trade, while conservatives counterattacked.第一次世界大战打破了振奋人心乐观地认为,是其在贸易股票,而保守派反击。Often referred to as fundamentalists, confessionalists, or pietists, they denounced liberalism for being, as JG Machen put it, "Not Christianity at all, but a religion which is so entirely different from Christianity as to belong in a distinct category."通常被称为原教旨主义,confessionalists,或虔诚主义者,他们被指责为自由主义,作为JG玛沁所说的那样,“不是所有的基督教,而是一种宗教,它是如此的完全不同,属于基督教在不同的类别。”

Although the fundamentalist challenge was more or less beaten back, a more serious threat came from the sophisticated theologians of neo - orthodoxy who called for the recovery of divine transcendence and a realistic doctrine of sin.虽然原教旨主义的挑战是或多或少被打回,更严重的威胁来自新的复杂的神学家 - 正统谁的神圣超越复苏和罪恶的现实主义调用。 Liberalism with its emphasis on the freedom and self - determination of man gave religious sanction to modern man's efforts to control his life by autonomous reason and improve conditions by relying on his own goodness, but it tried to deny the overwhelming power of sin and evil which repeatedly thwart human aspirations.其强调的自由和自我自由主义 - 人的决心给了宗教的制裁,以现代人的努力,控制自治的原因他的生活和改善对自己的善良依托条件,但它试图否认罪恶和邪恶的压倒性的权力,多次挫败人的愿望。 The neo - orthodox suggested that liberals failed to grasp either the actual condition of men or the doctrine of God that could provide a remedy for this.在新 - 正统的建议,无论是自由派未能掌握实际情况的人或神的教义,可以提供这种补救。Christianity was transformed into a high - minded ethical humanism that offered little for those caught up in the travail of modern life, and in its efforts not to separate the sacred from the secular it too closely identified the one with the other.基督教变成了一个高 - 人文主义的思想道德提供了夹在现代生活的劳苦了那些小,并在其努力不分开它过于密切确定与其他一个世俗的神圣。

Liberalism had also become too dependent on finding the historical Jesus, and, as Albert Schweitzer showed, the Jesus that researchers were uncovering possessed an apocalyptic world view and assumptions that were quite a variance with their conception of his teaching.自由主义也变得过于依赖寻找历史耶稣,并作为史怀哲表明,耶稣的研究人员揭示具有一种世界末日的世界观和假设是相当与他们自己的教学观念的差异。 The history of religions school carried the idea of historical development to its logical end and portrayed Christianity as the syncretistic religion of the ancient Near East.历史上的宗教学校进行了历史发展的理念,以它的逻辑结束描绘成的古代近东syncretistic宗教基督教。This meant the denial of its distinctiveness and the authority of the biblical canon.这意味着它的独特性和佳能的圣经权威的否定。Christianity was merely one among many religions, all of which were relative to their time and circumstance, and thus it had no claim to finality.基督教只是一个在许多宗教,所有这些都是相对的时间和环境,因此它没有终结索赔。

In the 1930s some adherents moved much further to the left and broke almost completely with Christianity.在20世纪30年代提出的一些信徒更进一步的左,几乎完全打破了基督教。Some turned to secular humanism, and in their 1933 manifesto repudiated the existence of God, immortality, and the supernatural in general, and substituted faith in man and his capabilities.一些转向世俗的人文主义,并在其1933年宣言否定神的存在,丹药,和一般超自然,并以在人与他的能力的信心。 Others identified with an empirical philosophy of religion based entirely on the scientific methods and experience.其他标识与宗教经验的基础上,科学方法和经验,完全哲学。

Nevertheless, liberalism did not die out.然而,自由主义并没有消亡。A group of "evangelical liberals" in the United States, among them HE Fosdick, William A Brown, Rufus Jones, and Henry Sloane Coffin, preached a God who was both immanent and transcendent, that Jesus, the Bible, and Christianity were unique, and that Jesus should be accepted as Lord of one's life.一个“福音派自由派”在美国,其中组HE福斯迪克,威廉欠压,鲁弗斯琼斯和亨利斯隆棺材,宣扬神谁既是内在与超越,耶稣,圣经和基督教是独一无二的,并应接受耶稣作为一个人的生命的主。 A new generation of "neoliberals" criticized the old modernism for its excessive preoccupation with intellectualism, sentimentality, a watered - down concept of God, and accommodation to the modern world that prevented it from launching a moral attack.一个“新自由主义者”新一代批评与理智,多愁善感,一个浇水过分关注老现代 - 神下来的概念,和住宿的现代世界,无法发动道德攻击。Such people as WM Horton, John C Bennett, and HP Van Dusen called for finding who God really is and securing his help in facing the human predicament, which is sin.作为WM霍顿,约翰C贝内特和HP凡杜森这样的人称为寻找谁是真神,并确保他在人类所面临的困境,这是罪恶的帮助。

In Germany liberal scholarship was dominated by such giants as Bultmann, with his emphasis on form criticism and demythologizing the NT so modern man could understand what the Christian faith is, and Tillich, who was concerned with the ultimate, the ground of being, and suggested that God cannot be described in symbols that last from age to age but can only be encountered by experience.在德国自由奖学金为主的布特曼这样的豪门,他强调形式的批评和demythologizing新台币所以现代人可以理解的基督教信仰,并蒂利希,谁是最终的,被地关注,​​并建议上帝不能描述符号,去年从年龄的年龄,但只能由经验遇到。 Bonhoeffer put forth the idea of a religionless Christianity where the church must be concerned with Christ and not religious ideas.潘霍华提出了一个religionless基督教教会必须在与基督宗教观念有关,而不是想法。We live in a world come of age and must reject the way of religion which is a psychological crutch.我们生活在一个世界的时代来了,而且必须拒绝宗教的方式这是一种心理上的拐杖。Christians must step out in faith and follow the one who is "the man for others" in costly discipleship.基督徒必须走出的信仰和奉行一个谁是“人”为他人在昂贵的门徒。

By the 1960s most liberals had abandoned humanistic optimism, progressive cultural immanentism, and the dream of an earthly kingdom, but they gave no ground on the nonliteral interpretation of the Bible.到了20世纪60年代放弃了最自由派人文乐观,向上的文化immanentism,以及地上的王国的梦想,但他们介绍了圣经的非字面解释没有理由。 Many had a renewed interest in natural theology and stressed the importance of social change.许多人在自然神学新的兴趣,并强调了社会变革的重要性。The "radical" and "secular" theologians talked about the traditional concept of God as being "dead" in this secular age, and gloried in the God who comes to us in the events of social change.而“激进”和“世俗”的神学家谈及神的传统概念被这世俗的时代“死”,并在上帝谁给我们留下的社会变革的事件gloried。 They were optimistic about the creative possibilities open to secular man, held up love as the sufficient norm of ethical behavior, and reaffirmed the lordship of Christ and his call to discipleship.他们对世俗的人开放,创新的可能性持乐观态度,举行了作为道德行为规范有足够的爱,并重申了基督和他的呼吁门徒贵族身份。

RV Pierard RV皮耶拉尔

(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary)(Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 参考书目
J Dillenberger and C Welch, Protestant Christianity Interpreted Through Its Development; W Pauck, The Heritage of the Reformation; B Reardon, Liberal Protestantism; DE Miller, The Case for Liberal Christianity; H Zahrnt, The Question of God: Protestant Theology in the Twentieth Century; WR Hutchinson, The Modernist Impulse in American Protestantism; LJ Averill, American Theology in the Liberal Tradition; K Cauthen, The Impact of American Religious Liberalism; RJ Coleman, Issues of Theological Conflict: Evangelicals and Liberals.J Dillenberger和C韦尔奇,新教基督教解释的通过发展; W,而宗教改革遗产Pauck,B里尔登,自由新教; DE米勒,为自由基督教案例,H Zahrnt,神问:在二十新教神学世纪; WR,在美国新教现代派脉冲哈钦森; LJ Averill,在美国自由​​传统神学,K Cauthen,美国宗教自由主义的影响; RJ科​​尔曼,神学冲突的问题:福音派和自由派。


Liberalism自由主义

Catholic Information天主教信息

A free way of thinking and acting in private and public life.一种思维和在私人和公共生活的方式行事的自由。

I. DEFINITION一,定义

The word liberal is derived from the Latin liber, free, and up to the end of the eighteenth century signified only "worthy of a free man", so that people spoke of "liberal arts", "liberal occupations".自由主义一词源于拉丁文LIBER,自由,直至十八世纪末,标志着只有“自由的人值得”,使人们的“文科”,“自由职业”发言。 Later the term was applied also to those qualities of intellect and of character, which were considered an ornament becoming those who occupied a higher social position on account of their wealth and education.后来这个术语也适用于那些智慧和品格素质,这被认为是一种装饰品成为那些谁占领了更高的对他们的财富和教育的社会地位。 Thus liberal got the meaning of intellectually independent, broad-minded, magnanimous, frank, open, and genial.因此,自由得到了智力上的独立,胸怀宽广,大度,坦诚,开放,亲切的意思。Again Liberalism may also mean a political system or tendency opposed to centralization and absolutism.同样自由主义也可能意味着一种政治制度或倾向反对集权和专制。In this sense Liberalism is not at variance with the spirit and teaching of the Catholic Church.在这个意义上的自由主义是不是在与精神和天主教教会的教学差异。Since the end of the eighteenth century, however, the word has been applied more and more to certain tendencies in the intellectual, religious, political, and economical life, which implied a partial or total emancipation of man from the supernatural, moral, and Divine order.自十八世纪末,然而,这个词已经越来越多地应用在知识,宗教,政治和经济生活,这隐含了人的部分或全部从超自然的,道德的解放一定的倾向,和神圣秩序。 Usually, the principles of 1789, that is of the French Revolution, are considered as the Magna Charta of this new form of Liberalism.通常情况下,1789年的原则,即法国大革命,被认为是对这种新形式的自由主义大宪章。The most fundamental principle asserts an absolute and unrestrained freedom of thought, religion, conscience, creed, speech, press, and politics.最根本的原则主张的思想,宗教,良心,信仰,言论,新闻,政治绝对的,自由奔放。 The necessary consequences of this are, on the one hand, the abolition of the Divine right and of every kind of authority derived from God; the relegation of religion from the public life into the private domain of one's individual conscience; the absolute ignoring of Christianity and the Church as public, legal, and social institutions; on the other hand, the putting into practice of the absolute autonomy of every man and citizen, along all lines of human activity, and the concentration of all public authority in one "sovereignty of the people".这种必要的后果是,一方面,对神权和每一个从神所得的权威那种取消;宗教从进入一个人的个人良心私人领域的公共生活保级;绝对基督教忽视并为公众,法律和社会制度的教会;另一方面,在付诸实践的每一个男人和公民绝对的自主权,以及人类活动的所有行,以及所有公共权力集中在一个“主权人民“。 This sovereignty of the people in all branches of public life as legislation, administration, and jurisdiction, is to be exercised in the name and by order of all the citizens, in such a way, that all should have share in and a control over it.这在立法,行政和管辖的所有公共生活分行的人民主权,是行使在名称和全体公民以这样的方式,所有应该分享和其控制权。A fundamental principle of Liberalism is the proposition: "It is contrary to the natural, innate, and inalienable right and liberty and dignity of man, to subject himself to an authority, the root, rule, measure, and sanction of which is not in himself".自由主义的一个基本原则是主张:“这是违背自然的,与生俱来的,不可分割的权利,自由和人的尊严,受自己的权威,根,规则,措施,而其中的制裁是不自己“。 This principle implies the denial of all true authority; for authority necessarily presupposes a power outside and above man to bind him morally.这一原则意味着所有的真正权威的拒绝;对权威的必然前提外及以上的人在道德上约束他的权力。

These tendencies, however, were more or less active long before 1789; indeed, they are coeval with the human race.这些倾向,但是,或多或少积极很久以前1789年,事实上,它们与人类同时代。Modern Liberalism adopts and propagates them under the deceiving mask of Liberalism in the true sense.采用现代自由主义和自由主义下的传播,在真正意义上的欺骗掩盖它们。As a direct offspring of Humanism and the Reformation in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, modern Liberalism was further developed by the philosophers and literati of England especially Locke and Hume, by Rousseau and the Encyclopedists in France, and by Lessing and Kant in Germany.作为一个人文和第十五和十六世纪宗教改革的直接后代,现代自由主义得到了进一步发展的哲学家和英国,特别是洛克和休谟的文人,由卢梭和法国Encyclopedists,莱辛,康德和德国。 Its real cradle, however, was the drawing-rooms of the moderately free-thinking French nobility (1730-1789), especially those of Mme Necker and her daughter, Mme de Staël The latter was more than anybody else the connecting link between the free-thinking elements before and after the Revolution and the centre of the modern Liberal movement both in France and Switzerland.它的真正的摇篮,然而,是客厅里的适度自由思维法国贵族(1730至1789年),特别是内克女士和她的女儿的,夫人去Staël后者是比其他人更多的自由之间的联系纽带思维前后革命和现代在法国和瑞士自由运动的中心内容。 In her politico-religious views she is intimately connected with Mirabeau and the Constitutional party of the Revolution.在她的政治,宗教观点,她是密切联系在一起米拉博和革命宪政党。These views find their clearest exposition in her work "Considérations sur les principaux événements de la Révolution française".这些意见在她找到工作的最清晰的阐述“的考虑SUR LES principaux événements德拉革命法语”。She pleads for the greatest possible individual liberty, and denounces as absurd the derivation of human authority from God.她恳求最大可能的个人自由,并谴责荒谬的神人的权威的推导。The legal position of the Church, according to her, both as a public institution and as a property-owner is a national arrangement and therefore entirely subject to the will of the nation; ecclesiastical property belongs not to the church but to the nation; the abolition of ecclesiastical privileges is entirely justified, since the clergy is the natural enemy of the principles of Revolution.教会的法律地位,据她介绍,无论是作为公共机构,作为财产的所有者是国家的安排,因此完全服从国家意志,教会财产不属于教会,但向全国;的教会特权的取消是完全有道理的,因为神职人员是对革命的原则天敌。 The ideal form of government is in smaller states the republic, in larger ones the constitutional monarchy after the model of England.理想的政府形式是在小国的共和国,在较大的后英国君主立宪制的模式。The entire art of government in modern times, consists, according to Mme de Staël in the art of directing public opinion and of yielding to it at the right moment.在近代政府的整个艺术,组成,根据DE Staël夫人在公众舆论的引导和收益在适当的时候给它的艺术。

II. II。DEVELOPMENT AND PRINCIPAL TYPES OF MODERN LIBERALISM IN NON-ENGLISH-SPEAKING COUNTRIES发展与现代自由主义主要类型在非英语国家

Since the so-called Liberal principles of 1789 are based upon a wrong notion of human liberty, and are and must forever be contradictory and indefinite in themselves, it is an impossibility in practical life to carry them into effect with much consistency.自1789年所谓的自由原则,是基于对人类自由的错误观念,而且必须永远是矛盾的,在自己不确定的,它是一个在实际生活中不可能进行与实施的一致性他们多。 Consequently the most varying kinds and shades of Liberalism have been developed, all of which remained in fact more conservative than a logical application of Liberal principles would warrant.因此最不同种类和自由主义色彩得到发展,所有这些其实多的自由原则的逻辑应用保守仍然会令。Liberalism was first formulated by the Protestant Genevese (Rousseau, Necker, Mme de Staël Constant, Guizot); nevertheless it was from France, that it spread over the rest of the world, as did its different representative types.自由主义最初制定的新教Genevese(卢梭,内克尔,夫人去Staël常数,基佐),但它是从法国,它在世界各地蔓延,就像它的不同类型的代表。 These developed in closest connection with the different Revolutions in Europe since 1789.这些最近的发展与欧洲不同的连接,因为1789年革命。The principal types are:-主要类型有: -

(A) Anti-ecclesiastical Liberalism(A)反教会自由主义

(1) The old Liberalism, first advocated by Mme de Staël and Constant. (1)老自由主义,首先倡导的夫人去Staël和常数。It may be described as the drawing-room Liberalism of the free-thinking educated classes, who, however, did not condescend to become practical politicians or statesmen; they were superior observers, infallible critics, standing above all parties.它可以被描述为自由思考教育类,谁,但是,并没有成为现实屈尊政客或政治家客厅自由主义,他们均优于观察员,万无一失的批评,上述各方的地位。 In later days some few of these old Liberals, animated by a truly liberal chivalry, stood up for the rights of suppressed minorities against Jacobin majorities, for instance, Littré and Laboulaye in France (1879-1880).在以后的日子里其中的一些老自由主义者一个真正自由的骑士动画,很少站起来为反对雅各宾多数压制少数人的权利,例如,Littré和法国Laboulaye(1879年至1880年)。

(2) Closely connected with this old Liberalism of Mme de Staël is doctrinaire Liberalism which originated in the lecture-hall of Royer-Collard and in the salon of the Duc de Broglie (1814-1830).(2)密切与此女士去Staël旧连接的教条主义的自由主义自由主义这在罗耶 - 科拉尔讲课大厅和在德德布罗意(1814年至1830年)沙龙起源。It was the Liberalism of the practical politicians and statesmen, who intended to re-establish, maintain, and develop, in the different states, the constitutional form of government based upon the principles of 1789.它是实际的政治家和政治家,谁打算重新建立,维护和发展中的不同状态,政府根据1789年宪法的形式原则为基础,自由主义。 The most prominent representatives of this body were, besides de Broglie, Royer-Collard, Guizot in France, Cavour in Italy, von Rotteck and his partisans in Germany.这个机构最突出的代表,除了德布罗意,罗耶 - 科拉尔,基佐在法国,意大利凯沃尔,冯Rotteck在德国他的党羽。

(3) Bourgeois Liberalism, was the natural outgrowth of doctrinaire Liberalism. (3)资产阶级自由化,是教条主义的自由主义的自然结果。It adapted itself more to the interests of the propertied and moneyed classes; for the clergy and nobility having been dispossessed of their political power, these were the only classes which could make use of the new institutions, the people not being sufficiently instructed and organized to do so.它更适合自己的有产阶级的利益和有钱,为僧侣和贵族已被剥夺其政治权力,这是唯一的类可能利用新的机构使用,人民没有得到足够的指示及组织这样做的。 The rich industrial classes, therefore, were from the very beginning and in all countries the mainstay of Liberalism, and Liberalism for its part was forced to further their interests.丰富的工业类,因此,他们从一开始就和所有国家的自由主义的主体,其部分自由主义被迫进一步他们的利益。This kind of bourgeois Liberalism enjoyed its highest favour in France during the time of the citizen-king, Louis-Philippe (1830-40), who openly avowed his dependence upon it.这种资产阶级的自由主义一种享受过程中的公民王时间在法国最高的青睐,路易 - 菲利普(一八三○年至1840年),谁公开宣称的他对它的依赖。It flourished in Germany, as "national Liberalism", in Austria, as "political Liberalism in general", in France, as the Liberalism of Gambetta's Opportunist party.它在德国蓬勃发展,为“国家自由主义”,在奥地利,为“一般的政治自由主义”,在法国,作为甘贝塔的机会主义党的自由主义。 Its characteristic traits are materialistic, sordid ideals, which care only for unrestrained enjoyment of life, egoism in exploiting the economically weak by means of tariffs which are for the interests of the classes, a systematic persecution of Christianity and especially of the Catholic Church and her institutions, a frivolous disregard and even a mocking contempt of the Divine moral order, a cynical indifference in the choice and use of means - slander, corruption, fraud, etc. - in fighting one's opponents and in acquiring an absolute mastery and control of everything.其特点是物质的特性,肮脏的理想,这对生活照料,利己主义无拘无束的享受只有在利用的关税是对的阶级的利益,有系统的迫害,特别是基督教,天主教会和她指经济弱机构,一个轻浮无视甚至是神圣的嘲讽蔑视道德秩序,在选择和手段玩世不恭的冷漠 - 诽谤,腐败,欺诈等 - 在打击自己的对手,在取得绝对的掌握和控制一切。

(4) The Liberal "parties of progress" are in opposition to the Conservatives and the Liberals of the bourgeois classes, in so far as these, when once in power, usually care little or nothing for further improvements according to their Liberal principles, whereas the former lay more stress on the fundamental tenets of Liberalism themselves and fight against a cynical one-sided policy of self-interest; for this reason they appear to an outsider more fair-minded. (4)自由“的进步政党”都反对保守党和自由党的资产阶级,在目前为止,因为这些,当一旦掌权,平时照顾进一步改进很少或没有根据自己的自由原则,而前者注重自己的自由主义和打击玩世不恭的片面利己政策的基本原则更强调,这样做的原因,他们似乎外人更公正的。

(5) Liberal Radicals are adherents of progressive modern ideas, which they try to realize without consideration for the existing order or for other people's rights, ideas, and feelings. (5)自由自由基是进步的现代理念的追随者,他们努力实现没有为现存秩序或其他人的权利,思想和感情的考虑。Such was the first Liberal political party, the Spanish Jacobinos in 1810.这就是第一个自由的政党,在1810年西班牙Jaco​​binos。This is the Radicalism, which under the mask of liberty is now annihilating the rights of Catholics in France.这是激进主义,这下自由的面具现在消灭在法国的天主教徒权利。

(6) The Liberal Democrats want to make the masses of the common people the deciding factor in public affairs.(6)自由民主党想百姓群众的公共事务的决定因素。They rely especially on the middle classes, whose interests they pretend to have at heart.他们依靠特别是中产阶级,他们的利益,他们假装在心上。

(7) Socialism is the Liberalism of self-interest nurtured by all classes of Liberals described above, and espoused by the members of the fourth estate and the proletariat.(7)社会主义是自身利益的自由主义所培育的上述自由主义者的所有类,并通过了第四权和无产阶级的成员信奉。 It is at the same time nothing but the natural reaction against a one-sided policy of self-interest.它是在同一时间不过是针对自身利益的片面政策的自然反应。Its main branches are:它的主要分支有:

Communism, which tries to reorganize the social conditions by abolishing all private ownership;共产主义,它试图重组,取消所有的私有制的社会条件;

Radical Social Democracy of Marx (founded 1848), common in Germany and Austria;激进的社会民主马克思(成立于1848年),在德国和奥地利共同的;

Moderate Socialism (Democratic Socialistic Federation in England, Possibilists in France, etc.);适度社会主义(社会主义联邦民主在英国,法国Possibilists等);

Anarchist parties founded by Bakunin, Most, and Krapotkin, after 1868, for some periods allied to Social Democracy.无政府主义者巴枯宁创办的当事人,大多数和克拉波特金后,1868年,为社会民主党结盟的某些时期。 Anarchism as a system is relatively the most logical and radical development of the Liberal principles.作为一个系统无政府主义是相对自由原则最合乎逻辑的和激进的发展。

(B) Ecclesiastical Liberalism (Liberal Catholicism)(二)教会自由主义(自由天主教)

(1) The prevailing political form of modern Liberal Catholicism, is that which would regulate the relations of the Church to the State and modern society in accordance with the Liberal principles as expounded by Benjamin Constant. (1)普遍的现代自由天主教的政治形式,是将规范在与贡斯当所阐述的自由原则,教会与国家和现代社会的关系。It had its predecessors and patterns in Gallicanism, Febronianism, and Josephinism.它在Gallicanism,Febronianism和Josephinism它的前辈和模式。Founded 1828 by Lamennais, the system was later defended in some respects by Lacordaire, Montalembert, Parisis, Dupanloup, and Falloux.成立由Lamennais 1828年,该系统后来在某些方面的辩护拉科代尔,蒙塔龙贝,Parisis,Dupanloup和Falloux。

(2) The more theological and religious form of Liberal Catholicism had its predecessors in Jansenism and Josephinism; it aims at certain reforms in ecclesiastical doctrine and discipline in accordance with the anti-ecclesiastical liberal Protestant theory and atheistical "science and enlightenment" prevailing at the time. (2)更自由天主教神学和宗教的形式曾在詹森和Josephinism它的前辈,它在教会的教义和纪律某些改革的目标与反自由主义的新教教会论和无神论的“科学启蒙”的规定在当时的时间。 The newest phases of this Liberalism were condemned by Pius X as Modernism.这种自由主义的最新阶段被谴责庇护X作为现代主义。 In general it advocates latitude in interpreting dogma, oversight or disregard of the disciplinary and doctrinal decrees of the Roman Congregations, sympathy with the State even in its enactments against the liberty of the Church, in the action of her bishops, clergy, religious orders and congregations, and a disposition to regard as clericalism the efforts of the Church to protect the rights of the family and of individuals to the free exercise of religion.一般来说它主张纬度在解释教条,监督或无视法令,纪律和教义的罗马教会,即使在与对教会自由的成文法国家的同情,在她的主教,神职人员,宗教命令和行动众和处置作为教会的教权方面的努力,以保护家庭和信仰自由的行使个人的权利。

III. III。CONDEMNATION OF LIBERALISM BY THE CHURCH自由主义谴责教会

By proclaiming man's absolute autonomy in the intellectual, moral and social order, Liberalism denies, at least practically, God and supernatural religion.通过宣称人类在智力,道德和社会秩序绝对的自主权,自由主义否认,至少在实际上,神和超自然的宗教。If carried out logically, it leads even to a theoretical denial of God, by putting deified mankind in place of God.如果进行了逻辑上,它会导致甚至否定了神的理论,通过把中位神神化人类。It has been censured in the condemnations of Rationalism and Naturalism.它一直谴责在理性主义与自然主义的谴责。 The most solemn condemnation of Naturalism and Rationalism was contained in the Constitution "De Fide" of the Vatican Council (1870); the most explicit and detailed condemnation, however, was administered to modern Liberalism by Pius IX in the Encyclical "Quanta cura" of 8 December, 1864 and the attached Syllabus.自然主义和理性主义最隆重的谴责是在宪法中的“德善意”的梵蒂冈会议(1870年)中,最明确和详细的谴责,然而,管理工作由庇护九世到现代自由主义在通谕“广达城联盟”的1864年12月8日和附加课程。 Pius X condemned it again in his allocution of 17 April, 1907, and in the Decree of the Congregation of the Inquisition of 3 July, 1907, in which the principal errors of Modernism were rejected and censured in sixty-five propositions.皮乌斯X再次谴责在其1907年4月17日训示,并在7月3日的侦查,1907年,其中现代主义的主要错误是拒绝,在65主张谴责众法令。 The older and principally political form of false Liberal Catholicism had been condemned by the Encyclical of Gregory XVI, "Mirari Vos", of 15 August, 1832 and by many briefs of Pius IX (see Ségur, "Hommage aux Catholiques Libéraux", Paris, 1875).虚假自由天主教老年人和主要政治形式已经谴责了格雷戈里十六世通谕“,Mirari沃斯”的1832年8月15日和由比约九许多简报(见塞居尔,“Hommage辅助CATHOLIQUES Libéraux”,巴黎, 1875年)。The definition of the papal infallibility by the Vatican council was virtually a condemnation of Liberalism.该理事会由梵蒂冈教皇犯错误的定义实际上是自由主义的谴责。Besides this many recent decisions concern the principal errors of Liberalism.除了这么多的关注最近的决定自由主义的主要错误。 Of great importance in this respect are the allocutions and encyclicals of Pius IX, Leo XIII, and Pius X. (Cf., Recueil des allocutions consistorales encycliques . . . citées dans le Syllabus", Paris, 1865) and the encyclicals of Leo XIII of 20 January, 1888, "On Human Liberty"; of 21 April, 1878, "On the Evils of Modern Society"; of 28 December, 1878, "On the Sects of the Socialists, Communists, and Nihilists"; of 4 August, 1879, "On Christian Philosophy"; of 10 February, 1880, "On Matrimony"; of 29 July, 1881, "On the Origin of Civil Power"; of 20 April, 1884, "On Freemasonry"; of 1 November, 1885, "On the Christian State"; of 25 December, 1888, "On the Christian Life"; of 10 January, 1890, "On the Chief Duties of a Christian Citizen"; of 15 May, 1891, "On the Social Question"; of 20 January, 1894, "On the Importance of Unity in Faith and Union with the Church for the Preservation of the Moral Foundations of the State"; of 19 March, 1902, "On the Persecution of the Church all over the World". Full information about the relation of the Church towards Liberalism in the different countries may be gathered from the transactions and decisions of the various provincial councils. These can be found in the "Collectio Lacensis" under the headings of the index: Fides, Ecclesia, Educatio, Francomuratores.在这方面具有重要意义的allocutions和庇护九世,利奥十三世,和比约十通谕(参见,海牙讲义集DES allocutions consistorales encycliques。citées DANS LE教学大纲“,巴黎,1865年)和利奥十三世的通谕1月20日,1888“论人的自由”,对1878年4月21日,“论现代社会的罪恶”,对1878年12月28日,“关于社会党,共产党和虚无主义者的教派”,8月4日1879年,“论基督教哲学”,对1880年2月10日,“论婚姻”,对1881年7月29日,“关于民事权力的起源”,4月20日,1884年“关于共济会”,11月1日, 1885年,“论基督教国家”,12月25日,1888“论基督徒的生活”; 1月10日,1890“论基督徒公民行政职责”; 5月15日,1891年,“论社会问题“; 1月20日,1894年,”关于在信仰与为国家的道德基础保护教会联盟团结的重要性“; 3月19日,1902年,”关于在世界各地教会的迫害“关于对在不同的国家自由主义教会关系的全部资料可搜集到的交易和各省议会的决定,这些都可以在找到。”Collectio Lacensis“根据本索引标题:惹人,教会,Educatio,Francomuratores。

Publication information Written by Hermann Gruber.出版信息写赫尔曼格鲁伯。Transcribed by Vivek Gilbert John Fernandez.转录由Vivek吉尔伯特约翰费尔南德斯。Dedicated to Anusha Jebanasam and The Opus Dei The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume IX.致力于Anusha Jebanasam和主业的天主教百科全书,体积九。Published 1910.发布1910年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, October 1, 1910. Nihil Obstat,1910年10月1日。Remy Lafort, Censor.人头马lafort,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰米farley,大主教纽约

Bibliography参考书目

FERRAZ, Spiritualisme et libéralisme (Paris, 1887); IDEM, Traditionalisme et ultramontanisme (Paris, 1880); D'HAUSSONVILLE, Le salon de Mme Necker (Paris, 1882); LADY BLENNERHASSET, Frau von Staël (1887-89); LABOULAYE, Le parti libéral (Paris, 1864); IDEM in the Introduction to his edition of Cours de politique constitutionelle de Benj. FERRAZ,Spiritualisme等libéralisme(巴黎,1887年),同上,Traditionalisme等ultramontanisme(巴黎,1880年); D' HAUSSONVILLE,乐沙龙de夫人内克尔(巴黎,1882年); LADY BLENNERHASSET,弗劳冯Staël(1887年至1889年); LABOULAYE ,乐颗粒自由(巴黎,1864年),在他的赛道德politique constitutionelle DE Benj版介绍同上。 Constant (Paris, 1872); CONSTANT, De la religion (Paris, 1824-31); BLUNTSCHLI, Allgemeine Staatslehre (Stuttgart, 1875), 472; SAMUEL, Liberalism (1902); DEVAS, Political Economy (London, 1901), 122, 531, 650 seq.; VILLIERS, Opportunity of Liberalism (1904); RUDEL, Geschichte des Liberalismus und der deutschen Reichsverfassung (1891); DEBIDOUR, Histoire des rapports de l'église et de l'état 1789-1905 (Paris, 1898-1906); BRUSK, Die Geheimen Gesellschaften in Spanien (1881); Handworterbuch der Staatswissenschaften, I, 296-327, sv Anarchismus; Ferrer im Lichte der Wahrheit in Germania (Berlin, 1909); MEFFERT, Die Ferrer-Bewegung als Selbstentlarvung des Freidenkertums (1909).恒(巴黎,1872年);不变,德拉宗教(巴黎,1824年至1831年);布伦奇利,汇报Staatslehre(斯图加特,1875),472;萨穆埃尔,自由主义(1902年);天王,政治经济学(伦敦,1901年),122 ,531,650页起; VILLIERS,自由主义的机会(1904年);鲁德尔,历史馆DES Liberalismus UND DER deutschen Reichsverfassung(1891年); DEBIDOUR,Histoire DES rapports DE L' église ET DE L'政变1789年至1905年(巴黎,1898年-1906); BRUSK,模具Geheimen Gesellschaften在Spanien(1881); Handworterbuch DER Staatswissenschaften,我,296-327,SV Anarchismus;费雷尔IM Lichte DER真理报在日耳曼(柏林,1909年);梅斐尔德,模具费雷尔- Bewegung ALS Selbstentlarvung DES Freidenkertums(1909年)。

Works concerning ecclesiastical Liberalism:- (A) Protestant Churches:- GOYAU, L'Allemagne religieuse, le protestantisme (Paris, 1898); SABATIER, Religions of Authority and the Religion of the Spirit; POLLOCK, Religious Equality (London, 1890); REVILLE, Liberal Christianity (London, 1903); IDEM, Anglican Liberalism (London, 1908).工程涉及教会自由主义: - (A)基督教: - GOYAU,L' Allemagne religieuse,乐protestantisme(巴黎,1898年);萨巴蒂尔,权力和宗教的宗教精神;波洛克,宗教平等(伦敦,1890年); REVILLE,自由基督教(伦敦,1903年);同上,英国国教自由主义(伦敦,1908年)。(B) Concerning Catholic Liberalism:- WEILL, Histoire de Catholicisme libéral en France, 1828-1908 (Paris, 1909).(二)关于天主教自由主义: - 威尔,Histoire DE Catholicisme自由连接法国,1828至1908年(巴黎,1909年)。(C) Concerning Modernism: SCHELL, Katholizismus als Prinzip des Fortschritts (1897); IDEM, Die neue Zeit und der neue Glaube (1898); MAŒLER, Reformkatholizismus (these three works are on the Index); STUFLER, Die heiligkeit Gottes in Zeit. (三)关于现代主义:夏伟,Katholizismus ALS Prinzip DES Fortschritts(1897年);同上,模具NEUE时代周报UND DER NEUE Glaube(1898年); MAŒLER,Reformkatholizismus(这三部作品在索引中); STUFLER,模具在时代周报heiligkeit Gottes 。für.毛皮。Theol.Theol。(Innsbruck, 1908), 100-114; 364-368.(因斯布鲁克,1908年),100-114,364-368。

Critique and condemnation of Liberalism:- FAGUET, Le Libéralisme (Paris, 1906); FRANTZ, Die Religion des National-liberalismus (1872).批判和谴责的自由主义: - FAGUET,乐Libéralisme(巴黎,1906年);弗朗茨,模具宗教DES国家liberalismus(1872年)。From the Catholic standpoint:- DONAT, Die Freiheit der Wissenschaft (1910); VON KETTELER, Freiheit Autorit䴠und Kirche (Mainz, 1862); IDEM, Die Arbeiterfrage und das Christenthum (Mainz, 1864); DECHAMPS, Le libéralisme (1878); DONOSO CORTɓ, Catholicism, Liberalism and Socialism (tr. Philadelphia, 1862); H. PESCH, Liberalismus, Sozialismus und christliche Gesellschaftsordnung (Freiburg, 1893-99); CATHREIN, Der Sozialismus (Freiburg, 1906); PALLEN, What is Liberalism?从天主教的观点: - 多纳特,模具Freiheit DER Wissenschaft(1910);克林德,Freiheit Autorit䴠UND Kirche(美因茨,1862);同上,模具Arbeiterfrage UND DAS Christenthum(美因茨,1864年); DECHAMPS,乐libéralisme(1878) ;多诺索CORTɓ,天主教,自由主义与社会主义(编辑部费城,1862年); H.佩施,Liberalismus,Sozialismus UND christliche Gesellschaftsordnung(弗赖堡,1893年至1899年); CATHREIN,DER Sozialismus(弗赖堡,1906年); PALLEN,什么是自由主义?(St. Louis, 1889); MOREL, Somme contre le catholicisme libéral (Paris, 1876); Die Encyklika Pius IX. (圣路易斯,1889年);羊肚菌,索姆CONTRE乐catholicisme自由(巴黎,1876年);模具Encyklika庇护九世。vom 8 Dez.VOM 8费尔南德斯。 1864 in Stimmen aus Maria-Laach; CHR.1864年在Stimmen AUS玛丽亚 - Laach; CHR。PESCH, Theologische Zeitfragen, IV (1908); HEINER, Der Syllabus (Pius IX.) (1905); Der Syllabus Pius X. und das Dekret des hl.佩施,Theologische Zeitfragen,四(1908年);,明镜教学大纲(碧岳九)(1905年)海纳;明镜课程碧岳十UND DAS Dekret DES HL。 Offiziums "Lamentabili" vom 3 Juli, 1907 (1908); BROWNSON, Conversations on Liberalism and the Church (New York, 1869), reprinted in his Works, VII (Detroit, 1883-87), 305; MING, Data of Modern Ethics Examined (New York, 1897), x, xi; MANNING, Liberty of the Press in Essays, third series (London, 1892); BALMES, European Civilization (London, 1855), xxxiv, xxxv, lxvii; IDEM, Letters to a Sceptic (tr. Dublin, 1875), letter 7; GIBBONS, Faith of Our Fathers (Baltimore, 1871), xvii, xviii; The Church and Liberal Catholicism, pastoral letter of the English bishops, reprinted in Messenger of the Sacred Heart XXXVI (New York, 1901). Offiziums“Lamentabili”VOM 3巨力,1907年(1908年); BROWNSON,在自由主义和教会(纽约,1869)的谈话,在他的作品再版,第七章(底特律,1883年至1887年),305;现代伦理明,数据检查,十,十一(纽约,1897年);曼宁,自由在散文,第三系列新闻(伦敦,1892年); Balmes酒店,欧洲文明(伦敦,1855年),三十四,三十五,LXVII;同上,信函到怀疑论者(编辑部都柏林,1875),信7;长臂猿,父辈的信仰(巴尔的摩,1871年),十七,十八,教会和自由天主教,牧函的英文主教,在圣心XXXVI使者转载(纽约,1901年)。 180-93; cf.180-93;比照。 also Dublin Review, new series, XVIII, 1, 285; XXV, 202; XXVI, 204, 487; third series XV, 58.也都柏林审查,新系列,十八,1,285;二十五,202; XXVI,204,487;第三辑第十五58。



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