Monasticism修道

General Information一般资料

Monasticism (from the Greek monos, meaning "single" or "alone") usually refers to the way of life - communitarian or solitary - adopted by those individuals, male or female, who have elected to pursue an ideal of perfection or a higher level of religious experience through leaving the world.修道(从希腊MONOS,意思是“单”或“独”)通常指的是生活方式 - 社群或孤 - 通过这些人,不论男女,谁当选为追求完美的理想或更高的水平通过让世界宗教经验。Monastic orders historically have been organized around a rule or a teacher, the activities of the members being closely regulated in accordance with the rule adopted.寺院历史上的订单已被周围的规则或老师组织,现正紧密合作,按照有关规则规定的成员的活动采用。The practice is ancient, having existed in India almost 10 centuries before Christ.这种做法是古老的,有存在于印度公元前近10世纪。It can be found in some form among most developed religions: Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, Taoism, the Sufi branch of Islam, and Christianity.它可以找到一些最发达的宗教之间的形式:印度教,佛教,耆那教,道教,伊斯兰教苏菲分支,和基督教。In the time of Christ, the Essenes at Qumran were Jewish monks.在基督的时间,在昆兰爱色尼是犹太僧侣。

Technically, monasticism embraces both the life of the hermit, characterized by varying degrees of extreme solitude, and the life of the cenobite, that is, the monk living in a community offering a limited amount of solitude.从技术上讲,既包含了修道的隐士的生活,不同程度的极端孤独度的特点,以及cenobite生活,也就是说,在提供数量有限的孤独社区僧侣生活。 Monasticism always entails Asceticism, or the practice of disciplined self - denial.修道总是entails禁欲主义,或纪律部队的自我实践 - 否定。This asceticism may include fasting, silence, a prohibition against personal ownership, and an acceptance of bodily discomfort.这可能包括禁食禁欲主义,沉默,对个人所有权的禁止,以及对身体不适接受。Almost always it includes poverty, celibacy, and obedience to a spiritual leader.它几乎总是包括贫穷,独身,并服从一个精神领袖。The goal of such practices is usually a more intense relationship with God, some type of personal enlightenment, or the service of God through prayer, meditation, or good works such as teaching or nursing.这种做法的目的通常是一个与神的关系更加紧张,一些个人的启蒙式,或通过神祈祷,冥想,或如教学或护理服务的优秀作品。

Christian monasticism began in the deserts of Egypt and Syria in the 4th century AD.基督教修道开始在埃及和叙利亚的沙漠在公元4世纪。Saint Anthony the Great was connected with the first Egyptian hermits; Saint Pachomius (d. 346), with the first communities of cenobites in Egypt.圣安东尼大是连接埃及的第一个隐士,圣Pachomius(卒于346)与cenobites在埃及第一社区。Saint Basil the Great (fl. 379), bishop of Caesarea, placed monasticism in an urban context by introducing charitable service as a work discipline.圣大巴西略(楼之379),在凯撒利亚主教,放置在一个城市范围内通过引进作为工作纪律慈善服务修道。

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The organization of western monasticism is due primarily to Saint Benedict of Nursia (6th century), whose Benedictine rule formed the basis of life in most monastic communities until the 12th century.西部修道组织主要是由于圣本笃的努尔西亚(6世纪),其本笃规则形成的生活,直到12世纪最修道院社区的基础。Among the principal monastic orders that evolved in the Middle Ages were the Carthusians in the 11th century and the Cistercians in the 12th; the mendicant orders, or friars - Dominicans, Franciscans, and Carmelites - arose in the 13th century.各主要寺院的订单,在中世纪的发展是在11世纪Carthusians并在12日熙;的乞讨命令,或修士 - 多米尼加人,方济,和加尔默罗 - 在13世纪出现了。

Monasticism has flourished both in the Roman Catholic church and in the Eastern Orthodox churches from earliest Christian times to the present, being reformed and renewed periodically by dynamic individuals with new emphases or departures from current practice.修道蓬勃发展无论是在罗马天主教和基督教从最早的时代到现在的东正教教堂,在改革和更新的新的重点或从目前的实践出发动态个人定期。 Although Protestantism rejected monasticism in the 16th century, the Anglican church since the 19th century has sponsored a number of monastic orders.虽然新教拒绝在16世纪修道​​,自19世纪的英国圣公会教堂赞助了寺院的订单数量。In its present - day form, Christian monasticism is often adapted to the cultures or settings where it is located.在其存在 - 天形成,往往是基督教修道适应的文化或者它位于设置。Buddhist monks, for their part, continue to play an important social as well as religious role in contemporary Southeast Asia and Japan.佛教僧侣,为他们的一部分,继续发挥在当代东南亚和日本的一个重要的社会和宗教的作用。

Cyprian Davis塞浦路斯戴维斯

Bibliography 参考书目
F Biot, The Rise of Protestant Monasticism (1961); H Dumoulin, and JC Maraldo, eds., Buddhism in the Modern World (1976); D Knowles, Christian Monasticism (1969); J Leclereq, The Love of Learning and the Desire for God: A Study of Monastic Culture (1961); T Merton, The Monastic Journey, ed.楼的新教修道上升(1961年)毕,H杜摩兰,和JC Maraldo,EDS,在现代世界佛教(1976年);,D诺尔斯,基督教修道(1969年)〔J Leclereq,学习和爱的欲望上帝:一个寺院文化(1961)的研究,T默顿,修道之旅,编辑。by P Hart (1977), and The Silent Life (1975); DM Miller, and DC Wertz, Hindu Monastic Life (1976); E Nishimura, and G Sato, Unsul: A Diary of Zen Monastic Life (1973); MB Penningtonl, ed., One Yet Two: Monastic Tradition East and West (1976); JS Trimingham, The Sufi Orders in Islam (1971); HB Workman, The Evolution of the Monastic Ideal (1913).由P哈特(1977),和无声生活(1975年); DM米勒和DC沃茨,印度教寺院生活(1976),E西村,和G佐藤Unsul:A禅宗寺院生活(1973)日记; MB Penningtonl编,一但二:寺院的传统东,西(1976年); JS Trimingham,在伊斯兰教的(1971)苏菲订单; HB工人,该寺院的理想(1913年)的演变。


Monasticism修道

General Information一般资料

Introduction简介

Monasticism, also monachism, is a mode of life practiced by persons who have abandoned the world for religious reasons and devote their lives, either separately or in community, to spiritual perfection.修道,也monachism,是一种生活模式谁放弃出于宗教原因世界,奉献自己的生命,无论是单独或集体,精神上的完美实践者。 The vows of celibacy, poverty, and obedience under which they live are termed the evangelical counsels.独身的誓言,贫穷,服从他们生活在被称为福音派律师。A person bound by such vows is known as a religious (Latin religare,"to bind").通过这样的誓言约束的人就是所谓的宗教(拉丁religare,“绑定”)。A man who belongs to a monastic order is also called a monk.一个人谁属于寺院秩序也称为和尚。

History历史

Forms of monasticism existed long before the birth of Jesus Christ.修道形式存在远在耶稣基督诞生。Among the Hindus, the laws of Manu provide that, after the rearing of a family, members of the three upper castes may retire to a hermit life and seek truth in contemplation.其中印度教徒,摩奴的法律规定,在一个家庭饲养,三个上等种姓成员可以退休了隐居生活,寻求真理的沉思。 Buddha created a monastic order, for which he drew up a set of rules that contain many analogies with the rules that were later instituted by Christian religious orders.佛创建的寺院秩序,为此,他制定了一套规则,包含的,后来由基督教宗教团体设立许多规则类比集。Among the Greeks the members of the Orphic brotherhood and the followers of Pythagoras showed marked tendencies toward the practice of monasticism.在希腊人的奥尔弗斯兄弟和毕达哥拉斯的追随者成员表现出朝修道做法明显倾向。Among the Jews the communities of the Essenes had many of the characteristics of religious orders.在犹太人社区的爱色尼的宗教有订单的许多特征。Later, among the followers of Islam, some communities of Sufis settled in monasteries as early as the 8th century AD.后来,其中伊斯兰教的信徒,对苏菲派一些社区落户寺院像公元8世纪初。

The first Christian hermits seem to have established themselves on the shores of the Red Sea, where in pre-Christian times the Therapeutae, an order of Jewish ascetics, had been established.第一个基督教隐士似乎都建立在​​红海,在那里前基督教时代的Therapeutae,一个犹太修道秩序,成立了自己的海岸。 Not long afterward the desert regions of Upper Egypt became a retreat for those who fled from the persecutions of the Christians so frequent in the Roman Empire during the 3rd century, and for those who found the vices of the world intolerable.不久的上埃及的沙漠地区成为了那些谁在期间从3世纪罗马帝国迫害基督徒如此频繁的出逃,并为那些谁发现了世界的恶习忍无可忍撤退。 The earliest form of Christian monasticism was, probably, that of the anchorites or hermits; a later development is found in the pillar saints, called Stylites, who spent most of their time on the tops of pillars in order to separate themselves from the world and to mortify the flesh.最早的基督教修道形式,也许,该anchorites或隐士,一个后来被发现在发展的支柱圣人,叫Stylites,谁花的支柱顶部的大部分时间,以脱离自己和世界到腐坏的肉。 After a time, however, the necessities of the religious life itself led to modifications.过了一段时间,但是,宗教生活本身的必需品导致修改。In order to combine the personal seclusion of individuals with the common exercise of religious duties, the early hermits had an aggregation of separate cells called laura, to which they could retire after their communal duties had been discharged.为了结合起来,与宗教人士的个人行使职责共同隐居,早期的隐士有一个单独的细胞聚集叫劳拉,对此他们退休后的社区工作已出院。 From the union of the common life with personal solitude is derived the name cenobite (Greek koinos bios,"common life"), by which a certain class of monks is distinguished.从个人的孤独与工会共同生活所产生的名称cenobite(希腊koinos BIOS,“共同生活”),其中一类是僧人一定区别开来。

St. Anthony, who embraced solitude, established himself at Alexandria, and the fame of his sanctity, as well as his gentleness and learning, drew many disciples to him.圣安东尼,谁拥抱孤独,建立在亚历山大自己,他的神圣名气,以及他的温柔和学习,给他画了许多弟子。Most of his followers accompanied him when he retired to the desert.他的大部分追随者伴随他,当他退休了沙漠。One of his disciples, St. Pachomius, who established a great monastery on an island in the Nile River, is regarded as the founder of the cenobitic manner of living.的一个门徒,圣Pachomius,卫生组织设立了一个在尼罗河上江洲大修道院,被视为对生活cenobitic manner创始人。Pachomius drew up for his subjects a monastic rule, the first regulations of the kind on record.Pachomius画了他的臣民了寺院的规则,有记录的第一个这类法规。Many thousands of disciples flocked to him, and he founded several other monasteries for men and one for women under the direction of his sister.许多数以千计的弟子给他,他创立的男子和他的妹妹下,其他几个方向的女性之一寺院。All of these houses recognized the authority of a single superior, an abbot or archimandrite.这些房子都承认的一个单一的上级,一个住持或司祭的权威。They constitute the original type of the religious order.他们构成了宗教秩序原始类型。

The cenobitic form of monasticism was first introduced into the West at Rome and in Northern Italy by St. Athanasius, in central North Africa by St. Augustine, and in Gaul by St. Martin of Tours.而修道cenobitic形式首次引入西方在罗马和意大利北部的圣亚他那修,北非中部的圣奥古斯丁,并通过在高卢圣旅游马丁。 The religious revival effected by St. Benedict of Nursia early in the 6th century gave Western monasticism its permanent form.在宗教复兴的圣本笃初生效的努尔西亚在公元6世纪西方修道给其永久形式。

Abbeys修道院

Typical of Western monasticism were the abbeys, self-contained communities of monks ruled by an abbot or of nuns ruled by an abbess.西方修道典型的是修道院,由一个方丈或由女修道院院长裁定和尚尼姑统治独立的社区。Within the abbey walls were the abbey church, the dormitory, the refectory, or dining hall, and the guest house for travelers.在修道院的墙壁是修道院教堂,宿舍,食堂,或饭堂,并为旅客宾馆。The buildings enclosed a large courtyard that was usually surrounded by a cloister, or sheltered arcade.封闭的建筑物是一个大庭院,通常由回廊,或庇护商场包围。The abbeys of the Middle Ages were peaceful retreats for scholars and were the chief centers of Christian piety and learning.中世纪的修道院是为学者和平撤退,被虔诚的基督徒和学习的主要中心。One of the oldest and greatest of the medieval abbeys was Monte Cassino, founded by St. Benedict in 529.最古老和最大的中世纪修道院之一是蒙特卡西诺,由圣本笃成立于529。

Of monastic orders of the West, among the most prominent are the Benedictines, Carthusians, Cistercians, and Premonstratensians.寺院订单西方是最突出的,是本笃会士,Carthusians,熙和Premonstratensians。


Monasticism修道

Advanced Information先进的信息

The origins of early Christian monasticism are not clearly known and are, therefore, subject to controversy.早期基督教修道的起源并不清楚知道和,因此,受到争议。Some scholars believe that the monastic movement was prompted by late Jewish communal and ascetic ideals, such as those of the Essenes.有学者认为,修道运动是由已故的犹太社区和禁欲主义的理想,如爱色尼人,提示。Still others speculate that Manichaean and similar forms of dualism inspired extremes of asceticism within the Christian family.还有一些人推测,摩尼教二元论的启发和类似形式在基督教家庭的禁欲主义极端。However, the first Christian commentators on monasticism believed that the movement had truly gospel origins.然而,对修道第一基督教评论家认为,运动是真正的福音的起源。

Christian monastics drew their spiritual strength from Christ's emphasis on poverty (Mark 10:21) and on the "narrow way" (Matt.7:14) to salvation.基督教修道士吸引了来自基督的重点贫困(马可福音10:21)和“窄方式”(Matt.7:14)他们的精神力量来拯救。 Early monastics believed that Paul preferred celibacy to marriage (1 Cor.7:8).早期的僧侣认为,保罗喜欢独身到结婚(1 Cor.7:8)。Indeed, the first nuns seem to have been widows of the late Roman period who decided not to remarry.事实上,第一个修女似乎已经已故罗马时期谁决定不再婚寡妇。From one point of view, the decision of some Christians to live separate from the community, both physically and spiritually, was regrettable.从一个角度看,一些基督徒决定从社会生活分开,在身体上和精神上,是令人遗憾的。From another, the commitment and service of the monastics made them the most valued people in early medieval society.从另一个的承诺和服务使他们的僧侣在中世纪早期社会中最有价值的人。

The first monks of whom we have a good record represent an extreme phase in the evolution of monasticism.其中我们有一个良好的记录的第一个僧人代表了极端的修道演化阶段。These are the so - called desert fathers, hermits, living in the eremitical style in the deserts of Egypt, Syria, and Palestine.这些都是如此 - 所谓沙漠父亲,隐士,在eremitical风格生活在埃及,叙利亚和巴勒斯坦的沙漠。 Enraged by sin and fearful of damnation, they left the towns for a solitary struggle against temptation.由罪恶的诅咒和可怕的愤怒,他们留下一个孤独的斗争,对诱惑的城镇。Some, like Simeon Stylites, live very exotic lives and became tourist attractions.有些人,像西蒙Stylites,生活非常奇特的生活,成为旅游景点。More typical, however, was Anthony of Egypt (c. 250 - 356), whose commitment to salvation led him back to the community to evangelize unbelievers.更典型,然而,安东尼的埃及(公元前250 - 356),其致力于拯救促使他回到社区传福音不信。His extreme asceticism deeply touched the sensibilities of the age.他的极端禁欲主义深深触动了时代的感觉。

The word "monk" is derived from a Greek word meaning "alone."单词“和尚”一词源于希腊字,意思是“独”。 The question for the desert fathers was one of the lonely, individual struggle against the devil as opposed to the obvious support that came from living in some sort of community.为沙漠父亲的问题是孤独的,而不是对抗的明显支持,从一些社会生活类个人来到魔鬼斗争之一。Pachomius (c. 290 - 346), an Egyptian monk, preferred the latter.Pachomius(公元前290 - 346),埃及僧侣,更喜欢后者。 He wrote a rule of life for monks in which he emphasized organization and the rule of elder monks over the newly professed.他写了僧人的生活中,他强调组织和对新老和尚自称法治。The rule became popular, and the movement toward communal life was ensured.该规则走红,并走向社区生活运动是保证。 To the idea of community Basil the Great (c. 330 - 79) added another element.到了社会思想的大罗勒(公元前330 - 79)添加其他元素。In his writings, and especially in his commentaries on the Scriptures, this father of Eastern monasticism defined a theory of Christian humanism which he felt was binding on the monasteries.在他的著作,特别是在他的评论对圣经,这种东方修道父亲定义的基督教人文主义理论,他认为是对寺院约束力。 According to Basil, monastics were bound to consider their duty to the whole of Christian society.据罗勒,僧侣都必然要考虑自己的责任,对基督教社会的整体。They should care for orphans, feed the poor, maintain hospitals, educate children, even provide work for the unemployed.他们应该关心孤儿,养活穷人,维护医院,教育子女,甚至为失业人士提供工作。

During the fourth through the sixth centuries monasticism spread throughout the Christian world.在第六世纪修道通过遍布基督教世界第四位。From Asia Minor to Britain its ideal flourished.从亚细亚到英国其理想的蓬勃发展。However, the Celtic monks tended to espouse the old eremitical tradition, whereas Latin monasticism, under the Great Rule of Benedict of Nursia (c. 480 - c, 547), codified itself into a permanent, organized communal form.不过,凯尔特人僧人倾向于拥护旧eremitical的传统,而拉美修道,在对努尔西亚本笃(公元前480 - C,547)大规则,​​编撰成一个永久的,有组织的社区形式本身。To the old promises of poverty, chastity, and obedience to Christ the Benedictines added stability.为了贫穷,贞洁,服从旧承诺基督本笃增加稳定性。Monks could no longer drift about from monastery to monastery but were bound to one for life.和尚不再漂移从寺院寺院,但注定终身之一。The essence of Benedict's rule is its sensible approach to Christian living.本笃的统治的本质是其明智的做法,以基督徒生活。 It forbade excess and provided practical advice for every aspect of monastery life.它禁止多余的,并为每一个寺院生活的各个方面实用的建议。It gave an elaborate description of the role of each person in the community from the abbot, who represented Christ in the community, to the lowliest postulant.它给了每个人在社会中的作用,从方丈,谁代表在社区基督详尽的描述,到lowliest postulant。 For this reason the Benedictine Rule became the standard in western Europe.由于这个原因,本笃会统治在西欧的标准。Because of their devotion to the rule, monks came to be known as the "regular" clergy, from the Latin regula, "rule."由于他们的献身规则,修士们被称为“常规”神职人员称,从拉丁稳压,“规则”。

The great work of the monasteries of the Middle Ages was the opus Dei, the work of God, prayer and praise to the Almighty throughout the day and night.而中世纪的修道院伟大的工作是主业,神的工作,祈祷和赞美整个白天和黑夜全能。This "work" was organized into the offices of the monastic day.这种“工作”是组织成的寺院一天的办公室。These varied somewhat according to place and season, but generally vigils, lauds, terce, sext, vespers, and compline were chanted throughout Christendom.这些不同的地方,有些根据季节,但一般守夜,赞扬,terce,SEXT,晚祷,在整个基督教和compline高呼。 In addition, monks and nuns performed physical labor, provided charitable services, and kept learning alive.此外,僧尼进行体力劳动,提供慈善服务,并保持学习活着。They studied and copied the Scriptures and the writings of the church fathers as well as classical philosophy and literature.他们研究和复制的圣经和教会的教父的著作以及古典哲学和文学。They were leaders in the so - called Carolingian Renaissance, during which time (eighth - ninth centuries) writing was reformed and the liberal arts defined.他们的领导人在如此 - 所谓加洛林文艺复兴时期,在这段时间(第八 - 第九世纪)写了改革和文科定义。In monastic hands writing became an art.在寺院手中写作成为一种艺术。The monasteries had a monopoly on education until the evolution of the cathedral school and the university in the High Middle Ages.寺院有一个直到大教堂学校的发展和在高中世纪大学教育的垄断。

Early medieval monasticism may have reached its height in the foundation of the abbey of Cluny in Burgundy in the tenth century.早期的中世纪修道院可能已经达到在勃艮第的克吕尼修道院在十世纪的基础,它的高度。Cluny set a new standard of liturgical splendor.克鲁尼设定了礼仪辉煌的新标准。It also sought to escape corruption by establishing its independence from the feudal system in which all medieval institutions were rooted.它还试图逃避建立从封建中世纪的制度,即所有机构都植根于它的独立性​​腐败。 Cluny and its "daughters" (houses which it founded and disciplined) exercised enormous spiritual authority in the eleventh century.克鲁尼和它的“女儿”(房屋它创立和纪律)行使在十一世纪的巨大精神权威。Though it is no longer acceptable to draw direct connections between the Cluniac reform movement and the reform papacy of Gregory VII(1073 - 85), both represent institutional responses to the rapid changes in medieval society.虽然它不再是可以接受的画之间的克吕尼改革改革运动和格雷戈里第七(1073 - 85)改革教皇的直接连接,都代表机构应对在中世纪社会的迅速变化。

By 1100 monasticism was on the defensive.到1100修道是在防守上。It was no longer clear that monastic service to God and society was commensurate with the praise and gifts which society had lavished on the monasteries.它已不再明显,寺院服务,是与神和社会的赞誉和社会有哪些在寺院撒向礼物相称。Great donations of land and other forms of wealth made monks rich at a time when other medieval institutions were assuming societal duties formerly the responsibility of the monasteries.土地和其他形式的财富捐献了大和尚在中世纪的时候,其他机构在承担社会责任前身是修道院的责任丰富。The popularity of the monasteries attracted less than devout postulants, and the aristocracy used the great houses as a repository for spinster daughters and younger sons.该寺院的知名度吸引了超过虔诚postulants少了,贵族作为一个老处女女儿和小儿子的大房子库。

Yet even as monasticism approached its crisis, new reformed orders appeared.然而,即使作为修道走近它的危机,订单出现了新的改革。The Cistercians, under their most influential leader Bernard of Clairvaux, sought a new life of evangelical purity.在熙,在其最有影响力的克莱尔沃领导人伯纳德,寻求新生活的福音派的纯洁性。They confined membership to adults, simplified services, abandoned all feudal obligations, and tried to restore the contemplative life.他们只限于会员成年人,简化服务,抛弃一切封建义务,并试图恢复沉思的生活。The Carthusians tried to recapture the old eremitical spirit of the desert fathers.该Carthusians试图夺回老父亲eremitical精神的沙漠。They retreated from society and became an important feature of the medieval frontier, cutting down forests and opening new ground for agriculture.他们退到社会并成为中世纪边疆的重要特征,砍伐森林和农业对外开放新局面。 Their role in the evolution of sheep farming and the wood industry was invaluable.他们在羊养殖和木材工业发展的作用是非常宝贵的。

Perhaps the last great revival of monastic spirit came in the autumn of the Middle Ages with the appearance of the mendicant orders.也许是最后的伟大复兴来到寺院的精神在与乞丐的订单出现在中世纪的秋天。The Dominicans and Franciscans captured the collective imagination of a society in crisis.在多米尼加和方济抓住了危机中的社会集体想象。Francis of Assisi represented the perfection of both monastic and Christian idealism in his effort to imitate the life of Christ in all its purity and simplicity.弗朗西斯的阿西西代表了两个寺院和基督教的理想主义在他的努力模仿一切纯洁和简单的基督生命的完美。By taking the apostolic ideal outside the monastery, Francis gave it one last flowering in the culture which had given it birth.通过采取外的修道院使徒理想,弗朗西斯给了它在这给了它最后一次开花生育文化。

In modern history monasticism has suffered three great blows; the Reformation, the Enlightenment, and twentieth century secularism.在现代历史上修道遭受三大冲击;宗教改革,启蒙运动,和二十世纪的世俗主义。Generally, the leaders of the Reformation believed that the monastics did not in fact conform to a simple gospel rule of life, that their repetitive prayers, fasts, and ceremonies were meaningless and that they had no real value to society.一般来说,宗教改革领导人认为,修道士事实上没有符合福音的生活简单的规则,他们重复的祈祷,斋戒,和仪式是毫无意义的,他们并没有真正对社会的价值。 The vast wealth which they had accumulated seemed better spent on general public needs.广袤的财富,他们积累了似乎更好的公众需要花费。Those monastics who had kept their vows were seen as cut off from true Christian freedom in lives that were futile and unfulfilled.这些谁一直保持自己的誓言僧侣被视为真正的生命隔绝的是徒劳的和未实现的基督教自由了。Wherever the Reformation was triumphant, the monasteries were disestablished.无论是宗教改革胜利,寺院被解散。 In different terms the eighteenth century Enlightenment would also argue that the monasteries were useless.在不同的条件,十八世纪的启蒙运动也认为,寺院是无用的。Liberals saw them as corrupt and unnatural, preserving the superstition of the old regime.自由主义者看见他们作为腐败和不自然,保留了旧体制的迷信。The twentieth century has seen the rapid decline of religious orders.二十世纪已经看到了宗教的订单急剧下降。

CT MarshallCT马歇尔
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 参考书目
C Brooke, The Monastic World; EC Butler, Benedictine Monachism; O Chadwick, Western Asceticism; K Hughes, The Church in Early Irish Society; D Knowles, Christian Monasticism; J Leclercq, The Love of Learning and the Desire for God; LJ Lekai, The Cistercians: Ideals and Reality; W Nigg, Warriors of God.C,寺院世界布鲁克; EC巴特勒本笃Monachism,O查德威克,西方禁欲主义,K休斯,爱尔兰在早期教会协会,D诺尔斯,基督教修道〔J勒克莱尔,学习欲望和对上帝的爱; LJ乐凯,在熙:理想与现实,W尼格,神勇士。


Monasticism修道

Catholic Information天主教信息

Monasticism or monachism, literally the act of "dwelling alone" (Greek monos, monazein, monachos), has come to denote the mode of life pertaining to persons living in seclusion from the world, under religious vows and subject to a fixed rule, as monks, friars, nuns, or in general as religious.修道或monachism,字面上的“蜗居单”(希腊文MONOS,monaze​​in,monachos)的行为,已经到了代表的生活模式有关人士在隐居生活的世界,在宗教的誓言,并受一个固定的规则,因为僧侣,修士,修女,或作为宗教一般。 The basic idea of monasticism in all its varieties is seclusion or withdrawal from the world or society.在所有品种的基本思路是修道隐居,或从世界或社会的撤离。The object of this is to achieve a life whose ideal is different from and largely at variance with that pursued by the majority of mankind; and the method adopted, no matter what its precise details may be, is always self-abnegation or organized asceticism.这个对象是实现人生的理想是不同的差异,并在很大程度上与该所追求的人类的大多数,并且该方法通过,无论其精确的细节而定,总是自我克制或有组织的禁欲主义。 Taken in this broad sense monachism may be found in every religious system which has attained to a high degree of ethical development, such as Brahmin, Buddhist, Jewish, Christian, and Moslem religions, and even in the sytem of those modern communistic societies, often anti-theological in theory, which are a special feature of recent social development especially in America.在这个广泛的意义上monachism两者可能会发现在每一个宗教体系已达到了高度的道德发展,如婆罗门,佛教,犹太教,基督教和穆斯林宗教,甚至在这些现代化的共产主义社会sytem,往往在理论上反神学,这是一种最近特别是在美国社会发展的特殊功能。 Hence it is claimed that a form of life which flourishes in environments so diverse must be the expression of a principle inherent in human nature and rooted therein no less deeply than the principle of domesticity, though obviously limited to a far smaller portion of mankind.因此,它是声称它的生活环境中一夜暴富的形式如此多样必须是一个原则,人性中固有的表达和深深植根于其中不低于比家庭生活的原则,但显然限于人类小得多部分。 This article and its two accompanying articles, EASTERN MONASTICISM and WESTERN MONASTICISM, deal with the monastic order strictly so called as distinct from the "religious orders" such as the friars, canons regular, clerks regular, and the more recent congregations.这篇文章和它的两个随行的文章,东方和西方修道修道,严格处理,从所谓的“宗教命令”,如修士,大炮经常,定期办事员,以及最近众不同的寺院秩序。 For information as to these see RELIGIOUS ORDERS, and the article on the particular order or congregation required.有关信息,以这些看到宗教命令,以及对特定的命令或要求众文章。

I. ITS GROWTH AND METHOD一,其生长方法

(1) Origin (1)产地

Any discussion of pre-Christian asceticism is outside the scope of this article.任何前基督教禁欲主义的讨论超出了本文的范围。So too, any question of Jewish asceticism as exemplified in the Essenes or Therapeutae of Philo's "De Vita Contemplativa" is excluded.所以太,任何犹太人禁欲主义的问题,如爱色尼或斐洛的“德维塔Contemplativa”Therapeutae例证被排除在外。

It has already been pointed out that the monastic ideal is an ascetic one, but it would be wrong to say that the earliest Christian asceticism was monastic.它已经指出,寺院的理想是一个禁欲主义者之一,但它是错误的说法,最早的基督教禁欲主义的修道士。Any such thing was rendered impossible by the circumstances in which the early Christians were placed, for in the first century or so of the Church's existence the idea of living apart from the congregation of the faithful, or of forming within it associations to practise special renunciations in common was out of the question.任何这样的事情是提供不可能的,其中早期的基督徒被安置的情况下,在第一世纪的教会的存在的生活从忠实众外,或在其组织形成到实践的特殊renunciations想法左右在常见的是出了问题。 While admitting this, however, it is equally certain that monasticism, when it came, was little more than a precipitation of ideas previously in solution among Christians.虽然承认这一点,但是,它同样可以肯定,修道,当它来了,几乎没有比以前在基督教徒之间的解决思路降水多。 For asceticism is the struggle against worldly principles, even with such as are merely worldly without being sinful.对于禁欲主义是对世俗原则的斗争,即使如,只是没有被世俗罪恶。The world desires and honours wealth, so the ascetic loves and honours poverty.世界财富的欲望和荣誉,所以苦行爱和荣誉贫困。 If he must have something in the nature of property then he and his fellows shall hold it in common, just because the world respects and safeguards private ownership.如果他必须在本质属性的东西,然后他和他的同伴应保持共同的它,只是因为世界尊重和保障私人所有权。In like manner he practises fasting and virginity that thereby he may repudiate the licence of the world.同样地,他的做法空腹和童贞的可能,从而否定了他的世界执照。

Hereafter the various items of this renunciation will be dealt with in detail, they are mentioned at this time merely to show how the monastic ideal was foreshadowed in the asceticism of the Gospel and its first followers.此后该放弃的各个项目将详细论述,他们都提到在这个时候仅仅是为了显示如何寺院的理想是在福音和第一追随者禁欲主义埋下了伏笔。 Such passages as I John, ii, 15-17: "Love not the world, nor the things that are in the world. If any man love the world, the charity of the Father is not in him. For all that is in the world is the concupiscence of the flesh, and the concupiscence of the eyes, and the pride of life, which is not of the father but is of the world. And the world passeth away and the concupiscence thereof. But he that doeth the will of God abideth forever" -- passages which might be multiplied, and can bear but one meaning if taken literally.我约翰,二,15-17这些段落:“不要爱世界,也没有东西在世界上任何人如果爱的世界里,慈善的父亲是不是他对所有在世界是肉体的色欲,和眼睛的色欲,并今生的骄傲,这是不是父亲,而是这个世界,而世界passeth路程,色欲不足,但他行善的意志神abideth永远“ - 这可能是成倍的段落,并能承受一个意思,但如果从字面上。And this is precisely what the early ascetics did.而这正是早期的修道者一样。We read of some who, driven by the spirit of God, dedicated their energies to the spread of the Gospel and, giving up all their possessions passed from city to city in voluntary poverty as apostles and evangelists.我们读到了一些谁,由上帝的精神带动下,奉献出自己的能量,以福音的传播,并放弃所有通过自愿贫困,从城市到城市,使徒和传道财产。 Of others we hear that they renounced property and marriage so as to devote their lives to the poor and needy of their particular church.我们听到别人说他们放弃财产和婚姻,以自己的生命奉献给贫困者和他们的特殊需要的教会。If these were not strictly speaking monks and nuns, at least the monks and nuns were such as these; and, when the monastic life took definite shape in the fourth century, these forerunners were naturally looked up to as the first exponents of monachismm.如果这些人不严格地说僧尼,至少是僧侣和尼姑被诸如此类的;,并在寺院的生活发生在第四世纪一定的形状,这些先行者是自然抬起头来作为monachismm第一指数。 For the truth is that the Christian ideal is frankly an ascetic one and monachism is simply the endeavour to effect a material realization of that ideal, or organization in accordance with it, when taken literally as regards its "Counsels" as well as its "Precepts" (see ASCETICISM; COUNSELS, EVANGELICAL).对于事实是,基督教的理想是坦率地说了禁欲主义者之一,monachism只不过是努力的效果在按照它的实现这一理想材料,或组织时,就其采取直译为“律师”为“戒,以及“(见禁欲主义;律师,福音派)。

Besides a desire of observing the evangelical counsels, and a horror of the vice and disorder that prevailed in a pagan age, two contributory causes in particular are often indicated as leading to a renunciation of the world among the early Christians.另外一个观察福音律师的愿望,以及对卖淫和混乱,在一个异教徒时代盛行的恐怖,两个特别的成因通常表示为龙头,以一个世界之中,早期的基督徒放弃。 The first of these was the expectation of an immediate Second Advent of Christ (cf. 1 Corinthians 7:29-31; 1 Peter 4:7, etc.) That this belief was widespread is admitted on all hands, and obviously it would afford a strong motive for renunciation since a man who expects this present order of things to end at any moment, will lose keen interest in many matters commonly held to be important.其中第一项是立即基督复临(参林前7:29-31;彼得4点07,等)的期望,这个信念是上普遍承认人人动手,显然将承受因为一个人谁希望这种事情在任何时候结束目前以放弃强烈的动机,就会失去共同持有的许多问题是重要的浓厚兴趣。 This belief however had ceased to be of any great influence by the fourth century, so that it cannot be regarded as a determining factor in the origin of monasticism which then took visible shape.但是这种信念已不再是什么大的影响在第四世纪,因此它不能被看作是修道的原产地确定的因素,然后形成了明显的算是。A second cause more operative in leading men to renounce the world was the vividness of their belief in evil spirits.第二个原因更导致手术放弃男性的世界是他们的信念在邪灵的鲜艳度。The first Christians saw the kingdom of Satan actually realized in the political and social life of heathendom around them.第一个基督徒看到了撒旦王国实际的heathendom政治和社会生活中身边的实现。In their eyes the gods whose temples shone in every city were simply devils, and to participate in their rites was to join in devil worship.在他们眼中的神的庙宇照在每个城市都只是魔鬼,并参加他们的仪式是加入魔鬼崇拜。When Christianity first came in touch with the Gentiles the Council of Jerusalem by its decree about meat offered to idols (Acts 15:20) made clear the line to be followed.当基督教第一次接触与外邦人来到了耶路撒冷的约肉类提供给偶像(徒15:20)理事会法令明确了应遵循的路线。

Consequently certain professions were practically closed to believers since a soldier, schoolmaster, or state official of any kind might be called upon at a moment's notice to participate in some act of state religion.因此某些专业几乎被关闭,因为士兵,校长,或任何形式的国家官员的信徒可以被称为在片刻的通知后,参加一些国家的宗教行为。 But the difficulty existed for private individuals also.但困难也存在个人。There were gods who presided over every moment of a man's life, gods of house and garden, of food and drink, of health and sickness.有神灵谁在每一个男人的生活,房子和花园的神,食品和饮料的健康和疾病,时刻主持。To honour these was idolatry, to ignore them would attract inquiry, and possibly persecution.为了履行这些是偶像崇拜,无视他们将吸引调查,并可能受到迫害。Ans so when, to men placed in this dilemma, St. John wrote, "Keep yourselves from idols" (I John,v,21) he said in effect "Keep yourselves from public life, from society, from politics, from intercourse of any kind with the heathen", in short, "renounce the world".答这样的时候,这个难题摆在男性,圣约翰写道,“远离自己的偶像”(约翰一,五,21)他实际上说,“远离公共生活的自己,从社会,从政治,从性交的,任何种类的异教徒“,总之,”放弃“的美誉。

By certain writers the communitarian element seen in the Church of Jerusalem during the years of its existence (Acts 4:32) has sometimes been pointed to as indicating a monastic element in its constitution, but no such conclusion is justified.某些作家的社群元素在耶路撒冷教会中看到它的存在(徒4:32)多年来一直指出,有时为表示在其宪法寺院元素,但没有这样的结论是有道理的。 Probably the community of goods was simply a natural continuation of the practice, begun by Jesus and the Apostles, where one of the band kept the common purse and acted as steward.也许是商品社会是一个简单的做​​法自然延续,耶稣和使徒,那里的乐队之一保持了普通钱包和管家开始采取行动。There is no indication that such a custom was ever instituted elsewhere and even at Jerusalem it seems to have collapsed at an early period.毫无疑问,这样的习惯是在其他地方提起过,甚至在耶路撒冷它似乎已经在早期期间倒塌的迹象。It must be recognized also that influences such as the above were merely contributory and of comparatively small importance.它也必须认识到,如上述的影响仅仅是款式和相对较小的重要性。The main cause which begot monachism was simply the desire to fulfill Christ's law literally, to imitate Him in all simplicity, following in His footsteps whose "kingdom is not of this world".主要原因是生了monachism只是愿望满足基督的法律字面上看,在所有的简单模仿他,在他的脚步,其“王国是这个世界上没有”以下。 So we find monachism at first instinctive, informal, unorganized, sporadic; the expression of the same force working differently in different places, persons, and circumstances; developing with the natural growth of a plant according to the environment in which it finds itself and the character of the individual listener who heard in his soul the call of "Follow Me".因此,我们发现在第一本能的,非正式的,无组织的,零星monachism;同一工作在不同的地方,人,表达力和情况不同,与一个根据环境中找到自己和植物自然生长发展性格的个别听众听到谁在他的灵魂的“跟随我”的呼吁。

(2) Means to the End(2)表示结束

It must be clearly understood that, in the case of the monk, asceticism is not an end in itself.必须清楚地认识到,在和尚的情况下,禁欲主义不是目的本身。For him, as for all men, the end of life is to love God.对他来说,为所有的人,生命的尽头是爱上帝。Monastic asceticism then means the removal of obstacles to loving God, and what these obstacles are is clear from the nature of love itself.寺院的禁欲主义则是指以爱上帝消除障碍,这些障碍是什么,是从爱情本身的性质明确。 Love is the union of wills.爱是意志的结合。If the creature is to love God, he can do it in one way only; by sinking his own will in God's, by doing the will of God in all things: "if ye love Me keep my commandments".如果生物是神的爱,他可以做一个方式而已;由下沉上帝是他自己的意愿,做一切事情的神的旨意:“如果你们爱我守我诫命”。 No one understands better than the monk those words of the beloved disciple, "Greater love hath no man than this that a man lay down his life", for in his case life has come to mean renunciation.没有人理解比和尚的爱徒的话更好,“大爱祂所没有比这名男子,一名男子放下生命”为生活在他的案件已经意味着放弃。 Broadly speaking this renunciation has three great branches corresponding to the three evangelical counsels of poverty, chastity, and obedience.从广义上讲这放弃了三大分支对应的三个福音律师贫穷,贞洁,服从。

(a) Poverty(一)贫困

There are few subjects, if any, upon which more sayings of Jesus have been preserved than upon the superiority of poverty over wealth in His kingdom (cf. Matthew 5:3; 13:22; 19:21 sq.; Mark 10:23 sq.; Luke 6:20; 18:24 sq., etc.), and the fact of their preservation would indicate that such words were frequently quoted and presumably frequently acted upon.有几个科目,如果有的话,在这耶稣更多的说法已经超过了财富的优势后,在他的王国的贫穷(参见马太5时03分保存; 13时22分,19点21平方米;马克10时23平方米;路加福音6:20; 18时24平方米等),以及其保存的事实表明,这样的话会经常被引述,想必经常采取行动。The argument based on such passages as Matthew 19:21 sq., may be put briefly thus.马太19时21平方米作为这种通道的参数,从而可把简单。If a man wish to attain eternal life it is better for him to renounce his possessions than to retain them.如果一个人想获得永恒的生命,不如让他放弃他的财产,而不是留住他们。Jesus said, "How hardly shall they that have riches enter into the kingdom of God", the reason being no doubt that it is difficult to prevent the affections from becoming attached to riches, and that such attachment makes admission into Christ's kingdom impossible.耶稣说,“如何将他们很难有暴富进入神的国进”,原因是毫无疑问,这是难以避免成为连接到财富的感情,而且这种依恋使进入基督的​​国度是不可能录取。 As St. Augustine points out, the disciples evidently understood Jesus to include all who covet riches in the number of "the rich", otherwise, considering the small number of the wealthy compared with the vast multitude of the poor, they would not have asked, "Who then shall be saved"?正如圣奥古斯丁指出,耶稣的弟子显然理解为包括所有谁觊觎的“富”号财富,否则,考虑到少数富人与穷人的广大众多,他们也不会要求,“谁那么应保存”? "You cannot serve God and Mammon" is an obvious truth to a man who knows by experience the difficulty of a whole-hearted service of God; for the spiritual and material good are in immediate antithesis, and where one is the other cannot be. “你不能为上帝和财神”就是一个明显的真理,一个人的经历都知道的神的全心服务的难度;的精神和物质良好的在眼前的对立面,而其中一个是其他不可。 Man cannot sate his nature with the temporal and yet retain an appetite for the eternal; and so, if he would live the life of the spirit, he must flee the lust of the earth and keep his heart detached from what is of its very nature unspiritual.人不能沙爹的时间,但保留一个永恒的胃口他的性质,等等,如果他将生活的精神的生活,他必须逃离地球的欲望,保持他的心从什么分离是其本质非精神。 The extent to which this spiritual poverty is practised has varied greatly in the monachism of different ages and lands.到本精神贫困是实行有差别很大的程度在不同​​年龄和土地monachism。In Egypt the first teachers of monks taught that the renunciation should be made as absolute as possible.在埃及的僧侣的第一位老师告诉我们,放弃应尽可能绝对的。Abbot Agathon used to say, "Own nothing which it would grieve you to give to another".阿加住持常说,“自己没有它会伤心你给的另一个”。St. Macarius once, on returning to his cell, found a robber carrying off his scanty furniture.圣米加利阿斯一次,在返回自己的囚室,发现了劫匪携带了他微薄的家具。He thereupon pretended to be a stranger, harnessed the robber's horse for him and helped him to get his spoil away.他于是谎称自己是陌生人,对他的强盗驾驭的马,并帮助他得到他糟蹋了。Another monk had so stripped himself of all things that he possessed nothing save a copy of the Gospels.另一个和尚曾这样剥夺了所有的东西,他拥有任何保存的福音复制自己。After a while he sold this also and gave the price away saying, "I have sold the very book that bade me sell all I had".过了一会儿,他卖掉了,这也和价格远说,“我已经卖了很书,吩咐我卖我所有”。

As the monastic institute became more organized legislation appeared in the various codes to regulate this point among others.由于寺院变得更有组织的立法机构中出现的各种守则,以规范等了这一点。 That the principle remained the same however is clear from the strong way in which St. Benedict speaks of the matter while making special allowance for the needs of the infirm, etc. (Reg. Ben., xxxiii).该原则仍然是相同的不过是从强大的方式,圣本笃问题的讲话,同时使对体弱者等(注册本。,三十三)需要明确的特殊津贴。 "Above everything the vice of private ownership is to be cut off by the roots from the monastery. Let no one presume either to give or to receive anything without leave of the abbot, nor to keep anything as his own, neither book, nor writing tablets, nor pen, nor anything whatsoever, since it is unlawful for them to have their bodies or wills in their own power". “高于一切私有制的vice将被削减从修道院的根断,让没有人相信无论给予或接受未经住持留下任何东西,也不是为了保持作为他自己的东西,既没有书,也不是写片,也不用笔,什么也没有任何的,因为它是非法的,他们有自己的身体或自己的权力意志“。 The principle here laid down, viz., that the monk's renunciation of private property is absolute, remains as much in force today as in the dawn of monasticism.这里规定的原则,即,该和尚的私有财产放弃是绝对的,仍然是非常有效的修道在今天黎明。No matter to what extent any individual monk may be allowed the use of clothing, books, or even money, the ultimate proprietorship in such things can never be permitted to him.没有任何个人在何种程度上可以允许僧侣的服装使用的问题,书籍,甚至金钱,在这样的事情最终被允许独资企业不能给他。(See POVERTY; MENDICANT FRIARS; VOW.)(看到贫穷,乞丐天主教方济; VOW)。

(b) Chastity(二)贞操

If the things to be given up be tested by the criterion of difficulty, the renunciation of material possessions is clearly the first and easiest step for man to take, as these things are external to his nature.如果要放弃的东西是由难度的标准测试,放弃了物质财富,显然是第一个和最简单的步骤为人类利用,因为这些东西是他的外部性。 Next in difficulty will come the things that are united to man's nature by a kind of necessary affinity.在困难的下一步会是一个团结的必要亲和力一种以人的本质的东西。Hence in the ascending order chastity is the second of the evangelical counsels, and as such it is based upon the words of Jesus, "If any man come to me and hate not his father and mother and wife and children and brethren and sisters yea and his own soul also, he cannot be my disciple" (Luke 14:26).因此,在升序贞洁的福音第二律师,因此它是建立在耶稣的话说,“如果任何人来找我,不恨他的父亲和母亲,妻子,儿女和兄弟姐妹是啊,基于他自己的灵魂也,他不能作我的门徒“(路加福音14:26)。 It is obvious that of all the ties that bind the human heart to this world the possession of wife and children is the strongest.很明显,所有的关系,把人的心这个世界的妻子和孩子身上是最强的。Moreover the renunciation of the monk includes not only these but in accordance with the strictest teaching of Jesus all sexual relations or emotion arising therefrom.此外,该放弃的和尚不仅包括这些,但与耶稣的严格教学所有的性关系,或根据由此产生的情感。The monastic idea of chastity is a life like that of the angels.寺院的贞操观念是一个天使般的生命。Hence the phrases, "angelicus ordo", "angelica conversatio", which have been adopted from Origen to describe the life of the monk, no doubt in reference to Mark, xii, 25.因此,短语,“angelicus奥”,“当归conversatio”,它已经从俄通过描述在参考标记,第十二章,25的和尚生活,毫无疑问。 It is primarily as a means to this end that fasting takes so important a place in the monastic life.它主要是为实现这一目标的手段,空腹需要这么重要,在寺院生活的地方。Among the early Egyptian and Syrian monks in particular fasting was carried to such lengths that some modern writers have been led to regard it almost as an end in itself, instead of being merely a means and a subordinate one at that.在早期的埃及和叙利亚,特别是空腹僧侣进行到这样的长度,一些现代作家已导致方面几乎为它本身就是目的,而不是仅仅是一种手段,在那个下属之一。 This error of course is confined to writers about monasticism, it has never been countenanced by any monastic teacher.这当然是错误局限于约修道作家,它从来没有纵容任何寺院的老师。(See CELIBACY OF THE CLERGY; CHASTITY; CONTINENCE; FAST; VOW.)(见独身的神职人员,贞节,节​​欲,快速; VOW)

(c) Obedience(三)服从

"The first step in humility is obedience without delay. This benefits those who count nothing dearer to them than Christ on account of the holy service which they have undertaken without doubt such as these follow that thought of the Lord when He said, I came not to do my own will but the will of Him that sent me" (Reg. Ben.,v). “在谦卑的第一步是毫不拖延地服从,这没有好处,比如这些追随主的想法时,他说,那些怀疑谁算什么dearer比基督向他们的神圣的服务,他们已承诺帐户 ,我来到这里不是为了做我自己的意愿,但他的意志给我“(注册本。,V)。 Of all the steps in the process of renunciation, the denial of a man's own will is clearly the most difficult.在所有的放弃过程中的步骤,一个人的自己的意愿否定显然是最困难的。At the same time it is the most essential of all as Jesus said (Matthew 16:24), "If any man will come after me, let him deny himself and take up his cross and follow me".同时,它是最必要的,因为耶稣说所有(马太16点24分),“若有人要跟从我,就当舍己背起他的十字架跟从我”。The most difficult because self-interest, self-protection, self-regard of all kinds are absolutely a part of man's nature, so that to master such instincts requires a supernatural strength.最困难的,因为自身的利益,自我保护,各种自认为是绝对是男人的天性的一部分,因此,要掌握这种本能需要一个超自然的力量。 The most essential also because by this means the monk achieves that perfect liberty which is only to be found where is the Spirit of the Lord.最重要还因为这意味着僧人达到完美的自由是唯一被发现的地方是主的灵。It was Seneca who wrote, "parere deo libertas est", and the pagan philosopher's dictum is confirmed and testified on every page of the Gospel.这是塞内卡谁写的,“parere DEO libertas EST”,与异教哲学家的名言是确认并在每个页面的福音作证。In Egypt at the dawn of monasticism the custom was for a young monk to put himself under the guidance of a senior whom he obeyed in all things.在埃及在修道黎明的习俗是一个年轻的僧人把下一个高级人,他在自己所有的东西服从指导。 Although the bond between them was wholly voluntary the system seems to have worked perfectly and the commands of the senior were obeyed without hesitation.虽然他们之间的纽带是完全自愿的制度似乎已经完美工作及高级命令被毫不犹豫地服从了。"Obedience is the mother of all virtues": "obedience is that which openeth heaven and raiseth man from the earth": "obedience is the food of all the saints, by her they are nourished, through her they come to perfection": such sayings illustrate sufficiently the view held on this point by the fathers of the desert. “服从是所有美德之母”:“服从是,这openeth天堂和地球raiseth人”:“服从是所有圣人的食物,她通过她的滋养他们,他们来完善”:如俗语充分说明了这一点持有的沙漠中父亲的看法。 As the monastic life came to be organized by rule, the insistence on obedience remained the same, but its practice was legislated for.由于寺院生活是由规则来组织,坚持服从上保持不变,但其做法是法定的。 Thus St. Benedict at the very outset, in the Prologue to his Rule, reminds the monk of the prime purpose of his life, viz., "that thou mayest return by the labour of obedience to Him from whom thou hast departed by the sloth of disobedience".因此,圣本笃在一开始就在他的第序幕,想起了他的生活,即主要目的和尚“,即由服从劳动你mayest返回他从谁祢的懒惰离去对不服从“。 Later he devotes the whole of his fifth chapter to this subject and again, in detailing the vows his monks must take, while poverty and chastity are presumed as implicitly included, obedience is one of the three things explicitly promised.后来,他致力于他的第五章整个这一问题,并再次,在详细介绍了他的誓言僧侣必须考虑,而贫困和贞操被推定为隐含,服从是明确承诺的三件事情之一。

Indeed the saint even legislates for the circumstance of a monk being ordered to do something impossible.事实上,圣甚至立例为被责令做一些事情不可能出家的情况。"Let him seasonably and with patience lay before his superior the reasons of his incapacity to obey, without showing pride, resistance or contradiction. If, however, after this the superior still persist in his command, let the younger know that it is expedient for him, and let him obey the law of God trusting in His assistance" (Reg. Ben.,lxviii). “让他耐心奠定季节性和他的上司前丧失工作能力的原因,他没有表现出服从的骄傲,抵抗或矛盾,但是,如果在此之后,仍然坚持他的上级命令,让年轻的知道这是权宜的他,让他服从神的律法在他的协助信任“(注册本。,LXVIII)。 Moreover "what is commanded is to be done not fearfully, tardily, nor coldly, nor with murmuring, nor with an answer showing unwillingness, for the obedience which is given to superiors is given to God, since He Himself hath said, He that heareth you heareth Me" (Reg. Ben., v).此外“什么是命令是必须要做的不可怕,慢慢地,也不冷,也不与淙淙,也与显示的是给上级领导是给神服从不愿意的问题,答案,因为他自己祂所说,他是听见你听见我“(注册本。,V)。 It is not hard to see why so much emphasis is laid on this point.不难看出为什么如此强调在这一点上敷设。The object of monasticism is to love God in the highest degree possible in this life.而修道的目的,是爱的最高程度,这辈子可能的上帝。In true obedience the will of the servant is one with that of his master and the union of wills is love.在真正的顺从的仆人将是与他的主人和意志的工会是爱的那一个。Wherefore, that the obedience of the monk's will to that of God may be as simple and direct as possible, St. Benedict writes (ch. ii) "the abbot is considered to hold in the monastery the place of Christ Himself, since he is called by His name" (see OBEDIENCE; VOW).人哪,这是和尚的意志为转移的上帝,服从可以尽可能简单和直接,圣本笃写道(章二)“方丈被认为是在寺院举行的基督自己的地方,因为他是以他的名字叫“(见服从; VOW)。St. Thomas, in chapter xi of his Opusculum "On the Perfection of the Spiritual Life", points out that the three means of perfection, poverty, chastity, and obedience, belong peculiarly to the religious state.圣托马斯,在他的小品章“论的精神生活完美”,喜指出,完善,贫穷,贞洁,服从的三种方式,属于独有的宗教国家。For religion means the worship of God alone, which consists in offering sacrifice, and of sacrifices the holocaust is the most perfect.对于宗教指的是上帝,这在祭组成崇拜和祭祀大屠杀是最完美的。Consequently when a man dedicates to God all that he has, all that he takes pleasure in, and all that he is, he offers a holocaust; and this he does pre-eminently by the three religious vows.因此,当一个人献给神,他所有,他把所有快乐的,所有他是,他提供了大屠杀,这一点,他和前突出的三个宗教也誓言。

(3) The Different Kinds of Monks(3)不同类型的僧侣

It must be clearly understood that the monastic order properly so-called differs from the friars, clerks regular, and other later developments of the religious life in one fundamental point.它必须清楚地了解,寺院秩序properly所谓的修士从,文员定期和在一个根本点宗教生活的其他后来的发展不同。The latter have essentially some special work or aim, such as preaching, teaching, liberating captives, etc., which occupies a large place in their activities and to which many of the observances of the monastic life have to give way.后者基本上一些特殊的工作,或如说教的目的,教学,解放俘虏等,占地在其活动和其中的寺院生活中的许多纪念活动让路大的地方。 This is not so in the case of the monk.事实并非如此在和尚的情况。He lives a special kind of life for the sake of the life and its consequences to himself.他的生命,为生命,其后果对自己的一种特殊的生活着想。In a later section we shall see that monks have actually undertaken external labours of the most varied character, but in every case this work is extrinsic to the essence of the monastic state.在后面的章节中,我们应当看到,和尚实际上已经采取了不同性格的最外部劳动力,但在任何情况下这项工作是外在的寺院状态的本质。 Christian monasticism has varied greatly in its external forms, but, broadly speaking, it has two main species (a) the eremitical or solitary, (b) the cenobitical or family types.基督教修道有很大差异在其外部形式,但是,从广义上讲,它有两个主要品种(一)eremitical或孤,(二)cenobitical或家庭类型。 St. Anthony may be called the founder of the first and St. Pachomius of the second.圣安东尼可称为第一和第二的圣Pachomius创始人。

(a) The Eremitical Type of Monasticism(一)型的修道Eremitical

This way of life took its rise among the monks who settled around St. Anthony's mountain at Pispir and whom he organized and guided.这种生活方式了僧人之间的结算围绕谁圣安东尼山在Pispir而为之,他组织并指导其上升。In consequence it prevailed chiefly in northern Egypt from Lycopolis (Asyut) to the Mediterranean, but most of our information about it deals with Nitria and Scete.因此它在盛行,主要是在埃及北部从Lycopolis(艾斯尤特)到地中海,但我们关注的大部分信息与Nitria和Scete交易。 Cassian and Palladius give us full details of its working and from them we learn that the strictest hermits lived out of earshot of each other and only met together for Divine worship on Saturdays and Sundays, while others would meet daily and recite their psalms and hymns together in little companies of three or four.卡西安和帕拉丢斯给我们的工作的全部细节,并从中我们知道,严格的隐士生活摆脱了对方听不到,只满足了神的崇拜一起在星期六和星期日,而其他人则满足日常和背诵的诗篇和赞美诗一起在三,四个小公司。 There was no Rule of Life among them but, as Palladius says, "they have different practices, each as he is able and as he wishes".没有生命的规则当中,但作为帕拉丢斯说:“他们有不同的做法,因为他是每一个有能力和愿望,因为他”。 The elders exercised an authority, but chiefly of a personal kind, their position and influence being in proportion to their reputation for greater wisdom.长老行使这种权力,但主要是个人样,他们的地位和影响力的比例为名誉受到更大的智慧。The monks would visit each other often and discourse, several together, on Holy Scripture and on the spiritual life.僧侣将访问对方往往和话语,几个在一起,对圣经和对精神生活。General conferences in which a large number took part were not uncommon.其中大量参加一般会议不鲜见。Gradually the purely eremitical life tended to die out (Cassian, "Conf.", xix) but a semi-eremitical form continued to be common for a long period, and has never ceased entirely either in East or West where the Carthusians and Camaldolese still practise it.渐渐地,纯粹eremitical生活趋于消亡(卡西安,“机密”,十九),但一个半eremitical形式仍然是相当长的时期常见的,也从未停止在东或西凡Carthusians和Camaldolese仍然完全或实践。 It is needless here to trace its developments in detail as all its varieties are dealt with in special articles (see ANCHORITES; ANTHONY,ST.; ANTHONY, ORDERS OF ST.; CAMALDOLESE; CARTHUSIANS; HERMITS; LAURA; MONASTICISM, EASTERN; STYLITES OR PILLAR SAINTS; PAUL THE HERMIT, ST.).这是不用在这里详细地跟踪所有的品种都在处理特殊物品与发展(见ANCHORITES;安东尼,ST;安东尼,圣订单;。CAMALDOLESE; CARTHUSIANS,隐士,LAURA,修道,东部; STYLITES或支柱圣人;保罗的隐士,ST)。

(b) The Cenobitical Type of Monasticism This type began in Egypt at a somewhat later date than the eremitical form. (二)修道Cenobitical类型这种类型在埃及开始在比eremitical形成较晚的日期。It was about the year 318 that St. Pachomius, still a young man, founded his first monastery at Tabennisi near Denderah.这是约318年,圣Pachomius,仍然是一个年轻人,成立于近Denderah Tabennisi他的第一个寺院。The institute spread with surprising rapidity, and by the date of St. Pachomius' death (c. 345) it counted eight monasteries and several hundred monks.该学院以惊人的速度蔓延,由圣Pachomius的死亡日期(约345),它计算eight寺院和僧侣数百。Most remarkable of all is the fact that it immediately took shape as a fully organized congregation or order, with a superior general, a system of visitations and general chapters, and all the machinery of a centralized government such as does not again appear in the monastic world until the rise of the Cistercians and Mendicant Orders some eight or nine centuries later.而最引人注目的是事实,立即采取作为一个完全有组织的教会或为了塑造具有优于一般,有探视和一般章节系统,所有的机器,如中央集权政府,也不会再出现在寺院世界直到熙和乞丐订单约八,九世纪以后兴起。 As regards internal organization the Pachomian monasteries had nothing of the family ideal.至于内部组织Pachomian寺院有没有理想的家庭。The numbers were too great for this and everything was done on a military or barrack system.数字过于此,一切是在军事或营房系统做得很好。In each monastery there were numerous separate houses, each with its own praepositus, cellarer, and other officials, the monks being grouped in these according to the particular trade they followed.在每个寺院有许多不同的房子,有自己的praepositus,窖,和其他官员的每一个,在这些僧侣被分组根据他们遵循的特定行业。 Thus the fullers were gathered in one house, the carpenters in another, and so on; an arrangement the more desirable because in the Pachomian monasteries regular organized work was an integral part of the system, a feature in which it differed from the Antonian way of life.因此,福乐都聚集在一间房屋,在另一个木匠,等等;安排更可取,因为在Pachomian寺院经常组织工作是一个系统的组成部分,它的功能在从Antonian方式不同生活。 In point of austerity however the Antonian monks far surpassed the Pachomian, and so we find Bgoul and Schenute endeavouring in their great monastery at Athribis, to combine the cenobitical life of Tabennisi with the austerities of Nitria.在紧缩点然而Antonian僧人远远超过了Pachomian,所以我们发现他们在Athribis大寺院Bgoul和Schenute努力,结合与Nitria的苦行生活的Tabennisi cenobitical。

In the Pachomian monasteries it was left very much to the individual taste of each monk to fix the order of life for himself.在Pachomian寺院是非常左到​​每个和尚个人品味来解决自己的生活秩序。Thus the hours for meals and the extent of his fasting were settled by him alone, he might eat with the others in common or have bread and salt provided in his own cell every day or every second day.因此,对于膳食和他的空腹程度的时间是由他独自解决,他可能会吃的人共同或有面包和盐在自己的细胞提供每天或每两天。The conception of the cenobitical life was modified considerably by St. Basil.该cenobitical生活概念进行了修改大大由圣罗勒。In his monasteries a true community life was followed.在他的寺院一个真正的社区生活之后。It was no longer possible for each one to choose his own dinner hour.它不再可能为每一个选择自己的晚餐时间。On the contrary, meals were in common, work was in common, prayer was in common seven times a day.相反,膳食中常见的,工作是在共同的是,在共同祈祷七次一天。In the matter of asceticism too all the monks were under the control of the superior whose sanction was required for all the austerities they might undertake.在禁欲主义的问题太所有僧侣都是在上级的制裁是为所有的苦行,他们可能会采取必要的控制。It was from these sources that western monachism took its rise; further information on them will be found in the articles BASIL THE GREAT; RULE OF SAINT BASIL; SAINT BENEDICT OF NURSIA; SAINT PACHOMIUS; SAINT PALLADIUS.正是从这些来源,西方monachism了它的崛起;对他们的进一步信息将在文章BASIL大发现;规则SAINT BASIL;圣本笃的努尔西亚; SAINT PACHOMIUS; SAINT帕拉丢。

(4) Monastic Occupations(4)职业罚酒

It has already ben pointed out that the monk can adopt any kind of work so long as it is compatible with a life of prayer and renunciation.它已经奔指出,僧侣可以采用任何种类的工作,只要它是用放弃生命的祈祷和兼容。In the way of occupations therefore prayer must always take the first place.因此在职业祈祷方式必须始终放在首位。

(a) Monastic PrayerFrom the very outset it has been regarded as the monk's first duty to keep up the official prayer of the Church. (一)罚酒PrayerFrom一开始它已经被和尚的首要任务,保持了官方的教会祈祷认为。To what extent the Divine office was stereotyped in St. Anthony's day need not be discussed here, but Palladius and Cassian both make it clear that the monks were in no way behind the rest of the world as regards their liturgical customs.在何种程度上神圣的办公室是在圣安东尼节千篇一律不必在这里讨论,但帕拉丢斯和卡西安都作出明确表示,僧侣在没有落后于世界其他地区的方式至于他们的礼仪习俗。 The practice of celebrating the office apart, or in twos and threes, has been referred to above as common in the Antonian system, while the Pachomian monks performed many of the services in their separate houses, the whole community only assembled in the church for the more solemn offices, while the Antonian monks only met together on Saturdays and Sundays.该办公室的庆祝之余,或三三两两,已上文提到的共同在Antonian系统,而Pachomian僧侣在他们分开的房屋进行了许多服务实践中,整个社会只聚集在为教会更严肃的办公室,而Antonian僧侣只碰到一起在周六和周日。 Among the monks of Syria the night office was much longer than in Egypt (Cassian, "Instit.", II,ii; III,i,iv,viii) and new offices at different hours of the day were instituted.在叙利亚的僧侣夜间办事处远远长于在埃及(卡西安,“Instit ”,II,II,III,I,IV,VIII)和在一天中不同时段的新办事处的设立。In prayer as in other matters St. Basil's legislation became the norm among Eastern monks, while in the West no changes of importance have taken place since St. Benedict's rule gradually eliminated all local customs.在其他事项中祈祷圣巴索的立法成为中东欧僧侣规范,而在西方的重要性没有发生变化,因为圣本笃的统治逐步淘汰所有当地的风俗。 For the development of the Divine office into its present form see the articles, BREVIARY; CANONICAL HOURS; and also the various "hours", eg, MATINS, LAUDS, etc.; LITURGY, etc. In the east this solemn liturgical prayer remains today almost the sole active work of the monks, and, though in the west many other forms of activity have flourished, the Opus Dei or Divine Office has always been and still is regarded as the preeminent duty and occupation of the monk to which all other works, no matter how excellent in themselves, must give way, according to St. Benedict's principle (Reg.Ben., xliii) "Nihil operi Dei praeponatur" (Let nothing take precedence of the work of God).对于神圣的办公室发展到目前的形式看的文章,祈祷书;典型小时;,也是各种“小时”,例如,晨祷,赞扬等;礼仪,在这个庄严的礼仪等东部祈祷今天仍然几乎是唯一有效工作的僧侣,而且,虽然在西部的许多其他形式的活动蓬勃发展,主业或神圣的办公室一直是并且仍然被认为是杰出的职责和和尚,而所有其他作品占领,不管自己如何优秀,都必须让路,根据圣本笃的原则(Reg.Ben。,四十三)“Nihil operi业会praeponatur”(让没有利用神的工作优先)。Alongside the official liturgy, private prayer, especially mental prayer, has always held an important place; see PRAYER; CONTEMPLATIVE LIFE.除了官方的礼仪,私人祈祷,特别是心理祈祷,历来的重要场所,见祈祷;沉思的生活。

(b) Monastic labours(二)劳动罚酒

The first monks did comparatively little in the way of external labour.第一个和尚也相对的外部劳动力的方式很少。We hear of them weaving mats, making baskets and doing other work of a simple character which, while serving for their support, would not distract them from the continual contemplation of God.我们的这些编织草席,编篮子,做一个简单性质的,而他们的支持服务等工作听取,也不会分散对他们的神不断沉思。Under St. Pachomius manual labour was organized as an essential part of the monastic life; and since it is a principle of the monks as distinguished from the mendicants, that the body shall be self-supporting, external work of one sort or another has been an inevitable part of the life ever since.在圣Pachomius体力劳动举办作为寺院生活中必不可少的一部分,因为这是一个从乞丐杰出僧人为原则,该机构应自我配套,对外工作的一种或另一种已一个生命自从不可避免的一部分。

Agriculture, of course, naturally ranked first among the various forms of external labour.农业,当然,自然排名第一的外部劳动力之间的各种形式。The sites chosen by the monks for their retreat were usually in wild and inaccessible places, which were left to them precisely because they were uncultivated, and no one else cared to undertake the task of clearing them.由僧人选择了撤退的地点通常是在野生和交通不便的地方,这是留给他们,正是因为他们耕种,并没有其他人照顾,承担了清除它们的任务。 The rugged valley of Subiaco, or the fens and marshes of Glastonbury may be cited as examples, but nearly all the most ancient monasteries are to be found in places considerable uninhabitable by all except the monks.该萨伯卡,或沼泽和沼泽的格拉斯顿伯里崎岖的山谷可引为例子,但几乎所有的最古老的寺庙要在相当大的地方都适合人类居住的僧侣除发现。 Gradually forests were cleared and marshes drained, rivers were bridged and roads made; until, almost imperceptibly, the desert place became a farm or a garden.渐渐地和沼泽森林被清除排水,河流被桥和道路作出;,直到几乎潜移默化地,沙漠的地方变成了农场或花园。In the later Middle Ages, when the black monks were giving less time to agriculture, the Cistercians reestablished the old order of things; and even today such monasteries as La Trappe de Staoueli in northern Africa, or New Nursia in western Australia do identically the same work as was done by the monks a thousand years ago.在后来的中世纪,当黑色僧侣被给予较少的时间来农业,熙重建旧秩序的东西,连拉今天特拉普DE Staoueli在北部非洲,或在澳大利亚西部的新努尔西亚等寺院做相同相同工作做了僧人一千年前。"We owe the agricultural restoration of a great part of Europe to the monks" (Hallam, "Middle Ages", III,436); "The Benedictine monks were the agriculturists of Europe" (Guizot, "Histoire de la Civilisation", II,75); such testimony, which could be multiplied from writers of every creed, is enough for the purpose here (see Cistercians). “我们欠的僧人了很大一部分的欧洲农业恢复”(哈勒姆,“中世纪”,三,436),“本笃会僧侣被欧洲的农学家”(基佐,“Histoire德拉文明之光”,二,75);这样的证词,这可以从每一个信条作家成倍增加,是这里的目的(见熙)就够了。

Copying of Manuscripts复制的手稿

Even more important than their services to agriculture has been the work of the monastic orders in the preservation of ancient literature.比服务更重要的农业一直是在古代文献中保存了寺院的订单工作。In this respect too the results achieved went far beyond what was actually aimed at.在这方面也取得的成果远远超出了实际目的是什么。The monks copied the Scriptures for their own use in the Church services and, when their cloisters developed into schools, as the march of events made it inevitable they should, they copied such monuments of classical literature as were preserved.僧侣复制他们在教会服务的利用圣经,并在他们的修道院到学校的发展,作为3月份的事件,他们应该是不可避免,他们复制了古典文学等古迹为被保留了下来。 At first no doubt such work was solely utilitarian, even in St. Benedict's rule the instructions as to reading and study make it clear that these filled a very subordinate place in the disposition of the monastic life.起初,这样的工作无疑是纯粹功利的,甚至在圣本笃的统治,以读书学习的指示明确,这些弥漫在寺院的生活性格非常的从属地位。 Cassiodorus was the first to make the transcription of manuscripts and the multiplication of books an organized and important branch of monastic labour, but his insistence in this direction influenced western monachism enormously and is in fact his chief claim to recognition as a legislator for monks. Cassiodorus是第一个使手稿和书籍的一个寺院的劳动组织和重要分支乘法的转录,但他坚持在这个方向的影响西部monachism很大,其实是他的主要主张作为僧侣立法者的认可。 It is not too much to say that we today are indebted to the labours of the monastic copyists for the preservation, not only of the Sacred Writings, but of practically all that survives to us of the secular literature of antiquity (see MANUSCRIPT; CLOISTER; SCRIPTORIUM).它没有过多地说,我们今天要感谢为保护寺院抄写员的劳动,不是神圣的著作,但几乎所有的只是对我们生存的古代世俗文献(见手稿;修道院;写字间)。

Education教育

At first no one became a monk before he was an adult, but very soon the custom began of receiving the young.起初没有人当了和尚之前,他是一个成人,但很快自定义收到年轻开始。Even infants in arms were dedicated to the monastic state by their parents (see Reg. Ben., lix) and in providing for the education of these child-monks the cloister inevitably developed into a schoolroom (see Oblati).即使婴儿武器致力于寺院的状态由其父母(见注册。奔。,LIX)和为这些儿童提供教育的修道院僧侣不可避免地发展成一个教室(见Oblati)。 Nor was it long before the schools thus established began to include children not intended for the monastic state.也不是很久以前从而确立了学校开始以包括不打算为寺院的国家的儿童。Some writers have maintained that this step was not taken until the time of Charlemagne, but there is sufficient indication that such pupils existed at an earlier date, though the proportion of external scholars certainly increased largely at this time.一些作家认为,这一步是不是直到查理曼所需时间,但有足够的迹象表明,这些学生存在在较早的日期,但外部的学者一定比例增加主要是在这个时候。 The system of education followed was that known as the "Trivium" and "Quadrivium" (see ARTS, THE SEVEN LIBERAL), whih was merely a development of that used during classical times.在教育系统随之而来的是,由于“Trivium”和“四艺”(见艺术,SEVEN自由)已知,whih只不过是在古典时期所用的发展。 The greater number of the larger monasteries in western Europe had a claustral school and not a few, of which St. Gall in Switzerland may be cited as an example, acquired a reputation which it is no exaggeration to call European.在西欧的大寺院较多的学校有一个遁世,而不是少数人,其中在瑞士圣胆可引为榜样,获得了声誉,它可以毫不夸张地叫欧洲。 With the rise of the universities and the spread of the mendicant orders the monastic control of education came to an end, but the schools attached to the monasteries continued, and still continue today, to do no insignificant amount of educational work (see ARTS, THE SEVEN LIBERAL; CLOISTER; EDUACTION; SCHOOLS).随着大学的兴起和传播的乞丐订单教育寺院控制宣告结束,但贴在寺庙的学校继续进行,今天仍在继续,没有做教育工作的微不足道(见艺术, SEVEN自由;修道院; EDUACTION;学校)。

Architecture, painting, sculpture and metal work建筑,绘画,雕塑和金属工作

Of the first hermits many lived in caves, tombs, and deserted ruins, but from the outset the monk has been forced to be a builder.第一隐士许多住在洞穴,古墓,并遗弃的废墟,但是从一开始就和尚已被迫成为建筑工地。We have seen that the Pachomian system required buildings of elaborate plan and large accommodation, and the organized development of monastic life did not tend to simplify the buildings which enshrined it.我们已经看到,Pachomian系统需要精心计划和大型建筑物的住宿,生活和寺院组织的发展往往不以简化建筑物载入它。Consequently skill in architecture was called for and so monastic architects were produced to meet the need in the same almost unconscious manner as were the monastic schoolmasters.因此在建筑技术被称为对等寺院建筑被生产,以满足在同一几乎失去知觉的方式为有需要的寺院校长。During the medieval period the arts of painting, illuminating, sculpture, and goldsmiths' work were practised in the monasteries all over Europe and the output, must have been simply enormous.在中世纪时期的绘画艺术,照明,雕塑,和金饰的工作是在欧洲各地和输出寺院实行,必须有根本巨大的。We have in the museums, churches, and elsewhere such countless examples of monastic skills in these arts that it is really difficult to realize that all this wealth of bountiful things forms only a small fraction of the total of artistic creation turned out century after century by these skilful and untiring craftsmen.我们在博物馆,教堂和修道院,在这些艺术技能,其他地方有这样的例子不胜枚举,这是真的很难实现,这一切财富形式的丰富多样的事情仅仅是艺术创作的一小部分原来总世纪世纪后,由这些熟练的工匠和不懈。 Yet it is cetainly true that what has perished by destruction, loss and decay would outweigh many times the entire mass of medieval art work now in existence, and of this the larger portion was produced in the workshop of the cloister (see ARCHITECTURE; ECCLESIASTICAL ART; PAINTING; ILLUMINATION; RELIQUARY; SHRINE; SCULPTURE).然而,它确实是cetainly由什么破坏,损失和腐烂死亡将超过许多倍的整个中世纪艺术作品的质量现在存在,而这种较大的部分是在生产车间的回廊(见结构;宗教艺术;绘画;照明;舍利,神社,雕塑)。

Historical and patristic work历史和教父的工作

As years passed by the great monastic corporations accumulated archives of the highest value for the history of the countries wherein they were situated.随着岁月的流逝所积累的大寺院为国家的历史最高值档案馆坐落其中,他们的公司。It was the custom too in many of the lager abbeys for an official chronicler to record the events of contemporary history.这是在一个官方编年史的许多习俗也修道院啤酒,记录当代历史的事件。In more recent times the seed thus planted bore fruit in the many great works of erudition which have won for the monks such high praise from scholars of all classes.在最近时期的种子由此埋下的许多伟大的博学的有来自各阶层的僧人学者获得如此高的赞誉工程结出了果实。The Maurist Congregation of Benedictines which flourished in France during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries was the supreme example of this type of monastic industry, but similar works on a less extensive scale have been undertaken in every country of western Europe by monks of all orders and congregations, and at the present time (1910) this output of solid scholarly work shows no signs whatever of diminution either in quality or quantity.本笃Maurist毕业典礼在法国盛行在十七和十八世纪是这个寺院的行业类型最高的例子,但在一个范围较小规模的类似工程已在各个西欧国家进行的所有订单和众僧侣,并在目前的时间(1910年)这一坚实的学术工作没有迹象显示输出无论在质量或数量的减少什么。

Missionary work传教工作

Perhaps the mission field would seem a sphere little suited for monastic energies, but no idea could be more false.也许,团场似乎有点不适应的寺院能量球,但不知道可以更假的。Mankind is proverbially imitative and so, to establish a Christianity where paganism once ruled, it is necessary to present not simply a code of morals, not the mere laws and regulations, nor even the theology of the Church, but an actual pattern of Christian society.人类正在广泛地模仿,因此,建立一个基督教异教曾经统治的地方,有必要提出不是一个简单的道德,而不是单纯的法律和法规的代码,甚至也不是教会的神学,而是一个基督教社会实际模式。 Such a "working model" is found preeminently in the monastery; and so it is the monastic order which has proved itself the apostle of the nations in western Europe.这样的“工作模式”被发现preeminently在寺院,因此它是寺院秩序已经证明了自己在西欧各国的使徒。To mention a few instances of this -- Saints Columba in Scotland, Augustine in England, Boniface in Germany, Ansgar in Scandinavia, Swithbert and Willibrord in the Netherlands, Rupert and Emmeran in what is now Austria, Adalbert in Bohemia, Gall and Columban in Switzerland, were monks who, by the example of a Christian society, which they and their companions displayed, led the nations among whom they lived from paganism to Christianity and civilization.提这几个实例 - 在现在的奥地利,Adalbert在波西米亚,胆和隆庞在圣鸽在苏格兰,英格兰奥古斯丁,博尼法斯在德国,在斯堪的纳维亚Ansgar,Swithbert,在荷兰,鲁珀特和Emmeran威利布罗德瑞士,是僧侣谁,由一个基督教社会,他们和他们的同伴显示,其中为首的民族,他们居住的异教和基督教文明的例子。 Nor did the monastic apostles stop at this point but, by remaining as a community and training their converts in the arts of peace, they established a society based on Gospel principles and firm with the stability of the Christian faith, in a way that no individual missionary, even the most devoted and saintly, has ever succeeded in doing.也没有寺院使徒停止在这一点上,而是由剩下的作为一个社区和培训在和平艺术的转换,他们成立了福音原则,并与稳定的坚定信仰基督教为基础的社会,在某种程度上,任何个人传教士,即使是最忠诚和圣洁的,曾经成功地做​​到了。

It must be clearly understood however, that monasticism has never become stereotyped in practice, and that it would be quite false to hold up any single example as a supreme and perfect model.必须清楚地理解然而,修道从来没有在实践中成为定型,而这将是非常错误的托起任何一个至高无上的,完善的模式单一的例子。 Monasticism is a living thing and consequently it must be informed with a principle of self-motion and adaptability to its environment.修道是有生命的东西,因此它必须与自我运动和适应性,其环境的原则通知。 Only one thing must always remain the same and that is the motive power which brought it into existence and has maintained it throughout the centuries, viz., the love of God and the desire to serve Him as perfectly as this life permits, leaving all things to follow after Christ.只有一件事情必须始终保持不变,这就是动力的存在,并纳入整个世纪以来一直保持着它,即,神的爱和欲望作为此生活使他的完美,使所有的东西跟随基督之后。

Publication information Written by G. Roger Huddleston.出版信息书面由G.赫德尔斯顿罗杰。Transcribed by Marie Jutras.转录由玛丽Jutras。The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume X. Published 1911.天主教百科全书,卷十,发布1911年。New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, October 1, 1911. Nihil Obstat,1911年10月1日。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰farley枢机主教,大主教纽约



Also, see:此外,见:
Religious Orders宗教命令
Franciscans
Jesuits 耶稣会士
Benedictines benedictines
Trappists trappists
Cistercians 熙笃会
Christian Brothers基督教兄弟
Carmelites carmelites
Discalced Carmelitesdiscalced carmelites
Augustinians 奥古斯丁会士
Dominicans 多米尼加
Marist Brothersmarist兄弟

Nuns 修女
Friars friars
Convent 修道院
Ministry
Major Orders主要的订单
Holy Orders神圣的订单


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