Manichaeism, Manichæism摩尼教

General Information一般资料

Manichaeism is a gnostic religion that originated in Babylonia in the 3d century AD.摩尼教是一个诺斯替宗教在巴比伦3D世纪起源于公元。Its founder was a Persian of noble descent called Mani (or Manes), c.216-c.276.它的创始人是一个高贵血统波斯称为玛尼(或Manes认为),c.216 - c.276。Manichaeism was long treated as a Christian heresy, but it is more clearly understood as an independent religion, drawing on the diverse resources of Christianity, Zoroastrianism, and Buddhism.摩尼教是长期被视为基督教异端,但它更清楚地理解为一个独立的宗教,对基督教,拜火教和佛教绘画的各种资源。

At about the age of 24, Mani received a special revelation from God, according to which he was called to perfect the incomplete religions founded by earlier prophets--Zoroaster, Buddha, and Christ.大约在24岁,摩尼收到来自上帝的特殊启示,根据他的要求,完善了早期的先知创办了不完整的宗教 - 琐罗亚斯德,佛陀,基督。About the year 242, he undertook an extensive journey as an itinerant preacher, proclaiming himself the "Messenger of Truth," the Paraclete promised by Christ.关于242年,他进行了一次巡回布道​​者作为广泛的征途上,宣称自己是“真理的使者”的圣灵承诺的基督。Traveling throughout the Persian Empire and as far as India, he gathered a considerable following.旅游在整个波斯帝国,并尽可能印度,他收集了相当以下。He met with increasing hostility from the Zoroastrian priests and was finally executed for heresy.他会见了越来越多的敌意从拜火教祭司终于为异端执行。

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The essence of Manichaeism was the principle of absolute Dualism: the primal conflict between God, represented by light and spirit, and Satan, represented by darkness and the material world.摩尼教的本质是绝对的二元论原则:上帝之间的原始冲突,通过光线和精神,撒旦为代表,通过黑暗和物质世界的代表。Human beings, created by God, were divine in spirit but they carried within them seeds of darkness, sown by Satan, because of their material bodies.人类,上帝创造的,是神圣的,但他们的精神内进行他们,因为他们的物质身体的黑暗种子,由撒旦播种。

Salvation, as taught by Mani, requires liberating the seed of light, the soul, from the material darkness in which it is trapped.拯救,如摩尼教,要求解放的光,心灵的种子从黑暗的材料在其所困。This is achieved by strict celibacy and ascetic practices.这是通过严格的独身和禁欲主义的做法。Those who would become perfect are to set three "seals" on their lives: on the mouth, to speak only truth and to abstain from meat or impure food of any kind; on the hands, to refrain from war, killing, or injuring life; on the breast, to render impossible the works of the flesh.这些谁就会成为完美的设置三个“海豹”对他们的生活:在口,只讲真理,放弃肉类或不纯的任何形式的食物;在手,不要战争,杀害,伤害或生命;乳房上,呈现不可能肉体的作品。 This triple seal applies only to the elect or pure; hearers follow a less demanding code.这三重密封只适用于选举或纯;听众遵循要求不高的代码。The imperfect are destined to continual rebirth in a world of material bodies.不完善是注定要在世界上的物质机构不断重生。

Manichaeism, which denied the reality of Christ's body and rejected the notion of free will, adapted from Christianity baptism, the Eucharist, and a third sacrament of remission of sins at the time of death.摩尼教,否认基督的身体实际和拒绝的自由意志的概念,从基督教的洗礼,圣体,以及缓解的罪孽在死亡时间的三分之一圣餐适应。 Because of its attitude toward the material world, Manichaeism regarded evil as a physical rather than a moral entity.由于其对物质世界的态度,摩尼教视为一个实体,而不是一种道德物理邪恶。Women were considered forces of darkness, binding men to the flesh.妇女被认为是黑暗的力量,结合男性的肉体。

The Byzantine emperor Justinian issued an edict against the Manichaeans, and Saint Augustine, who for 9 years had been a Manichee, wrote and spoke against this heresy, as well as described his own experience in his Confessions. 在拜占庭皇帝查士丁尼发出反对摩尼教诏书,和圣奥古斯丁,谁9年一直是Manichee,写和反对这种异端发言,以及描述了他自己的经验在他的自白。

Manichaeism disappeared in the West in about the 6th century, although its doctrines reappeared in the teachings of the Bogomils, Albigenses, and other sects during the Middle Ages.摩尼教消失在西约公元6世纪,但其学说在Bogomils,Albigenses,并在中世纪其他教派的教义又出现了。 In the East, Manichaeism survived until the 13th century.在东方,摩尼教下来,直到13世纪。

Agnes Cunningham艾格尼丝坎宁安

Bibliography 参考书目
Asmussen, JP, Manichaean Literature (1975); Burkitt, FC, The Religion of the Manichaeans (1925); Jackson, AVW, Researches in Manichaeism (1932; repr. 1965); Runciman, Steven, The Medieval Manichees (1947; repr. 1961); Windengren, George, Mani and Manichaeism, trans. Asmussen,JP,摩尼教文学(1975年);伯基特,FC,对摩尼教宗教(1925);杰克逊,AVW,在摩尼教的研究(1932年,再版1965年); Runciman,史蒂芬,中世纪Manichees(1947年再版。 1961年); Windengren,乔治,摩尼和摩尼教,跨。by Charles Kessler (1965).由查尔斯凯斯勒(1965)。


Advanced Information先进的信息

Manichaeism was a third century dualistic religion, founded by Mani, who fused Persian, Christian, and Buddhist elements into a major new faith.摩尼教是公元三世纪二元宗教,由摩尼创立,谁融合波斯,基督教,并成为一个重要的新信仰佛教的元素。It was fought in the West as a virulent Christian heresy.这是战斗在西方作为一个致命的基督教异端。Mani's religion was a complex Gnostic system offering salvation by knowledge.摩尼的诺斯替宗教是一个复杂的系统知识,提供拯救。 The main features of Manichaeism were enunciated in an elaborate cosmogonical myth of two absolute and eternal principles which manifest themselves in three eras or "moments."摩尼教的主要特点是阐述在一个精心制作的两个绝对的和永恒的原则,这些原则体现在三个时代或自己cosmogonical神话“的时刻。”

The first moment describes a radical dualism in a previous age.首先介绍了目前在以前的年代激进的二元论。 Light and darkness (good and evil), personified in the Father of Lights and the Prince of Darkness, were both coeternal and independent.光明与黑暗(善恶),在灯光和黑暗王子的父亲人格化,均coeternal和独立。 In the middle moment Darkness attacked and became mixed with Light in a precosmic fall of primal man.在中间攻击,成为黑暗的时刻,在一个原始的人precosmic秋季光混合。This resulted in a second creation of the material world and man by the evil powers in which Light is trapped in nature and human bodies.这导致了物质世界和在其中光在自然界和人类邪恶的权力机构被困男子二次创作。Redemption of Light occurs by a cosmic mechanism in the heavens by which particles of Light (souls) are drawn up and fill the moon for fifteen days.由轻赎回发生在其中光(灵魂)粒子是制定并填写了十五天的月亮天上宇宙机制。In the last phases of the moon Light is transferred to the sun and finally to Paradise.在月亮的光最后阶段转移到太阳,最后到天堂。Ever since the fall prophets have been sent by the Father of Lights, such as Zoroaster in Persia, Buddha in India, and Jesus in the West.自从秋天先知已经发出,如琐罗亚斯德在波斯,印度的佛像,而在西方耶稣灯,父亲。

But Mani was the greatest prophet who, as the paraclete, proclaimed a salvation by knowledge (gnosis) consisting of strict ascetic practices.但玛尼谁是最伟大的先知,因为圣灵,宣布由知识得救(灵知)严格的苦行实践组成。In the last days of the second moment a great war is to be concluded with judgment and a global conflagration lasting 1,468 years.在第二个时刻的最后几天,是一个伟大的战争与判断和全球大火持续1468年结束。Light will be saved and everything material destroyed.灯将被保存和销毁一切材料。In the third moment Light and Darkness will be separated forever as in the primordial division.在第三时刻光明与黑暗将永远分开在原始分工。

In Mani's myth man is lost and fallen in existence, but in essence he is a particle of Light and thus one in substance with God.在玛尼的神话男子丢失和存在下降,但在本质上他是一个光的粒子,从而在与神的物质之一。Individual salvation consists in grasping this truth by illumination from God's Spirit.个人得救在于把握由神的灵光照这个道理。Christ appears as merely a prophet and is not really incarnate.基督显示为只是一个先知,是不是真的化身。His teaching about Light and Darkness was falsified by his apostles, who came from Judaism.他对光明和黑暗的教学是伪造他的使徒,谁从犹太教来了。Mani restored his essential teachings.摩尼恢复了他的基本教义。

Salvation was exemplified in the Manichaen community, a hierarchy of two classes: the Elect, who consisted of Mani's successor, 12 apostles, 72 bishops, and 360 presbyters; and the Hearers.救世军是体现在Manichaen,两个类层次社会:当选,谁玛尼的继任者,12使徒,72主教,和360长老组成;和听众。 The Elect were "sealed" with a threefold preservative: purity of mouth, abstaining from all ensouled things (meat) and strong drink; purity of life, renouncing earthly property and physical labor which might endanger Light diffused in nature; and purity of heart, forswearing sexual activity.选民被“密封”的三重防腐剂:口纯度,所有ensouled东西(肉类)和浓酒弃权,放弃现世的生活纯度财产和体力劳动可能危及光扩散性,以及纯洁的心灵, forswearing性活动。The lower class of Hearers who lived less strenuous lives hoped for later liberation through reincarnation.谁住的听众少费劲低下阶层的生活希望通过转世后的解放。

Manichaean worship included fasting, daily prayers, and sacramental meals which differed greatly from the Lord's Supper.摩尼教崇拜包括禁食,每日祷告,并不同于主的晚餐大大圣事的饭菜。 Hearers served the Elect "alms", fruit such as melons believed to contain great amounts of Light.听众服务的电器“施舍”,如认为含有巨大的轻量瓜类水果。Baptism was not celebrated since initiation into the community occurred by accepting Mani's wisdom through preaching.洗礼没有庆祝,因为进入社会开始接纳通过说教玛尼的智慧发生。Hymn cycles extolling redeeming knowledge were sung to focus believers' attention on the beauty of Paradise, where rescued souls dwelt.赞美诗周期歌颂挽救知识被传唱专注于天堂,在那里住的灵魂获救美信徒的注意。

Manichaeism spread both east and west from Persia.从波斯摩尼教传播东西方。In the West it was vigorously fought by both the Christian church and Roman emperors.在西方它是积极争取双方的基督教教会和罗马的皇帝。Opposition was especially strong in Africa under Augustine, who for nine years had been a Hearer.反对派强烈,特别是在非洲下奥古斯丁,谁九年来一直是听话。Augustine challenged Manichaeism by denying Mani's apostleship and condemning his rejection of biblical truth.奥古斯丁质疑否认摩尼的使徒,并谴责他的圣经真理拒绝摩尼教。Other critics accused him of inventing fables which made his ideas not a theology or philosophy but a theosophy.其他批评者指责发明寓言这使他的思想不是神学或哲学,而是神智他。Manichaeism survived into the Middle Ages through such sects as the Paulicians and Cathari, which probably developed from the original tradition.摩尼教延续到中世纪通过诸如Paulicians和卡塔利,这可能从原来的传统开发等教派。

WA HuffeckerWA Huffecker

Bibliography 参考书目
JP Asmussen, Manichaean Literature; FC Baur, Das manichaische Religionssystem nach den Quellen neu untersucht und entwikelt; FC Burkitt, The Religion of the Manichees; LJR Ort, Mani: A Religio-Historical Description of His Personality; G. 摩尼教几篇文章。信息来源,以便更深入地了解宗教科目。"> Widengren, Mani and Manichaeism.JP Asmussen,摩尼教文学; FC鲍尔,达斯manichaische Religionssystem nach巢穴Quellen神经untersucht UND entwikelt; FC伯基特,该Manichees宗教; LJR ORT,摩尼:他的人格Religio,历史描述; G. Widengren,摩尼和摩尼教。


Advanced Information先进的信息

(216-ca. 277)(216 - 约277)

Mani was an Iranian philosopher and painter who synthesized Persian, Christian, and Buddhist ideas to form Manichaeism, a dualistic faith which became one of the major religions of the ancient world.马尼是伊朗哲学家和画家谁合成波斯,基督教,佛教思想,形成摩尼教,二元信仰成为了古代世界的主要宗教之一。He received his early education in a Gnostic community in southern Babylonia and claimed his first revelation at the age of twelve and his call to apostleship when he was twenty-four.他接受了诺斯底南部巴比伦社区早期教育,并声称他在十二岁,他叫他的第一个启示使徒当他24。After his efforts to convert his community failed, he traveled to India, where he founded his first in religious group.在他的努力,他的社区转换失败后,他前往印度,在那里他建立了他的第一个宗教团体。He returned in 242 to preach his faith in Babylonian provinces, and he became a vassal of the new monarch, Shapur I. Although Mani's beliefs were never established as the official state religion, he enjoyed royal protection and sent proselytizers throughout Persia and into foreign lands.他回到242宣扬他在巴比伦省的信念,他成为了新的君主的附庸,Shapur一虽然玛尼的信念从来没有作为正式国教成立,他喜欢皇家保护和发送整个波斯和到外国的土地proselytizers 。

Mani contended that he was the greatest and last prophet or paraclete sent by the Father of Light.摩尼争辩说,他是最伟大的和最后的先知或圣灵的光之父发送。His teaching was claimed to be superior to prophets who preceded him because, unlike Zoroaster, Buddha, and Jesus, Mani published an authoritative canon of at least seven major works.他的教学,是自称是优于前面谁先知,因为他不像琐罗亚斯德,佛陀,耶稣,摩尼出版了至少七大经典作品的权威。His system includes an elaborate mythical cosmogony and eschatology conceived in terms of two absolute principles, Light and Darkness, and an ascetic way of salvation.他的系统包括一个精心制作的神话宇宙起源和末世论的两个绝对的原则,光明与黑暗方面的设想,以及拯救苦行的方式。 A unique feature of Manichaeism was paintings which illustrated his system of redemption.摩尼教的一个独特的特点是画这说明他的赎回制度。Mani claimed continuous revelations and inspiration from an angel, "the Twin," who as his heavenly alter ego prepared and protected him as a teacher and initiated him in the way of salvation.玛尼声称连续从天使启示和灵感,“双子”,谁作为他的天堂改变自我准备和保护他为师,并开始在他的救赎方式。 Miraculous healings were also attributed to Mani to authenticate his divine mission.神奇的医治也归因于摩尼来验证自己的神圣使命。

After the death of Shapur, Mani was charged by Persian priests with perverting the traditional religion.后Shapur死亡,摩尼由波斯神父被控妨碍与传统的宗教。The new king, Vahram I, imprisoned him, and a prolonged trial ensued.新的国王,Vahram我,囚禁他,长时间的审判接踵而至。Mani was chained (known to his followers as his "crucifixion") and greatly weakened by fasting.摩尼被链接(称为他的“十字架”,以他的追随者)和空腹大大削弱。He died twenty-six days after giving a final message to his church.他去世后给最终消息,他的教会26天。His followers memorialized Mani's death in their Bema festival celebrated yearly in March.上奏他们贝马节摩尼的死亡他的追随者庆祝每年三月。

WA Hoffecker西澳Hoffecker
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (Elwell宣布了福音字典)


Catholic Information天主教信息

Manichæism is a religion founded by the Persian Mani in the latter half of the third century.摩尼教是波斯人摩尼所创立的第三个世纪后半宗教。It purported to be the true synthesis of all the religious systems then known, and actually consisted of Zoroastrian Dualism, Babylonian folklore, Buddhist ethics, and some small and superficial, additions of Christian elements.它声称是所有真正的宗教制度当时已知的合成,实际的拜火教二元论,巴比伦的民间传说,佛教伦理,和基督教的一些小分子和肤浅,增加组成。 As the theory of two eternal principles, good and evil, is predominant in this fusion of ideas and gives color to the whole, Manichæism is classified as a form of religious Dualism.作为两个永恒的原则,善和恶的理论,就是在这种思想的融合为主,并给出颜色整体而言,摩尼教被列为宗教二元论的形式。 It spread with extraordinary rapidity in both East and West and maintained a sporadic and intermittent existence in the West (Africa, Spain, France, North Italy, the Balkans) for a thousand years, but it flourished mainly in the land of its birth, (Mesopotamia, Babylonia, Turkestan) and even further East in Northern India, Western China, and Tibet, where, c.它以非凡的速度蔓延在东,西,保持了在西方零星和间歇性的存在一千年(非洲,西班牙,法国,意大利北部,巴尔干半岛),但在其蓬勃发展的诞生主要是土地,(美索不达米亚,巴比伦,土耳其斯坦),甚至进一步东在印度北部,中国西部,西藏,在那里,角 AD 1000, the bulk of the population professed its tenets and where it died out at an uncertain date.公元1000年,大部份的人口宣称它的原理和它死在一个不确定的过时。


Mani (Gr. Manys, gen. usually Manytos, sometimes Manentos, rarely Manou; or Manichios; Latin Manes, gen. Manetis; In Augustine always Manichaeus) is a title and term of respect rather than a personal name.玛尼(希腊语Manys,根通常Manytos,有时Manentos,很少Manou;或Manichios,拉丁美洲Manes认为,根Manetis;在奥古斯丁始终Manichaeus)是一个长期的标题和尊重,而不是个人的名字。 Its exact meaning is not quite certain, ancient Greek interpretations were skeuos and homilia, but its true derivation is probably from the Babylonian-Aramaic Mânâ, which, among the Mandaeans was a term for a light-spirit, mânâ rabba being the "Light King".它的确切含义并不十分肯定,古希腊的解释是skeuos和homilia,但其真正的推导可能是从巴比伦 - 阿拉姆法力,其中除曼德安是一个轻型的精神来看,法力rabba即“君为轻“。It would therefore mean "the illustrious".因此,当局指“杰出”。This title was assumed by the founder himself and so completely replaced his personal name that the precise form of the latter is not known; two latinized forms, however, are handed down, Cubricus and Ubricus, and it seems likely that these forms are a corruption of the not unusual name of Shuraik.这个称号是由创始人自己承担,所以完全取代了他个人的名称,后者的具体形式是不知道,两个拉丁化形式,但是,流传下来,Cubricus和Ubricus,它很可能是这些形式是一种腐败对Shuraik不寻常的名称。 Although Mani's personal name is thus subject to doubt, there is no doubt concerning that of his father and family.虽然玛尼的个人名字因此受到怀疑,这是毫无疑问的关于他的父亲和家人。His father's name was Fâtâk Bâbâk (Ratekios, or the "well preserved"), a citizen of Ecbatana, the ancient Median capital and a member of the famous Chascanian Gens.他的父亲的名字是Fâtâk巴巴克(Ratekios,或“保存完好”),公民的埃克巴塔那,古中位数资本和著名Chascanian氏族成员。 The boy was born AD 215-216 in the village of Mardinu in Babylonia, from a mother of noble (Arsacide) descent whose name variously is given as Mes, Utâchîm, Marmarjam, and Karossa.这名男孩出生在乡村的Mardinu在巴比伦公元215-216,从高贵(Arsacide)血统的名字不同地是MES,Utâchîm,Marmarjam和Karossa给母亲。 The father was evidently a man of strong religious propensities, since he left Ecbatana to join the South Babylonian Puritans (Menakkede) or Mandaeans and had his son educated in their tenets.父亲显然是一种强烈的宗教倾向的人,因为他离开埃克巴塔那加入南方巴比伦的清教徒(Menakkede)或曼德安和他的儿子曾在他们的宗旨教育。 Mani's father himself must have displayed considerable activities as a religious reformer and have been a kind of forerunner of his more famous son, in the first years of whose public life he had some share.摩尼的父亲自己必须有显示为一个宗教的改革者相当的活动,并一直为他的儿子先行者一种比较有名的,在他的公共生活中有一些共同的第一年。 It is not impossible that some of Patekios' writing lies imbedded in the Mandaean literature which has come down to us.这不是不可能的Patekios“编写一些在于Mandaean文学已下降到我们嵌入。Through misunderstandings the Aramaic word for disciple (Tarbitha, stat abs. Tarbi), Greek and Latin sources speak of a certain Terebinthos, Terebinthus of Turbo, as a distinct person, whom they confound partially with Mani, partially with Patekios, and as they also forgot that Mani, besides being Patekios' great disciple, was his bodily son, and that in consequence the Scythian teacher, Scythianus, is but Fatak Babak of Hamadam, the Scythian metropolis, their account of the first origins of Manichæism differs considerably from that given in Oriental sources.通过误解为弟子阿拉姆字(Tarbitha,STAT ABS。Tarbi),希腊和拉丁来源的发言一定Terebinthos,汽轮发电机Terebinthus作为一个独特的人,他们所混淆与摩尼部分,部分与Patekios,当他们也忘记了摩尼,除了是Patekios“大弟子,是他身体的儿子,在后果的西徐亚人的老师,Scythianus,只是Fatak巴巴克的Hamadam,大都市的西徐亚人,他们对摩尼教的第一起源帐户大不相同,鉴于在东方的来源。 Notwithstanding Kessler's ingenious researches in this field, we cannot say that the relation between Oriental and Western sources on this point has been sufficiently cleared up, and it may well be that the Western tradition going back through the "Acta Archelai" to within a century of Mani's death, contains some truth.尽管在这一领域的凯斯勒的独创性的研究,我们不能说,在这一点上东方和西方来源的关系已得到充分清理,并很可能会在一个世纪,西方的传统经历了“文献Archelai”备份摩尼的死亡,包含了一些道理。

Mani's father was at first apparently an idolater, for, as he worshipped in a temple to his gods he is supposed to have heard a voice urging him to abstain from meat, wine, and women.玛尼的父亲起初显然是偶像崇拜者,因为,正如他在给他的,他应该有听到一个声音,要求他放弃肉类,酒类,妇女庙供奉神灵。 In obedience to this voice he emigrated to the south and joined the Mughtasilah, or Mandaean Baptists, taking the boy Mani, with him, but possibly leaving Mani's mother behind.在服从这个声音,他移居到南部和加入Mughtasilah,或Mandaean浸信会,正与他的男孩摩尼,但可能离开摩尼的母亲背后。 Here, at the age of twelve Mani is supposed to have received his first revelation.在这里,在十二岁摩尼应该有收到他的第一个启示。The angel Eltaum (God of the Covenant; Tamiel of Jewish Rabbinical lore?), appeared to him, bade him leave the Mandaeans, and live chastely, but to wait still some twelve years before proclaiming himself to the people.天使Eltaum(上帝的盟约;?犹太拉比绝杀Tamiel),出现在他面前,叫他离开曼德安,生活纯洁,但仍然在等待宣布自己的一些人十二年。 It is not unlikely that the boy was trained up to the profession of painter, as he is often thus designated in Oriental (though late) sources.这不是不可能,这名男孩被训练到专业画家,因为他是经常这样指定在东方(虽然晚)的来源。

Babylon was still a center of the pagan priesthood; here Mani became thoroughly imbued with their ancient speculations.巴比伦仍然是异教的神职人员的中心,这里成了他们的古老的玛尼猜测彻底浸透。On Sunday, 20 March, AD 242, Mani first proclaimed his gospel in the royal residence, Gundesapor, on the coronation day of Sapor I, when vast crowds from all parts were gathered together.周日3月20日,公元242,摩尼首先宣布在皇家住所,Gundesapor他的福音,对Sapor我加冕一天,当所有零件广大的人群聚集在一起。 "As once Buddha came to India, Zoroaster to Persia, and Jesus to the lands of the West, so came in the present time, this prophecy through me, the Mani, to the land of Babylonia", sounded the proclamation of this "Apostle of the true God". “作为一次佛陀来到印度,波斯琐罗亚斯德,耶稣对西方的土地,因此在目前的时间到了,通过我这个预言,摩尼,到巴比伦的土地”,吹响了这一“使徒公告的真神“。 He seems to have had but little immediate success and was compelled to leave the country.他似乎有过,但很少成功,被迫立即离开该国。For many years he traveled abroad, founding Manichæan communities in Turkestan and India.多年来,他出国旅行,在土耳其斯坦和印度成立摩尼教社区。When he finally returned to Persia he succeeded in converting to his doctrine Peroz, the brother of Sapor I, and dedicated to him one of his most important works, the "Shapurikan".当他终于回到波斯他成功地转换到他的学说Peroz,Sapor我的兄弟,献给他,他最重要的作品之一,“Shapurikan”。 Peroz obtained for Mani an audience with the king and Mani delivered his prophetical message in the royal presence.为摩尼获得了与国王和摩尼观众Peroz交付皇家在场,他预言的消息。We soon find Mani again a fugitive from his native land; though here and there, as in Beth Garmia, his teaching seems to have taken early root.我们很快发现玛尼再次逃犯从他的故乡,但在这里和那里,在贝丝Garmia,他的教学似乎已经采取早期根。While traveling, Mani spread and strengthened his doctrine by epistles, or encyclical letters, of which some four score are known to us by title.虽然旅游,摩尼蔓延和加强书信,或谕信件,其中有四得分是众所周知的称号给我们他的学说。It is said that Mani afterwards fell into the hands of Sapor I, was cast into prison, and only released at the king's death in 274.有人说,摩尼事后到Sapor我手中倒下了,被送入监狱,只有在国王的死亡统计数字,274。It seems certain that Sapor's successor, Ormuzd I, was favorable to the new prophet; perhaps he even personally released him from his dungeon, unless, indeed, Mani had already effected his escape by bribing a warder and fleeing across the Roman frontier.这似乎可以肯定,Sapor的继任者,Ormuzd我,是有利于新的先知,也许他甚至亲自释放他从他的地牢,除非确实,玛尼已经影响了贿赂看守和整个罗马边境逃离他逃脱。 Ormuzd's favor, however, was of little avail, as he occupied the Persian throne only a single year, and Bahram I, his successor, soon after his accession, caused Mani to be crucified, had the corpse flayed, the skin stuffed and hung up at the city gate, as a terrifying spectacle to his followers, whom he persecuted with relentless severity. Ormuzd的青睐,然而,是无济于事,因为他占领了波斯王位只有一个单一的一年,巴赫拉姆我,他的继任后不久,他的加入,导致摩尼被钉在十字架上,有尸体剥了皮,皮肤标本,挂了在城门口,一个可怕的景象,他的追随者,其中他与无情迫害的严重性。 The date of his death is fixed at 276-277.他的死亡日期是固定在276-277。



The key to Mani's system is his cosmogony.对摩尼的系统的关键是他的宇宙起源。Once this is known there is little else to learn.一旦这个被称为几乎没有别的学习。In this sense Mani was a true Gnostic, as he brought salvation by knowledge.在这个意义上玛尼是一位真正的诺斯底,因为他所带来的知识得救。Manichæism professed to be a religion of pure reason as opposed to Christian credulity; it professed to explain the origin, the composition, and the future of the universe; it had an answer for everything and despised Christianity, which was full of mysteries.摩尼教自称是一个纯粹理性的,而不是轻信基督教宗教,它声称解释的来源,组成和宇宙的未来,它已经成为一切问题的答案和鄙视基督教,这是充满奥秘。 It was utterly unconscious that its every answer was a mystification or a whimsical invention; in fact, it gained mastery over men's minds by the astonishing completeness, minuteness, and consistency of its assertions.这是完全无意识的,它的每一个答案是神秘化或异想天开的发明,实际上,它获得了男子心目中的惊人的完整性,微小,其断言一致性和掌握。

We are giving the cosmogony as contained in Theodore Bar Khoni, embodying the results of the study of François Cumont.我们给宇宙起源在西奥多酒吧Khoni中,体现了弗朗索瓦Cumont研究的结果。Before the existence of heaven and earth and all that is therein, there were two Principles, the one Good the other Bad.之前,天地和其中所有的存在,有两个原则,一个良好的等不良。The Good Principle dwells in the realm of light and is called the Father of Majesty (Grandeur or Greatness, Megethos, Abba D'rabbutha), or the Father with the Four Faces or Persons (tetraprosopon), probably because Time, Light, Force, and Goodness were regarded as essential manifestations of the First Being by the Zervanites (see Cosmogony: Iranian).良好的原理居住在光的境界,被称为英国的父亲(俊宏或伟大,Megethos,阿爸D' rabbutha),或与4面或个人(tetraprosopon),可能父亲,因为时间,光,力,和善良被视为由Zervanites第一个是必不可少的表现(见宇宙起源:伊朗)。 Outside the Father there are his Five Tabernacles or Shechinatha, Intelligence, Reason, Thought, Reflection, and Will.外面有他的父亲住棚或Shechinatha五,情报,理性,思想,反思,和意志。The designation of "Tabernacle" contains a play on the sound Shechina which means both dwelling or tent and "Divine glory or presence" and is used in the Old Testament to designate God's presence between the Cherubim.的“幕”称号载有声音Shechina这意味着无论住宅或帐篷和“神的荣耀或存在”,是在旧约用于指定上帝的存在之间的基路伯发挥。 These five tabernacles were pictured on the one hand as stories of one building -- Will being the topmost story -- and on the other hand as limbs of God's body.这五个住棚被描绘的建设作为一个故事一方面 - 将是最上面的故事 - 兼论作为神的身体四肢等手。He indwelt and possessed them all, so as to be, in a sense, identical with them, yet again, in a sense, to be distinct from them.他indwelt并拥有所有这些,这样才能在某种意义上,与他们相同的,再次,从某种意义上说,是从他们不同。They are also designated as aeons or worlds, beata secula, in St. Augustine's writings.他们还指定为aeons或世界,贝娅塔secula,在圣奥古斯丁的著作。In other sources the five limbs are: Longanimity, Knowledge, Reason, Discretion, and Understanding.在其他来源的五个四肢是:Longanimity,知识,理性,自由裁量权和了解。And again these five as limbs of the Father's spiritual body were sometimes distinguished from the five attributes of His pure Intelligence: Love, Faith, Truth, Highmindedness, and Wisdom.而且又把这些作为父亲的精神身体四肢五人有时有别于他的纯智力的五个属性:爱,信仰,真理,Highmindedness和智慧。 This Father of light together with the light-air and the light-earth, the former with five attributes parallel to his own, and the latter with the five limbs of Breath, Wind, Light, Water, and Fire constitute the Manichæan pleroma.这种光与光,空气和光地球上,有五个属性,同时他自己以前的,且与呼吸五个四肢后者的父亲,风,光,水,火构成了摩尼教pleroma。

This light world isof infinite extent in five directions and has only one limit, set to it below by the realm of Darkness, which is likewise infinite in all directions barring the one above, where it borders on the realm of light.这个世界是无限的光在五个方向和程度只有一个限制,设置它的黑暗境界,这同样是一个禁止在所有上述方向,它在光域边界无限如下。 Opposed to the Father of Grandeur is the King of Darkness.反对尊驰的父亲是黑暗之王。He is actually never called God, but otherwise, he and his kingdom down below are exactly parallel to the ruler and realm of the light above.他实际上是从来没有所谓的神,但除此之外,他和他的王国楼下是完全平行的统治者和上面的光的境界。The dark Pleroma is also triple, as it were firmament, air, and earth inverted.黑暗Pleroma也是三倍,因为它是天空,空气和地球倒置。The first two (Heshuha and Humana) have the five attributes, members, aeons, or worlds: Pestilent Breath, Scorching Wind, Gloom, Mist, Consuming Fire; the last has the following five: Wells of Poison, Columns of Smoke, Abysmal Depths, Fetid Marshes, and Pillars of Fire.前两个(Heshuha和Humana)有五个属性,成员,aeons,或世界:Pestilent呼吸,灼热的风,暗,雾,消费火灾;最后有以下五个:井毒,列的烟雾,糟糕的深渊,恶臭沼泽,火灾的支柱。 This last five fold division is clearly borrowed from ancient Chaldean ideas current in Mesopotamia.这最后的五倍师显然是借鉴了古代迦勒思想在美索不达米亚的电流。

These two powers might have lived eternally in peace, had not the Prince of Darkness decided to invade the realm of light.这两个权力可能永远生活在和平,没有了黑暗王子决定入侵的光的境界。On the approach of the monarch of chaos the five aeons of light were seized with terror.在君主的混乱方式的光被检的五个aeons与恐怖。This incarnation of evil called Satan or Ur-devil (Diabolos protos, Iblis Kadim, in Arabic sources), a monster half fish, half bird, yet with four feet and lion-headed, threw himself upward toward the confines of light.这种所谓的邪恶撒旦或乌尔 - 魔鬼(扯铃PROTOS,Iblis Kadim,在阿拉伯语源),怪物半鱼半鸟,有四个脚和狮子为首的是,扔光的范围走向自己向上的化身。The echo of the thunder of his onrush went through the blessed aeons until it reached the Father of Majesty, who bethinking himself said: I will not send my five aeons, made for blessed repose, to engage in this war, I will go myself and give battle.而他的突进thunder echo经历了得天独厚aeons,直到它达到了陛下的父亲,谁bethinking自己说:我不派我的五aeons,为祝福寄托了,搞这场战争,我会去自己和给战斗。 Hereupon the Father of Majesty emanated the Mother of Life and the Mother of Life emanated the first man.于此所发出的英国父亲的生命与生命的母亲的母亲所发出的第一人。These two constitute, with the Father, a sort of Trinity in Unity, hence the Father could say: "I myself will go".这两个构成的父亲,一个三位一体的统一排序,因此父亲可以说:“我自己会走”。Mani here assimilates ideas already known from Gnosticism (qv, subtitle The Sophia Myth) and resembling Christian doctrine, especially when it is borne in mind that "Spirit" is feminine in Hebrew-Aramaic and thus could easily be conceived as a mother of all living.摩尼这里同化已经从诺斯替主义(QV,副标题索菲亚神话)和已知的想法类似基督教的教义,特别是当它是铭记,“精神”是女性在希伯来文,亚兰文,因此可以很容易地为所有众生之母设想。 The Protanthropos or "First Man" is a distinctly Irani an conception, which likewise found its way into a number of Gnostic systems, but which became the central figure in Manichæism.该Protanthropos或“第一人”是一个明显伊拉尼an概念,这同样发现成诺斯底系统数目的方法,但它成为了摩尼教的核心人物。 The myth of the origin of the world out of the members of a dead giant or Ur-man is extremely ancient, not only in Iranian speculations but also in Indian mythology (Rig-Veda, X, 90), Indeed if the myth of giant Ymir in Norse Cosmogonies is not merely a medieval invention, as is sometimes asserted, this legend must be one of the earliest possessions of the Aryan race.对世界起源的一个死巨头或乌尔人的成员中是极为古老的神话,不仅在伊朗的猜测,而且在印度神话(钻机,吠陀,X,90),事实上,如果在巨人的神话在北欧Cosmogonies YMIR不仅是一个中世纪的发明,因为有时是断言,这个传说一定是雅利安种族的最早的遗物之一。

According to Mani the First-Man now emanates sons as a man who puts on his armor for the combat.据摩尼的第一人现在emanates作为一个男人谁在他的战斗盔甲放在儿子。These five sons are the five elements opposed to the five aeons of darkness: Clear Air, Refreshing Wind, Bright Light, Life-Giving Waters, and Warming Fire.这五个儿子五行反对黑暗的五个aeons:清除空气,清爽的风,明亮的灯光,赋予生命的水,火和温补。He put on first the aerial breeze, then threw over himself light as a flaming mantle, and over this light a covering of water; he surrounded himself with gusts of wind, took light as his lance and shield, and cast himself downward toward the line of danger.他把第一个空中的微风,然后投掷了自己作为一个燃烧的地幔光,在这个光的水覆盖,他周围有自己的阵风,接任他的矛与盾的光,投行对自己向下危险。 An angel called Nahashbat (?), carrying a crown of victory, went before him.所谓Nahashbat(?)天使,背着一个胜利的桂冠,走到他面前。The First-Man projected his light before him, and the King of Darkness seeing it, thought and said: "What I have sought from afar, lo, I have found it near me."第一,人在他之前预测他的光,而黑暗之王看到它,想了想,说:“我从远方,罗追捧,我发现它靠近我。”He also clothed himself with his five elements, and engaged in combat with the First-Man.他还穿着自己与他的五行,并与第一人战斗。The struggle went in favor of the King of Darkness.的斗争中去的黑暗之王的青睐。The First-Man when being overcome, gave himself and his five sons as food to the five sons of Darkness, "as a man having an enemy, mixes deadly poison in a cake, and gives it to his foe."第一,当人被克服,给自己和他的五个食品黑暗的五个儿子的儿子,“作为一个人有一个敌人,混合在一个蛋糕致命的毒药,并赋予它自己的敌人。” When these five resplendent deities had been absorbed by the sons of Darkness, reason was taken away from them and they became through the poisonous admixture with the sons of Darkness, like unto a man bitten by a wild dog or serpent.当这五个辉煌神已被黑暗的儿子吸收,理由是他们带走,他们通过与黑暗的儿子成了有毒外加剂,像你们的野生蛇咬伤的狗或一个人。 Thus the evil one conquered for a while.因此,恶者征服了一段时间。But the First-Man recovered his reason and prayed seven times to the Father of Majesty, who being moved by mercy, emanated as second creation, the Friend of the Ligh t, this Friend of the Light emanated the Great Ban, and the Great Ban emanated the Spirit of Life.但第一人恢复了理智和祈祷七次的陛下,谁被怜悯动议的二次创作,对Ligh吨朋友,这个朋友所发出的光所发出的大班,父亲,和大板所发出的生命精神。 Thus a second trinity parallel to the first (Father of Light, Mother of Light, First-Man) comes into existence.因此,一个平行第二三位一体的第一个(父亲的光,光的母亲,第一人)开始存在。The first two personages of the latter trinity have not yet been explained and particularly the meaning of the Great Ban is a puzzle, but as in the former trinity, it is the third person, who does the actual work, the Spirit of Life (To Zon Pneuma), who becomes the demi-urge or world former.前两种,后者三位一体人士尚未解释,尤其是在大板的意思是一个谜,但作为前三位一体,它是第三人,谁做的实际工作,生活的精神(要ZON牛马),谁当选半幅敦促或世界前。 Like the First-Man he emanates five personalities: from his intelligence the Ornament of Splendour (Sefath Ziva, Splenditenens, phegotatochos in Greek and Latin sources), from his reason the Great King of Honour, from his thought Adamas, Light, from his self reflection the King of Glory, and from his will the Supporter (Sabhla, Atlas and Omothoros of Greek and Latin sources).像第一人,他emanates five人物:从他的情报的蝶舞饰品(Sefath ZIVA,Splenditenens,在希腊和拉丁来源phegotatochos),从他的理由的荣誉伟大的国王,从他的思想阿达玛斯,光,从他的自我反思之王的荣耀,并从他的意志的支持者(Sabhla,阿特拉斯和希腊和拉丁来源Omothoros)。 These five deities were objects of special worship amongst Manichæans, and St. Augustine (Contra Faustum, XV) gives us descriptions of them drawn from Manichæan hymns.这五个神明都特别崇拜对象之间摩尼教,和圣奥古斯丁(魂斗罗Faustum,XV)摩尼教赞美诗让我们从他们的描述绘制的。

These five descend to the realm of Darkness, find the First-Man in his degradation and rescue him by the word of their power; his armour remains behind, by lifting him by the right hand the Spirit of Life brings him back to the Mother of Life.这五个下降到了黑暗的境界,发现在他的退化的第一人,并解救了他的真言,他的盔甲仍然落后于解除右手精神的生活带来了他回到他的母亲,生活。 The fashioning of the world now begins.世界的塑造现在开始。Some of the sons of the Spirit of Life kill and flay the archons or sons of Darkness and bring them to the Mother of Life.对生命精神的儿子有些杀和去皮的黑暗执政官或儿子,将他们生命的母亲。She spreads out their skins and forms twelve heavens.她传播他们的皮肤和形式twelve天。Their corpses are hurled on the realm of Darkness and eight worlds are made, their bones form the mountain ranges.他们的尸体被扔在黑暗的境界和八个世界制成,其骨骼形成的山脉。The Ornament of splendour holds the five resplendent deities by their waist and below their waist the heavens are extended.饰品的辉煌持有其腰部的五个辉煌神其腰部以下天上的延长。Atlas carries all on his shoulders, the Great King of Honour sits on top of the heavens and guards over all.阿特拉斯进行他的肩膀所有的荣誉伟大的国王坐在天及以上的所有后卫的顶部。The Spirit of Life forces the sons of Darkness to surrender some of the light which they had absorbed from the five elements and out of this he forms the sun and the moon (vessels of light, lucidae naves in St. Augustine) and the stars.生命的精神力量的黑暗的儿子交出了他们曾从五行和这一点,他形成了太阳和月亮(光船,lucidae在圣奥古斯丁殿)和星星吸收一些光。 The Spirit of Life further makes the wheels of the wind under the earth near the Supporter.生命之精神下进一步使地球附近的支持者的风轮。The King of Glory by some creation or other enables these wheels to mount the surface of the earth and thus prevents the five resplendent deities from being set on fire by the poison of the archons.由一些创作或其他荣耀的王使这些车轮安装在地球表面,从而阻止放火由执政官毒害five灿烂的神佛。The text of Theodore bar Khoni is here so confused and corrupt that it is difficult to catch the meaning; probably wind, water, air, and fire are considered protective coverings, encircling and enveloping the gross material earth and revolving around it.西奥多酒吧Khoni的文字在这里如此混乱和腐败,这是很难赶上的涵义;可能风,水,空气,火被认为是保护层,包围和包绕毛地球和它周围的物质循环。

At this stage of the cosmogony the Mother of Life, the First-Man, and the Spirit of Life beg and beseech the Father of Majesty for a further creation and for a third creation he emanated the Messenger; in Latin sources this is the so-called Legatus Tertius.在这个宇宙起源阶段的生命的母亲,第一人,而精神的生活乞求和恳求为进一步创造和创作,他所发出的第三信使陛下的父亲,在拉丁语源,这是所谓的所谓Legatus特尔蒂乌斯。 This Messenger emanates twelve virgins with their garments, crowns, and garlands, namely, Royalty, Wisdom, Victory, Persuasion, Purity, Truth, Faith, Patience, Righteousness, Goodness, Justice, and Light.这使者emanates与他们的服装,冠,和花环,即版税,智慧,胜利,说服,纯度,真理,信仰,耐心,正义,善良,正义,和轻twelve处女。 The Messenger dwells in the sun and, coming toward these twelve virgin-vessels he commands his three attendants to make them revolve and soon they reach the height of the heavens.信使居住在阳光下,并朝着这十二个处女,船只,他命令他的三个服务员,使他们旋转,很快他们到达天堂的高度来了。 All this is a transparent metaphor for the planetary system and the signs of the zodiac.这一切是一个行星系统和透明的比喻星座的迹象。No sooner do the heavens rotate than the Messenger commands the Great Ban to renovate the earth and make the Great Wheels (Air, Fire, and Water) to mount.天不早做旋转比信使命令禁止大翻新地球,使大轮(空气,火,水)装入。The great universe now moves but as yet there is no life of plants, beasts, or man.伟大的宇宙现在的举动,但尚未有任何的植物,野兽,还是人的生命。The production of vegetation, animal, and rational life on earth is a process of obscenity, cannibalism, abortion, and prize-fighting between the Messenger and the sons and daughters of Darkness, the details of which are better passed over.对植被,动物,地球上的理性生活和生产是一个淫秽的过程中,人吃人,流产之间,以及Messenger和儿女的黑暗,这些都是通过对细节更好奖灭火。 Finally, Naimrael, a female, and Ashaklun, a male devil, bring forth two children, Adam and Eve.最后,Naimrael,一个女性,Ashaklun,一名男子魔鬼,带来两个孩子,亚当和夏娃。In Adam's body were imprisoned a vast number of germs of light.在亚当的身体被囚禁了大量细菌的光。He was the great captive of the Power of Evil.他是邪恶的力量伟大的俘虏。The Powers of Light had pity an d sent a Savior, the luminous Jesus.光的权力有怜悯an ð发出了救主,耶稣的发光。This Jesus approached innocent Adam, awoke him from his sleep of death, made him move, drew him out of his slumber, drove away the seductive demon, and enchained far away from him the mighty female archon.这耶稣走近无辜亚当醒来从他死亡的睡眠他,使他的举动,他画了他沉睡了,赶走了诱人的恶魔,并enchained远离他不可一世的女执政官。 Adam reflected on himself and knew that he existed.亚当反映在自己身上,知道他的存在。Jesus then instructed Adam and showed him the Father's dwelling in the celestial heights, and Jesus showed him his own personality, exposed to all things, to the teeth of the panther, the teeth of the elephant, devoured by the greedy, swallowed by gluttons, eaten by dogs, mixed with and imprisoned in all that exists, encompassed by the evil odours of Darkness.耶稣然后指示亚当和显示他在天体高度的父亲的住处,耶稣向他展示了自己的个性,接触到所有的东西,对豹的牙齿,对大象的牙齿,由贪婪吞噬,由贪吃吞噬,被狗吃,混在所有存在关押,被黑暗邪恶的气味涵盖。 Mani's weird but mighty imagination had thus created a "suffering Savior" and given him the name of Jesus.摩尼的怪异,但强大的想象力从而也就创造了一个“痛苦的救世主”,并给他以耶稣的名义。But this Saviour is but the personification of the Cosmic Light as far as imprisoned in matter, therefore it is diffused throughout all nature, it is born, suffers, and dies every day, it is crucified on every tree, it is daily eaten in all food.但是,这不过是救主的尽量在物质监禁人格化的宇宙光,因此它是分散在所有的性质,它是天生的,受到影响,每天死亡,它是在每个树钉在十字架上,是日常食用的所有食品。 This captive Cosmic Light is called Jesus patibilis.这个俘虏宇宙光被称为耶稣patibilis。Jesus then made Adam stand up and taste of the tree of life.亚当耶稣随即站起来,品味生命之树。Adam then looked around and wept.亚当然后环顾四周,哭了。He mightily lifted up his voice as a roaring lion.他强烈地举起如同吼叫的狮子他的声音。He tore his hair and struck his breast and said, "Cursed be the creator of my body and he who bound my soul and they who have made me their slave."他撕毁了他的头发和击中他的胸部,说:“诅咒是我的身体创作者,他谁约束我的灵魂和他们谁使我他们的奴隶。”Man's duty henceforth is to keep his body pure from all bodily stain by practicing self-denial and to help also in the great work of purification throughout the universe.人的职责是保持今后他的身体纯从所有身体染色练自我否定,并帮助在净化整个宇宙伟大的工作还。Manichæan eschatology is in keeping with its cosmogony.摩尼教末世论是与它的宇宙进化论一致。When, mainly through the activity of the elect, all light particles have been gathered together, the messenger, or Legatus Tertius appears, the Spirit of Life comes from the west, the First Man with his hosts comes from north, south, and east, together with all light aeons, and all perfect Manichæans.当,主要是通过选举活动,所有的光粒子已经聚集在一起,信使,或Legatus特尔蒂乌斯出现,生命精神,从西部来了,用他的东道主第一人来自北部,南部和东部,连同所有轻aeons,所有完美的摩尼教。 Atlas, the World Supporter throws his burden away, the Ornament of Splendour above lets go, and thus heaven and earth sink into the abyss.地图集,世界力撑抛出他的负担以外,在蝶舞饰品上面让去,因而天地深渊沉沦。A universal confla gration ensues and burns on till nothing but lightless cinders remain.通用confla格雷申接着而来,并且起至不过无光煤渣仍烧伤。This fire continues during 1486 years, during which the torments of the wicked are the delights of the just.这火继续在1486年,其间恶人折磨是刚刚的美食。When the separation of light from darkness is finally completed, all angels of light who had functions in the creation return on high; the dark world-soul sinks away in the depth, which is then closed forever and eternal tranquillity reigns in the realm of light, no more to be invaded by darkness.当从黑暗的光分离终于完成了,所有的天使轻谁曾在创造高回报的功能;黑暗的世界灵魂的深度汇走,然后封闭在光的境界永远和永恒的安宁统治,没有更多的侵略的黑暗。 With regard to the after-death of the individual, Manichæism taught a threefold state prepared for the Perfect, the Hearers, and the Sinners (non-Manichæans).关于个人后死亡,摩尼教教了三倍状态的完美,听众准备,和罪人(非摩尼教)。The souls of the first are after death received by Jesus, who is sent by the First-Man accompanied by three aeons of light and the Light Maiden.第一的灵魂是耶稣后,谁是由三个光与光少女aeons陪同第一人发送收到了死亡。 They give the deceased a water vessel, a garment, a turban, a crown, and a wreath of light.他们给死者一个水容器,一个服装,头巾,一顶王冠,和光花圈。In vain do evil angels lie in his path, he scorns them and on the ladder of praise he mounts first to the moon, then to the First-Man, the Sun, the Mother of Life, and finally the Supreme Light.在做徒劳的邪恶天使在他的道路在于,他蔑视他们,对他的赞誉梯登上第一个月亮,然后到第一人,太阳,生命之母,最后最高法院轻。 The bodies of the perfect are purified by sun, moon, and stars; their light-particles, set free, mount to the First-Man and are formed into minor deities, surrounding his person.完美的机构纯化太阳,月亮和星星,它们的光粒子,设置免费的,安装的第一人,并为未成年人神组成,周围的人。The fate of the Heavens is ultimately the same as that of the Perfect, but they have to pass through a long purgatory before they arrive at eternal bliss.天堂的命运最终是作为完美的相同,但他们必须经过漫长的炼狱前通过他们在到达永恒的幸福。Sinners, however, must, after death wander about in torment and anguish, surrounded by demons, and condemned by the angels, till the end of the world, when they are, body and soul, thrown into hell.罪人,但是,必须在死后大约徘徊在煎熬和痛苦,周围的恶魔,并谴责天使,直到世界的尽头,当他们,身体和灵魂,扔进地狱。


To set the light-substance free from the pollution of matter was the ultimate aim of all Manichæan life.要设置灯光物质从物质的无污染是所有摩尼教生活的最终目标。Those who entirely devoted themselves to this work were the "Elect" or the "Perfect", the Primates Manichaeorum; those who through human frailty felt unable to abstain from all earthly joys, though they accepted Manichæan tenets, were "the Hearers", auditores, or catechumens.这些谁完全投身到这项工作是“选举”或“完美”,在灵长类Manichaeorum;那些谁通过人类的脆弱感到无法放弃所有尘世的悲欢离合,虽然他们接受了摩尼教的原则,是“的听众”,auditores或慕道者。 The former bear a striking similarity to Buddhist monks, only with this difference that they were always itinerant, being forbidden to settle anywhere permanently.前者承担了惊人的相似,以佛教僧侣,只有与此不同,他们总是流动,被禁止的任何地方永久定居。The life of these ascetics was a hard one.这些修道者的生活是艰苦的。They were forbidden to have property, to eat meat or drink wine, to gratify any sexual desire, to engage in any servile occupation, commerce or trade, to possess house or home, to practice magic, or to practice any other religion.他们被禁止拥有财产,吃肉或喝葡萄酒,以取悦任何性欲,从事任何奴役职业,商业或贸易,拥有房子或家里练习魔术,或从事任何其他宗教。 Their duties were summed up in the three signacula, ie seals or closures, that of the mouth, of the hands, and of the breast (oris, manuum, sinus).他们的工作进行了总结三个signacula起来,即密封或封闭,口,手,以及乳房(ORIS,manuum,窦)。 The first forbade all evil words and all evil food.首先禁止一切邪恶的话和所有邪恶的食物。Animal food roused the demon of Darkness within man, hence only vegetables were allowed to the perfect.动物性食物内激起人的黑暗恶魔,因此只被允许蔬菜的完美。Amongst vegetables, some, as melons and fruit containing oil were specially recommended, as they were thought to contain many light particles, and by being consumed by the perfect those light particles were set free.蔬菜当中,一些如瓜类和水果含有油份特别推荐的,因为它们被认为包含许多轻粒子,并通过完善消费正由这些光粒子被释放。 The second forbade all actions detrimental to the light-substance, slaying of animals, plucking of fruit, etc. The third forbade all evil thoughts, whether against the Manichæan faith or against purity.第二禁止一切行动有损于光物质,动物杀害,采摘水果等第三禁止是否对摩尼教信仰或反对纯度所有邪念。 St. Augustine (especially "De Moribus Manich.") strongly inveighs against the Manichæan's repudiation of marriage.圣奥古斯丁(尤其是“德Moribus Manich。”)强烈反对inveighs摩尼教的休妻。They regarded it as an evil in itself because the propagation of the human race meant the continual imprisonment of the light-substance in matter and a retarding of the blissful consummation of all things; maternity was a calamity and a sin and Manichæans delighted to tell of the seduction of Adam by Eve and her final punishment in eternal damnation.他们视为邪恶的本身,因为在人类的传播意味着光物质在物质和对万物的幸福圆满阻燃不断监禁;分娩是一个灾难和罪恶,并高兴地告诉摩尼教由夏娃和她在永恒的诅咒最终处罚诱惑亚当。 In consequence there was a danger that the act of generation, rather than the act of unchastity was abhorred, and that his was a real danger Augustine's writings testify.在后果有一种危险,即行为的产生,而不是不贞行为是令人憎恶,以及他是一个真正的危险奥古斯丁的著作作证。

The number of the Perfect was naturally very small and in studying Manichæism one is particularly struck by the extreme paucity of individual Perfecti known in history.完美的数量自然非常小,一个是在研究摩尼教特别是个别Perfecti在历史上已知的极端缺乏平衡。The vast bulk of Mani's adherents -- ninety-nine out of every hundred -- were Hearers.对摩尼的信徒绝大部分 - 99出每百 - 被听众。They were bound by Mani's Ten Commandments only, which forbade idolatry, mendacity, avarice, murder (ie all killing), fornication, theft, seduction to deceit, magic, hypocrisy, (secret infidelity to Manichæism), and religious indifference.他们是受玛尼的十诫只,其中禁止偶像崇拜,谎言,贪婪,谋杀(即所有杀害),私通,盗窃,诱奸,以欺骗,魔术,虚伪,(秘密不忠,以摩尼教),和宗教的冷漠。 The first positive duty seems to have been the maintenance and almost the worship of the Elect.首先积极义务似乎已经得到了维护和电器几乎崇拜。They supplied them with vegetables for food and paid them homage on bended knee, asking for their blessing.他们提供的粮食和蔬菜他们付给他们表示敬意的弯曲膝盖,要求为他们祝福。They regarded them as superior beings, nay, collectively, they were thought to constitute the aeon of righteousness.他们认为他们优越众生,不,集体,他们被认为构成了正气永世。Beyond these ten negative commandments there were the two duties common to all, prayer and fasting.除了这十大负面诫命有两个职责共同所有,祈祷和禁食。Prayer was obligatory four times a day: at noon, late in the afternoon, after sunset, and three hours later.祈祷是强制性的一天四次:中午,晚在下午,日落之后,三个小时后。Prayer was made facing the sun or, in the night, the moon; when neither sun nor moon was visible, then the North, the throne of the Light-King.祈祷有人对着太阳或在晚上,月亮,太阳也没有月亮的时候是可见的,那么北的光王的宝座。 It was preceded by a ceremonial purification with water or for lack of water with some other substance in the Mohammedan fashion.在此之前,与水或缺水与一些其他物质的穆罕默德时尚礼仪净化。The daily prayers were accompanied by twelve prostrations and addressed to the various personalities in the realm of light: the Father of Majesty, the First-Man, the Legatus Tertius, the Paraclete (Mani), the Five Elements, and so on.每天祈祷,伴随着由十二礼拜,致在光领域中的各种人物:父亲的陛下,第一人,是Legatus特尔蒂乌斯的圣灵(玛尼),五行,等等。 They consist mainly of a string of laudatory epithets and contain but little supplication.它们主要包括一个美称绰号字符串,包含但很少祈求。As time and attitude of prayer were intimately connected with astronomical phenomena, so likewise was the duty of fasting.随着时间和祈祷的态度是与天文现象密切相连,因此同样是空腹责任。All fasted on the first day of the week in honor of the sun, the Perfect also fasted on the second day in honor of the moon.所有在一周的第一天禁食在太阳的荣誉,也禁食完美就在月亮的荣誉第二天。All kept the fast during two days after every new moon; and once a year at the full moon, and at the beginning of the first quarter of the moon.所有保存在两天后的每一个新的快速月球,并在每年一次的满月,并在月球第一季度开始。 Moreover, a monthly fast, observed till sunset, was begun on the eighth day of the month.此外,每月快,直到日落观察,是始于上的四月初八。

Of rites and ceremonies among the Manichæans but very little is known to us.礼记并跻身摩尼教仪式,但很少有人知道我们。They had one great solemnity, that of the Bema, the anniversary of Mani's death.他们有一个伟大的严肃性,对贝马如此,摩尼的忌日。 This was kept with a vigil of prayers and spiritual reading.这是跟上了守夜祈祷和精神阅读。An empty chair was placed on a raised platform to which five steps led up.空椅子放在一个凸起的平台,这五个步骤导致了。Further details are as yet unknown.进一步的细节尚不为人所知。St. Augustine complains that although Manichæans pretended to be Christians, their feast of the death of Mani exceeded in solemnity that of the Death and Resurrection of Christ.圣奥古斯丁抱怨说,虽然摩尼教假装是基督徒,他们对死亡的盛宴摩尼超过在严肃的死亡和复活的基督的。

Manichæans must have possessed a kind of baptism and eucharist.摩尼教必须具备的一种洗礼和圣餐。 The epistle on baptism, which occurred among the sacred literature of the Manichæans, is unfortunately lost, and in Oriental sources the matter is not referred to, but Christian sources suppose the existence of both these rites.在书信的洗礼,这其中的摩尼教神圣的文学发生,不幸的是失去了,而在东方来源的问题是没有提及,但基督教来源假设这两种仪式的存在。 Of greater importance than baptism was the Consolamentum or "Consolation", an imposition of hands by one of the Elect by which a Hearer was received amongst their number.大于洗礼重要的是Consolamentum或“安慰奖”,一个双手的,其中一个聪是他们当中选出一名收到多少征收。 The Manichæan hierarchy and constitution is still involved in obscurity.摩尼教的层次结构和宪法仍是参与默默无闻。 Mani evidently intended to provide a supreme head for the multitude of his followers.摩尼显然旨在为众多的追随者,他的一个至高无上的头。He even decided that his successor in this dignity should reside in Babylon.他甚至决定他的继任者在这尊严应该住在巴比伦。This high priesthood is known in Arabic sources as the Imamate.这种高圣职是著名的阿拉伯语来源作为Imamate。In the East it seems to have possessed at least some temporary importance, in the West it seems hardly known or recognized.在东方,似乎已经拥有至少一些临时的重要性,在西方看来几乎不知道或认可。No list of these supreme Pontiffs of Manichæism has come down to us; hardly a name or two is known to history.没有这些摩尼教最高教宗名单已下降到我们,几乎没有一个名称或两个是众所周知的历史。It is doubtful even whether the chair of Mani did not remain vacant for long periods.这是值得怀疑的,甚至是否摩尼椅子没有保持长期空缺。On the duties and privileges of the Imamate we possess at present no information.在职责和权限的Imamate我们拥有目前没有资料。According to Western and Eastern sources the Manichæan Church was divided into five hierarchical classes; St. Augustine names them magistri, episcopi, presbyteri, electi, and auditores; this Christianized terminology represents in Manichæan mystical language the sons of meekness, of reason, of knowledge, of mystery, and of understanding.根据西方和东欧来源摩尼教教会分为五个层次班;圣奥古斯丁的名字他们magistri,episcopi,presbyteri,electi和auditores,这基督教化的术语摩尼教神秘语言代表温顺的儿子,理性的知识, ,神秘,和理解。Mani's astrological predilections for the number five, so evident in his cosmogony, evidently suggested this division for his Church or kingdom of the light on earth.为排名第五,在他的宇宙起源如此明显玛尼的星象偏好,显然对他的教会建议或地球上的光王国这个师。The Teachers and Administrators (magistri and episcopi) are probably an adaptation of the legontes and drontes, the speakers and the doers, known in Greek and Babylonian mysteries; and the name "priests" is probably taken over from the Sabian Kura.教师及行政人员(magistri和episcopi)都可能是对legontes和drontes,发言者和实干家的适应,在希腊和巴比伦的奥秘知道;并命名为“祭司”可能是取自洒遍库拉过来。

With regard to the relation of Manichæism to Christianity two things are clear: (a) Some connection with Christianity was intended from the very first by Mani himself, it was not an after-thought, introduced when Manichæism came in touch with the West, as is sometimes asserted.关于摩尼教与基督教的两件事情是清楚的:(一)一些与基督教的连接被从一开始打算由摩尼自己,这不是一个经过深思熟虑,推出来时,摩尼教在接触西方,有时断言。 Christianity was the predominant religion in Osrhoene, and perhaps the principle religion in all Mesopotamia in Mani's time.主要宗教是基督教在Osrhoene,也许在所有的玛尼的时间美索不达米亚宗教原则。Mani, whose object was to found a system, comprehensive of all religions then known, could not but try to incorporate Christianity.玛尼,其目的是要发现一个系统,然后已知的所有宗教全面,不能不尝试加入基督教。 In the first words of his proclamation on the coronation day of Sapor I, he mentioned Jesus, who had come to the countries of the West.鉴于他对Sapor我加冕日宣布的第一句话,他提到耶稣,谁已经到了西方国家。

(b) The connection was purely external and artificial.(二)连接纯粹是外部和人工。 The substance of Manichæism was Chaldean astrology and folklore cast in a rigid dualistic mould; if Christianity was brought in, it was only through force of historical circumstances.对摩尼教物质是迦勒占星术和民间传说中的刚性二元模铸造;如果基督教被带来了,它是通过武力的历史条件下只。 Christianity could not be ignored.基督教不能忽视。In consequence在后果

Mani proclaimed himself the Paraclete promised by Jesus; rejected the whole of the Old Testament, but admitted as much of the New as suited him; in particular he rejected the Acts of the Apostles, because it told of the descent of the Holy Ghost in the past.摩尼自称耶稣承诺的圣灵;拒绝了整个旧约,但承认作为新高达适合他,尤其是他拒绝了使徒行传,因为它是圣灵的后裔告诉记者,在过去。 The gospels were corrupted in many places, but where a text seemed to favor him the Manichee knew how to parade it.被损坏的福音在许多地方,但其中一个文本似乎倾向于他Manichee知道如何操它。One has to read St. Augustine's anti-Manichæan disputes to realize the extreme ingenuity with which scripture texts were collected and interpreted.一个人必须读圣奥古斯丁的反摩尼教的争端,实现了极端的聪明才智与经文文本的收集和解释。

Though Mani called himself the Paraclete he claimed no divinity but with show of humility styled himself "Apostle of Jesus Christ by the providence of God the Father"; a designation which is obviously adapted from the heading of the Pauline Epistles.虽然摩尼自称是圣灵的神性,但他声称没有与谦卑显示样式“,由普罗维登斯的上帝耶稣基督的使徒父”自居,一个指定这显然是从宝莲书信标题适应。 Mani, however, was the Apostle of Jesus Christ, ie the messenger of Christ's promise, that Paraclete whom he sent (apostolos from apostellos, to send) Mani's blasphemous assumption was thus toned down a little to Christian ears.摩尼然而,耶稣基督的使徒,即信使基督的承诺,即圣灵谁他发送(从apostellos阿波斯托洛,发送)摩尼的亵渎假设下跌有点从而低调基督教的耳朵。

Jesus Christ was to Mani but an aeon or persistent personification of Light in the world.; as far as it had already been set free it was the luminous Jesus, or Jesus patibilis.耶稣基督是摩尼,而是在世界的光永旺或持续人格化;尽可能已经释放它的发光耶稣,或耶稣patibilis。

The historical Jesus of Nazareth was entirely repudiated by Mani.在拿撒勒的耶稣被完全否定历史的摩尼。"The son of a poor widow" (Mary),"the Jewish Messias whom the Jews crucified", "a devil who was justly punished for interfering in the work of the Aeon Jesus", such was, according to Mani, the Christ whom Christians worshipped as God.他说:“儿子的一个贫穷的寡妇”(玛丽),“犹太人在犹太人钉在十字架上弭赛亚人”,“一中谁是公正的永旺耶稣的工作干涉惩罚魔鬼”,这样的是,根据摩尼,基督人作为神崇拜的基督徒。 Mani's Christology was purely Docetic, his Christ appeared to be man, to live, suffer, and die to symbolize the light suffering in this world.玛尼的基督纯粹是Docetic,他的基督似乎是男人,生活,受苦,死亡,象征着这个世界的光的痛苦。Though Mani used the term "Evangel" for his message, his Evangel was clearly in no real sense that of the Christians.虽然摩尼用于他的信息术语“福音”,他的播道显然是在没有真正意义上的基督徒。

Mani finally beguiled the unwary by the use of such apparently Christian terms as Father, Son, and Holy Ghost to designate divine personalities, but a glance at his cosmogony shows how flimsy was the disguise.摩尼终于引诱由这些显然基督教作为父亲,儿子,和圣灵指定神圣的人物术语使用的粗心,但在他的宇宙起源一目了然显示了如何站不住脚的,是变相的。 Nevertheless, spoke so cautiously, urging only faith in god, His light, His power, and His wisdom (in reality" the Father of Majesty"; the sun and moon; the five blessed aeons, his sons, and the Manichæan religion), that they deceived many.不过,说得谨慎,敦促只有信仰上帝,他的光,他的权力,和他的智慧(在现实中“的陛下之父”,太阳和月亮;五个祝福aeons,他的儿子,和摩尼教宗教),他们欺骗了许多。


Notwithstanding the bitterest persecution by the Sassanides in Persia as well as by the emperors at Rome, Manichæism spread very rapidly.尽管在波斯以及由在罗马的皇帝Sassanides激烈的迫害,摩尼教传播速度非常迅速。Its greatest success was achieved in countries to the east of Persia.其最大的成功是实现了对波斯东部国家。In AD 1000 the Arab historian Al-Beruni wrote: "The majority of the Eastern Turks, the inhabitants of China and Tibet, and a number in India belong to the religion of Mani".公元1000阿拉伯历史学家铝贝鲁尼写道:“东突厥的大多数,对中国和西藏的居民,在印度数属于宗教玛尼”。The recent finds of Manichæan literature and painting at Turfan corroborate this statement.的摩尼教文献和吐鲁番画最近发现证实了这一说法。Within a generation after Mani's death his followers had settled on the Malabar Coast and gave the name to Minigrama, ie "Settlement of Mani".在一代又玛尼的死亡他的追随者已经解决的马拉巴尔海岸,给Minigrama的名称,即“摩尼解决”。The Chinese inscriptions of Kara Belgassum, once thought to refer to the Nestorians, doubtless have reference to the existence of Manichæism.卡拉Belgassum中国的题词,曾经被认为指的是景教,无疑具有参考摩尼教的存在。The great Turkish tribe of the Tuguzguz in 930 threatened reprisals on Mohammedans in their power if the Manichæans in Samarcand were molested by the Prince of Chorazan, in whose dominion they were very numerous.伟大的Tuguzguz土耳其族人在930威胁在其权力伊斯兰教徒报复,如果在Samarcand的摩尼教被调戏由Chorazan王子,在其统治他们非常多。 Detailed information on the extreme Eastern Manichæans is still lacking.在极端东方摩尼教的详细资料仍然缺乏。In Persia and Babylonia proper, Manichæism seems never to have been the predominant religion, but the Manichæans enjoyed there a large amount of prosperity and toleration under Mohammedan rule.在波斯和巴比伦适当,摩尼教似乎从来就没有过的主要宗教,但摩尼教享受有伊斯兰教统治下的繁荣和宽容大量。Some caliphs were actually favorable to Manichæism, and it had a number of secret sympathizers throughout Islam.有些哈里发实际上有利于摩尼教,它已经在整个伊斯兰同情者的秘密号码。Though not numerous in the capitol, Bagdad, they were scattered in the villages and hamlets of the Irak.虽然没有在国会大厦,巴格达许多,他们分散在村庄和IRAK小村庄。Their prosperity and intimacy of social intercourse with non-Manichæans aroused the indignation of the Puritan party amongst Mani's followers, and this led to the formation of the heresy of Miklas, a Persian ascetic in the eighth century.他们的繁荣和社会交往的亲密与非摩尼教引起了清教徒党之间玛尼的追随者愤慨,这导致了米克拉斯异端,在第八世纪波斯苦行的形成。

As Manichæism adopted three Christian apocrypha, the Gospel of Thomas, the Teaching of Addas, and the Shepherd of Hermas, the legend was soon formed that Thomas, Addas, and Hermas were the first great apostles of Mani's system.由于摩尼教通过了三项基督教伪经,是托马斯,对Addas教学,和牧人书福音,传说是尽快形成托马斯,Addas和黑马是摩尼的系统的第一个伟大的使徒。 Addas is supposed to have spread it in the Orient (ta tes anatoles), Thomas in Syria, and Hermas in Egypt. Addas应该已经蔓延在东方(TA TES anatoles),托马斯在叙利亚和埃及的黑马了。Manichæism was certainly known in Judea before Mani's death; it was brought to Eleutheropolis by Akouas in 274 (Epiph., "Haer.", LXVI, I).摩尼教肯定是著名的犹太前玛尼的死亡,它被带到Eleutheropolis在274所Akouas(Epiph.,“Haer ”,LXVI,I)。St. Ephrem (378) complained that no country was more infected with Manichæism than Mesopotamia in his day, and Manichæism maintained its ground in Edessa even in AD 450.圣Ephrem(378)抱怨说,没有哪个国家比更美索不达米亚摩尼教感染他的一天,摩尼教保持在埃德萨即使在公元450立场。 The fact that it was combated by Eusebius of Emesus, George and Appolinaris of Laodicea, Diodorus of Tarsus, John (Chrysostom) of Antioch, Epiphanius of Salamis, and Titus of Bostra shows how early and ubiquitous was the danger of Manichæism in Western Asia.而它是由Emesus,乔治和Appolinaris的老底嘉,狄奥多罗斯的塔尔苏斯,约翰的安提阿(金口),萨拉米斯埃皮法尼乌斯和提图斯的Bostra尤西比乌斯打击的事实说明如何早期和无处不是摩尼教在西亚的危险。 About AD 404, Julia, a lady of Antioch, tried by her riches and culture to pervert the city of Gaza to Manichæism, but without success.大约在公元404,朱莉娅,一个老太太的安提阿,试图通过她的财富和文化妨碍城市加沙摩尼教,但没有成功。 In Jerusalem St. Cyril had many converted Manichæans amongst his catechumens and refuted their errors at length.在耶路撒冷的圣西里尔了许多转换之中他的慕道摩尼教在长度和驳斥他们的错误。St. Nilus knew of secret Manichæans in Sinai before AD 430.圣Nilus知道在西奈公元430前秘密摩尼教。

In no country did Manichæism enter more insidiously into Christian life than in Egypt.在任何国家没有摩尼教输入更多不知不觉到比在埃及基督徒的生活。One of the governors of Alexandria under Constantine was a Manichæan, who treated the Catholic bishops with unheard-of severity.根据君士坦丁亚历山大州长之一是摩尼教,谁治疗前所未有的严重程度的天主教主教。St. Athanasius says of Anthony the Hermit (330) that he forbade all intercourse with "Manichæans and other heretics".圣亚他那修说,安东尼的隐士(330),他禁止以“摩尼教等异端”的所有性交。

In the Eastern roman Empire it came to the zenith of its power about AD 375-400, but then rapidly declined.在东罗马帝国又爆出了其约公元375-400权力顶峰,但随后迅速下降。But in the middle of the sixth century it once more rose into prominence.但在六世纪中叶,再次上升到突出。The Emperor Justinian himself disputed with them; Photinus the Manichæan publicly disputed with Paul the Persian.皇帝查士丁尼自己有争议的与他们; ​​Photinus公开的摩尼教与保罗波斯争议。Manichæism obtained adherents among the highest classes of society.摩尼教在社会获得最高阶层的信徒。Barsymes the Nestorian prefect of Theodora, was an avowed Manichæan.Barsymes的西奥多拉知府的景教,摩尼教是一个公开宣布。 But this recrudescence of Manichæism was soon suppressed.但这样的摩尼教很快被抑制复发。

Soon, however, whether under the name of Paulicians, or Bogomiles, it again invaded the Byzantine Empire, after having lain hidden for a time on Musselman territory.很快,然而,无论是下Paulicians,或Bogomiles名称,它再次入侵拜占庭帝国,后一躺就穆塞尔曼领土时隐藏。 The following are the Imperial edicts launched against Manichæism: Diocletian (Alexandria, 31 March, 296) commands the Proconsul of Africa to persecute them, he speaks of them as a sordid and impure sect recently come from Persia, which he is determined to destroy root and branch (stirpitus amputari).以下是对摩尼教推出皇家法令:戴克里先(亚历山大3月31日,296)命令非洲方伯迫害他们,他说,作为最近从波斯,他决心破坏根走过了肮脏和不纯的教派,其中和分支(stirpitus amputari)。Its leaders and propagators must be burnt, together with their books; the rank and file beheaded, people of note condemned to the mines, and their goods confiscated.它的领导人和传播者必须被烧毁,连同他们的书籍;员佐级人员斩首,值得注意的人们谴责的地雷,并没收其货物。 This edict remained at least nominally in force under Constantine, and Constantius.这至少在名义上仍法令生效在君士坦丁和康斯坦丘斯。Under Julian the Apostate, Manichæism seems to have been tolerated.在朱利安的叛教者,摩尼教似乎已经不能容忍的。Valentinian I and Gratian, though tolerant of other sects, made exception of the Manichæans.瓦伦蒂安我和Gratian,虽然其他教派宽容,制成的摩尼教例外。Theodosius I, by an edict of 381, declared Manichæans to be without civil rights and incapable of testamentary disposition.狄奥多西一世,由一个381诏书,宣布摩尼教为无民事行为的权利和遗嘱处置能力。In the following year he condemned them to death under the name of Encratites, Saccophores, and Hydroparastates.在接下来的一年,他谴责他们死刑下Encratites,Saccophores和Hydroparastates名称。 Valentinian II confiscated their goods, annulled their wills, and sent them into exile.二,没收他们的货物瓦伦蒂安,废止其遗嘱,并送他们流放。Honorius in 405 renewed the edicts of his predecessors, and fined all governors of cities or provinces who were remiss in carrying out his orders; he invalidated all their contracts, declared them outlaws and public criminals.挪在405延长他的前任的法令,并罚款的城市或省份谁在执行他的命令失职所有省长,他所有的合同无效,宣布这些不法分子和公众的罪犯。 In 445 Valentinian III renewed the edicts of his predecessors; Anastasius condemned all Manichæans to death; Justin and Justinian decreed the death penalty, not only against Manichæans who remained obstinate in their heresy, but even against converts from Manichæism who remained in touch with their former co-religionists, or who did not at once denounce them to the magistrates.在445瓦伦蒂安III再次他的前任的法令;阿纳斯塔修斯谴责一切摩尼教死亡;贾斯汀和查士丁尼颁布死刑,不仅是对摩尼教谁留在他们的异端顽固,但即使对转换从摩尼教谁在与他们保持联系前教友,或谁没有立即谴责他们的裁判。 Heavy penalties were likewise decreed against all State officials who did not denounce their colleagues, if infected with Manichæism, and against all those who retained Manichæan books.重罚亦同样下令对所有国家官员谁没有谴责他们的同事,如果与摩尼教感染,对所有那些谁保留摩尼教的书籍。It was a war of extermination and was apparently successful, within the confines of the Byzantine Empire.这是一个消灭战争和显然是成功的拜占庭帝国之内的范围。


In the West the special home of Manichæism was in Proconsular Africa, where it seems to have had a second apostle inferior only to Mani, a further incarnation of the Paraclete, Adimantus.在西方的摩尼教特殊的家庭在地方总督的非洲地区,它似乎产生了第二使徒劣势只摩尼,一个是圣灵,Adimantus进一步化身。 Previous to 296 Julian the Proconsul had written to the emperor that the Manichæans troubled the peace of the population and caused injury to the towns.前296朱利安的地方总督曾写信给皇帝的摩尼教困扰的人口和平,造成伤害的城镇。After the edict of Diocletian we hear no more of it until the days of St. Augustine.法令后,我们听到,直到戴克里先圣奥古斯丁的日子没有它。Its most notorious champion was Faustus of Mileve.其最臭名昭著的冠军是Mileve浮士德。Born at Mileve of poor parents, he had gone to Rome, and being converted to Manichæism he began to study rhetoric somewhat late in life.在贫穷的父母Mileve出生,他去了罗马,并正在转化为摩尼教,他开始研究修辞有点晚在生活中。He was not a man of profound erudition, but he was a suave and unctuous speaker.他不是一个学问渊博的人,但他是一个温文尔雅和油腻的扬声器。His fame in Manichæan circles was very great.他在摩尼教界名气非常大。He was a Manichæan episcopus and boasted of having left his wife and children and all he had for his religion.他是摩尼教episcopus和不舍他的妻子和孩子们吹嘘他和所有为他的宗教了。He arrived at Carthage in 383, and was arrested, but the Christians obtained the commutation of his sentence to banishment and even that was not carried out.他抵达迦太基在383,和被逮捕,但基督徒获得了他的减刑,以驱逐甚至认为没有进行。About AD 400 he wrote a work in favor of Manichæism, or rather against Christianity, in which he tried to wrest the New Testament to the support of Manichæism.大约在公元400他写的摩尼教有利于工作,或者说对基督教,在他试图夺取新约的摩尼教的支持。St. Augustine answered him in thirty-three books embodying verbally much of his teaching.圣奥古斯丁回答33口头体现他的教学大书了。On 28 and 29 August 392, St. Augustine had refuted a certain Fortunatus in public discussion held in the Baths of Sossius.28日和8月29日392,圣奥古斯丁曾驳斥在Sossius浴场举行的公开讨论某Fortunatus。Fortunatus acknowledged defeat and disappeared from the town.Fortunatus承认失败,并从镇消失了。On 7 Dec., 404, St. Augustine held a dispute with Felix, a Manichæan priest.在12月7日,404,圣奥古斯丁举行了费利克斯,一个摩尼教教士纠纷。He convinced him of the error of his ways and he made him say: Anathema to Mani.他说服了他的方式错误他,他做了他说:诅咒玛尼。 St. Augustine knew how to use severity to extirpate the heresy.圣奥古斯丁知道如何使用的严重程度,消灭异端。Victorinus, a deacon had become an auditor and propagandist of the Manichæans. Victorinus,执事已成为核数师及摩尼教宣传。He was discovered, upon which he apparently repented and asked for reconciliation, but St. Augustine punished him and banished him from the town, warning all people against him.他发现,他显然是在忏悔,并要求和解,但圣奥古斯丁惩罚他,放逐他从镇,警告他对所有的人。He would not hear of his repentance unless he denounced all the Manichæans he knew in the province.他没有听到他的忏悔,除非他谴责所有摩尼教知道他在省。St. Augustine did not write against Manichæism during the last twenty five years of his life; hence it is thought that the sect decreased in importance during that time.圣奥古斯丁没有对摩尼教写在过去25年的岁月,因此它被认为是该教派的重要性在这段时间内下降。Yet in 420, Ursus, the imperial prefect, arrested some Manichæans in Carthage and made them recant.然而,在420,熊属,帝国知府,逮捕了一些在迦太基摩尼教,使他们放弃信仰。When the Arian Vandals conquered Africa the Manichæans thought of gaining the Arian clergy by secretly entering their ranks, but Huneric (477-484), King of the Vandals, realizing the danger, burnt many of them and transported the others.当阿里安汪达尔人征服非洲的摩尼教想到获得通过秘密进入他们的行列阿里安神职人员,但Huneric(477-484),汪达尔国王的,实现了危险,烧伤,其中许多和运输的其他人。 Yet at the end of the sixth century Gregory the Great looked upon Africa as the hotbed of Manichæism.然而,在第六世纪末高利大白眼非洲作为摩尼教的温床。The same warning was repeated by Gregory II (701), and Nicholas II (1061).同样的警告重复了格雷戈里II(701)和尼古拉二世(1061)。

The spread of Manichæism in Spain and Gaul is involved in obscurity on account of the uncertainty concerning the real teaching of Priscillian.在西班牙和高卢摩尼教传播参与账上默默无闻的关于普里西利安实际教学的不确定​​性。

It is well known how St. Augustine (383) found a home at Rome in the Manichæan community, which must have been considerable.众所周知,如何圣奥古斯丁(383)发现,在摩尼教社区家庭在罗马,这一定是可观的。According to the "Liber Pontificalis" Pope Miltiades (311-314) had already discovered adherents to the sect in the city.据“LIBER Pontificalis”教皇Miltiades(311-314)已发现的在城市教派信徒。Valentinian's edict (372), addressed to the city prefect, was clearly launched mainly against Roman Manichæans.瓦伦蒂安的法令(372),给城市的太守,显然是推出主要是针对罗马摩尼教。The so called "Ambrosiaster" combated Manichæism in a great many of his writings (370-380).所谓“Ambrosiaster”打击在他的著作很多(370-380)摩尼教。In the years 384-388 a special sect of Manichæans arose in Rome called Martari, or Mat-squatters, who, supported by a rich man called Constantius, tried to start a sort of monastic life for the Elect in contravention of Mani's command that the Elect should wander about the world preaching the Manichæan Gospel.在384-388年的摩尼教特殊教派在罗马出现所谓Martari,或垫 - 寮屋,谁,由一个名为康斯坦丘斯一个富人的支持,试图开始为选出的玛尼的命令违反了寺院生活的那种选举应徜徉有关摩尼教宣扬福音的世界。The new sect found the bitterest opposition amongst their co-religionists.新教派之间找到了他们的合作教友激烈的反对。 In Rome they seem to have made extraordinary endeavors to conceal themselves by almost complete conformity with Christian customs.在罗马,他们似乎已经做出了不平凡的努力掩盖几乎完全与基督教风俗符合自己。From the middle of the sixth century onward Manichæism apparently died out in the West.从六世纪以后摩尼教中明显地死在西方。Though a number of secret societies and dualistic sects may have existed here and there in obscurity, there is apparently no direct and conscious connection with the Prophet of Babylon and his doctrine.虽然一个秘密社团和二元教派人数可能已存在这里和那里默默无闻,但显然没有与巴比伦的先知和他的学说的直接和有意识的连接。 Yet when the Paulicians and Bogomili from Bulgaria came in contact with the West in the eleventh century, and eastern missionaries driven out by the Byzantine emperors taught dualist doctrines in the North of Italy and the South of France they found the leaven of Manichæism still so deeply pervading the minds of the many that they could make it ferment and rise into the formidable Catharist heresies.然而,当Paulicians和保加利亚Bogomili来与在十一世纪西方的接触,并带动了东部的拜占庭皇帝教传教士在意大利北部和法国南部的二元论学说,他们发现了摩尼教酵仍然如此之深弥漫的众多,他们可以使其发酵,上升到强大的Catharist异端邪说的头脑。


Manichæism, like Gnosticism, was an intellectual religion, it despised the simplicity of the crowd.摩尼教,像诺斯替教,是一个知识分子的宗教,它鄙视的人群的简单性。As it professed to bring salvation through knowledge, ignorance was sin.由于它宣称把通过知识得救,愚昧是罪恶。Manichæism, in consequence, was literary and refined, its founder was a fruitful writer, and so were many of his followers.摩尼教,在后果,是文学和完善,其创始人是一个富有成果的作家,所以是他的许多追随者。Of all this literary output only fragments are at present extant.这一切的文学输出仅是目前现存的片段。No Manichæan treatise has come down to us in its entirety.没有摩尼教论文已下降到我们的全部。Mani wrote in Persian and Babylonian Aramaic, apparently using either language with equal facility.摩尼写在波斯和巴比伦的阿拉姆,显然无论是与平等的设施使用的语言。The following seven titles of works of his have come down to us:以下七个冠军,他的作品已回落到我们:

"Shapurakan", Ie "Princely", because it was dedicated to Peroz, the brother of Sapor I (written in Syrian).“Shapurakan”,即“王国”,因为它是献给Peroz,对Sapor我(在叙利亚书面)兄弟。 It was a kind of Manichæan eschatology, dealing in three chapters with the dissolution of Hearers, Elect, and Sinners.这是一个摩尼教末世实物,三个章节处理的听众解散,选举,和罪人。It was written about AD 242.这是书面约公元242。

"The Book of Mysteries", polemical and dogmatic in character.他说:“书之谜”,论战和教条式的人物。

"The Book of the Giants", probably about cosmogonic figures.他说:“书的巨人”,大概宇宙起源的数字。

"The Book of Precepts for Hearers", with appendix for the Elect.他说:“书为听众的戒律”,与选民的附录。

"The Book of Life-giving", written in Greek, probably of considerable size.他说:“赋予生命之书”,在希腊,可能具有相当规模的书面。

"The Book of Pragmateia", contents totally unknown.他说:“书Pragmateia”,内容完全不得而知。

"The Gospel", written in Persian, of which the chapters began with successive letters of the alphabet.“福音”,在波斯语写的,其中的章节与拼音字母开始连续。

Besides these more extensive works, no less than seventy-six letters or brief treatises are enumerated, but it is not always clear which of these are by Mani himself, which by his immediate successors.除了这些更广泛的作品,不超过76字母或简短的论文列举少,但它并不总是很清楚这是由摩尼自己,这是由他的继任。 The "Epistola Fundamenti", so well known in Latin writers, is probably the "Treatise of the Two Elements", mentioned as first of the seventy-six numbers in Arabic sources.而“Epistola Fundamenti”,所以也称为拉丁美洲作家,大概是“两要素论”,提到在阿拉伯语来源的76号第一。Small and often unintelligible fragments in Pahlevi and in Sogdian(?) have recently been found in Chinese Turkestan by TWK Mueller.在Pahlevi和粟特(?)小,常常不知所云的片段,最近被发现在中国土耳其斯坦的TWK穆勒。The "Epistola Fundamenti" is extensively quoted in St. Augustine's refutation and also in Theodore bar Khoni, and Titus of Bostra, and the "Acta Archelai".而“Epistola Fundamenti”广泛引用圣奥古斯丁的反驳,并在西奥多酒吧Khoni,和提图斯的Bostra和“文献Archelai”。Of Manichæan writers the following names have come down to us: Agapius (Photius, Cod. 179), of Asia Minor; Aphthonius of Egypt (Philostorgium, "Hist. Eccl.", III, 15) Photinus refuted by Paul the Persian (Mercati, "Per la vita de Paulo il Persiano"), Adimantus, refuted by Augustine.在摩尼教作家下列名称已回落到我们:Agapius(Photius,鳕鱼179),小亚细亚,埃及Aphthonius(Philostorgium,“组织胺传道书 ”,三,15)Photinus保罗波斯(Mercati驳斥,“每LA VITA去圣保罗IL Persiano”),Adimantus,驳斥了奥古斯丁。


St. Ephraem (306-373); his treatise against the Manichæans was published in poems (59-73) in the Roman edition with Latin translation and again by K. Kessler in his "Mani", I, 262-302; Hegemonius is said by Heracleon of Chalcedon to be the author of the "Acta disputationis Archelai episcopi Mesopotamiae et Manetis haeresiarchae".圣Ephraem(306-373),他对摩尼教的论文发表在诗(59-73)在与拉美翻译和再次由K.凯斯勒在他的“嘛呢”,我,262-302罗马版; Hegemonius是由迦克墩Heracleon说是对“文献disputationis Archelai episcopi Mesopotamiae等Manetis haeresiarchae”的作者。This important work on Manichæism, written originally in Greek or perhaps in Syriac, between AD 300 and 350 has come down to us only in a Latin translation, though small fragments exist in Greek.这种对摩尼教的重要工作,书面原本在希腊或者在叙利亚公元300和350之间,已回落到我们只有在拉美翻译,麻雀虽小碎片在希腊存在。 The most recent edition is that of M. Beeson (Berlin, 1906).最新的版本是M. Beeson(柏林,1906年)的。It contains an imaginary dispute between Archalaus, Bishop of Charcar, and Mani, himself.它包含一个与Archalaus,对Charcar主教,和摩尼,自己想象中的纠纷。The dispute is but a literary device, but the work ranks as the first class authority on Manichæism.争议不过​​是文学的装置,但这项工作作为对摩尼教一流权威行列。It was translated into English in the Ante-Nicene library.它被翻译成英文在前厅尼西亚库。

Alexander of Lycopolis published a short treatise against Manichæism, last edited by A. Brinkmann (Leipzig, 1895).亚历山大的Lycopolis发表了反对摩尼教,由A.布林克曼(莱比锡,1895年)最后编辑短论文。Serapion of Thmuis (c. 350) is credited by St. Jerome with an excellent work against Manichæans.对Thmuis(C. 350)谢拉皮翁记入由圣杰罗姆与反对摩尼教的出色工作。This work has recently been restored to its original form by A. Brinkmann "Sitz. ber der Preuss. Acad. Berlin"(1895), 479sqq.这项工作最近已经恢复到由A.布林克曼“坐浴。BER DER普罗伊斯。科学院。柏林”(1895年),479sqq的原始形态。Titus of Bostra (374) published four books against the Manichæans, two containing arguments from reason and two arguements from Scripture and theology against the heresy.对Bostra提图斯(374)发表反对摩尼教,两个原因包含参数和两名来自圣经,反对异端神学论点四本书。They have come down to us complete only in a Syriac version (LaGarde, "Tit. Bost. contra Manichaeos Libri IV", Berlin, 1859), but part of the original Greek is published in Pitra's "Analecta sacra. et class."他们已回落到我们完成了叙利亚版本(拉加德,“山雀。博斯特。禁忌Manichaeos L​​ibri IV”,柏林,1859年)只,但原来是在希腊的一部分Pitra出版的“Analecta萨克拉。等类。”(1888), I, 44-46. (1888年),我,44-46。St. Epiphanius of Salamis devoted his great work "Adversus Haereses" (written about 374) mainly to refutation of Manichæism.圣萨拉米斯埃皮法尼乌斯献出了自己的伟大的工作“Adversus Haereses”(约374书面),主要的摩尼教驳斥。The other heresies receive but brief notices and even Arianism seems of less importance.其他异端邪说接收但简短声明,甚至阿里乌斯教似乎不太重要。Theodoret of Cyprus (458), "De haereticorum fabulis", in four books (PG LXXXIII), gives an exposition of Manichæism.Theodoret塞浦路斯(458),“德haereticorum fabulis”四书(PG捌拾叁),给出了摩尼教的阐述。Didymus the Blind, president of the catechetical school at Alexandria (345-395), wrote a treatise in eighteen chapters against Manichæans. Didymus的盲目,在亚历山大(345-395)教理学院院长,对摩尼教写在十八个章节的一篇论文。St. John Damascene (c.750) Wrote a "Dialogue against Manichæans" (PG XCIV), and a shorter "Discussion of John the Orthodox with a Manichæan" (PG XCVI); Photius (891) wrote four books against the Manichæans, and is a valuable witness of the Paulician phase of Manichæism.圣约翰大马士革(c.750)写了“反对摩尼教的对话”(PG XCIV),并在较短的“约翰讨论了摩尼教东正教”(PG XCVI); Photius(891)反对摩尼教写了四本书,并且是对摩尼教Paulician阶段的宝贵见证。Paul the Persian (c.529) "Disputation with Photinus the Manichæan" (PG LXXXVIII, 528).保罗波斯(c.529)“争议与Photinus摩尼教”(PG LXXXVIII,528)。Zacharias Rhetor (c.536), "Seven theses against Manichæans", fragments in PG LXXXV, 1143-.撒迦利亚修辞(c.536),“七论文对摩尼教”,在PG捌拾伍片段,1143 -.Heraclian (c.510) wrote twenty books against Manichæans (Photius, Cod. 86). Heraclian(c.510)写twenty对摩尼教的书籍(Photius,鳕鱼86)。Amongst Latin writers St. Augustine is foremost, his works being "De utilitate credendi"; "De moribus Manichaeorum"; "De duabus animabus"; "Contra Fortunatum"; "De actis cum Felice", "De Natura Boni", "Contra Secundinum", "Contra Adversarium Legis et Prophetarum" in "Opera", VIII (Paris, 1837).拉美作家当中是最重要的圣奥古斯丁,他的作品是“德utilitate credendi”,“德moribus Manichaeorum”,“德duabus animabus”,“魂斗罗Fortunatum”,“德英联暨菲菲”,“德的Natura渤泥”,“魂斗罗Secundinum“,”魂斗罗Adversarium立法理由等Prophetarum“中的”戏“,八(巴黎,1837年)。 Some in English.一些英语。 "De Genesi contra Manichaeos lib. II."“德Genesi禁忌Manichaeos库II。”Ambrosiaster (370-380): for his commentaries on St. Paul's Epistles and his "Quaestiones V. et N. Testamenti" see A. Souter, "A Study of Ambrosiaster" (1907); Marcus Victorinus (380), "Ad Justinum Manichaeum".Ambrosiaster(370-380):适用于圣保罗的书信和他的“Quaestiones五等N. Testamenti”见A.苏特,“一个Ambrosiaster研究”(1907)他的评论;马库斯Victorinus(380),“广告Justinum Manichaeum“。

Publication information Written by JP Arendzen.出版信息书面由JP Arendzen。Transcribed by Tom Crossett.转录由汤姆克罗塞特。The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume IX.天主教百科全书,体积九。Published 1910.发布1910年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, October 1, 1910. Nihil Obstat,1910年10月1日。Remy Lafort, Censor.人头马lafort,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰米farley,大主教纽约


SOURCES.--Theodore bar Khoni, Nestorian Bishop of Cascar (c. end of sixth century), wrote a book of "Scholia" or Memoirs.来源.--西奥多酒吧Khoni,景教的Cascar主教(约六世纪末),写了“Scholia”或回忆录的书。 Book XI of this work contains a list of "sects which arose at different times"; among these he gives an account of the Manichæans and relates at length the Manichæan cosmogony.书第十一这项工作包含了“教派在不同时期出现的”名单;当中,他给出了一个帐户,并在长摩尼教摩尼教宇宙起源有关。 This is especially interesting and valuable as he retains the original Syriac designations of the cosmogonic figures and probably gives Mani's own account verbally from the Fundamental Epistle; in Pognon, Inscriptions mandaites des coupes de Khouabir (Paris, 1898), French tr.这是特别有趣的,有价值的,因为他保留了宇宙起源的数字原名称和叙利亚可能从根本上使书信摩尼自己的帐户口头上,在Pognon,碑刻mandaites DES小轿车去Khouabir(巴黎,1898年),法国的文。(see also M. Noldere Wiener, Zeitsch. Kund. Morg., XII, 355); Abu' Lfaradsh usually called En Nadim ("The Shining One"), an Arab historian who in AD 908 wrote his Firhist al'ulum or Compendium of Sciences". The chapters dealing with the Manichæans were published in German tr. by Fluegel in his Mani. Al Biruni, an Arabic chronologist (AD 1000), in his Chronology of Eastern Nations, Eng. ed. Sachau, Or transl. Fund (London, 1879), and India, Eng. ed. Sachau, truebn, Or. ser. (London, 1888)(另见M. Noldere维纳,Zeitsch Kund Morg,第十二,355。)阿布“Lfaradsh通常称为恩纳迪姆(”闪灵一号“),一个阿拉伯历史学家谁写了他在公元908 Firhist al'ulum或汇编科学“的章节处理与摩尼教发表在德国TR由弗吕格尔在他的摩尼。铝比鲁尼,一个阿拉伯语chronologist(公元1000)在他的东国年表,英,主编。Sachau,或译。基金(伦敦,1879年),印度,英,主编。Sachau,truebn或。辑(伦敦,1888)

LITERATURE.--DuFurcq, Etudes sur les Gesta Martyrum Romains, IV; Le Neo-Manichæisme et la legende chret.文学.-- DuFurcq,练习曲河畔莱Gesta Martyrum Romains,四,乐理学Manichæisme ET LA legende chret。(Paris, 1910); Idem, De Manichaismo apud Latinos quinto sextoque seculo, etc. (Paris, 1910); Cumont, Recherche sur les Manecheisme, I; La Cosmogonie Manecheenne (Brussels, 1908); In course of publication, II; Fragments syriaques d'ouvrages manichiens; III; Les formules grecque d'abjuration; De Stoop; La diffusion du Manicheisme dans l'empire Romain (Ghent, 1908); Kessler, M ini Forschungen ueber die mani-chaeische Religion, I, (Berlin, 1889); II (1903); Idem in Acts of Internat.(巴黎,1910);同上,德Manichaismo APUD拉丁裔昆托sextoque seculo等(巴黎,1910); Cumont,RECHERCHE SUR LES Manecheisme,我;拉Cosmogonie Manecheenne(布鲁塞尔,1908年),在出版过程中,二;片段syriaques D' ouvrages manichiens;三;莱斯formules grecque D' abjuration;德弯腰,拉扩散杜Manicheisme DANS L'罗曼帝国(根特,1908年);凯斯勒,M INI Forschungen ueber死歧管chaeische宗教,我,​​(柏林, 1889年),II(1903年);在INTERNAT行为同上。 Congress of History of Religion (Basle, 1905); Idem in Realencyckl.国会的宗教历史(巴塞尔,1905年),在Realencyckl同上。 fur Prot.毛皮普罗特。Theol., sv Mani, Manichaer; Fluegel, Mani, seine Lehre und seine Shriften (Leipzig, 1862); Mueller, Handschr. Theol,SV摩尼,Manichaer;弗吕格尔,摩尼,围网Lehre UND围网忏悔(莱比锡,1862),穆勒,Handschr。Reste in Estrangelo-Schrift aus Turfan.Reste在Estrangelo - Schrift AUS吐鲁番。Chin-Turkestan (Berlin, 1904); Salemann, Eine Bruchstuck man.金土耳其斯坦(柏林,1904年); Salemann,Eine Bruchstuck人。Schrifftums in Mem.Schrifftums的纪念品。Acad.ACAD。S. Petersburg, 1904.; Bischoff, Im Reiche der Gnosis (Leipzig, 1906). S.圣彼得堡,1904年;比肖夫,进出口赖歇DER灵知(莱比锡,1906年)。40-104; Bruckner, Faustus von Mileve, Ein Beitrag sur Geschichte des abendl. 40-104;布鲁克纳,浮士德冯Mileve,艾因Beitrag河畔历史馆DES abendl。Manich.Manich。(Leipzig, 1901); Beausobre, Hist.(莱比锡,1901年); Beausobre,组织胺。crit.暴击。de Manichee et du Manicheisme (Amsterdam, 1734); Bousett, Hauptprobleme der Gnosis (Goettingen, 1907); Salemann, Maniscaeische Studien (Petersburg, 1908); Casartelli, La Philosophie du Mardeisme; Rochat, Essai sur Mani et sa doctrine (Geneva, 1897); Newmann, Introd.德Manichee ET DU Manicheisme(阿姆斯特丹,1734); Bousett,Hauptprobleme DER灵知(哥廷根,1907年); Salemann,Maniscaeische(研究)(圣彼得堡,1908年); Casartelli,拉哲学的杜Mardeisme;罗沙,Essai河畔摩尼等SA主义(日内瓦, 1897年),纽曼,Introd。Essay on Manisch.征文的Manisch。Heresy (1887); Ter-Mekertschian, Die Paulicianer (Leipzig, 1893); Doellinger, Geschichte der gnost-manisch.异端(1887年);捷尔 - Mekertschian,模具Paulicianer(莱比锡,1893年); Doellinger,历史馆DER gnost - manisch。Secten (Munich, 1890); Geyler, System des Manichæismus (Jena, 1875).Secten(慕尼黑,1890年); Geyler,系统DES Manichæismus(耶拿,1875年)。

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