Monarchianism, Sabellianism, Patripassionism, Modalism 形式主义 , 撒伯流主义 ,Patripassionism, 神格

General Information一般资料

Monarchianism is a Christian heretical doctrine of the 2nd and 3rd centuries opposed to the orthodox doctrine of the Trinity; it strongly maintained the essential unity of the Deity and was intended to reinforce monotheism in Christianity. Monarchianism是基督徒的反对三位一体的正统教义的第二和第三世纪的异端学说,它强烈地保持了基本统一的神,是为了加强在基督教一神论。 Monarchians were divided into two groups, the Adoptionists, or Dynamic Monarchians, and the Patripassians, or Modalistic Monarchians. Monarchians分为两组,Adoptionists,动态Monarchians和Patripassians,Modalistic Monarchians。

The Adoptionists taught that Christ, although of miraculous birth, was a mere man until his baptism when the Holy Spirit made him the Son of God by adoption.该Adoptionists告诉我们,基督,虽然奇迹般的诞生,直到他的洗礼,只有男人当圣灵使他成为神所收养的儿子。 This doctrine was taught by Paul of Samosata, at one time bishop of Antioch.这一理论是由萨莫萨塔保罗教​​导,在同一时间的安提阿主教。Adoptionism, or adoptianism, was revived in Spain about the end of the 8th century, when it was again condemned as heresy.Adoptionism,或adoptianism,复兴了西班牙对第8世纪末,当它再次被谴责为异端。

The Patripassians believed in the divinity of Christ, but regarded the Trinity as three manifestations, or modes, of a single divine being.该Patripassians信奉基督的神性,但把三个表现,或模式三位一体的单一神,。They taught that the Father had come to earth and suffered and died under the appearance of the Son; hence their name (Latin pater; patris,"father"; passus,"to suffer").他们告诉我们,父亲已经到了地球,遭受下,在外观的儿子死了,因此他们的名字(拉丁文佩特; patris,“父亲”; passus,“江山”)。This doctrine was taught by the Roman Christian prelate Sabellius and is thus sometimes referred to as Sabellianism.这一理论是由罗马教基督教主教撒伯流,因而有时也被称为Sabellianism。

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Monarchianism, Sabellianism, Patripassionism, Modalism Monarchianism,Sabellianism,Patripassionism,Modalism

Advanced Information先进的信息

In its most general sense monarchianism (also called patripassianism or Sabellianism) refers to the primarily Western attempts in the third century to defend monotheism against suspected tritheism by denying the personal distinctiveness of a divine Son and Holy Spirit in contrast to God the Father.在其最一般的意义monarchianism(也称为patripassianism或Sabellianism)是指在第三世纪的主要西方试图通过拒绝辩护相反的一个神圣的圣子和圣灵个人独特父神对涉嫌三神论神论。 The term is first used by Tertullian to describe those who desired to protect the monarchy (of the one God) from improper thoughts about the economy (of the three: the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit). There were two forms of monarchianism which were not only distinctly independent but even opposed to each other.这个词最早是由良来描述那些谁想要保护对经济的不当思想(之三:圣父,圣子,圣灵)的君主(在一个神)。monarchianism有两种形式的不仅明显甚至反对独立,但彼此。

Dynamic, or adoptionistic, monarchianism proposed a monotheism of God the Father in relation to which Jesus was viewed as a mere man who was endowed with the Holy Spirit. 动态,或adoptionistic,monarchianism提出有关耶稣是作为一个单纯的人谁是圣灵赋予观看了神的一神教的父亲。 This view was first put forward in Rome about 190 by Theodotus of Byzantium and continued by his successor, Artemon (also called Theodotus), who tried to argue that this teaching was the heir of the apostolic tradition.这种观点是首先提出在罗马约190所拜占庭西奥多托斯和他的继任者,Artemon(也称为西奥多托斯),谁试图争辩说,这种教学是使徒传统的继承人继续。 Artemon was refuted by Hippolytus, who condemned the teaching as an innovative attempt to rationalize the Scripture according to the systems of hellenic logic (most likely that taught by the physician and philosopher Galen). Artemon是反驳希波吕托斯,谁谴责的创新尝试,理顺圣经根据希腊逻辑(最有可能是由医生和哲学家盖伦教授)的系统教学。

Although there has been some disagreement on exactly how to classify him, it seems most likely that Paul of Samosata held to a more advanced form of this dynamic monarchianism.虽然已经在他究竟是如何进行分类的一些分歧,似乎最有可能的萨莫萨塔保罗举行了这个充满活力的monarchianism更高级的形式。 He depersonalized the Logos as simply the inherent rationality of God, which led him to formulate a doctrine of the homoousia of the Logos and the Father which necessarily denied the personal subsistence of the preincarnate Word.他非人性化简单地看作上帝的内在合理性,这导致他制定了该标志homoousia主义和父必然否定了个人生活的preinc​​arnate字的标志。 It was for this reason that both his teaching as a whole and the use of the word homoousia were condemned by the Synod of Antioch in 268.正是基于这个原因,无论他的教学作为一个整体,这个词的使用是由homoousia安提阿主教谴责268。Also in working out the consistency of the dynamic monarchian position, Paul taught that the Holy Spirit was not a distant personal entity but simply a manifestation of the grace of the Father.另外,在工作了动态monarchian地位的一致性,保罗告诉我们,圣灵不是一个遥远的个人实体,而只是一个父的风度体现。

Although in basic agreement with dynamic monarchianism on the foundational issue of limiting the term theos to the person of the Father alone, modalistic monarchianism, also known simply as modalism, nevertheless attempted to speak of the full deity of the Son.虽然与上期的限制THEOS到父人单独modalistic monarchianism,也被称为modalism简单但试图说话的神的儿子全动态monarchianism基本问题的基本协议。 The earlier modalists (operating between the second and third centuries), such as Noetus, Epigonus, and Praxeas, achieved this objective by identifying the Son as the Father himself.早期modalists(在第二和第三世纪运营),如Noetus,Epigonus和Praxeas,实现确定为自己的儿子的父亲这一目标。 This led to the charge of patripassianism, which became another label for modalism. Patripassianism is the teaching that it was the Father who became incarnate, was born of a virgin, and who suffered and died on the cross.这导致了patripassianism,这成为另一个modalism标签费。Patripassianism是教学,这是谁成为父亲的化身,是处女出生,谁在十字架上遭受痛苦和死亡。 Praxeas attempted to soften this charge by making a distinction between the Christ who is the Father and the Son who was simply a man.Praxeas试图软化使基督之间的谁是谁的父亲和儿子只是一个人的区别这笔费用。In this way the Father cosuffers with the human Jesus.通过这种方式与人耶稣的父亲cosuffers。

A more sophisticated form of modalism was taught by Sabellius in Rome early in the third century and was given the name Sabellianism. Although much of his teaching has been confused historically with that of Marcellus of Ancyra (fourth century), some elements can be reconstructed.一个更复杂的modalism形式受教撒伯流在罗马早在第三世纪,被命名为Sabellianism,虽然他的教学有多少已混淆的安该拉马塞勒斯(第四世纪),从历史上看,一些元素可以重建。 It seems that Sabellius taught the existence of a divine monad (which he named Huiopator), which by a process of expansion projected itself successively in revelation as Father, Son, and Holy Spirit.看来,撒伯流教导的一个神圣的单子(他命名Huiopator),它由一个扩大的过程预计在启示本身先后作为父亲,儿子,和圣灵的存在。 As Father it revealed itself as Creator and Lawgiver.由于父亲是暴露的创造者和立法者本身。As Son it revealed itself as Redeemer.由于它的儿子透露自己的救世主。As Spirit it revealed itself as the giver of grace.由于它揭示精神作为送礼者本身的宽限期。These were three different modes revealing the same divine person.这三个神圣的人揭示了同样的模式不同。Sabellius as well as the modalists preceding him shared the same view of the Logos as that of Paul of Samosata.撒伯流以及modalists前他作为共同的萨莫萨塔保罗,该标志相同的观点。This along with the fact that modalism was much more popular than dynamic monarchianism (so much so that it alone is sometimes simply called monarchianism) is perhaps why Paul is classified by later patristic writers as a modalist.随着事实modalism远远超过动态monarchianism(以至于它仅是有时简称monarchianism)流行这也许是为什么保罗是一个modalist后来教父作家分类。

CA BlaisingCA Blaising
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 参考书目
Eusebius, Church History 5.25; 7.27 - 30; Hippolytus, Contra Noetum; Tertullian, Against Praxeas; R Seeberg, Text book of the History of Doctrines; JND Kelly, Early Christian Doctrines.尤西比乌斯,教会历史5.25,7.27 - 30;希波吕托斯,魂斗罗Noetum;良,廉政Praxeas,R,文字的教义历史书Seeberg; JND凯利,早期基督教的教义。


MonarchiansMonarchians

Catholic Information天主教信息

Heretics of the second and third centuries.异端的第二和第三世纪。The word, Monarchiani, was first used by Tertullian as a nickname for the Patripassian group (adv. Prax., x), and was seldom used by the ancients.这个词,Monarchiani,最早是由良以此为Patripassian组(adv.普凯。,x)的绰号,并以古人很少使用。 In modern times it has been extended to an earlier group of heretics, who are distinguished as Dynamistic, or Adoptionist, Monarchians from the Modalist Monarchians, or Patripassians [Sabellians].近代以来它一直延伸到一个较早的异端组,谁是为Dynamistic尊贵,或Adoptionist,从Modalist Monarchians Monarchians,或Patripassians [Sabellians]。

I. DYNAMISTS, OR ADOPTIONISTS一DYNAMISTS,或ADOPTIONISTS

All Christians hold the unity (monarchia) of God as a fundamental doctrine.所有的基督徒持有作为一项基本教义的神合一(monarchia)。By the Patripassians this first principle was used to deny the Trinity, and they are with some reason called Monarchians.到Patripassians这第一原则是用来否认三位一体,他们与所谓Monarchians某些原因的。 But the Adoptionists, or Dynamists, have no claim to the title, for they did not start from the monarchy of God, and their error is strictly Christological.但Adoptionists,或Dynamists,没有到标题索赔,因为他们没有从上帝的君主,他们的错误是严格基督。 An account of them must, however, be given here simply because the name Monarchian has adhered to them in spite of the repeated protests of historians of dogma.其中的一个帐户必须,不过,这里给出的仅仅是因为这个名字Monarchian始终坚持的信条在历史学家一再抗议,尽管他们。 But their ancient and accurate name was Theodotians.但他们的古老而准确的名字是Theodotians。The founder of the sect was a leather-seller of Byzantium named Theodotus.该教派创始人是一个名为西奥多托斯拜占庭皮革卖方。He came to Rome under Pope Victor (c. 190-200) or earlier.他来到罗马教皇维克多下(约190-200)或更早版本。He taught (Philosophumena, VII, xxxv) that Jesus was a man born of a virgin according to the counsel of the Father, that He lived like other men, and was most pious; that at His baptism in the Jordan the Christ came down upon Him in the likeness of a dove, and therefore wonders (dynameis) were not wrought in Him until the Spirit (which Theodotus called Christ) came down and was manifested in Him.他教(Philosophumena,七,三十五)耶稣是处女所生根据父,让他像其他人住律师一个人,是最虔诚的;,在他在约旦河受洗基督下来后,在他的鸽子,因此奇观(dynameis)的肖像并没有在他之前,造成精神(其中西奥多托斯称为基督的)下来,并在他表现出来。 They did not admit that this made Him God; but some of them said He was God after His resurrection.他们不承认这使他的神,但他们中有人说他是在他复活的神。It was reported that Theodotus had been seized, with others, at Byzantium as a Christian, and that he had denied Christ, whereas his companions had been martyred; he had fled to Rome, and had invented his heresy in order to excuse his fall, saying that it was but a man and not God that he had denied.据报道,西奥多托斯已被查封,与他人,在作为基督教拜占庭,而且他否认基督,而他的同伴已经martyred,他逃到罗马,并发明了他的异端邪说,以借口他的秋天,说这只不过是一个人而不是神,他已拒绝。 Pope Victor excommunicated him, and he gathered together a sect in which we are told much secular study was carried on.教皇维克多驱逐他,他召集了在这告诉我们,许多世俗的研究是在第一节。Hippolytus says that they argued on Holy Scripture in syllogistic form.希波吕托斯说,他们在三段论形式圣经论证。Euclid, Aristotle, and Theophrastus were their admiration, and Galen they even adored.欧几里德,亚里士多德和泰奥弗拉斯是他们的钦佩,甚至崇拜和盖伦。We should probably assume, with Harnack, that Hippolytus would have had less objection to the study of Plato or the Stoics, and that he disliked their purely literal exegesis, which neglected the allegorical sense.我们或许应该承担,与哈纳克,即希波吕托斯将不得不减少反对柏拉图或斯多葛派的研究,他不喜欢他们的纯文字注释,这忽略了寓言的意义。 They also emended the text of Scripture, but their versions differed, that of Asclepiodotus was different from that of Theodotus, and again from that of Hermophilus; and the copies of Apolloniades did not even tally with one another.他们还emended圣经的文本,但它们的版本不同,这是对Asclepiodotus从西奥多托斯不同,并从Hermophilus一遍;和Apolloniades副本甚至没有彼此相符。 Some of them "denied the law and the Prophets", that is to say, they followed Marcion in rejecting the Old Testament.其中一些“否定法律和先知”,这就是说,他们走的拒绝旧约马吉安。The only disciple of the leather-seller of whom we know anything definite is his namesake Theodotus the banker (ho trapezites).而在其中,我们知道什么明确的皮革卖方唯一的弟子是他的同名西奥多托斯的银行家(HO trapezites)。 He added to his master's doctrine the view that Melchisedech was a celestial power, who was the advocate for the angels in heaven, as Jesus Christ was for men upon earth (a view found among later sects).他说他的主人的学说认为,Melchisedech是一个天体权力,谁是倡导在天上的天使,基督耶稣在地上的男子(后来教派之间找到一个视图)了。 (See MELCHISEDECHIANS). (见MELCHISEDECHIANS)。This teaching was of course grounded on Hebrews, vii, 3, and it is refuted at length by St. Epiphanius as Heresy 55, "Melchisedechians", after he has attacked the leather-seller under Heresy 54, "Theodotians".这样的教学是在希伯来人,七,3接地当然,它是在驳斥长度圣埃皮法尼乌斯为异端55,“Melchisedechians”,此前他已在异端攻击54,“Theodotians”皮革畅销。 As he meets a series of arguments of both heretics, it is probable that some writings of the sect had been before Hippolytus, whose lost "Syntagma against all heresies" supplied St. Epiphanius with all his information.当他满足了这两个异端参数系列,很可能是该教派的一些著作收到希波吕托斯,他失去了“反对一切邪教锡塔玛”提供所有他的信息被圣埃皮法尼乌斯。 After the death of Pope Victor, Theodotus, the banker, and Asclepiodotus designed to raise their sect from the position of a mere school like those of the Gnostics to the rank of a Church like that of Marcion.后教皇维克多,西奥多托斯,银行家和Asclepiodotus死亡旨在提高他们的教派从像那些纯粹的诺斯替教派学校位置到一个教会像马吉安的排名。 They got hold of a certain confessor named Natalius, and persuaded him to be called their bishop at a salary of 150 denarii (24 dollars) a month.他们拉住了名为Natalius一定的忏悔,并劝他被称为在150 denarii(24美元),每月薪资的主教。Natalius thus became the first antipope.Natalius从而成为第一个对立教皇。But after he had joined them, he was frequently warned in visions by the Lord, Who did not wish His martyr to be lost outside the Church.但之后他加入了他们,他经常告诫愿景的主,谁不希望他的烈士外教会丢失。He neglected the visions, for the sake of the honour and gain, but finally was scourged all night by the holy angels, so that in the morning with haste and tears he betook himself in sackcloth and ashes to Pope Zephyrinus and cast himself at the feet of the clergy, and even of the laity, showing the weals of the blows, and was after some difficulty restored to communion.他忽视了视野,为荣誉和增益的缘故,但最后被鞭打的圣天使整夜,所以,在今天上午与匆忙和泪水在他betook麻布和教皇Zephyrinus灰烬,投下自己的石榴裙的神职人员,甚至是俗人,显示了打击该weals,并恢复后共融一定的难度。 This story is quoted by Eusebius II (VI, xxviii) from the "Little Labyrinth" of the contemporary Hippolytus, a work composed against Artemon, a late leader of the sect (perhaps c. 225-30), whom he did not mention in the "Syntagma" or the "Philosophumena".这个故事是引述尤西比乌斯II从“小迷宫”当代希波吕托斯,对Artemon组成的工作,该教派已故领导人(或许C. 225-30),(六,二十八)他没有提及在“宪法广场”或“Philosophumena”。Our knowledge of Artemon, or Artemas, is limited to the reference to him made at the end of the Council of Antioch against Paul of Samosata (about 266-268), where that heretic was said to have followed Artemon, and in fact the teaching of Paul is but a more learned and theological development of Theodotianism (see Paul of Samosata).我们的知识Artemon,或Artemas,仅限于给他参考在对保罗理事会安提阿的萨莫萨塔(约266-268),如该邪教据说遵循Artemon结束了,而事实上教学保罗不过是Theodotianism更多的教训和神学发展(见萨莫萨塔保罗)。

The sect probably died out about the middle of the third century, and can never have been numerous.该教派可能消失了关于第三个世纪中叶,可从来没有过无数。All our knowledge of it goes back to Hippolytus.我们所有的IT知识追溯到希波吕托斯。His "Syntagma" (c.205) is epitomized in Pseudo-Tertullian (Praescript., lii) and Philastrius, and is developed by Epiphanius (Haer., liv. lv); his "Little Labyrinth" (written 139-5, cited by Eusebius, V, 28) and his "Philosophumena" are still extant.他的“宪法广场”(c.205)是集中体现在伪良(Praescript.,LII)和Philastrius,由埃皮法尼乌斯(Haer.,LIV LV。)开发的,他的“小迷宫”(书面139-5,引由尤西比乌斯,V,28)和他的“Philosophumena”仍然尚存。See also his "Contra Noetum" 3, and a fragment "On the Melchisedechians and Theodotians and Athingani", published by Caspari (Tidskr. für der Evangel. Luth. Kirke, Ny Raekke, VIII, 3, p. 307).又见他的“魂斗罗Noetum”3和“关于Melchisedechians和Theodotians和Athingani”片段,由Caspari(Tidskr.献给DER福音。Luth。基克,尹恩惠Raekke,第八,第3,第307页)出版。 But the Athingani are a later sect, for which see MEDCHISEDECHIANS.但Athingani是后来教派,为此,看到MEDCHISEDECHIANS。 The Monarchianism of Photinus seems to have been akin to that of the Theodotians.该Photinus Monarchianism似乎已经类似于的Theodotians的。All speculations as to the origin of the theories of Theodotus are fanciful.至于对西奥多托斯理论起源的所有猜测都是幻想。 At any rate he is not connected with the Ebionites.无论如何,他是没有连接的以便尼派。The Alogi have sometimes been classed with the Monarchians.该Alogi有时被归类与Monarchians。Lipsius in his "Quelenkritik des Epiphanius" supposed them to be even Philanthropists, on account of their denial of the Logos, and Epiphanius in fact calls Theodotus an apopasma of the Alogi; but this is only a guess, and is not derived by him from Hippolytus.在他的“Quelenkritik DES埃皮法尼乌斯”Lipsius应该他们甚至慈善家对自己的否定帐户的标识,而事实上埃皮法尼乌斯电话西奥多托斯一个的Alogi apopasma,但这只是一种猜测,是不是他来自希波吕托斯。As a fact, Epiphanius assures us (Haer. 51) that the Alogi (that is, Gaius and his party) were orthodox in their Christology (see MONTANISTS).作为一个事实,埃皮法尼乌斯向我们保证(Haer. 51)的Alogi(即,盖尤斯和他的党)是在他们的正统的基督(见MONTANISTS)。

II. II。MODALISTS MODALISTS

The Monarchians properly so-called (Modalists) exaggerated the oneness of the Father and the Son so as to make them but one Person; thus the distinctions in the Holy Trinity are energies or modes, not Persons: God the Father appears on earth as Son; hence it seemed to their opponents that Monarchians made the Father suffer and die.正确的Monarchians所谓(Modalists)夸大了的父亲和儿子统一性,使他们少一人,因此在三位一体的区别是能量或模式,而不是人:上帝在地球上出现的父亲作为儿子,因此它似乎是他们的对手是Monarchians使父亲蒙受痛苦和死亡。 In the West they were called Patripassians, whereas in the East they are usually called Sabellians.在西方,他们被称为Patripassians,而在东方,他们通常被称为Sabellians。The first to visit Rome was probably Praxeas, who went on to Carthage some time before 206-208; but he was apparently not in reality a heresiarch, and the arguments refuted by Tertullian somewhat later in his book "Adversus Praxean" are doubtless those of the Roman Monarchians (see PRAXEAS).第一次访问罗马可能Praxeas,谁去到迦太基前一段时间206-208,但他显然是在现实中不是heresiarch和论据驳斥较晚良在他的著作“Adversus Praxean”无疑是那些罗马Monarchians(见PRAXEAS)。

A. History A.历史

Noetus (from whom the Noetians) was a Smyrnaean (Epiphanius, by a slip, says an Ephesian). Noetus(从谁的Noetians)是Smyrnaean(埃皮法尼乌斯一滑,说,一个以弗所)。He called himself Moses, and his brother Aaron.他自称摩西,亚伦和他的兄弟。When accused before the presbyterate of teaching that the Father suffered, he denied it; but after having made a few disciples he was again interrogated, and expelled from the Church.当前,教学中的父亲遭受presbyterate指责,他予以否认,但后发了几个徒弟,他又被审讯,并从教会开除。 He died soon after, and did not receive Christian burial.他去世后不久,并没有得到基督教墓地。Hippolytus mockingly declares him to have been a follower of Heraclitus, on account of the union of the opposites which he taught when he called God both visible and invisible, passible and impassible.希波吕托斯嘲弄宣布他一直是赫拉克利特的追随者,对他的对立面的教导,当他叫神有形和无形的,passible和恝工会帐户。 His pupil Epigonus came to Rome.他的学生Epigonus来到罗马。As he was not mentioned in the "Syntagma" of Hippolytus, which was written in one of the first five years of the third century, he was not then well known in Rome, or had not yet arrived.由于他没有在“宪法广场的”希波吕托斯,这是在第一个五年的第三个世纪的年份之一书面所说,他不是那么好罗马已知或尚未到来。 According to Hippolytus (Philos., IX, 7), Cleomenes, a follower of Epigonus, was allowed by Pope Zephyrinus to establish a school, which flourished under his approbation and that of Callistus.据希波吕托斯(Philos.,IX,7),Cleomenes,一个Epigonus追随者,就可以由教皇Zephyrinus建立一所学校,这下他的赞许和卡利斯图斯的蓬勃发展。 Hagemann urges that we should conclude that Cleomenes was not a Noetian at all, and that he was an orthodox opponent of the incorrect theology of Hippolytus.哈格曼要求,我们应该得出结论,Cleomenes不是Noetian可言,他是一个不正确的希波吕托斯神学正统的对手。 The same writer gives most ingenious and interesting (though hardly convincing) reasons for identifying Praxeas with Callistus; he proves that the Monarchians attacked in Tertullian's "Contra Praxean" and in the "Philosophumena" had identical tenets which were not necessarily heretical; he denies that Tertullian means us to understand that Praxeas came to Carthage, and he explains the nameless refuter of Praxeas to be, not Tertullian himself, but Hippolytus.同一作家给出了确定与卡利斯图斯Praxeas最巧妙和有趣的(虽然难以令人信服)的原因,他证明了Monarchians在良的“魂斗罗Praxean”,并在“Philosophumena”袭击了其中不一定异端相同的信条,他否认良意味着我们要明白,Praxeas来到迦太基,他解释了Praxeas无名refuter要,不良本人,但希波吕托斯。 It is true that it is easy to suppose Tertullian and Hippolytus to have misrepresented the opinions of their opponents, but it cannot be proved that Cleomenes was not a follower of the heretical Noetus, and that Sabellius did not issue from his school; further, it is not obvious that Tertullian would attack Callistus under a nickname.诚然,很容易假设良和希波吕托斯有歪曲他们的对手的意见,但不能证明Cleomenes是不是邪教Noetus追随者,而撒伯流没有问题,从他的学校,进一步,它是不是明显,良将攻击下一个绰号卡利斯图斯。 Sabellius soon became the leader of the Monarchians in Rome, perhaps even before the death of Zephyrinus (c. 218).撒伯流很快成为在罗马Monarchians的领导者,甚至前Zephyrinus(约218)死亡。He is said by Epiphanius to have founded his views on the Gospel according to the Egyptians, and the fragments of that apocryphon support this statement.他说,通过埃皮法尼乌斯有建立在福音的​​看法根据埃及人,以及该apocryphon片段支持这种说法。Hippolytus hoped to convert Sabellius to his own views, and attributed his failure in this to the influence of Callistus.希波吕托斯希望撒伯流转换为自己的看法,以及他的失败归结于这对卡利斯图斯影响。That pope, however, excommunicated Sabellius c.这教皇,但是,驱逐撒伯流角220 ("fearing me", says Hippolytus).220(“怕我”,说希波吕托斯)。Hippolytus accuses Callistus of now inventing a new heresy by combing the views of Theodotus and those of Sabellius, although he excommunicated them both (see CALLISTUS I, POPE).希波吕托斯指责现在发明了梳理西奥多托斯和撒伯流的意见一个新的异端卡利斯图斯,虽然他逐出教会他们两人(见卡利斯图斯我,教皇)。 Sabellius was apparently still in Rome when Hippolytus wrote the Philosophumena (between 230 and 235).撒伯流显然仍然在罗马时希波吕托斯写Philosophumena(介于230和235)。Of his earlier and later history nothing is known.他早期和后来的历史什么是已知的。St. Basil and others call him a Libyan from Pentapolis, but this seems to rest on the fact that Pentapolis was found to be full of Sabellianism by Dionysius of Alexandria, c.圣巴索和其他人叫他从Pentapolis利比亚,但这似乎休息的这Pentapolis被发现狄奥尼修斯的亚历山大角成为Sabellianism充分的事实 260.260。A number of Montanists led by Aeschines became Modalists (unless Harnack is right in making Modalism the original belief of the Montanists and in regarding Aeschines as a conservative).一个由埃斯基涅斯导致Montanists数量成为Modalists(除非哈纳克正确的决策Modalism的Montanists原始信仰和保守埃斯基涅斯视为是)。 Sabellius (or at least his followers) may have considerably amplified the original Noetianism.撒伯流(或至少是他的追随者)可能大大放大了原有Noetianism。There was still Sabellianism to be found in the fourth century.但仍有Sabellianism将在第四世纪发现。Marcellus of Ancyra developed a Monarchianism of his own, which was carried much further by his disciple, Photinus.在安该拉马塞勒斯开发了自己的Monarchianism,这是由他的弟子,Photinus更进一步。Priscillian was an extreme Monarchian and so was Commodian ("Carmen Apol.", 89, 277, 771).普里西利安是一个极端的Monarchian等于是Commodian(“APOL卡门”,89,277,771)。The "Monarchian Prologues" to the Gospels found in most old manuscripts of the Vulgate, were attributed by von Dobschütz and P. Corssen to a Roman author of the time of Callistus, but they are almost certainly the work of Priscillian.而“Monarchian序言”的福音在最老的武加大手稿发现,是由于由冯Dobschütz和P. Corssen到的卡利斯图斯时间罗马的作者,但他们几乎可以肯定的普里西利安工作。Beryllus, Bishop of Bostra, is vaguely said by Eusebius (HE, VI, 33) to have taught that the Saviour had no distinct pre-existence before the Incarnation, and had no Divinity of His own, but that the Divinity of the Father dwelt in Him. Beryllus,对Bostra主教,隐约说是由尤西比乌斯(HE,六,33)有教导说,救主面前的化身,没有明显的前生,并没有他自己的神,但神的父亲住他。 Origen disputed with him in a council and convinced him of his error.奥利争议与他在议会对他的错误,并相信他。The minutes of the disputation were known to Eusebius.在争议的纪要获已知尤西比乌斯。It is not clear whether Beryllus was a Modalist or a Dynamist.目前尚不清楚是否Beryllus是Modalist或Dynamist。

B. TheologyB.神学

There was much that was unsatisfactory in the theology of the Trinity and in the Christology of the orthodox writers of the Ante-Nicene period.有多少是在三位一体的神学和对前厅尼西亚时期的正统作家的基督理想。The simple teaching of tradition was explained by philosophical ideas, which tended to obscure as well as to elucidate it.简单的传统教学是解释哲学思想,这往往掩盖以及澄清它。The distinction of the Son from the Father was so spoken of that the Son appeared to have functions of His own, apart from the Father, with regard to the creation and preservation of the world, and thus to be a derivative and secondary God.圣子从父区别如此谈到的儿子似乎有他自己的功能,除了父,对于建立和维护的世界,从而得到衍生和secondary神。The unity of the Divinity was commonly guarded by a reference to a unity of origin.该神团结常用把守到一个统一的原产地参考。 It was said that God from eternity was alone, with His Word, one with Him (as Reason, in vulca cordis, logos endiathetos), before the Word was spoken (ex ore Patris, logos prophorikos), or was generated and became Son for the purpose of creation.有人说,上帝的永恒独自一人,与他的话语,与他一(如原因,vulca科迪斯,标志endiathetos)一词之前讲了话(当然矿石Patris,标志prophorikos),或生成,并成为儿子创作的目的。 The Alexandrians alone insisted rightly on the generation of the Son from all eternity; but thus the Unity of God was even less manifest.坚持正确的Alexandrians单独对从所有永恒之子一代,但这样的神统一是更明显。 The writers who thus theologize may often expressly teach the traditional Unity in Trinity, but it hardly squares with the Platonism of their philosophy.因此theologize的作家谁可能经常明确教导三位一体的传统团结,但它很难与他们的哲学柏拉图广场。 The theologians were thus defending the doctrine of the Logos at the expense of the two fundamental doctrines of Christianity, the Unity of God, and the Divinity of Christ.神学家遂捍卫在两个基本教义的基督教,上帝的团结,和基督的神性牺牲标识学说。They seemed to make the Unity of the Godhead split into two or even three, and to make Jesus Christ something less than the supreme God the Father.他们似乎使成两个甚至三个分裂神的统一,使耶稣基督的东西比最高父神少。 This is eminently true of the chief opponents of the Monarchians, Tertullian, Hippolytus, and Novatian.这明显是对Monarchians,良,西波吕和Novatian的主要对手如此。(See Newman, "The Causes of Arianism", in "Tracts theol. and eccles.") Monarchianism was the protest against this learned philosophizing, which to the simplicity of the faithful looked too much like a mythology or a Gnostic emanationism. (见纽曼“的阿里乌斯教的根源”,在“大港theol,和埃克尔斯。”)Monarchianism是对这种学习哲学,这给简洁的忠实太像一个神话或诺斯底emanationism看着抗议。 The Monarchians emphatically declared that God is one, wholly and perfectly one, and that Jesus Christ is God, wholly and perfectly God.该Monarchians强调宣布,上帝是一个,完全和完美的,而耶稣基督是神,完全和完美的神。 This was right, and even most necessary, and whilst it is easy to see why the theologians like Tertullian and Hippolytus opposed them (for their protest was precisely against the Platonism which these theologians had inherited from Justin and the Apologists), it is equally comprehensible that guardians of the Faith should have welcomed at first the return of the Monarchians to the simplicity of the Faith, "ne videantur deos dicere, neque rursum negare salvatoris deitatem" ("Lest they seem to be asserting two Gods or, on the other hand, denying the Saviour's Godhead". - Origen, "On Titus", frag. II).这是正确的,甚至是最必要的,虽然很容易明白为什么像良和希波吕托斯的神学家反对他们(对他们的抗议活动是针对这些神学家已经从贾斯汀和柏拉图主义的辩护士正是继承),但同样可以理解对信仰的监护人应当首先表示欢迎的Monarchians返回到简单的信念,“NE videantur deos dicere,neque rursum negare salvatoris deitatem”(“免得他们似乎断言或两个神,另一方面,否认救主的神“ - 奥利,”在提多书“,片段二)。Tertullian in opposing them acknowledges that the uninstructed were against him; they could not understand the magic word oikonomia with which he conceived he had saved the situation; they declared that he taught two or three Gods, and cried "Monarchiam tenemus."在反对他们承认,uninstructed良对他是,他们无法理解的魔字oikonomia与他设想,他挽救了局面,他们宣称,他教两个或三个神,哭着说:“Monarchiam tenemus。”So Callistus reproached Hippolytus, and not without reason, with teaching two Gods.所以卡利斯图斯责备希波吕托斯,而不是没有原因的,带教两个神仙。Already St. Justin knew of Christians who taught the identity of the Father and the Son ("Apol.", I, 63; "Dial.", cxxviii).已经圣贾斯汀知道谁教的基督徒对父亲的身份和儿子(我,63“APOL”;“拨号”,cxxviii)。In Hermas, as in Theodotus, the Son and the Holy Ghost are confused.在黑马,如西奥多托斯,圣子和圣灵都搞不清楚。But it was reserved for Noetus and his school to deny categorically that the unity of the Godhead is compatible with a distinction of Persons.但它留给Noetus和他的学校断然否认的是,神的统一,是与一个人的区别兼容。 They seem to have regarded the Logos as a mere name, or faculty, or attribute, and to have made the Son and the Holy Ghost merely aspects of modes of existence of the Father, thus emphatically identifying Christ with the one God.他们似乎有被视为单纯的名称,或教师,或属性的标识,并取得了子和圣灵仅仅是对父亲的存在方式方面,因而强调认同的一个神的基督。 "What harm am I doing", was the reply made by Noetus to the presbyters who interrogated him, "in glorifying Christ?"“我在做什么伤害”,是由Noetus向谁询问他长老的答复,“在歌颂基督吗?”They replied: "We too know in truth one God; we know Christ; we know that the Son suffered even as He suffered, and died even as He died, and rose again on the third day, and is at the right hand of the Father, and cometh to judge the living and the dead; and what we have learned we declare" (Hippol.; "Contra Noetum", 1).他们回答说:“我们也知道,在一个上帝的真理,我们认识基督,我们知道,即使他的儿子遭受痛苦,甚至死亡,他死了,第三天上涨了,并在右手父亲,和降临,审判活人与死人,而我们学到我们声明“(Hippol.,”魂斗罗Noetum“,1)。 Thus they refuted Noetus with tradition - the Apostles' Creed is enough; for the Creed and the New Testament indeed make the distinction of Persons clear, and the traditional formulas and prayers were equally unmistakable.因此,他们反驳与传统Noetus - 使徒信经是不够的;的信条和新约确实使人事明显的区别,和传统的配方和祈祷也同样明确无误的。Once the Monarchian system was put into philosophical language, it was seen to be no longer the old Christianity.一旦Monarchian系统成哲学语言说,它被视为是不再是旧的基督教。Ridicule was used; the heretics were told that if the Father and the Son were really identified, then no denial on their part could prevent the conclusion that the Father suffered and died, and sat at His own right hand.用嘲讽;异端被告知,如果父亲和儿子真的确定,那么没有拒绝他们的部分可以防止的结论是,父亲遭受痛苦和死亡,在他自己的右手坐着。 Hippolytus tells us that Pope Zephyrinus, whom he represents as a stupid old man, declared at the instance of Callistus: "I know one God Christ Jesus, and besides Him no other Who was born and Who suffered"; but he added: "Not the Father died, but the Son".希波吕托斯告诉我们,教皇Zephyrinus,被他视为一个愚蠢的老人代表,宣布在卡利斯图斯实例:“我知道一个上帝基督耶稣,除他之外没有其他人出生和遭受”,但他补充说:“不父亲去世了,但儿子“。 The reporter is an unsympathetic adversary; but we can see why the aged pope was viewing the simple assertions of Sabellius in a favorable light.记者是一个无情的对手,但我们可以看到,为什么老人教皇是一个良好的光观看的撒伯流简单的断言。Hippolytus declares that Callistus said that the Father suffered with the Son, and Tertullian says the same of the Monarchians whom he attacks.希波吕托斯声明卡利斯图斯说,父亲与儿子遭遇,和良说,他的Monarchians人的攻击一样。Hagemann thinks Callistus-Praxeas especially attacked the doctrine of the Apologists and of Hippolytus and Tertullian, which assigned all such attributes as impassibility and invisibility to the Father and made the Son alone capable of becoming passible and visible, ascribing to Him the work of creation, and all operations ad extra.哈格曼认为卡利斯图斯- Praxeas特别是袭击了的辩护士和希波吕托斯和良的学说,它指定为impassibility和隐形的父亲所有这些属性,并提出儿子单独成为passible和可见光的能力,指称,以他的创作工作,所有操作和额外的广告。 It is true that the Monarchians opposed this Platonizing in general, but it is not evident that they had grasped the principle that all the works of God ad extra are common to the Three Persons as proceeding form the Divine Nature; and they seem to have said simply that God as Father is invisible and impassible, but becomes visible and passible as Son.诚然,在一般的Monarchians反对这个Platonizing,但它并不明显,他们已经掌握的原则是所有神的广告额外工程是共同诉讼形式为神性三人,而他们似乎都表示只是,作为父亲的神是无形的,恝,但变得可见,并为儿子passible。 This explanation brings them curiously into line with their adversaries.这种解释使之符合他们好奇地与他们的对手。Both parties represented God as one and alone in His eternity.双方表示,在他作为一个单独永恒的上帝。Both made the generation of the Son a subsequent development; only Tertullian and Hippolytus date it before the creation, and the Monarchians perhaps not until the Incarnation.双方取得了子一代后来的发展,只有良和希波吕托斯日期之前创建它,并且Monarchians或许直到化身。 Further, their identification of the Father and the Son was not favourable to a true view of the Incarnation.此外,他们的父亲和儿子鉴定是不利于一个真实的化身观点。The very insistence on the unity of God emphasized also the distance of God from man, and was likely to end in making the union of God with man a mere indwelling or external union, after the fashion of that which was attributed to Nestorius.关于上帝的团结也很坚持,强调从人的神的距离,并有可能最终作出的男子只有留置或外部联盟的神联盟后的这归因于涅斯时尚。 They spoke of the Father as "Spirit" and the Son as "flesh", and it is scarcely surprising that the similar Monarchianism of Marcellus should have issued in the Theodotianism of Photinus.他们谈到了父亲的“精神”和为“肉”的儿子,这是几乎令人惊讶的是,马塞勒斯类似Monarchianism应在Photinus Theodotianism发行。It is impossible to arrive at the philosophical views of Sabellius.这是不可能到达的撒伯流的哲学观点。Hagemann thought that he started from the Stoic system as surely as his adversaries did from the Platonic.哈格曼认为,他从斯多葛系统开始为他的对手肯定作为从柏拉图一样。Dorner has drawn too much upon his imagination for the doctrine of Sabellius; Harnack is too fanciful with regard to its origin.Dorner引起太多在他为撒伯流主义的想象;哈纳克过关于它的起源幻想。In fact we know little of him but that he said the Son was the Father (so Novatian, "De. Trin." 12, and Pope Dionysius relate).事实上,我们知道他的不多,但他说,儿子是父亲(所以Novatian,“德。TRIN。”12,和教皇狄奥尼修斯有关)。 St. Athanasius tells us that he said the Father is the Son and the Son is the Father, one is hypostasis, but two in name (so Epiphanius): "As there are divisions of gifts, but the same Spirit, so the Father is the same, but is developed [platynetai] into Son and Spirit" (Orat., IV, c. Ar., xxv).圣亚他那修告诉我们,他说父亲是儿子和儿子是父亲,一个是原质,但在名称的两个(所以埃皮法尼乌斯):“由于有赠品的分歧,但本着同样的精神,所以父相同的,但开发[platynetai]成子和圣灵“(Orat.,四,角河,二十五)。 Theodoret says he spoke of one hypostasis and a threefold prosopa, whereas St. Basil says he willingly admitted three prosopa in one hypostasis. Theodoret说,他一原质和三倍prosopa发言,而圣罗勒说,他心甘情愿地承认在一个原质three prosopa。This is, so far as words go, exactly the famous formulation of Tertullian, "tres personae, una substantia" (three persons, one substance), but Sabellius seems to have meant "three modes or characters of one person".这是迄今为止字眼去,正是良著名的制定,“特雷斯属人,UNA substantia”(三个人,一个物质),但撒伯流似乎意味着“三种模式或一个人的字符”。The Father is the Monad of whom the Son is a kind of manifestation: for the Father is in Himself silent, inactive (siopon, hanenerletos), and speaks, creates, works, as Son (Athan., 1. c., 11).父亲是单子,其中子是一种表现类型:为自己的父亲是沉默的,无效(siopon,hanenerletos),和说话,创造,作品,作为儿子(Athan.,1角,11。) 。Here again we have a parallel to the teaching of the Apologists about the Word as Reason and the Word spoken, the latter alone being called Son.在这里我们再次有一个约作为理性和Word的辩护士口语教学的同时,后者仅被调用的儿子。It would seem that the difference between Sabellius and his opponents lay mainly in his insisting on the unity of hypostasis after the emission of the Word as Son.这似乎是他的对手之间的撒伯流和区别在于他对原质坚持统一后,作为儿子的Word排放为主。It does not seem clear that he regarded the Son as beginning at the Incarnation; according to the passage of St. Athanasius just referred to, he may have agreed with the Apologists to date Sonship from the creative action of God.它似乎并不清楚,他认为儿子因为在开始的化身;根据圣athanasius通过刚才提到的,他可能同意的辩护士迄今从上帝创造行动Sonship。 But we have few texts to go upon, and it is quite uncertain whether Sabellius left any writings.但是,我们有一些文字去后,这是相当不确定是否撒伯流留下任何著作。Monarchianism is frequently combated by Origen.Monarchianism经常打击的渊源。Dionysius of Alexandria fought Sabellianism with some imprudence.亚历山大的狄奥尼修斯打了一些轻率Sabellianism。 In the fourth century the Arians and Semi-Arians professed to be much afraid of it, and indeed the alliance of Pope Julius and Arhanasius with Marcellus gave some colour to accusations against the Nicene formulas as opening the way to Sabellianism.在第四世纪的arians和半亚利安声称要大大的害怕,以至教皇朱利叶斯和Arhanasius与马塞勒斯联盟给了对作为开辟了道路,Sabellianism尼西亚公式有些颜色的指责。 The Fathers of the fourth century (as, for instance, St. Gregory of Nyssa, "Contra Sabellium", ed. Mai) seem to contemplate a more developed form than that known to Hippolytus ("Contra Noetum" and "Philosophumena") and through him, to Epiphanius: the consummation of creation is to consist in the return of the Logos from the humanity of Christ to the Father, so that the original unity of the Divine Nature is after all held to have been temporally compromised, and only in the end will it be restored, that God may be all in all.第四世纪的教父(如,例如,圣格雷戈里的nyssa,“魂斗罗Sabellium”主编。MAI)似乎考虑比已知希波吕托斯(“魂斗罗Noetum”和“Philosophumena”)的比较发达的形式和通过他,埃皮法​​尼乌斯:建立完善的,是包括在标识返回基督的人性的父亲,使原有的神性统一后举行了妥协都是暂时的,只有在最终将它恢复,上帝可能这一切的一切。

Our chief original authorities for early Monarchianism of the Modalist type are Tertullian, "Adversus Praxean", and Hippolytus, "Contra Noetum" (fragment) and "Philosophumena".我们首席的Modalist型早期Monarchianism原机关有良,“Adversus Praxean”和希波吕托斯“魂斗罗Noetum”(片段)和“Philosophumena”。The "Contra Noetum" and the lost "Syntagma" were used by Epiphanius, Haer.在“魂斗罗Noetum”和失去“宪法广场”,使用了埃皮法尼乌斯,Haer。57 (Noetians), but the sources of Epiphanius's Haer.57(Noetians),但埃皮法尼乌斯的Haer的来源。62 (Sabellians) are less certain.62(Sabellians)都逊色一些。The references by Origen, Novatian, and later Fathers are somewhat indefinite.由奥利,Novatian,后来父亲的引用有些不确定。

Publication information Written by John Chapman.出版信息书面约翰查普曼。Transcribed by Anthony A. Killeen.A.转录由安东尼基林。Aeterna, non caduca The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume X. Published 1911. Aeterna,非caduca天主教百科全书,卷十,发布1911年。New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, October 1, 1911. Nihil Obstat,1911年10月1日。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰farley枢机主教,大主教纽约



Also, see:此外,见:
Sabellianism 撒伯流主义
Adoptionism adoptionism

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