Luther's 95 Theses路德的95论文

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On October 31, 1517, Martin Luther, German theologian and professor at Wittenberg, posted his Ninety-five Theses on the door of the castle church at Wittenberg and thereby ignited the Protestant Reformation. 10月31日1517年,马丁路德,德国神学家和维滕贝格教授,张贴在维滕贝格在他的城堡教堂大门九十个提纲,从而点燃了新教改革。

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Disputation of Dr. Martin Luther Concerning Penitence and Indulgences争议的马丁路德关于忏悔和赎罪券

In the desire and with the purpose of elucidating the truth, a disputation will be held on the underwritten propositions at Wittenberg, under the presidency of the Reverend Father Martin Luther, Monk of the Order of St. Augustine, Master of Arts and of Sacred Theology, and ordinary Reader of the same in that place.在欲望和对阐明真相的目的,争论将于在维滕贝格的承销命题下,牧师的父亲马丁路德,在圣奥古斯丁,文学硕士订购僧总统和神圣的神学,以及在那个地方一样的普通读者。 He therefore asks those who cannot be present and discuss the subject with us orally, to do so by letter in their absence.因此,他要求那些谁不能出席,并与我们讨论这个问题口头,要做到在其缺席的信等。In the name of our Lord Jesus Christ.在我们的主耶稣基督的名。Amen.阿门。

  1. Our Lord and Master Jesus Christ, in saying "Repent ye," etc., intended that the whole life of believers should be penitence.我们的上帝和主耶稣基督,在说“你们应当悔改”等,有意使信徒一生应当悔改。
  2. This word cannot be understood of sacramental penance, that is, of the confession and satisfaction which are performed under the ministry of priests.这个字不能被理解的忏悔圣事,就是和满意的供述是受祭司部执行。
  3. It does not, however, refer solely to inward penitence; nay such inward penitence is naught, unless it outwardly produces various mortifications of the flesh.这不,但是,仅仅是指对内忏悔;反对票这种向内忏悔是徒劳的,除非它表面上产生的各种mortifications肉。
  4. The penalty thus continues as long as the hatred of self--that is, true inward penitence--continues: namely, till our entrance into the kingdom of heaven.因此,持续的刑罚,只要自我仇恨 - 也就是说,真正的向内忏悔 - 继续:即,直到我们的入口进入天国。
  5. The Pope has neither the will nor the power to remit any penalties, except those which he has imposed by his own authority, or by that of the canons.教皇既没有意愿也没有任何处罚权的职权范围,除了那些他有他自己的权威强加的,或由大炮的。
  6. The Pope has no power to remit any guilt, except by declaring and warranting it to have been remitted by God; or at most by remitting cases reserved for himself; in which cases, if his power were despised, guilt would certainly remain.教皇无权减免任何罪责,除非声明及保证它已汇出的神,或者至多为自己保留了汇款的案件,在这种情况下,如果他的权力被鄙视,内疚肯定会依然存在。
  7. God never remits any man's guilt, without at the same time subjecting him, humbled in all things, to the authority of his representative the priest.神从来没有任何人汇款有罪,没有在同一时间服从他,在所有的事情卑微,对他的代表牧师的权威。
  8. The penitential canons are imposed only on the living, and no burden ought to be imposed on the dying, according to them.强加的悔罪大炮只在生活,无负担应该强加给奄奄一息的,据他们。
  9. Hence the Holy Spirit acting in the Pope does well for us, in that, in his decrees, he always makes exception of the article of death and of necessity.因此,在教皇圣灵行事,我们做得很好,因为,在他的法令,他总是利用了死亡的文章和必要性例外。
  10. Those priests act wrongly and unlearnedly, who, in the case of the dying, reserve the canonical penances for purgatory.这些祭司和unlearnedly错误行为,谁,在垂死,预留炼狱规范penances情况。
  11. Those tares about changing of the canonical penalty into the penalty of purgatory seem surely to have been sown while the bishops were asleep.关于规范罚款转变成炼狱处罚那些稗子似乎肯定已经播种,而主教是睡着了。
  12. Formerly the canonical penalties were imposed not after, but before absolution, as tests of true contrition.原规范处罚后不实行,但在此之前赦免,因为真正的悔悟测试。
  13. The dying pay all penalties by death, and are already dead to the canon laws, and are by right relieved from them.死亡的死亡支付所有罚款,并且已经死了佳能的法律,并通过直接从他们松了口气。
  14. The imperfect soundness or charity of a dying person necessarily brings with it great fear; and the less it is, the greater the fear it brings.健全或不完善的一个垂死的人的慈善必然带来了巨大的恐惧,以及少它是,它带来更大的恐惧。
  15. This fear and horror is sufficient by itself, to say nothing of other things, to constitute the pains of purgatory, since it is very near to the horror of despair.这种担心和恐惧本身是足够了,说什么其他的东西,构成了炼狱的痛苦,因为它是非常接近绝望的恐怖。
  16. Hell, purgatory, and heaven appear to differ as despair, almost despair, and peace of mind differ.地狱,炼狱和天堂出现不同的绝望,几乎绝望了,安心不同。
  17. With souls in purgatory it seems that it must needs be that, as horror diminishes, so charity increases.随着炼狱的灵魂似乎它必须需要的话,作为恐怖减弱,所以慈善机构增加。
  18. Nor does it seem to be proved by any reasoning or any scriptures, that they are outside of the state of merit or of the increase of charity.它似乎也没有受到任何理由或任何经文,他们的优点或慈善增加国家外证明。
  19. Nor does this appear to be proved, that they are sure and confident of their own blessedness, at least all of them, though we may be very sure of it.这似乎也没有证明,他们肯定自己的幸福和自信,至少所有这些,虽然我们可以非常肯定。
  20. Therefore the Pope, when he speaks of the plenary remission of all penalties, does not mean simply of all, but only of those imposed by himself.因此,教皇,当他的所有惩罚全体会议缓解说话,不等于单纯的所有,但只有他自己施加的。
  21. Thus those preachers of indulgences are in error who say that, by the indulgences of the Pope, a man is loosed and saved from all punishment.因此,那些传教士的宽容是错误谁这么说,由教皇赎罪券,一个人是疏松和保存的所有处罚。
  22. For in fact he remits to souls in purgatory no penalty which they would have had to pay in this life according to the canons.对于实际上他在炼狱汇款到他们的灵魂没有将不得不支付这辈子根据教规的惩罚。
  23. If any entire remission of all penalties can be granted to any one, it is certain that it is granted to none but the most perfect--that is, to very few.如果有任何缓解的所有罚款全部可以授予任何人,可以肯定的是它是授予没有,但最完美的 - 即极少数。
  24. Hence the greater part of the people must needs be deceived by this indiscriminate and high-sounding promise of release from penalties.因此,大部份的人必须需要由被欺骗这种滥杀滥伤和冠冕堂皇的承诺,从处罚释放。
  25. Such power as the Pope has over purgatory in general, such has every bishop in his own diocese, and every curate in his own parish, in particular.作为教皇这种权力过分了炼狱一般,这样的每一个在他自己的教区主教,和每一个在自己的教区的副牧师,尤其如此。
  26. The Pope acts most rightly in granting remission to souls, not by the power of the keys (which is of no avail in this case), but by the way of suffrage.教皇最正确的行为给予减免,以灵魂,而不是由按键的力量(这不就是在这种情况下,利用),而是由普选方式。
  27. They preach mad, who say that the soul flies out of purgatory as soon as the money thrown into the chest rattles.他们鼓吹狂,说谁的灵魂飞出来的炼狱尽快进入胸腔摇铃抛出的钱。
  28. It is certain that, when the money rattles in the chest, avarice and gain may be increased, but the suffrage of the Church depends on the will of God alone.可以肯定的是,当钱在胸前摇铃,贪婪和收益可能会增加,但教会的选举权上只有上帝会决定。
  29. Who knows whether all the souls in purgatory desire to be redeemed from it, according to the story told of Saints Severinus and Paschal?谁知道炼狱中的所有愿望,赎回它,根据故事的灵魂圣徒Severinus和逾越节告诉?
  30. No man is sure of the reality of his own contrition, much less of the attainment of plenary remission.没有人是他自己的悔悟,大大的缓解程度的全体会议少的现实把握。
  31. Rare as is a true penitent, so rare is one who truly buys indulgences--that is to say, most rare.罕见的是一个真正的忏悔,所以难得的是一个谁真正购买的宽容 - 这就是说,最难得的。
  32. Those who believe that, through letters of pardon, they are made sure of their own salvation, will be eternally damned along with their teachers.那些谁相信,通过赦免字母,它们是由自己的救赎肯定的是,将永远伴随着他们的老师该死。
  33. We must especially beware of those who say that these pardons from the Pope are that inestimable gift of God by which man is reconciled to God.我们尤其要提防那些谁说,从这些教皇赦免是,上帝的不可估量的礼物,其中人是与神。
  34. For the grace conveyed by these pardons has respect only to the penalties of sacramental satisfaction, which are of human appointment.对于这些赦免转达了优雅,有尊严的只有圣满意的处罚,这对人的任命的。
  35. They preach no Christian doctrine, who teach that contrition is not necessary for those who buy souls out of purgatory or buy confessional licences.他们宣扬基督教的教义没有,谁教的悔悟是不是那些谁买了炼狱的灵魂忏悔许可证或购买必要的。
  36. Every Christian who feels true compunction has of right plenary remission of pain and guilt, even without letters of pardon.每一个基督徒谁真正感到内疚的痛苦有权利和内疚全体会议缓解,即使没有赦免的信件。
  37. Every true Christian, whether living or dead, has a share in all the benefits of Christ and of the Church given him by God, even without letters of pardon.每一个真正的基督徒,无论是活的还是死,有一个在所有的基督和上帝赋予他的教会利益共享,即使没有赦免的信件。
  38. The remission, however, imparted by the Pope is by no means to be despised, since it is, as I have said, a declaration of the Divine remission.缓解,但是,由教皇传授是没有被人鄙视的手段,因为它是,正如我所说,一个神圣的缓解声明。
  39. It is a most difficult thing, even for the most learned theologians, to exalt at the same time in the eyes of the people the ample effect of pardons and the necessity of true contrition.这是一个最困难的事情,即使是最有学问的神学家,发扬于在人们的赦免充足效果和真正的忏悔必要性的眼睛同一时间。
  40. True contrition seeks and loves punishment; while the ampleness of pardons relaxes it, and causes men to hate it, or at least gives occasion for them to do so.真正的忏悔和寻求爱的惩罚;而赦免富裕放松了,并导致男人讨厌它,或者至少为他们提供了一次这样做。
  41. Apostolical pardons ought to be proclaimed with caution, lest the people should falsely suppose that they are placed before other good works of charity.使徒宣布赦免应该谨慎,以免人们应该错误地假设,他们是在其他的慈善优秀作品上。
  42. Christians should be taught that it is not the mind of the Pope that the buying of pardons is to be in any way compared to works of mercy.基督徒应该告诉我们,它是不是由教皇记,赦免买盘以任何方式相比,怜悯的作品。
  43. Christians should be taught that he who gives to a poor man, or lends to a needy man, does better than if he bought pardons.基督徒应该教他谁给了穷人,或借给一个有需要的人,如果他确实比买赦免更好。
  44. Because, by a work of charity, charity increases and the man becomes better; while, by means of pardons, he does not become better, but only freer from punishment.因为,由慈善工作,慈善增加,人变得更好,同时,通过赦免的手段,他没有变得更好,但只处罚自由。
  45. Christians should be taught that he who sees any one in need, and passing him by, gives money for pardons, is not purchasing for himself the indulgences of the Pope, but the anger of God.基督徒应该告诉我们,谁看到他需要的任何一个,他的传球,给出了赦免的钱,是不是为自己购买了教皇的赎罪券,而是神的愤怒。
  46. Christians should be taught that, unless they have superfluous wealth, they are bound to keep what is necessary for the use of their own households, and by no means to lavish it on pardons.基督徒应教导说,除非他们有多余的财富,他们必然要保持什么是对自己的家庭使用必要的,绝不是奢侈它赦免。
  47. Christians should be taught that, while they are free to buy pardons, they are not commanded to do so.基督徒应教授说,虽然他们可以自由地购买赦免,他们不是命令这样做。
  48. Christians should be taught that the Pope, in granting pardons, has both more need and more desire that devout prayer should be made for him, than that money should be readily paid.基督徒应该教的教皇,在给予赦免,同时具有更需要多的愿望,虔诚的祈祷,应为他比钱,应随时支付。
  49. Christians should be taught that the Pope's pardons are useful, if they do not put their trust in them; but most hurtful, if through them they lose the fear of God.基督徒应该教,教皇的赦免是有用的,如果他们不把他们的信任,但最伤人的,如果通过他们,他们失去了对上帝的敬畏。
  50. Christians should be taught that, if the Pope were acquainted with the exactions of the preachers of pardons, he would prefer that the Basilica of St. Peter should be burnt to ashes, than that it should be built up with the skin, flesh and bones of his sheep.基督徒应教导说,如果教皇是同赦免传教士的横征暴敛熟悉,他宁愿在圣彼得大教堂,应烧成灰烬,比它应该是建立与皮肤,肉和骨头了他的羊。
  51. Christians should be taught that, as it would be the duty, so it would be the wish of the Pope, even to sell, if necessary, the Basilica of St. Peter, and to give of his own money to very many of those from whom the preachers of pardons extract money.基督徒应教授说,由于这将是责任,因此这将是教皇的意愿,甚至出售,如果有必要,圣彼得大教堂,并把自己的钱给那些来自许多非常传道人的赦免提取资金。
  52. Vain is the hope of salvation through letters of pardon, even if a commissary--nay, the Pope himself--were to pledge his own soul for them.也是枉然拯救信希望通过赦免,即使小卖部 - 不,教皇自己 - 要保证他们自己的灵魂。
  53. They are enemies of Christ and of the Pope who, in order that pardons may be preached, condemn the word of God to utter silence in other churches.他们是耶稣和罗马教皇的敌人谁,为了使赦免可能宣扬,谴责上帝的话乱说在其他教会的沉默。
  54. Wrong is done to the word of God when, in the same sermon, an equal or longer time is spent on pardons than on it.错误的是为了上帝的话时,在同一讲道,相同或更长的时间是不是就可以赦免度过的。
  55. The mind of the Pope necessarily is, that if pardons, which are a very small matter, are celebrated with single bells, single processions, and single ceremonies, the Gospel, which is a very great matter, should be preached with a hundred bells, a hundred processions, and a hundred ceremonies.教皇的心灵一定是,如果赦免,这是一个非常小的事,与单铃,单游行,庆祝仪式和单,福音,这是一个很大的问题,应以百铃鼓吹,百游行等百余仪式。
  56. The treasures of the Church, whence the Pope grants indulgences, are neither sufficiently named nor known among the people of Christ.教会,何处教皇赎罪券补助,既不是不够的珍品中,也命名为基督的人知道。
  57. It is clear that they are at least not temporal treasures, for these are not so readily lavished, but only accumulated, by many of the preachers.很显然,他们至少不会颞珍品,因为这是不那么容易慷慨解囊,但只有积累了很多的传教士。
  58. Nor are they the merits of Christ and of the saints, for these, independently of the Pope, are always working grace to the inner man, and the cross, death, and hell to the outer man.它们也不是基督和圣徒的优点,对于这些,独立于教皇,一直在努力恩给内部人,交叉,死亡和地狱到外的人。
  59. St. Lawrence said that the treasures of the Church are the poor of the Church, but he spoke according to the use of the word in his time.圣劳伦斯说,教会的宝藏是教会的差,但他说话按在他的词的使用时间。
  60. We are not speaking rashly when we say that the keys of the Church, bestowed through the merits of Christ, are that treasure.我们不是轻率地说,当我们说,通过基督赐予教会的优点,该键是宝。
  61. For it is clear that the power of the Pope is alone sufficient for the remission of penalties and of reserved cases.对于很明显的是,教皇权力是单独的处罚和保留足够的情况下缓解。
  62. The true treasure of the Church is the Holy Gospel of the glory and grace of God.教会的真正财富是光荣和神圣的神的恩典的福音。
  63. This treasure, however, is deservedly most hateful, because it makes the first to be last.这宝藏,然而,是当之无愧最可恨的,因为它使第一是最后。
  64. While the treasure of indulgences is deservedly most acceptable, because it makes the last to be first.虽然宽容是当之无愧宝最能接受的,因为它使去年成为第一。
  65. Hence the treasures of the gospel are nets, wherewith of old they fished for the men of riches.因此,福音的宝藏是wherewith老网,他们对财富的男人捕捞。
  66. The treasures of indulgences are nets, wherewith they now fish for the riches of men.在宽容的宝藏网,wherewith他们现在鱼男人的财富。
  67. Those indulgences, which the preachers loudly proclaim to be the greatest graces, are seen to be truly such as regards the promotion of gain.这些宽容,这对传教士大声得到最大程度的青睐,被看作是真正的,如关于对获得晋升。
  68. Yet they are in reality in no degree to be compared to the grace of God and the piety of the cross.然而,他们在没有学位是相对于神的恩典和十字架的虔诚之实。
  69. Bishops and curates are bound to receive the commissaries of apostolical pardons with all reverence.主教和curates必将得到所有崇敬的使徒赦免的小卖部。
  70. But they are still more bound to see to it with all their eyes, and take heed with all their ears, that these men do not preach their own dreams in place of the Pope's commission.但他们更必然会看到它与所有人的目光,并采取一切听从自己的耳朵,这些男人不鼓吹在教皇的犯罪地点自己的梦想。
  71. He who speaks against the truth of apostolical pardons, let him be anathema and accursed.谁反对他的使徒赦免真理说话,让他被诅咒和诅咒。
  72. But he, on the other hand, who exerts himself against the wantonness and licence of speech of the preachers of pardons, let him be blessed.但他,另一方面,谁发挥对wantonness和传教士的讲话许可证赦免自己,让他祝福。
  73. As the Pope justly thunders against those who use any kind of contrivance to the injury of the traffic in pardons.由于教皇公正雷对那些谁使用任何种类的发明到在赦免交通伤害。
  74. Much more is it his intention to thunder against those who, under the pretext of pardons, use contrivances to the injury of holy charity and of truth.更是他打算对那些谁下,赦免的借口,使用contrivances的神圣慈善伤害和真理的风头。
  75. To think that Papal pardons have such power that they could absolve a man even if--by an impossibility--he had violated the Mother of God, is madness.如果认为教皇赦免有这样的权力,他们可以免除一个人即使 - 由不可能的 - 他违反了上帝之母,是疯狂。
  76. We affirm, on the contrary, that Papal pardons cannot take away even the least of venal sins, as regards its guilt.我们申明,相反,是罗马教皇的赦免不能带走甚至腐败的罪恶至少,至于其有罪。
  77. The saying that, even if St. Peter were now Pope, he could grant no greater graces, is blasphemy against St. Peter and the Pope.俗语说,即使是现在教皇圣彼得,他没有给予更大的青睐,是对圣彼得和教皇的亵渎。
  78. We affirm, on the contrary: that both he and any other Pope have greater graces to grant--namely, the Gospel, powers, gifts of healing, etc. (I Cor. xii. 9.)我们申明,相反:那他和任何其他教皇有更大的青睐授予 - 即福音,权力,愈合等礼物(林前十二9。)
  79. To say that the cross set up among the insignia of the Papal arms is of equal power with the cross of Christ, is blasphemy.如果说创下了罗马教皇的武器徽章了交叉与基督的十字架平等的权力,是亵渎。
  80. Those bishops, curates, and theologians who allow such discourses to have currency among the people, will have to render an account.这些主教,curates,和神学家谁允许这样的话语已经在人民群众中的货币,必须报帐。
  81. This licence in the preaching of pardons makes it no easy thing, even for learned men, to protect the reverence due to the Pope against the calumnies, or, at all events, the keen questionings of the laity.这在赦免说教牌照使得它不容易的事情,即使是有学问的人,以防范诽谤,或在任何事件,俗人激烈questionings的崇敬由于教皇。
  82. As for instance:--Why does not the Pope empty purgatory for the sake of most holy charity and of the supreme necessity of souls--this being the most just of all reasons--if he redeems an infinite number of souls for the sake of that most fatal thing, money, to be spent on building a basilica--this being a very slight reason?至于例如: - 为什么不教皇为最神圣的慈善机构和至高无上的灵魂炼狱的必要性而空 - 这是最所有的原因只是 - 如果他为了赎回为无限数量的灵魂这种最致命的东西,钱,花在建设教堂 - 这是一个非常轻微的原因是什么?
  83. Again: why do funeral masses and anniversary masses for the deceased continue, and why does not the Pope return, or permit the withdrawal of the funds bequeathed for this purpose, since it is a wrong to pray for those who are already redeemed?还是那句话:为什么葬礼群众和死者继续周年群众,教皇为什么不回,或允许的资金撤出留下为此,因为它是一个错误的祈祷为那些谁已经赎回?
  84. Again: what is this new kindness of God and the Pope, in that, for money's sake, they permit an impious man and an enemy of God to redeem a pious soul which loves God, and yet do not redeem that same pious and beloved soul, out of free charity, on account of its own need?还是那句话:这是什么上帝和教皇新的恩情,在那,对钱的份上,他们允许一个不虔诚的人与一个神的敌人,以换取虔诚的灵魂是爱的神,但不赎回相同的虔诚和心爱的灵魂出于自由慈善机构,就其自身需要的帐户?
  85. Again: why is it that the penitential canons, long since abrogated and dead in themselves in very fact and not only by usage, are yet still redeemed with money, through the granting of indulgences, as if they were full of life?还是那句话:为什么认为悔罪大炮,早已废止和张女士在自己死亡,不仅使用,但仍然是用钱赎回,通过宽容给予,仿佛他们是充满生机?
  86. Again: why does not the Pope, whose riches are at this day more ample than those of the wealthiest of the wealthy, build the one Basilica of St. Peter with his own money, rather than with that of poor believers?还是那句话:为什么不教皇,他的财富在这一天更比那些富裕的富裕充足,用他自己的钱建造的圣彼得大教堂one,而不是贫困的信徒呢?
  87. Again: what does the Pope remit or impart to those who, through perfect contrition, have a right to plenary remission and participation?还是那句话:什么教皇的职权范围或传授给那些谁,通过完美的悔悟,有一个全体会议缓解和参与的权利?
  88. Again: what greater good would the Church receive if the Pope, instead of once, as he does now, were to bestow these remissions and participations a hundred times a day on any one of the faithful ?还是那句话:什么更大的利益会得到,如果教会的教皇,而不是一次,因为他现在要赐给任何忠实逐一缓解和参股百倍一天?
  89. Since it is the salvation of souls, rather than money, that the Pope seeks by his pardons, why does he suspend the letters and pardons granted long ago, since they are equally efficacious?既然是灵魂的拯救,而不是赚钱,那教皇赦免他的目的,为什么他的信件,并给予暂停不久前赦免,因为他们同样有效?
  90. To repress these scruples and arguments of the laity by force alone, and not to solve them by giving reasons, is to expose the Church and the Pope to the ridicule of their enemies, and to make Christian men unhappy.单靠武力镇压这些顾忌和俗人的论点,而不是解决他们给予的理由,是揭露教会和教皇的敌人嘲笑,并作出基督教男子不满。
  91. If, then, pardons were preached according to the spirit and mind of the Pope, all these questions would be resolved with ease--nay, would not exist.如果,那么,根据赦免被宣扬的精神和心灵的教皇,所有这些问题将得到解决和缓解 - 不,就不会存在。
  92. Away, then, with all those prophets who say to the people of Christ, "Peace, peace," and there is no peace!离开,那么,就没有和平与所有这些谁先知说基督的人,“和平,和平”,并有!
  93. Blessed be all those prophets who say to the people of Christ, "The cross, the cross," and there is no cross!有福是所有那些谁先知说基督的人“的十字架,十字架,”并没有交叉!
  94. Christians should be exhorted to strive to follow Christ their Head through pains, deaths, and hells.基督徒应当告诫努力跟随基督通过痛苦,死亡和地狱的负责人。
  95. And thus trust to enter heaven through many tribulations, rather than in the security of peace.因而相信通过许多磨难进入天堂,而不是在和平安全。


I, Martin Luther, Doctor, of the Order of Monks at Wittenberg, desire to testify publicly that certain propositions against pontifical indulgences, as they call them, have been put forth by me.我,马丁路德,医生,在维滕贝格僧侣订单,意欲作证公开表示反对罗马教皇的宽容某些主张,他们打电话给他们,已经把我提出的。 Now although, up to the present time, neither this most celebrated and renowned school of ours, nor any civil or ecclesiastical power has condemned me, yet there are, as I hear, some men of headlong and audacious spirit, who dare to pronounce me a heretic, as though the matter had been thoroughly looked into and studied.现在虽然,截至目前,没有我们这个最有名的著名学校,也没有任何民事或教会权力谴责我,但也有,我听到,有些轻率和大胆精神的男人,我谁也不敢发音一个邪教组织,好像此事已详细研究和研究。 But on my part, as I have often done before, so now too, I implore all men, by the faith of Christ, either to point out to me a better way, if such a way has been divinely revealed to any, or at least to submit their opinion to the judgment of God and of the Church.但在我的一部分,正如我以前经常做,所以现在也一样,我恳请所有的人,由基督的信仰,要么给我指出一个更好的方式,如果这样的方式已经透露给任何神,或至少提交他们的意见,以神的审判和教会。 For I am neither so rash as to wish that my sole opinion should be preferred to that of all other men, nor so senseless as to be willing, that the word of God should be made to give place to fables, devised by human reason.因为我既不是如此轻率,以希望我唯一的意见应该是首选的所有其他男子,也没有那么无聊,以舍得,那是上帝的话,应给地方,寓言,通过人的理性设计。

Luther's 95 Theses路德的95论文

Advanced Information先进的信息

(1517) (1517)

The Ninety-five Theses were a series of propositions dealing with indulgences which Martin Luther drew up as the basis for a proposed academic disputation.的95个提纲是一个命题与宽容处理一连串马丁路德画作为一个学术争论的基础上提出的。They were written in reaction to abuses in the sale of a plenary indulgence by Johann Tetzel, who gave the impression that it would not only remit the guilt and penalties of even the most serious sins, but that its benefits could be applied to the dead in purgatory.他们写的反应,滥用在一个由约翰Tetzel全体会议放纵,谁给的印象出售它不仅会发还有罪和处罚,即使是最严重的罪过,但它的好处可以被应用到死在炼狱。 Luther challenged this teaching because it led people to believe that forgiveness could be bought and to neglect true repentance.路德质疑这种教学,因为它使人们相信,宽恕可以购买和忽视真正的悔改。

The theses began by arguing that true repentance involves a turning of the entire self to God and not simply the desire to evade punishment.该论文首先辩称,确有悔改涉及一个转折点,整个自我上帝,而不是简单的愿望,逃避打击。Luther also maintained that only God could remit guilt and that indulgences could only excuse the penalties imposed by the church.路德也认为,只有上帝可以汇往内疚和放纵的借口只能由教会所判处的刑罚。In addition, he denied the pope's power over purgatory, stated that the believer always has true forgiveness without indulgences, and condemned the interest shown in money rather than souls.此外,他否认了教皇的权力在炼狱中指出,信徒始终不放纵真正的宽恕,并谴责,而不是金钱的灵魂表现出的兴趣。Although written in Latin and not intended for public distribution, the theses were translated into German and soon spread throughout Germany.虽然写在拉丁美洲和不拟公开发行的论文被翻译成德文,并很快在德国蔓延。 Even though they do not reveal the full development of Luther's theology, October 31, 1517, the day they were supposedly posted on the Wittenberg Castle Church door, has traditionally been considered the starting point of the Reformation.尽管他们没有透露路德的神学,1517年10月31日,他们被假想在维滕贝格城堡教堂大门张贴当日,全面发展历来被认为是改革的出发点。 Recent scholarship has questioned both the dating of the theses and whether they were actually posted.最近的学术质疑的论文都在约会,是否具有实际存入。Although the debate has not been resolved, most scholars still accept the traditional interpretation.虽然辩论还没有得到解决,大多数学者仍然接受传统的解释。

Bibliography 参考书目
K. Aland, ed., Martin Luther's 95 Theses; H. Grimm, ed., Luther's Works, XXXI; E. Iserloh, The Theses Were Not Posted; F. Lau, "The Posting of Luther's Theses, Legend or Fact?"K.奥兰,编,马丁路德的95论文; H.格林,ED,路德的作品,XXXI; E. Iserloh,未发表的论文;楼楼,他说:“路德的论文张贴,传说或事实?”CTM 38:691-703.CTM 38:691-703。

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