Doctrine of Man In the Old Testament民主义在旧约

Advanced Information先进的信息

In the Genesis account of creation man's presence in the world is attributed directly to God.在创作人在世界上的存在创世记帐户直接归因于上帝。By this act alone, as the God of love and power, man was "created" (bara', 1:27; 5:1; 6:7) and "formed" (yasar, 2:7 - 8).通过这种单独行动,因为神的爱和力量,男子被“创造”(巴拉“,1时27分,5:1; 6:7)和”形成“(者Yasar,2时07分 - 8)。By this creative act man was brought into existence in a duality of relationships, at once to nature and to God himself.通过这种创造性的行为人被带进关系中存在的二重性,在一次自然和上帝。He was formed of the dust of the earth and was endowed with soul life by the breath of God.他形成了地球的灰尘,被赋予生命与灵魂由上帝的气息。God is the source of his life, and dust the material of his being.神是他的生命之源,粉尘,他被材料。

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Man's Nature人的天性

Man, then, did not spring out of nature by some natural evolutionary process.男人,那么,没有春天的性质由一些自然进化的过程。 He is the result of the immediate action of God, who used already existing created material for the formation of the earthly part of his being.他是神,谁使用现有创建的,他正在地上部分形成的物质直接作用的结果。 Man has thus physiological similarities with the rest of the created order (Gen. 18:27; Job 10:8 - 9; Ps. 103:14, etc.) and consequently shares with the animal world in dependence on God's goodness for his continuance (Isa. 40:6 - 7; Pss. 103:15; 104, etc.).人类已经与创建顺序休息(创18:27;工作10:8 - 9;诗篇103:14,等等。),从而为他的生理连续性和相似性,在与神的善良的依赖动物世界因此股(以赛亚书40:6 - 7;多糖103:15; 104等)。

Throughout the OT the relationship of man to nature is everywhere stressed.在整个OT的人的关系自然是无处不在强调。As man shares with nature share with man in the actualities of his living.由于人与自然的股份份额与他的生活现状的人。Thus, while nature was made to serve man, so man on his part is required to tend nature (Gen. 2:15).因此,虽然性质作出服务的人,所以对他的一部分人是需要趋向性(创2:15)。Nature is therefore not a sort of neutral entity in relation to man's life.自然,因此不涉及一个人的生命中性实体排序。 For between the two, nature and man, there exists a mysterious bond so that when man sinned the natural order was itself deeply afflicted (Gen. 3:17 - 18; cf. Rom. 8:19 - 23).对于两者之间,自然与人,存在着一个神秘的债券,这样当人犯罪的自然秩序本身深感困扰(创3点17 - 18;比照罗马书8时19 - 23)。Since, however, nature suffered as a result of man's sin, so does it rejoice with him in his redemption (Ps. 96:10 - 13; Isa. 35, etc.), for in man's redemption it too will share (Isa. 11:6 - 9).然而,由于遭受自然作为人的罪的结果,所以它高兴与他在赎回(诗篇96:10 - 13;赛35,等),在人的赎回它也将分享(以赛亚11:6 - 9)。

But however deeply related man is to the natural order, he is presented nonetheless as something different and distinctive.但是,无论是男人深深相关的自然秩序,他仍然呈现为不同的东西,与众不同。Having first called the earth into existence with its various requisites for human life, God then declared for the making of man.经与人类生活的各种必要条件存在先叫地球,然后宣布神对人造成的。The impression that the Genesis account gives is that man was the special focus of God's creative purpose.印象中的创世纪帐户给人的是,人是神的创造的特别关注。It is not so much that man was the crown of God's creative acts, or the climax of the process, for although last in the ascending scale, he is first in the divine intention.这与其说是人是神的创造行为冠,或过程的高潮,因为虽然在规模递增最后,他是第一个在神圣的意向。All the previous acts of God are presented more in the nature of a continuous series by the recurring use of the conjunction "and" (Gen. 1:3, 6, 9, 14, 20, 24).所有的神前行为提出在一个连续系列性的结合经常性的使用“和”(创1:3,6,9,14,20,24)更多。"Then God said, 'Let us make man.'" "Then", when?“神说,”让我们的人。'“”然后“,什么时候?When the cosmic order was finished, when the earth was ready to sustain man.当宇宙秩序说完后,当地球准备,以维持人。Thus, while man stands before God in a relationship of created dependence, he has also the status of a unique and special personhood in relation to God.因此,虽然人在上帝面前矗立在一个创建的依赖关系,他也是一个有关神的独特地位和特殊的人格。

Man's constituents人的成分

The three most significant words in the OT to describe man in relation to God and nature are "soul" (nepes, 754 times), "spirit" (ruah, 378 times), and "flesh" (basar, 266 times).这三个最重要的OT的话来描述有关神和人的本质是“灵魂”(nepes,754次),“精神”(ruah,378次)和“肉”(巴萨,266次)。 The term "flesh" has sometimes a physical and sometimes a figuratively ethical sense.所谓“肉”有时一个物理有时形象地比喻道德意识。In its latter use it has its context in contrast with God to emphasize man's nature as contingent and dependent (Isa. 31:3; 40:6; Pss. 61:5; 78:39; Job 10:4).后者在其使用也有其与神相反的队伍中强调和依赖男人的天性(以赛亚书31:3,40:6;多糖61:5,78:39;作业10:4)。 Both nepes and ruah denote in general the life principle of the human person, the former stressing more particularly his individuality, or life, and the latter focusing on the idea of a supernatural power above or within the individual.双方nepes和ruah表示一般的人的生命原则,前者更特别强调他的个性,还是生活,而后者对以上或在个别神力思想为重点。

Of the eighty parts of the body mentioned in the OT the terms for "heart" (leb), "liver" (kabed), "kidney" (kelayot), and "bowels" (me'im) are the most frequent.对身体的旧约中提到的“心脏”(LEB),“肝”(kabed),“肾”(kelayot​​)和“大便”的部分条款eighty(me'im)是最频繁。 To each of these some emotional impulse or feeling is attributed either factually or metaphorically.对这些都有一些情绪冲动或感觉,是因为无论是事实或比喻。The term "heart" has the widest reference.所谓“心”具有最宽的参考。It is brought into relation with man's total phychical nature as the seal or instrument of his emotional, volitional, and intellectual manifestations.它带来了与人的总的印章或他的情感,意志和智力表现仪器phychical自然的关系。In the latter context it acquires a force we should call "mind" (Deut. 15:9; Judg. 5:15 - 16) or "intellect" (Job 8:10; 12:3; 34:10), and is frequently employed by metonymy to denote one's thought or wish with the idea of purpose or resolve.在后一种情况下它获得了一种力量,我们应该叫“心”(申命记15时09; Judg 5:15 - 16)或“智力”(作业8点10分,12点03分,34:10),并经常聘请转喻来表示一个人的思想或愿望与想法的目的或解决。For one's thought or wish is what is "in the heart," or, as would be said today, "in the mind."对于一个人的思想或愿望是什么是“心”,或者作为会今天表示,“在脑海中。”

These several words do not, however, characterize man as a compound of separate and distinct elements.这几个单词不这样做,但是,作为一个独立的特点和不同的元素化合物的人。Hebrew psychology does not divide up man's nature into mutually exclusive parts.希伯来语心理不分割成相互排斥的部分人的天性。 Behind these usages of words the thought conveyed by the Genesis account, that man's nature is twofold, remains.这些用法的单词背后的成因帐户传达的思想,即人的本性是双重的,依然存在。Yet even there man is not presented as a loose union of two disparate entities.然而,即使没有人不是呈现为两个不同的实体的松散联盟。 There is no sense of a metaphysical dichotomy, while even that of an ethical dualism of soul and body is quite foreign to Hebrew thought.有没有一种形而上学的对立感,而即使是一个灵魂和身体的道德二元论,这是比较陌生的希伯来思想。By God's inbreathing the man he formed from the dust became a living soul, a unified being in the interrelation of the terrestrial and the transcendental.通过神的inbreathing的人他从灰尘形成成了活的灵魂,一个在陆地和超越相互统一之中。

Throughout the OT the two concepts of man as a unique and responsible individual and as a social and representative being have emphasis.在整个OT两个人作为一个独特的和负责任的观念和个人作为社会的代表所具有的重视。Adam was both a man and yet mankind.亚当既是一个人,但人类。In him individual personhood and social solidarity found expression.在他个人的人格和社会团结的发现表达。At times in Israel's history there is emphasis on individual responsibility (eg, Ezek. 9:4; 20:38; cf. chs. 18, 35), while the "Thou shalt" or "Thou shalt not" of the law and the prophets is characteristically singular, being addressed to the individual is not viewed atomistically but in intimate connection with, and representative of, the whole community.目前在以色列的历史时期有上强调个人的责任(例如,以西结书9:4; 20:38;比照CHS 18,35。),而“你应该”或“不可”的法律和先知是典型的奇异,作为给个人不认为atomistically而是密切联系的,和,整个社会的代表。 So does the sin of the single individual involve all in its consequences (Josh. 7:24 - 26; cf. 2 Sam. 14:7; 21:1 - 14; 2 Kings 9:26).因此,没有单个人的罪恶参与其后果全部(约书亚记7:24 - 26; CF 2山姆14:7,21:1 - 14;。2国王21:26)。On the other hand, Moses and Phineas stand before God to plead their people's cause because they embody in themselves the whole community.另一方面,摩西和菲尼亚斯站在上帝面前恳求人民的事业,因为他们本身体现了整个社会。In the intertestamental period, however, this awareness of solidarity passed from being a realized actuality in the social consciousness of the nation to being increasingly an idealistic and theological dogma.在intertestamental时期,但是,这种团结意识通过从一个在被越来越成为理想和神学教条实现国家的社会意识的现状。

From this perspective of racial solidarity in the first man it follows that Adam's sin involved every individual both in himself and in his social relationships.由此看来,在它下面的第一人,亚当的罪都涉及自己和他的社会关系中的每一个人的种族团结的观点。Because of Adam's transgression everyone is affected in the whole range of his being and in the totality of his societal living.由于亚当的海侵每个人都在他的影响是全范围,在他的社会生活的全部。

In the NT在NT

The Teaching of Jesus耶稣的教学

In formal statements Jesus had little to say about man.在正式发言耶稣说几乎没有关于人。But by his attitude and actions among men he showed that he regarded the human person as significant.但是,他的态度和行动之间的男子,他表明,他认为,作为重要的人的。To Jesus man was not just a part of nature, for he is more precious in God's sight than the birds of the air (Matt. 10:31) and the beasts of the field (Matt. 12:12).为了耶稣的人不只是自然的一部分,因为他更在神眼中珍贵比空中的飞鸟(太10:31)和字段(太12:12)的野兽。 His distinctiveness lies in his possession of a soul, or spiritual nature, which to forfeit is his ultimate tragedy and final folly (Matt. 16:26).他的独特性在于他的灵魂,或精神本质,这是他最终放弃最后的悲剧和愚蠢(太16:26)占有。Man's true life is consequently life under God and for his glory.人的真实生活因而在上帝和他的荣耀生活。It does not consist in the plenitude of earthly possessions (Luke 12:15).它不包括在(路加福音12:15)尘世财产充实。The sole wealth is therefore the wealth of the soul (Matt. 6:20, 25).唯一的财富,因此是财富的灵魂(太6:20,25)。Yet while emphasizing the spiritual aspect of man's nature, Jesus did not decry the body, for he showed concern throughout his ministry for total human needs.但同时强调了人的精神性的一面,耶稣没有谴责的身体,因为他发现在他的总人力需求部的关注。

This view of man as a creature of value was for Jesus an ideal and a possibility.这人作为价值的生物观点是耶稣的理想和可能性。For he saw all individuals, whether man or woman, as blind and lost and their relationship with God broken off.因为他看到了所有个人,不管是男人还是女人,作为盲人,失去了和他们与神的关系破裂。Although he nowhere specified the nature of sin, he clearly assumed its universality.虽然他无处指定的罪恶本质,他清楚地假设它的普遍性。All men are somehow caught up in sin's plight and enmeshed in its tragic consequences.所有的人都莫名其妙地陷入了罪恶的困境,并在其陷入悲惨后果。Thus, all who would live to God's glory and eternal enjoyment must experience newness of life.因此,所有谁将会活到神的荣耀和永恒享受一定的生活经验新奇。And it was precisely this purpose that Christ came into the world to accomplish (Matt. 1:21; Luke 19:10).而正是这个目的,基督进入世界来完成(太1:21;路加福音19:10)。It follows therefore that it is by one's attitude to Christ as the Savior of the world that individual human destiny is finally sealed.它如下因此,它是由一个人的态度,对个别人的命运是最后密封世界的救主基督的。

The Pauline Anthropology保禄人类学

Paul's declarations regarding the nature of man are generally stated in relation to salvation so that his anthropology throughout serves the interests of his soteriology.保罗的声明关于人的本质是一般规定有关救恩,使他的整个人类学符合他的救世神学的利益。Foremost, therefore, in his teaching in his insistence on man's need of divine grace.最重要的,因此,他在他的对人的神圣恩典需要坚持教学。Paul is emphatic about the universality of man's sin.保罗是关于人的罪的普遍性有力。Because of Adam's fall sin somehow got a footing in the world to make human life the sphere of its activity.由于亚当的堕落罪莫名其妙地得到了世界上的地位,以使人类的生活,其活动范围。Sin "entered the world through one man" (Rom. 5:12; cf. 1 Cor. 15:1 - 2).仙“进入,通过一个人的世界”(罗5:12;比照林前15:1 - 2)。Consequent on Adam's trangression, "all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God" (Rom. 3:23).在亚当的trangression因之,“一切都犯了罪和下降了神的荣耀”(罗3:23)。To meet man in his plight, Paul sets forth the gospel as a righteousness of God through faith in Jesus Christ for all who believe (cf. Rom. 3:22 - 25).为了满足他的困境的人,保罗阐述作为神通过耶稣基督信称义的所有谁相信福音(罗3:22 - 25)。

In this context Paul contrasts the "old man" of nature (Rom. 6:6; Eph. 4:22; Col. 3:9) who is "after the flesh" (Rom. 8:4, 12; Gal. 4:23, 29, etc.) with the "new man" in grace (Eph. 4:24; cf. 2 Cor. 5:17; Gal. 6:15) who is "after the Spirit" (Rom. 8:5; Gal. 4:29).在这种情况下保罗对比自然“旧人”(罗马书6时06分;弗4点22分;上校3:9)谁是“后的肉”(罗马书8时04分,12;加尔4。 :23,29,等)与“新好男人”的恩典(弗4:24;比照林后5:17;加拉太6:15)谁是“后的精神”(罗马书8。: 5;加拉太4:29)。 He speaks also of the "outer nature" of man which perishes and his "inner nature" which abides and is daily being renewed in Christ (2 Cor. 4:16; cf. Eph. 3:16) and of the "natural man" (psychikos anthropos) and "he who is spiritual" (1 Cor. 2:15; cf. 14:37).他还谈到了“外自然”人的灭亡和他的“内在性”的遵守,并每天被基督(林后4:16。;比照弗3:16)再次和“自然的人“(psychikos anthropos)和”他是谁的精神“(林前2:15;。比照14:37)。

In contrast with the second Adam, the first Adam is "from the earth, a man of dust" (1 Cor. 15:47), but is yet "a living being" (vs. 45).在与第二个亚当相反,第一个亚当是“从地球,人类的灰尘”(林前15:47),但尚未“一个活人”(与45)。Though man on his earthly side "bears the image of the man of dust" (vs. 45), he can by grace through faith be made to "bear the image of the man from heaven" (vs. 49).虽然在他的地上一边的人“承担的尘土造人的形象”(与45),他可以通过信仰的恩典作出“承担从天上形象的人”(与49)。 Man in himself is a moral being with an innate sense of right and wrong which Paul speaks of as his "conscience" (21 times.) This conscience can, however, lose its sensitiveness for the good and become "defiled" (1 Cor. 8:7) and "seared" (1 Tim. 4:2).在自己男人是一种具有先天的是非感,保罗为他的“良心”(21次)这良心讲道德是可以,但是,失去了良好的敏感性,并成为“玷污”(1肺心病。 8:7)和“烙”(提前4:2)。

As the chief exponent of the application of Christ's saving work to personal life Paul can hardly avoid reference to man's essential nature and makeup, and inevitably such allusions reflect the OT usage of terms.作为基督的拯救工作,个人生活中的应用主要指数保罗难以避免提及人的本质和化妆,并不可避免地反映了这样的典故方面OT使用。 At the same time, while he does employ his words with the same general meaning as in the OT, they are more precisely applied in his epistles.在同一时间,而他聘请具有同样在一般意义上的OT他的话,他们更精确地在他的书信应用。 The most significant terms in his anthropological vocabulary are "flesh" (sarx, 91 times), which he uses in a physical and an ethical sense; "spirit" (pneuma, 146 times), to denote generally the higher, Godward aspect of man's nature; "body" (soma, 89 times), most often to designate the human organism as such, but sometimes the carnal aspect of man's nature; "soul" (psyche, 11 times), broadly to carry the idea of the vital principle of individual life.在他的人类学词汇最重要的条件是“肉”(sarx,91次),这是他在物理用途和道德意识,“精神”(元气,146次),来表示一般较高,Godward人的方面自然,“体”(SOMA,89次),最常指定为这样的人的机体,但有时人的天性肉体方面,“灵魂”(心理,11次),广泛开展的重要原则理念个体生命。

Paul has several words translated "mind" in the English versions to specify man's native rational ability which is in the natural man seriously affected by sin (Rom. 1:8; 8:6 - 7; Eph. 4:17; Col. 2:18; I Tim. 3:8; Titus 1:15).保罗翻译英文版本“心”来指定的人的理性能力,这在当地严重的罪(罗1:8影响了自然的人是几个单词; 8:6 - 7;弗4:17;上校2。 :18,我添3:8;提多书1:15)。But the mind transformed brings God acceptable worship (Rom. 12:2; Eph. 4:23) and so becomes in the believer the mind of Christ (1 Cor. 2:16; cf. Phil. 2:5).但头脑转变带来神接受崇拜(罗马书12时02;弗4:23),因此在信徒成为基督(林前2时16分。;比照菲尔2:5)的态度。 The term "heart" (kardia, 52 times) specifies for Paul the innermost sanctuary of man's psychical being either as a whole or with one or another of its significant activities, emotional, rational, or volitional.所谓“心”(kardia,52次)指定为保罗最内层保护区的人的心灵被作为一个整体或与一个或几个重大活动,情感,理性,意志或其他任何。

Sometimes Paul contrasts these aspects, flesh and spirit, body and soul, to give the impression of a dualism of man's nature.有时保罗对比这些方面,肉体和精神,身体和灵魂,赋予了人的本质二元论的印象。 At other times he introduces the threefold characterization, body, soul, and spirit (1 Thess. 5:23), which raises the question whether man is to be conceived dichotomously or trichotomously.在其他时候,他介绍了三个方面的表征,身体,灵魂和精神(帖前5:23),这就产生一个问题,人是要构思dichotomously或trichotomously。 The interchangeable use of the terms "spirit" and "soul" seems to confirm the former view, while the fact that they are sometimes contrasted is held to support the latter.本条款的“精神”和“灵魂”可以互换使用似乎印证了前一种看法,而他们有时对比的事实是举行支持后者。Yet, however used, both terms refer to man's inner nature over against flesh or body, which refers to the outer aspect of man as existing in space and time.然而,但使用时,这两个词是指以人的内在的本质比对肉体或机构,它指的是人的外部方面在现有的空间和时间。In reference, then, to man's psychical nature, "spirit" denotes life as having its origin in God and "soul" denotes that same life as constituted in man.在参考,那么,人的心理本质,“精神”指为具有在上帝和“灵魂”表示,作为生活来源构成中的人一样的生活。Spirit is the inner depth of man's being, the higher aspect of his personality.精神是人类的内心正在深入,他的人格更高的方面。Soul expresses man's own special and distinctive individuality.灵魂表达人自身的特殊和独特的个性。The pneuma is man's nonmaterial nature looking Godward; the psyche is that same nature of man looking earthward and touching the things of sense.而精气是人的非物质的性质看Godward;心灵是人类寻找地向触摸感和性质相同的东西。

Other NT Writings其他NT著作

The rest of the NT in its scattered allusions to man's nature and constituents is in general agreement with the teaching of Jesus and of Paul.的NT在其典故,以分散人的性质和成分的其余部分与耶稣和保罗教学的一般协议。In the Johannine writings the estimate of man is centered on Jesus Christ as true man and what man may become in relation to him.在约翰著作的人估计是集中在耶稣基督的真男人,什么人可以成为关系到他。Although John begins his Gospel by asserting the eternal Godhead of Christ as Son of God, he declares in the starkest manner the humanity of the Word made flesh.虽然约翰一开始就断言,作为神的儿子基督的永恒的神的福音,他宣称在最严厉的方式对人类作出的Word肉。Jesus does all that may become a man, all that God intended man should be.耶稣做了所有可能成为一个人,所有的神拟人应。What people saw was a "man that is called Jesus" (John 9:11; cf. 19:5).什么人看到的是“人就是所谓的耶稣”​​(约9点11;比照19时05分)。It is against the perfect humanness of Jesus that the dignity of every man is to be measured.正因为如此,每个人的尊严,是衡量对耶稣的完美人性。By uniting himself with man, God's Son has made it clear for always that being human is no mean condition.通过团结人本身,神的儿子已经明确的总是被人认为是没有意思的条件。For he took upon himself all that is properly human to restore man to his sonship with God (John 1:13; 1 John 3:1).因为他在自己身上了所有这一切都恢复正常人类与上帝(约翰1:13,约翰一书3:1)人对他的sonship。Such too is the theme of the Epistle to the Hebrews.这样也就是给希伯来书信的主题。James declares that man is created in the "likeness" (homoiosin) of God (3:9).詹姆斯宣称,人是在“似”神(3:9)(homoiosin)创建的。

Historical Development历史发展

From these biblical statements about man's nature, the history of Christian though has focused on three main issues.大约从人的本性这些圣经的语句,虽然基督教历史主要集中在三个主要问题。

Content of the Image内容图像

The most enduring of these concerns is the content of the image.这些问题中最持久的是图像的内容。Irenaeus first introduced the distinction between the "image" (Heb. selem; Lat. imago) and "likeness" (Heb. demut; Lat. similitudo).爱任纽首先介绍了之间的“形象”(希伯来书selem;纬度成虫)的区别,“肖像”(希伯来书demut;纬度similitudo)。 The former he identified as the rationality and free will which inhere in man qua man.前者他确定为理性和自由意志的人所固有的人之四。The likeness he conceived to be a superadded gift of God's righteousness which man, because of his reason and freedom of choice, had the possibility to retain and advance by obedience to the divine commands.他设想的肖像成为神的义superadded礼物的人,因为他的理性和选择的自由,有可能保留和服从前进到神圣的命令。 But this probationary endowment man was to forfeit by his act of willful disobedience for both himself and descendants.但是,这名男子是试用捐赠由他故意不服从的行为放弃为自己和后代。This thesis of Irenaeus was generally upheld by the scholastics and was given dogmatic application by Aquinas.这种爱任纽论文普遍坚持的经院哲学家,并给予阿奎那教条式的应用。In Aquinas's view, however, Adam had need of divine aid to continue in the path of holiness.在阿奎那的观点,但是,亚当神圣的援助需要继续在圣洁的道路。But this aid, in its turn, was conditioned on Adam's effort and determination to obey God's law.但这种援助,在反过来,被条件的亚当的努力和决心服从上帝的法律。Thus from the first, in Aquinas's scheme, divine grace was made to depend on human merit.因此,从第一,在阿奎那的计划,神的恩典是靠人做功德。

The Reformers denied this distinction between image and likeness upon which the works - salvation of medievalism was reared in their insistence upon the radical nature of sin and its effect upon the total being of man.改革者否认了这一说法在图像和肖像作品赖以区别 - 拯救被饲养的中世纪后,激进的罪恶本质及其影响在他们的坚持后,男子总福利。Thus did they maintain that salvation is by grace alone and by faith alone as the gift of God.因此,他们认为没有得救是本乎恩单独和信仰作为上帝的礼物单。

Some moderns have revived Irenaeus's distinction under new terms.现代人已经恢复一些新的条款下爱任纽的区别。Emil Brunner, for example, speaks of the "formal" image to express the essential structure of man's being, which is not greatly affected by the fall.埃米尔布伦纳,例如,说话来表达对人的基本结构是,这不是大大的下降影响了“正规”的形象。The "material" image on the other hand, he regards as quite lost by man's sin.“材料”的形象,另一方面,他认为是相当的人的罪丢失。 Reinhold Niebuhr has returned to the scholastic distinction more closely as regards both terminology and thesis.莱因霍尔德尼布尔又回到了学术上的区别方面都更加紧密的术语和论断。Those who do not admit a different connotation for the terms have sought to identify the content of the image as either corporeal form or pure spirit.这些谁不承认的条款不同的内涵都力求找出作为任何有形的形式或纯粹的精神图像内容。Schleiermacher speaks of the image as man's dominion over nature, a view expounded in more recent days by Hans Wolff and L Verdium.施莱尔马赫谈到了作为人的对自然的统治,在最近几天阐述了汉斯沃尔夫和L Verdium视图图像。

Karl Barth conceived of it in terms of male and female, although he stresses at the same time that only in relation to Christ is there a true understanding of man.卡尔巴特设想它在男性和女性而言,虽然他在同一时间,只有在与基督有没有人真正理解的压力。The Reformed position is that the image of God in man consists in man's rationality and moral competency, but that it is precisely these realities of his being which were lost or marred through sin.经过改革的立场是,神在人的形象在人的理性和道德能力的组成,但它恰恰是他被这其中遗失或毁损,通过罪恶的现实。Others consider personality as the ingredient of the image, while still others prefer to see it as sonship, contending that man was created for that relationship.也有人认为作为形象成分的个性,而还有些人喜欢看到sonship它,认为人是为建立这种关系。But by his sin he repudiated his sonship, which can be restored only in Christ.但是,他的罪,他否定他的sonship,它只能在基督里恢复。

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The Origin of the Soul灵魂的起源

In the light of such passages as Ps.在这种通道为诗光。12:7; Isa.12时07分;伊萨。 42:5; Zech.42:5;撒加利亚。 12:1; and Heb.12:1;和河北。 12:9, the creationist doctrine that God is the immediate creator of the human soul has been built. 12时09分,在神创论学说认为上帝是人类灵魂的直接创造者已经建成。First elaborated by Lactantius (c. 240 - c. 320), it had the support of Jerome and of Calvin among the Reformers.首先由拉克唐修(约240 - C. 320)阐释,它的杰罗姆和卡尔文之间的改革者的支持。Aquinas declared any other view to be heretical and so followed Peter Lombard, who in his Sentences says, "The Church teaches that souls are created at their infusion into the body."阿奎那声明的任何其他视图是邪教,所以跟着彼得隆巴德,谁在他的句子说:“教会教导我们,在他们​​的灵魂是创造输液进入人体。”

The alternative view, traducianism (Lat. tradux, a branch or shoot), expounded by Tertullian, is that the substances of both soul and body are formed and propagated together.另一种观点,traducianism(Lat. tradux,分支或拍摄),由良阐述,是两个灵魂和身体的物质的形成和传播起来。Favored by Luther, it is consequently generally adopted by later Lutheran theologians.由路德的青睐,因而它是被后来普遍采用路德神学家。In support of the view is the observation that Gen. 1:27 represents God as creating the species in Adam to be propagated "after its kind" (cf. Gen. 1:12, 21, 25).在支持的观点是观察,创1点27分表示为创造亚当物种传播“后,那种”(参见创1:12,21,25)上帝。And this increase through secondary causes is implied in the following verse (cf.vs. 22; 5:3; 46:26; John 1:13; Heb. 7:9 - 10) and in the passages which suggest the solidarity of the race and its sin in the first man (Rom. 5:12 - 13; I Cor. 15:22; Eph. 2:3).而这种通过增加次要原因是隐含在下列诗句(cf.vs. 22; 5时03; 46:26;约翰1时13;希伯来书七时09分 - 10),并在通道的建议的团结种族和其在第一人的罪(罗5:12 - 13;林前15:22;弗2:3。)

From its stress on the continuing kinship of God and man, the Eastern church has favored creationism.从对神和人亲属关系的持续紧张,东部教会主张神创论。Here God is regarded as acting immediately to bring individual life into being.这里神被视为立即采取行动,使被个人的生活。The Western church, on the other hand, by emphasizing God's otherness from the created order and the depth of the yawning gulf between the human and divine consequent on man's sin, sees God's contact with man in the world as more distant.西方教会,另一方面,强调从创建的顺序和之间的对人的罪恶随之而来的人力和神圣打哈欠海湾深入上帝的差异性,认为在世界上的人更遥远的神的联系。 Traducianism, therefore, in which God's relation to individual conception and birth is held to be mediated, has had from the third century wide support. Traducianism,因此,在上帝的关系,以个人的观念和生育被认定为介导,已经从三世纪广泛的支持了。

The Extent of Freedom自由程度

Consonant with his idea of the imago Dei as grounded in man's nature as rational and free, Justin Martyr set in motion the view that every man is responsible for his own wrongdoing, which was to become a characteristic note of the Eastern church.辅音与他的成虫业会在人的本性接地作为理性和自由,贾斯汀在运动中集认为,每个人对自己的错误行为,这是成为东方教会的特点注意负责烈士的想法。 Thus Adam is seen as the primary type of each man's sinning, and his fall is the story of Everyman.因此亚当被看作是每个人的犯罪的主要类型,他的秋天是普通人的故事。Western theology, by contrast, regards Adam's transgression as the fountainhead of all human evil, but against Gnosticism refused to locate its source in individual life in the material of the body.西方神学,相反,对于作为人类一切罪恶的源泉亚当的海侵,但拒绝对诺斯替主义定位在身体的物质在个人生命之源。 Tertullian traced sin to humanity's connection with Adam, through whom it has become a natural element of every man's nature.良追溯到人类罪与亚当连接,通过他们这已经成为每个人的天性的自然元素。Yet he allowed some residue of free will to remain.然而,他允许一些自由意志残留留下来。

In Pelagius and Augustine these two views came into sharp conflict.伯拉纠和奥古斯丁在这两种观点进入了尖锐的冲突。Pelagius taught that man was unaffected by Adam's transgression, his will retaining the liberty of indifference so that he possesses in himself the ability to choose good or evil.伯拉纠教导说,人是由亚当的海侵的影响,他将保留自由的冷漠,使他在自己拥有的能力,选择好或邪恶。In the light of Rom.在ROM的光。5:12 - 13 Augustine maintained that Adam's sin has so crippled man that he can act only to express his sinful nature inherited from his first parents.5:12 - 13奥古斯丁认为,亚当的罪有这么残废人,他只能单独采取行动来表达自己的罪恶本质,从他的第一个父母继承。The inevitable compromise appeared in the semi - Pelagian (or semi - Augustinian) synergistic thesis that while all men do inherit a bias to sin, a freedom of decision remains that permits at least some men to take the first step toward righteousness.不可避免的妥协出现在半决赛 - 伯拉纠(或半 - 奥古斯丁)协同论断,虽然所有的男人继承了罪的偏差,仍然自由的决定,至少有一些人允许采取对正义的第一步。In the Calvinist - Arminian controversy of the seventeenth century the conflict was reenacted.在加尔文 - 十七世纪的阿民念主义的争论冲突重演。Calvin contended for the total depravity of man; man "has no good remaining in him."卡尔文争夺的人总堕落;人“并没有在他身上剩下的好。”Therefore the will is not free to choose the good; so salvation is an act of God's sovereign grace.因此,将不能够自由地选择好,所以得救是神的恩典主权的行为。

Arminius allowed that Adam's sin had dire consequences and that each posseses a "natural propensity" to sin (John Wesley), while maintaining, at the same time, that it belongs to every man of his own free will to ratify this inner direction of his nature.亚米纽斯允许​​亚当的罪了可怕的后果,每个拥有“自然倾向”罪(约翰卫斯理),同时保持在同一时间,它属于每一个他自己的自由人将批准他的这种内心的方向,性质。 On the other hand, it is possible for any man, by accepting the aid of the Holy Spirit, to opt for God's way, for he still possesses an inner ability so to do.另一方面,它有可能为任何人,通过接受圣灵的援助,以选择神的方式,因为他仍然拥有一种内在的能力这样做。

In the Pelagian - humanist scheme all men are well and need only a tonic to keep them in good health.在伯拉纠 - 以人为本计划的所有男人都很好,只需要一剂强心剂,以保持身体健康的。In the semi - Pelagian (semi - Augustinian) - Arminian doctrine man is sick and requires the right medicine for his recovery.在半 - 伯拉纠(半 - 奥古斯丁) - 阿民念主义学说的人生病了,需要为他的康复对症下药。In the Augustinian - Calvinist view man is dead and can be renewed to life only by a divinely initiated resurrection.在奥古斯丁 - 加尔文认为人是死的,可重新启动只能由神复活的生命。

HD McDonald高清麦当劳
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 参考书目
SB Babbage, Man in Nature and Grace; E Brunner, Man in Revolt; G Carey, I Believe in Man; S Cave, The Christian Estimate of Man; D Cairns, The Image of God in Man; W Eichrodt, Man in the OT ; WG Kummel, Man in the NT ; J Laidlaw, The Bible Doctrine of Man; JG Machen, The Christian View of Man; HD McDonald, The Christian View of Man; J Moltmann, Man; J Orr, God's Image in Man; HW Robinson, The Christian Doctrine of Man; RF Shedd, Man in Community; CR Smith, The Bible Doctrine of Man; WD Stacey, The Pauline View of Man; TF Torrance, Calvin's Doctrine of Man; CA vanPeursen, Body, Soul, Spirit; JS Wright, What Is Man? SB,人在自然和Grace巴贝奇,E布伦纳,在起义文,G凯里,我相信人,S洞,基督教的人估计,D,神在人的形象凯恩斯,W艾希罗特,在OT人; WG库慕尔,文在新台币; J,对人的圣经教义莱德劳; JG玛沁,该男子基督教认为,高清麦当劳,曼基督教认为〔J莫尔特曼,文〔J奥尔,神在人的形象;硬件罗宾逊的人基督教教义,RF,在社区人谢德; CR史密斯的人圣经的教义; WD斯泰西,曼宝莲查看; TF托伦斯,加尔文的人的学说; CA vanPeursen,身体,灵魂,精神; JS赖特,人是什么?



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