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Literalism is a commitment to strict exactness of words or meanings in translation or interpretation. A literal translation seeks to represent as accurately as possible in one language the words which were written in another. 拘泥于字句是一个词或翻译或解释的含义严格精确的承诺。一个直译的目的,是代表一种语言尽可能准确的其中另一个书面文字。By way of contrast, a paraphrase translation seeks only to reproduce the meaning (or the translator's understanding of the meaning) of the original.通过对比的方式,意译翻译的目的只是为了再现原文的意思(或译者的意义的理解)。

Most often literalism is used in connection with biblical interpretation.大多数情况下拘泥于字句的使用是根据圣经的解释连接。Generally it seeks to discover the author's intent by focusing upon his words in their plain, most obvious sense.一般来说,旨在通过发现他的话后,重点在他们的朴素,最明显的感觉作者的意图。The Jewish rabbis practiced an extreme form of literalism which stressed external and even minor points of OT or traditional requirements.犹太拉比实行拘泥于字句的一个极端形式,强调了传统的需求OT或外部,甚至小点。 They gave little thought to the intent or purpose that lay behind the texts with which they dealt and so received the condemnation of Jesus (Matt. 23:23 - 24; Mark 7:3 - 23).他们给小思想的意图或目的,与后面的文字处理等,他们接受了耶稣(太23时23 - 24;马克7点03分 - 23)谴责所在。 Medieval interpreters sought a fourfold meaning (the quadriga), literal, moral, allegorical, and anagogical, for every text.中世纪口译寻求四倍的意义(即quadriga),每个文本文字,道德,寓言和anagogical。The plain, literal meaning was considered the lowest and least important level of meaning and received little attention.平坦的字面意思被认为是最低的意义和最重要的层次,很少得到重视。Disregard for the literal meaning led many of these theologians into sometimes wild speculations and vastly different allegorical or mystical interpretations for the same text.无视字面意思领进有时漫天要价,大大不同的寓意,或神秘的同一文本的解释很多,这些神学家。

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Luther and the other Reformers, rejecting multiple meanings for biblical passages, sought the single sense.路德和其他改革者,拒绝为圣经经文多重意义,寻求单一的感觉。This Luther described as "the very simplest, the literal, ordinary, natural sense."这路德形容为“很简单,文字,普通的,自然的感觉。”Literalism in this sense remains as the central focus of conservative Protestant interpretation theory.在这个意义上拘泥于字句仍然作为保守的基督教解释理论的核心焦点。

Since the Reformation at least two main trajectories of thought have come to be associated with literalism.自改革至少有两个主要的思想轨迹是来与拘泥于字句有关。One attitude seems akin to that of the rabbis.一个类似的态度似乎拉比说。It approaches the text in such a strict, unimaginative way that word and letter are permitted to suppress the spirit of the text.它的办法,这样的严格,缺乏想象力的方式,单词和字母被允许抑制精神的文字文本。Interpretation becomes a mechanical, grammatical, logical process.解读成为机械,语法,逻辑过程。In extreme forms this type of literalism makes no room for special consideration for figurative literary forms such as poetry or metaphor nor for the possibility of unique situations addressed by the author.在极端的形式使这种类型不拘泥于字句,如诗歌或比喻,也没有由作者解决特殊情况的可能性喻文学形式特别考虑的余地。

Other contemporary adherents of literalism, no less devoted to finding the true meaning of the text as intended by the author, employ different attitudes and methodologies.拘泥于字句其他当代的信徒,毫不逊色专门找到了由作者的意图文字的真正含义,采用不同的态度和方法。 They seek to apply interpretative principles and rules with a sense of appropriateness and sensitivity.他们寻求申请的适宜性和敏感性的意识解释性原则和规则。In addition to grammatical and philosophical investigations they employ information about the author's historical and cultural situation that may aid in interpretation.除了语法和哲学的调查,他们聘请有关作者的历史和文化情况,可能有助于解释的信息。Differing literary forms and genres are handled with methods suitable to their type.不同的文学形式和体裁的处理方式与方法,适合自己的类型。Individual passages are considered within their immediate context in the writing in which they appear as well as within the totality of Scripture.个别段落被认为在他们在写作中,他们出现的直接背景以及在圣经的全部。 These interpreters focus upon words and externals in order that these may lead them to the meaning and spirit of the text.这些翻译集中在外部的话,为了这些可能导致他们的意义和文本的精神。For them "literalism" means to seek the plain meaning without exaggeration, distortion, or inaccuracy.对他们来说“拘泥于字句”是指以寻求毫不夸张平原的意思,失真,或不准确。

JJ Scott, Jr.JJ斯科特,小
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (Elwell宣布了福音字典)

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