Monism一元论

General Information一般资料

Monism is any doctrine based on the assumption of a single underlying principle. Metaphysical monism allows that only one being or type of being exists.一元论是建立在一个假设的基本原则为基础的任何学说。 形而上学一元论允许只有一个正在或正在类型存在。 A substantial metaphysical monism asserts that the variety in our phenomenal experience is due to the different states of a single all-encompassing substance, for example, Parmenides' Plenum or Baruch Spinoza's God or Nature. 大幅形而上学一元论主张,在我们的各种经验现象是由于一个包罗万象的物质的不同状态,例如,巴门尼德“全会或巴鲁克斯宾诺莎的上帝或自然。 An attributive monism admits many substances but asserts that they are all of the same kind, for example, atoms or GW von Leibniz's monads.一个定语一元论承认许多物质,但声称他们是同类所有,例如,原子或GW冯莱布尼茨的单子。

Epistemological monism identifies that which is immediately present to the knowing mind with the real object known.认识论的一元论立即识别出这是目前的已知对象的真实思想认识。Either the content of the mind is equated with the object known (epistemological realism), or the object known is equated with the knowing mind (epistemological idealism). Monism as a philosophical term was first used by Christian Wolff to designate philosophies that attempted to eliminate the mind-body dichotomy.无论是心灵的内容等同于已知对象(认识论的现实主义),或已知的对象与知道心(认识论的唯心主义)等同起来一元论作为哲学术语最早是由基督教沃尔夫用于指定的哲学是企图消除在身心两分法。

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Monism一元论

General Information一般资料

Monism (Greek monos,"single"), in philosophy, is a doctrine that ultimate reality is entirely of one substance.一元论(希腊语MONOS,“单”),在哲学,是一种现实主义的最终完全是一个物质。Monism is thus opposed to both dualism and pluralism.因此,一元论反对二元论和多元论两种。Three basic types of monism are recognized: materialistic monism, idealistic monism, and the mind-stuff theory.三种基本类型的一元论承认:唯物主义一元论,唯心主义一元论和思维的东西的理论。According to the first doctrine, everything in the universe, including mental phenomena, is reduced to the one category of matter.根据第一主义,在宇宙中,包括一切心理现象,减少到物质的一类。In the second doctrine, matter is regarded as a form of manifestation of mind; and in the third doctrine, matter and mind are considered merely aspects of each other.在第二个学说,无论是视为一种心态的表现形式,而在第三主义,物质和精神被认为是对方仅仅方面。Although monistic philosophies date from ancient Greece, the term monism is comparatively recent.虽然一元论哲学从古希腊至今,任期一元论是比较近期的事。It was first used by the 18th-century German philosopher Christian von Wolff to designate types of philosophical thought in which the attempt was made to eliminate the dichotomy of body and mind.它最早是由18世纪德国哲学家沃尔夫基督教冯指定的哲学思想在其中试图消除身心二分法类型。

Although he was not known by the term, the 17th-century Dutch philosopher Baruch Spinoza was one of the most influential monists.虽然他不知道这个词,17世纪荷兰哲学家斯宾诺莎巴鲁克是最有影响力的一元论者之一。He taught that both material and spiritual phenomena are attributes of one underlying substance.他告诉我们,物质和精神现象都是一个潜在的物质属性。His doctrine strongly anticipated the mind-stuff theory.他的学说强烈预期的思维理论的东西。


Monism一元论

Advanced Information先进的信息

Although the term was first used by German philospher Christian Wolff (1679-1754), monism is a philosophical position with a long history dating back to the pre-Socratic philosophers who appealed to a single unifying principle to explain all the diversity of observed experience.虽然该术语最早是由德国基督教理学大师沃尔夫(1679年至1754年)中使用,一元论是一个有着悠久历史可追溯至前苏格拉底哲学家谁呼吁一个统一的原则来解释所有观测到的经验多样性的历史哲学立场。 Notable among these thinkers is Parmenides, who maintained that reality is an undifferentiated oneness, or unity, and that consequently real change or individuality of things are there?在这些思想家值得注意的是巴门尼德,谁认为,现实是一种未分化的统一性,或统一,并因此真正的变化或事物的个性有哪些?

Substantival monism ("one thing") is the view that there is only one substance and that all diversity is ultimately unreal. Substantival一元论(“一件事”)是认为只存在一种物质,而且所有的多样性最终不真实。This view was maintained by Spinoza, who claimed that there is only one substance, or independently existing thing, and that both God and the universe are aspects of this substance.这一观点得到维护斯宾诺莎,谁声称只有一种物质,或独立存在的东西,这两个上帝和宇宙是这种物质方面。In addition to having many eminent proponents in the Western philosophical tradition, substantival monism is a tenet of Hinduism and Buddhism.除了拥有在西方哲学传统的许多杰出的支持者,substantival一元论是印度教和佛教的宗旨。In Hinduism each element of reality is part of maya or prakriti, and in Buddhism all things ultimately comprise an interrelated network.在印度教中每个元素的现实是Maya或prakriti的一部分,在佛教中所有的事情,最终组成一个相互联系的网络。

Attributive monism ("one category") holds that there is one kind of thing but many different individual things in this category.定语一元论(“一类”)认为,有一类的话,但在这许多不同类别的个别事物。Materialism and idealism are different forms of attributive monism.唯物主义和唯心主义一元论是不同形式的定语。The materialist holds that the one category of existence in which all real things are found is material, while the idealist says that this category is mental.唯物主义认为存在一类中,所有东西都是真实的发现是物质的,而唯心主义说,这一类是精神。All monisms oppose the dualistic view of the universe, which holds that both material and immaterial (mental and spiritual) realities exist.所有monisms反对宇宙,认为物质和非物质(心理和精神的)现实存在的二元论观点。Attributive monism disagrees with substantival monism in asserting that reality is ultimately composed of many things rather than one thing.定语一元论一元论与substantival不同意那种认为在现实中,最终由许多东西,而不是一回事。Many leading philosophers have been attributive monists, including Bertrand Russell and Thomas Hobbes on the materialistic side, and GW Leibniz and George Berkeley in the idealist camp.许多领先的哲学家罗素已包括和托马斯霍布斯的唯物主义的一面,和GW莱布尼茨和乔治在唯心主义一元论者阵营伯克利定语。

The Christian intellectual tradition has generally held that substantival monism fails to do justice to the distinction between God and creature, and that of attributive monisms only idealism is theologically acceptable.基督徒知识分子的传统一元论普遍认为substantival未能做到公正之间的上帝和生物的区别,定语monisms只有神学唯心主义是可以接受的。

DB FletcherDB弗莱彻
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 参考书目
FC Copleston, "Spinoza," in A History of Philosophy, IV; FH Bradley, Appearance and Reality; R. Hall, "Monism and Pluralism," Encyclopedia of Philosophy; J. Passmore, A Hundred Years of Philosophy; AM Quinton, "Pluralism and Monism," in EncyBrit; B. Spinoza, Ethics.FC Copleston,“斯宾诺莎”,在哲学史,四,“一元论和多元论”哲学百科全书R​​.厅;; FH,外观和现实布拉德利J.帕斯莫尔,哲学一百年; AM昆顿“多元主义和一元论“,在EncyBrit; B.斯宾诺莎,伦理。


Monism一元论

Catholic Information天主教信息

(From the Greek monos, "one", "alone", "unique").(从希腊MONOS,“一”,“孤军奋战”,“独一无二”)。

Monism is a philosophical term which, in its various meanings, is opposed to Dualism or Pluralism.一元论是一个哲学术语,在其不同的含义,是反对二元论或多元论。Wherever pluralistic philosophy distinguishes a multiplicity of things, Monism denies that the manifoldness is real, and holds that the apparently many are phases, or phenomena, of a one.无论多元化理念的区别的东西多样性,一元论否认manifoldness是真实的,并认为,显然许多阶段,或现象的一个。 Wherever dualistic philosophy distinguishes between body and soul, matter and spirit, object and subject, matter and force, the system which denies such a distinction, reduces one term of the antithesis to the other, or merges both in a higher unity, is called Monism.只要二元哲学之间的身体和灵魂,物质和精神,对象和主体,物质和力的区别,系统否认这样的区分,减少对立面之一,长期为其他,或两者合并在一个更高的统一,被称为一元论。

I. IN METAPHYSICS一,形而上学

The ancient Hindu philosophers stated as a fundamental truth that the world of our sense-experience is all illusion (maya), that change, plurality, and causation are not real, that there is but one reality, God.古代印度哲学家说作为一项基本的道理,我们感觉经验世界是所有幻想(玛雅),这种变化,多元化,和因果关系不实,即只有一个现实,神。 This is metaphysical Monism of the idealistic-spiritual type, tending towards mysticism.这是理想主义,形而上学的一元论精神型,走向神秘主义倾向。Among the early Greek philosophers, the Eleatics, starting, like the Hindus, with the conviction that sense-knowledge is untrustworthy, and reason alone reliable, reached the conclusion that change, plurality, and origination do not really exist, that Being is one, immutable, and eternal.在早期的希腊哲学家的Eleatics,启动,像印度教徒,与信念这个意义上说,知识是不可靠的,可靠的和唯一的原因,得出的结论是变化,多元化,并首创并不真正存在,在这一个,一成不变的,永恒的。 They did not explicitly identify the one reality with God, and were not, so far as we know, inclined to mysticism.他们没有明确标识与神合一的现实,并没有,所以据我们所知,倾向于神秘主义。Their Monism, therefore, may be said to be of the purely idealistic type.他们的一元论,因此,可以说是纯粹的理想类型。

These two forms of metaphysical Monism recur frequently in the history of philosophy; for instance, the idealistic-spiritual type in neo-Platonism and in Spinoza's metaphysics, and the purely idealistic type in the rational absolutism of Hegel.一元论的形而上学这两种形式重现经常在哲学史,例如,在新柏拉图主义和斯宾诺莎的形而上学唯心主义,精神型,并在黑格尔纯粹理性的专制主义理想类型。

Besides idealistic Monism there is Monism of the materialistic type, which proclaims that there is but one reality, namely, matter, whether matter be an agglomerate of atoms, a primitive, world-forming substance (see IONIAN SCHOOL OF PHILOSOPHY), or the so-called cosmic nebula out of which the world evolved.除了有理想主义的一元论是唯物主义的类型,它宣称,只有一个现实,即不管,不管是否是原子的凝聚,一种原始的,世界形成物质(见伊奥尼亚哲学学院),或所谓一元论所谓宇宙星云,其中世界演变。 There is another form of metaphysical Monism, represented in these days by Haeckel and his followers, which, though materialistic in its scope and tendency, professes to transcend the point of view of materialistic Monism and unite both matter and mind in a higher something.还有一种形而上学的一元论的形式,在这些日子代表海克尔和他的追随者,这虽然在其范围和唯物主义倾向,自称超越唯物主义一元论的观点和问题,都团结在一个更高的东西的态度。 The weak point of all metaphysical Monism is its inability to explain how, if there is but one reality, and everything else is only apparent there can be any real changes in the world, or real relations among things.所有的一元论的形而上学的弱点是它无法解释,如果只有一个现实,一切只是表面有可以在世界上任何真正的改变,或事物之间真正的关系。 This difficulty is met in dualistic systems of philosophy by the doctrine of matter and form, or potency and actuality, which are the ultimate realities in the metaphysical order.这种困难,即满足了哲学二元系统的物质和形式的学说,或效力和现实,这是为了在形而上学的终极现实。Pluralism rejects the solution offered by scholastic dualism and strives, with but little success, to oppose to Monism its own theory of synechism or panpsychism (see PRAGMATISM).多元拒绝提供的学术二元论,努力的解决方案,但收效甚微,反对以一元论其synechism或panpsychism自己的理论(见实用主义)。 The chief objection to materialistic Monism is that it stops short of the point where the real problem of metaphysics begins.这位负责人反对唯物主义一元论是,它停止的地步形而上学的现实问题开始短。

II. II。IN THEOLOGY在神学

The term Monism is not much used in theology because of the confusion to which its use would lead.一元论一词并不多用于神学由于其使用的混乱会导致。Polytheism, the doctrine that there are many gods, has for its opposite Monotheism, the doctrine that there is but one God.多神教的教义有很多神,已经为它的反面一神教,该学说认为只有一个神。If the term Monism is employed in place of Monotheism, it may, of course, mean Theism, which is a monotheistic doctrine, or it may mean Pantheism, which is opposed to theism.如果长期在一元论的一神教的地方就业,也可能,当然,平均有神论,这是一神论的教义,也可能意味着泛神论,这是反对有神论。 In this sense of the term, as a synonym for Pantheism, Monism maintains that there is no real distinction between God and the universe.在这个意义上的术语,作为一个泛神论的代名词,一元论认为没有上帝和宇宙之间真正的区别。Either God is indwelling in the universe as a part of it, not distinct from it (pantheistic Immanentism), or the universe does not exist at all as a reality (Acosmism), but only as a manifestation or phenomenon of God.无论是神是宇宙中留置作为它的一部分,而不是有别于它(泛神论Immanentism),或宇宙根本不存在的现实(Acosmism)所有,只为表现或神的现象,但。 These views are vigorously combated by Theism, not only on considerations of logic and philosophy, but also on considerations of human life and conduct.这些观点都在大力打击了有神论,不仅在逻辑和哲学的考虑,也对人类生活和行为的考虑。

For the ethical implications of pantheism are as detrimental to it as its shortcomings from the point of view of consistency and reasonableness.对于泛神论的伦理问题作为从不利的一致性及合理性的角度来看它的缺点了。Theism does not deny that God is indwelling in the universe; but it does deny that He is comprised in the universe.有神论并不否认上帝是宇宙中的留置,但它并否认他是​​宇宙中的组成。Theism does not deny that the universe is a manifestation of God; but it does deny that the universe has no reality of its own.有神论并不否认宇宙是神的表现,但它否认宇宙有没有自己的现实。Theism is, therefore, dualistic: it holds that God is a reality distinct from the universe and independent of it, and that the universe is a reality distinct from God, though not independent of Him.有神论,因此,二元的:它认为上帝是一个有别于现实宇宙和它的独立,并认为宇宙是一个现实的上帝不同,虽然不是他无关。From another point of view, theism is monistic; it maintains that there is but One Supreme Reality and that all other reality is derived from Him.从另一个角度来看,有神论是一元论,它坚持认为只有一个最高法院的现实,现实是所有其他从他而得。Monism is not then an adequate equivalent of the term Theism.一元论是不那么一个术语有神论足够等价的。

III. III。IN PSYCHOLOGY心理学

The central problem of rational psychology is the question of the relation between soul and body.心理学的核心问题是合理的灵魂和身体之间的关系问题。Scholastic dualism, following Aristotle, maintains, that man is one substance, composed of body and soul, which are respectively matter and form.士林二元论,继亚里士多德,维护,人是一种物质,身体和灵魂组成,分别是物质和形式。The soul is the principle of life, energy, and perfection; the body is the principle of decay, potentiality, and imperfection.灵魂是生命,能源,和完善的原则,对身体的腐烂,潜力和缺陷的原则。These two are not complete substances: their union is not accidental, as Plato thought, but substantial.这两者是不完整的物质:工会不是偶然的,因为柏拉图的思想,但可观。They are, of course, really distinct, and even separable; yet they act on each other and react.他们,当然,真正独特的,甚至可分,然而他们的行为上相互反应。The soul, even in its highest functions, needs the co-operation, at least extrinsic, of the body, and the body in all its vital functions is energized by the soul as the radical principle of those functions.的灵魂,即使在其最高职能,需要合作,至少外在,身体,并在所有重要功能的身体是由灵魂通电作为这些功能根本原则。 They are not so much two in one as two forming one compound.与其说他们是在两个一个两一体成型化合物。In popular imagination this dualism may be exaggerated; in the mind of the extreme ascetic it sometimes is exaggerated to the point of placing a too sharp contrast between "the flesh" and "the spirit", "the beast" and "the angel", in us.这种二元论在大众的想象可能被夸大,在极端的禁欲主义思想有时是夸张到之间放置一个“肉”和“精神”,“美女与野兽”和“天使”太鲜明的对比来​​看,我们心里了。

Psychological Monism tends to obliterate all distinction between body and soul.心理往往会抹杀所有的一元论身体和灵魂之间的区别。

This it does in one of three ways.它在这三种方式之一。

(A) Monism of the materialistic type reduces the soul to matter or material conditions, and thus, in effect, denies that there is any distinction between soul and body. (一)唯物主义一元论式的灵魂,以降低物质或物质条件,因此,实际上,否认有任何灵魂和肉体之间的区别。The Stoics described the soul as a part of the material world-substance; the Epicureans held that it is a compound of material atoms; modern Materialism knows no substantial soul except the nervous system; Cabanis, for instance, proclaims his materialism in the well-known Crude formula: "The brain digests impressions, and organically secretes thought."在斯多葛描述为物质世界的物质的一部分灵魂;的伊壁鸠鲁认为它是一种物质原子的化合物,现代唯物主义是没有神经系统,除了大量的灵魂;卡巴尼斯,例如,宣布在他的唯物主义良好已知的原油公式:“大脑消化印象,有机分泌的思想。” Psychological materialism, as metaphysical materialism, closes its eyes to those phenomena of the soul which it cannot explain, or even denies that such phenomena exist.心理唯物主义,形而上学唯物主义的,关闭其眼睛的灵魂的现象,它无法解释,甚至否认这种现象存在。

(B) Monism of the idealistic type takes an entirely opposite course. (二)理想类型的一元论需要一个完全相反的道路。It reduces the body to mind or mental conditions.它减少了身体心灵或精神条件。Some of the neo-Platonists held that all matter is non-existent, that our body is, therefore, an error on the part of our minds, and that the soul alone is the personality.在新柏拉图主义者认为,所有的一些问题是不存在的,我们的身体,因此,在我们心中的一部分错误,而仅仅是灵魂的个性。 John Scotus Eriugena, influenced by the neo-Platonists, held the body to be a resultant from incorporeal qualities which the soul, by thinking them and synthesizing them, creates into a body for itself.约翰司各脱Eriugena,由新柏拉图主义的影响,举办了身体是从其中的灵魂,他们的思维和综合它们,变成为自己的身体造成无形的素质造成的。 In modern times, Berkeley included the human body in his general denial of the reality of matter, and maintained that there are no substances except the soul and God.到了近代,伯克利包括在他的现实的物质一般拒绝人的身体,并认为除了有灵魂和神无物质。The grounds for this belief are epistemological.这个信念的理由是认识论。Psychological Monism runs counter to common sense and experience.心理一元论违背常识和经验。Historically, it is a reaction against materialism.从历史上看,它是对唯物主义的反应。To refute materialism it is not necessary to deny that the body is a reality.为了驳斥唯物主义,没有必要否认,身体是一个现实。The unreflecting dualism of common sense and the scientific dualism which the Scholastics built on the facts of experience steer a safe and consistent course between the hasty generalization of the Materialist, who sees nothing but body, and the bold paradox of the Idealist, who recognizes no reality except mind.的常识和科学二元论于经验事实建院哲学家引导之间的唯物主义草率的概括,认为无非是谁的身体安全和一致的过程unreflecting二元论,唯心主义和大胆的矛盾,谁不承认除了现实的态度。

(C) A third kind of psychological Monism goes by the name of psychophysical parallelism. (三)一元论的心理第三种推移的心理物理学并行的名称。It maintains two principles, the one negative and the other affirmative.它保持两个原则,一个负和其他扶持。First, it denies categorically that there is, or can be, any direct causal influence of the soul on the body or of the body on the soul: our thoughts cannot produce the movements of our muscles, neither can the action of light on the retina produce in us the "thought" of a colour.首先,它否认断然存在,还是可以的,任何直接的灵魂因果影响身体或就灵体:我们的思想不能产生我们的肌肉的运动,既可以在视网膜上行动的光在我们生产的彩色“思想”。 Secondly, it affirms in some shape or form that both the body and the soul are phases of something else, that this something evolves its activities along two parallel lines, the physical and the psychical, so that the thought, for instance, of moving my hand is synchronous with the motion of my hand, without one in any way influencing the other.其次,它肯定在某些形态或形式,无论是身体和灵魂是别的东西的阶段,这个事情的发展沿着两条平行线,物理和心理活动,使思想,比如,移动我的另一方面是随着我的手运动同步,无任何影响的其他方式之一。 This is the doctrine of Occasionalists who, like Malebranche, maintain that the union of the soul and body "consists in a mutual and natural correspondence of the thoughts of the soul with the processes of the brain, and of the emotions of the soul with the movements of the animal spirits" (Rech. de la Vérité, II, v).这是谁的Occasionalists学说,如马勒伯朗士,认为灵魂和身体联盟“在对与大脑的过程的思想灵魂和自然的相互通信组成,对与心灵的情感运动的动物精神“(Rech.德拉真理报,二,五)。

It is the doctrine of Spinoza, whose metaphysical Monism compelled him to hold that body and soul are merely aspects of the one substance, God, under the attributes extension and thought, but that they unfold their modes of activity in a manner preordained to correspondence (Eth., II, ii, schol.).它是斯宾诺莎的形而上学的一元论迫使他认为身体和灵魂都只是在一个物质的,神方面的属性下的延伸和思想,学说,但他们展开的方式注定要对应其活动模式( ETH,,二,二,schol)。Leibniz meets the difficulty in his own characteristic way by teaching that all monads are partly material and partly immaterial, and that among all monads and their activities there exists a pre-established harmony (see LEIBNIZ; MONAD).莱布尼茨满足了教学的难度自己特有的方式,所有单子的部分物质和非物质的部分,而且在所有单子及其活动存在一个预先建立的和谐(见莱布尼茨,单子)。 In the so-called Identitätsphilosophic of some German Transcendentalists, such as Schelling, reality is mind in so far as it is active, and matter in so far as it is passive; mind and matter are, therefore, two harmonious, but independent, series of phases of reality.在一些德国Transcendentalists如谢林,所谓的Identitätsphilosophic,现实是头脑中至今,因为它是积极的,与物质在到目前为止,因为它是被动的,心物,因此,两个和谐,而是独立,系列对现实的阶段。 Fechner's view is similar: he holds that the reality pervading the whole universe is at once physical and psychical, that the physical is the "exterior" and the psychical the "interior", or "inner", side of reality, and that the body and soul in man are but one instance of a parellelism which prevails everywhere in nature.费希纳的观点是相似的:他认为,现实弥漫在整个宇宙是在一次身体和心理,认为身体是“外观”和心灵的“内部”或“内部”,对现实的一面,该机构在人的灵魂只是其中的一个parellelism到处盛行性质的实例。

Paulsen ("Introd. to Phil.", tr. Thilly, 87 sqq.) holds that "two propositions are contained in the theory of parallelism: (I) Physical processes are never effects of psychical processes; (2) Psychical processes are never effects of physical processes."保尔森( “。Introd菲尔”,TR Thilly,87 SQQ)认为,“两个命题是包含在并行理论:(一)物理过程从来心理过程的影响;(2)心理过程是永远物理过程的影响。“He adopts Fechner's panpsychism, maintaining that "everything corporeal points to something else, an inner, intelligible element, a being for itself, which is akin to what we experience within ourselves".他采用费希纳的panpsychism,认为“一切有形点别的东西,一种内在的,可理解的元素,为自己幸福,这是类似于我们在我们自己的经验”。 Both the corporeal and the "inner" are parts of the universal system, which is the body of God, and, though they do not interact, they act in such a way that harmony results.无论是有形的和“内在”是普遍的制度,这是神的身体,而且,虽然他们没有互动的部分,他们的行为在这样一种方式,和谐的结果。

Herbert Spencer uses the word parallelism in a slightly different sense: the separate impressions of the senses and the stream of inner conscious states must be adjusted by the activity of the mind, if the two series are to be of any use to the developing or evolving animal or man; that is, there must be a parallelism between a certain physical evolution and the correlative psychical evolution" (Principles of Psych., n. 179), while both mind and matter are mere "symbols of some form of Power absolutely and forever unknown to us" (op. cit., n. 63). This idea finds favour among the evolutionists generally, and has one distinct advantage: it obviates the necessity of explaining many phenomena of mind which could not be accounted for by the principles of materialistic evolution. Thus, under the name "double-aspect theory" it is adopted by Clifford, Bain, Lewes, and Huxley. Among empirical psychologists parallelism has been found satisfactory as a "working hypothesis".赫伯特斯宾塞使用情况略有不同意义上的字并行:感官和内在的自觉状态流分开印象必须由心灵活动的调整,如果这两个系列的任何使用是发展中国家或发展动物或人,也就是说,必须有一定的物理之间的相关性心理的演变和进化并行“( 的Psych原则,注179),同时兼具精神与物质都只是”象征某种权力绝对的形式和。永远不知道的我们“(。前引书,注63)这种想法认为进化论者之间的普遍青睐,并有一个明显的优势:它省却了很多解释的心理现象的必要性可能不会被占的原则在物欲横流的进化,因此,在名为“双方面的理论”是通过克利福德,贝恩,刘易斯和赫胥黎,其中并行实证心理学家已经找到了一份“工作假设”满意。

Experience, it is maintained, tells us nothing of a substantial soul that acts on the body and is acted upon.经验,是保持,告诉我们一个很大的灵魂的行为,是对身体没有采取行动。It does tell us, however, that psychical states are apparently conditioned by bodily states, and that states of body apparently influence states of mind.它告诉我们,但是,心理状态,显然是受身体条件状态和身体状态明显影响的思想状态。For the purposes of science, conclude the empiricists, it is enough to maintain as an empirical formula that the two streams of activity are, so to speak, parallel, though never confluent.对于科学的目的,总结经验主义,它足以维持一个经验公式,对活动的两个流的,可以这么说,平行,但从来没有融合。 There is no need to ground the formula on any universal metaphysical theory, such as the pan-psychism of Fechner and Paulsen.有没有必要在任何地面普遍的形而上学理论,如费希纳和保尔森的泛psychism,公式。lt is enough that, as Wundt points out, the facts of experience establish a correspondence between physical and psychical, while the dissimilarity of the physical and the psychical precludes the possibility of one being the cause of the other. LT是不够的,因为冯特指出,建立在物理和心理的对应的经验事实,而相异的物理的和被其他的心理造成一种可能性排除。To all these parallelistic explanations of the relations between soul and body the Scholastic dualists take exception.所有这些灵魂和身体之间的关系parallelistic解释的学术二元论不以为然。First, the scholastics call attention to the verdict of experience.首先,院学者呼吁重视经验的裁决。

Up to a certain point, the facts of experience are capable of a parallelistic, as well as of a dualistic, explanation.达到一定点,经验事实是一个parallelistic能力,以及作为一个二元,解释。 But when we come to consider the unity of consciousness, which is a fact of experience, we find that the theory of parallelism breaks down, and the only explanation that holds is that of dualists, who maintain the substantiality of the soul.但是,当我们来考虑的意识,这是一个经验事实的统一,我们发现,并行理论分解,唯一的解释,认为是二元论,谁维护的灵魂充实的。 Secondly, if the parallelistic theory be true, what, ask the Scholastic dualists, becomes of the freedom of the will and moral responsibility?其次,如果parallelistic理论是真的,什么,问学业二元论者,对意志和道德责任的自由变成? If our mental and bodily states are not to be referred to an immediate personal subject, but are considered phases or aspects of a universal substance, a cosmic soul, mind-stuff, or unknown "form of Power", it is not easy to see in what sense the will can be free, and man be held responsible for his mental or bodily acts.如果我们的精神和身体状态不被称为即时的个人问题,但被认为是一个普遍的阶段或物质方面的,宇宙的灵魂,思维的东西,或未知的“权力形式”,它是不容易看到在何种意义上可以自由的意志,人追究他的精神或身体的行为负责。

In a minor sense the word monism is sometimes used in psychology to designate the doctrine that there is no real distinction between the soul and its faculties.在未成年人意义上的字有时用一元论在心理学指定的学说,没有灵魂之间真正的区别及其院系。Psychological dualism holds that soul and body are distinct, though incomplete, substances.心理二元论认为,灵魂和身体是不同的,虽然不完整,物质。But how about the soul itself?但如何对自己的灵魂?Plato's doctrine that it has three parts has had very little following in philosophy.柏拉图的学说,它有三个部分已在哲学很少以下。Aristotle distinguished between the substance of the soul and its powers (dynameis), or faculties, and bequeathed to the Schoolmen the problem whether these faculties are really, or only notionally, distinct from the soul itself.亚里士多德区分灵魂的物质和权力(dynameis),或学系,并遗赠给Schoolmen这些院系的问题是否真的,或仅名义上,从灵魂本身不同。 Those who favour the real distinction are sometimes called pluralists in psychology, and their opponents, who say that the distinction is nominal or, at most, notional, are sometimes called psychological Monists.这些谁真正有利于区别有时被称为心理学多元主义者,他们的对手,说​​谁是名义上的区别,或者顶多名义,有时也被称为心理一元论者。 The question is decided by inferences from the facts of consciousness.现在的问题是由意识决定的事实推论。Those who hold real distinction of function argue that this is sufficient ground for a real distinction of faculties.谁持有这些功能的真正的区别认为这是针对院系真正的区别的充分理由。

IV. IV。IN EPISTEMOLOGY在认识论

As in psychology, Monism is used in various senses to signify, in a general way, the antithesis of dualism.如心理学,一元论是用于各种感官来表示,在一般的方式,二元论的对立面。The Dualist in epistemology agrees with the ordinary observer, who distinguishes both in theory and in practice between "things" and "thoughts".在认识论二元同意与普通的观察者,无论在理论上和谁之间的“东西”和“思想”的做法与众不同之处。Common sense, or unreflecting consciousness, takes things generally to be what they seem.常识,或unreflecting意识,需要的东西一般要表里如一。It acts on the conviction that the internal world of our thoughts corresponds with the external world of reality.它作用于坚信,我们的思想内部世界与外部世界的现实对应。The philosophical dualist questions the extent and accuracy of that correspondence; he learns from psychology that many instances of so-called immediate perception have in them a large share of interpretation, and are, in so far, referable to the activity of the mind.二元论的哲学问题的严重程度和准确度的信件,他从心理学获悉所谓的直接感知许多情况下对他们的解释大的份额,而且,在目前为止,乃关于心灵的活动。 Nevertheless, he sees no reason to quarrel with the general verdict of common sense that there is a world of reality outside us, as well as a world of representation within us, and that the latter corresponds in a measure to the former.不过,他认为没有理由吵架与常识评价一般,有一个我们之外的现实世界,以及一个代表在我们的世界,而后者在前者对应措施。 He distinguishes, therefore, between subject and object, between self and not-self, and holds that the external world exists.他区分,因此,主体与客体之间,自我与不自生,认为外部世界的存在。

The Monist in one way or another eliminates the objective from the field of reality, obliterates the distinction between self and not-self, and denies that the external world is real.在这样或那样的一元论者消除了对现实领域的目标,抹杀之间的自我,而不是自我的区别,并否认外部世界是真实的。Sometimes he takes the ground of idealism, maintaining that thoughts are things, that the only reality is perception, or rather, that a thing is real only in the sense that it is perceived, esse est percipi.有时候,他需要的理想主义地,认为事情的想法,认为只有现实的看法,或者说,这事是真的只有在它认为,美国东部时间percipi Esse品牌意识。He scornfully rejects the view of naïve realism, refers with contempt to the copy-theory (the view that our thoughts represent things) and is rather proud of the fact that he is in conflict with common sense.他轻蔑地拒绝了天真的现实主义观点,与蔑视,是指复制理论(认为我们的思想代表的东西),是相当的事实,他与常识冲突而感到自豪。 Sometimes he is a solipsist, holding that self alone exists, that the existence of not-self is an illusion, and that the belief in the existence of other minds than our own is a vulgar error.有时他是一个唯我论者,认为自己单独存在,即不自我的存在是一种幻想,而在其他的头脑比我们自己存在的信念是一种庸俗的错误。 Sometimes, finally, he is an acosmist: he denies that the external world exists except in so far as it is thought to exist: or he affirms that we create our own external world out of our own thoughts.有时,最后,他是一个acosmist:他否认外界除了存在至今,因为它被认为存在:或者他申明,我们创建我们自己的思想自己的外部世界。

However, the classical forum of epistemological Monism at the present time is known as Absolutism.然而,一元论的认识论在目前经典论坛被称为专制。Its fundamental tenet is metaphysical monism of the purely idealistic type.它的根本宗旨,是纯粹的形而上学唯心主义一元论的类型。 It holds that both subject and object are merely phases of an abstract, unlimited, impersonal consciousness called the Absolute; that neither things nor thoughts have any reality apart from the Absolute.它认为,主体与客体都只是一个抽象的,无限的,所谓绝对客观的意识阶段;,无论有什么事情也没有现实的想法,除了绝对。 It teaches that the universe is a rational and systematic whole, consisting of an intellectual "ground" and multiform "appearances" of that ground, one appearance being what the Realist calls things, and another what the Realist calls thoughts.它教导我们,宇宙是一个合理和有系统的整体,是一个知识分子“勤”和各种形式的“出场”​​的那地组成,一出场是什么现实主义要求的东西,另一个是什么现实主义要求的想法。 This is the doctrine of the Hegelians, from Hegel himself down to his latest representatives, Bradley and McTaggart.这是黑格尔的学说,自己从黑格尔到他的最新代表,布拉德利和McTaggart。All these forms of epistemological Monism - namely, idealism, solipsism, acosmism, and absolutism - have, of course, metaphysical bearings, and sometimes rest on metaphysical foundations.所有这些形式的认识论的一元论 - 即,理想主义,唯我论,acosmism和专制主义 - 有,当然,形而上学的轴承,有时停留在形而上学的基础。

Nevertheless, historically speaking, they are traceable to a psychological assumption which is, and always will be, the dividing line between Dualism and Monism in epistemology.然而,从历史上看,他们可溯源到这是一种心理假设,始终将之间二元论和认识论的一元论的分界线。The Dualists, in their analysis of the act of knowing, call attention to the fact that in every process of perception the object is immediately given.的二元论者,在明知自己行为的分析,请注意,在每一个感知过程的对象立即给定的事实。It seems like emphasizing the obvious to say so, yet it is precisely on this point that the whole question turns.这似乎是显而易见的,强调这样说,但正是在这一点上,整个问题转。What I perceive is not a sensation of whiteness but a white object.我认为是不是白度,但白色物体的感觉。What I taste is not the sensation of sweetness but a sweet substance.我的味道是不是甜的感觉,但甜物质。No matter how much the activity of the mind may elaborate, synthesize, or reconstruct the data of sense-perception, the objective reference cannot be the result of any such subjective activity; for it is given originally in consciousness.不管多大的心灵活动可能阐述,综合,或重建感知觉的数据,客观的参考,不能对任何这种主观活动的结果,因为它是在给定的最初意识。

On the contrary, the Monist starts with the idealistic assumption that what we perceive is the sensation.相反,在一元论者开始与理想主义的假设,我们认为是轰动。Whatever objective reference the sensation has in our consciousness is conferred on it by the activity of the mind.无论客观的参考的感觉已经在我们的意识所赋予的心灵活动。The objective is, therefore, reducible to the subjective; things are thoughts; we make our world.我们的目标,因此,归结到主观的东西的想法,我们使我们的世界。In the dualist's analysis there is immediate, presentative contact in consciousness between the subject and the object.在二元论的分析有直接的,之间的主体和对象意识的表象联系。In the Monist's account of the matter there is a chasm between subject and object which must be bridged over somehow.在一元论者的问题的考虑是有主体与客体之间的鸿沟必须填补了莫名其妙。The problem of Dualism or Monism in epistemology depends, therefore, for solution on the question whether perception is presentative or representative; and the dualist, who holds the presentative theory, seems to have on his side the verdict of introspective psychology as well as the approval of common sense.二元论或认识论的一元论的问题而定,因此,关于这个问题的看法是否是表象或代表的解决方案,以及二元论,谁掌握了表象理论,似乎在他的身边有内省心理学的判决书,以及批准常识。

In recent Pragmatist contributions to epistemology there is presented a different view of epistemological Monism from that given in the preceeding paragraphs, and a solution is offered which differs entirely from that of traditional dualism.在最近的实用主义认识论的贡献是提出了一个由有在前面的段落鉴于认识论的一元论不同的看法,并提供一个解决方案是完全不同,它从传统的二元论的。 In William James's works, for instance, Monism is described as that species of Absolutism which "thinks that the all-form or collective-unit form is the only form that is rational", while opposed to it is Pluralism, that is, the doctrine that "the each-form is an eternal form of reality no less than it is the form of temporal appearance" (A Pluralistic Universe, 324 sqq.).在威廉詹姆斯的作品,例如,一元论是描述为专制物种“认为所有形式或集体单位的形式是唯一形式,是理性的”,而反对的是多元化,即学说认为“每个表是一个现实的永恒形式不下它是时间的外观形式”(多元宇宙,324 SQQ)。The multitude of "each-forms" constitute, not a chaos, but a cosmos, because they are "inextricably interfused" into a system.而众多“每个-形式”构成,而不是混乱,而是一个宇宙,因为他们是“不可分割的interfused”成一个系统。 The unity, however, which exists among the "each-forms" of reality is not an integral unity nor an articulate or organic, much less a logical, unity.团结,但是,这存在不统一,也不是一个完整的阐述或有机,更逻辑,团结跻身“每个-形式”的现实。It is a unity "of the strung-along type, the type of continuity, contiguity, or concatenation" (op. cit., 325).这是一个“的串起,沿型,持续性,连续性,或串联式”(同上,325)的统一。Into this unfinished universe, into this stream of successive experiences, the subject steps at a certain moment.进入这个未完成的宇宙,这个连续的经验,在某一时刻的主体步骤流。

By a process which belongs, not to logic, but to life, which exceeds logic, he connects up these experiences into a concatenated series.通过这一过程属于,不是逻辑,而是为了生活,这超过了逻辑,他连接成串联系列这些经验。In other words, he strings the single beads on a string, not of thought, but of the practical needs and purposes of life.换句话说,他串在字符串中的单珠,没有思想,但实际需求和生活的目的。Thus the subject makes his own world, and, really, we are not any better off than if we accepted the verdict of the intellectualistic Idealist.因此,题目让他自己的世界,而且,真的,我们并不比如果我们接受了intellectualistic唯心主义判决富裕。 We have merely put the practical reason in place of the theoretical: so far as the value of knowledge is concerned the antithesis between Monism and Pluralism is more apparent than real, and the latter is as far from the saneness of realistic Dualism as the former.我们只是提出的理论在实际到位的原因:到目前为止的有关知识的价值是一元论和多元论之间的对立更加明显大于实质,而后者是远离现实的二元论,因为前者saneness。 It is true that the Pluralist admits, in a sense, the existence of the external world; but so also does the Absolutist.这是真正的多元主义承认,从某种意义上说,对外部世界的存在,但这样也没有绝对论。The trouble is that neither admits it in a sense which would save the distinction between subject and object.麻烦的是,无论是承认,在某种意义上这将节省主体与客体之间的区别了。For the Pluralist as well as the Monist is entangled in the web of subjective Idealism as soon as he favours the doctrine that perception is representative, not presentative.对于多元主义以及一元论是主观唯心主义,当他赞成这种看法是有代表性的学说,而不是表象网络纠缠。

V. IN COSMOLOGY五,在宇宙学

The central question is the origin of the universe.核心问题是宇宙的起源。The early Ionian philosophers assigned, as the cause or principle (arche is the Aristotelian word) of the universe, a substance which is at once the material out of which the universe is made and the force by which it was made.早期的爱奥尼亚哲学家分配,为事业或原则(凯旋门是亚里士多德字)的宇宙,物质是在一次出其中的宇宙是由物质与其中的发力。 As Aristotle says, they failed to distinguish between the material cause and the efficient cause.正如亚里士多德说,他们没有区分材料事业和效率的原因。They were, therefore, dynamists and hylozoists.他们,因此,dynamists和hylozoists。That is, they held matter to be of its nature active, and endowed with life.也就是说,他们认为无论是其积极性,并赋予生命。Without the aid of any extrinsic force, they said, the original substance, by a process of thickening and thinning, or by quenching and kindling, or in some other immanent way, gave rise to the universe as we now see it.如果没有任何外在力量的援助,他们说,原来的物质,由增厚和变薄的过程中,或通过淬火和火种,或在其他一些内在的方式,产生了宇宙,因为我们现在看到它。 This primitive cosmothetic Monism gradually gave way to a dualistic conception of the origin of the world.这种原始cosmothetic一元论逐渐让位给了世界的起源二元概念。Tentatively at first, and then more decisively, the later Ionians introduced the notion of a primitive force, distinct from matter, which fashioned the universe out of the primordial substance.暂定为先,然后更果断,后来爱奥尼亚人介绍了一种原始的力量的概念,从物质,它塑造的原始物质的宇宙出鲜明。 Anaxagoras it was, who, by clearly defining this force and describing it as mind (nous), earned the encomium of being the "first of the ancient philosophers who spoke sense".阿那克萨哥拉是,谁,通过明确界定和描述为这支部队记(臭氧)它,赢得了作为“谁讲的第一个感觉古代哲学家”推崇。

Dualism, thus introduced, withstood the onslaughts of materialistic Atomism and Epicureanism, pantheistic Stoicism and emanationistic neo-Platonism.二元论,从而介绍,经受住了唯物主义的原子论和享乐主义,泛神论淡泊和emanationistic新柏拉图主义的进攻。 It was developed by Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle, who brought to their description of the world-forming process a higher notion of cosmothetic mind than the pre-Socratic philosophers possessed.它是由苏格拉底,柏拉图,亚里士多德,谁把自己对世界形成过程中的cosmothetic头脑高于前苏格拉底哲学家的概念拥有的描述。 It was left for the Christian philosophers of Alexandria and their successors, the Scholastics of medieval times, to elaborate the doctrine of creation ex nihilo, and thus bring out more clearly the rôle played by the Divine Power and Will in the formation of the universe.这是离开亚历山大及其继承人,中世纪时代的经院哲学家,基督教哲学家来阐述创作无中生有的学说,并由此带出更清楚所发挥的神力和宇宙的形成将的作用。 The order, harmony, and purposiveness evident everywhere in nature are cited by the creationists as evidence to show that mind must have presided at the origination of things.的秩序,和谐,和目的性明显在自然界到处被引用的神创论的证据表明,心中必须有事物的起源主持。Furthermore, the question of dynamism or mechanism hinges on the problem of the nature of matter.此外,对物质的性质问题的活力或机制铰链的问题。

This phase of the question has been developed especially in post-Cartesian philosophy, some maintaining that matter is essentially inert and must, therefore, have acquired force and activity from without, while others as stoutly maintain that matter is by nature active and, consequently, may have developed its own force from within.这一阶段的问题,特别是在已后笛卡尔哲学的发展,一些维持这一问题本质上是惰性的,必须,因此,有没有力量和收购活动,而作为人坚决认为,无论是性质活跃,因此,可从内部发展自身的力量。 Evolution of the thorough going type takes the latter view.要彻底的类型演变采用后一种观点。It holds that in the primitive cosmic matter was contained "the power and potency" of all life and movement, in such a way that no external agent was required in order to bring it to actual existence.它认为,在原始的宇宙物质被控制“的能力和效力”的全部生活和运动在这样一个没有外部代理被要求以使其与实际存在的方式。 Here, as in the question of Theism, Christian philosophy is frankly dualistic, although it acknowledges that, since actuality antecedes potency by nature and, as a matter of fact, the world originated in time, while God is eternal, there was, before creation, but One Reality.在这里,如在有神论的问题,坦率地说基督教哲学是二元论,尽管它承认,由于现实antecedes的性质和效力,因为事实上,世界起源的时间,而神是永恒的,有前创建,但一个现实。

VI. VI。IN ETHICS在伦理

The word Monism is very little used.字一元论是很少使用。In some German works it is employed to designate the doctrine that the moral law is autonomous.在德国的一些作品是用来指定该学说认为,道德法律是独立的。Christian ethics is essentially heteronomic: it teaches that all law, even natural law, emanates from God.基督教伦理本质上是heteronomic:它教导我们,所有的法律,甚至自然法,神emanates。Kantian ethics and Evolutionistic ethics hold that the moral law is either self-imposed or emanates from the moral sense which is a product of the struggle for existence.康德的伦理道德和Evolutionistic认为,道德法律要么是自我强加的,或从道德上讲这是一种生存斗争的产物emanates。 In both the Kantian and the Evolutionistic systems there is only one source of the power of moral discrimination and approval.在这两个康德和Evolutionistic系统只有一个道德歧视和审批权的来源。For this reason the word Monism is here used in its generic sense.由于这个原因,这里是一元论词用在它的一般意义。In English philosophical literature, however, the word has no such signification.在英语哲学文献,但是,这个词有没有这样的意义。In accounting for the origin of evil, a problem which, though it belongs to metaphysics, has important bearings on ethical questions, some philosophers have adopted a Dualistic doctrine and explained that good and evil originate from two distinct principles, the one supremely good, the other completely and absolutely evil.在为邪恶的起源,有问题的,但它属于形而上学,对伦理问题的重要轴承会计,一些哲学家都采取了二元论,并解释说善恶来自两个不同的原则,一个超级好,其他完全和绝对的邪恶。 This was the doctrine of the ancient Persians, from whom it was borrowed by Manes, the founder of the Manichean sect.这是古代波斯人的学说,它是由从人Manes认为,该教派创始人摩尼教借用。Opposed to this is the Monistic view, that God is indeed the cause of all that is good in the universe, and that evil is not to be assigned to any supreme cause distinct from God.反对这种观点是一元,神的确是所有在宇宙好的原因,邪恶是不能分配给任何至高无上的神的不同原因。Whatever explanation be given of the existence of evil in the world, it is maintained that a supreme principle of evil is utterly impossible and even inconceivable.无论解释是在世界上的邪恶存在,它就会认为,一个邪恶的最高原则是完全不可能的,甚至是不可想象的。

VII.七。CONTEMPORARY MONISTIC MOVEMENTS AND SCHOOLS当代一元论的变动和学校

In current philosophical literature, whenever no special qualification is added, Monism generally means the modified materialistic monism of Haeckel.在当前的哲学文献,只要没有特殊的资格加入,一元论一般指海克尔修改唯物主义一元论。Modern materialistic Monism in Germany begins with Feuerbach, a disciple of Hegel.现代唯物主义一元论开始在德国与费尔巴哈,黑格尔的弟子。Feuerbach was followed by Vogt and Moleschott.费尔巴哈其次是沃格特和Moleschott。To these succeeded Haeckel, who combines Darwinian evolution with a materialistic interpretation of Spinoza and Bruno.对这些成功海克尔,谁结合了斯宾诺莎和布鲁诺唯物主义解释达尔文的进化论。Haeckel's works, both in the original and in English translations, have had a wide circulation, their popularity being due rather to the superficial manner in which Haeckel disposes of the most serious questions of metaphysics than to any intrinsic excellence of content or method.海克尔的作品无论是在原和英文翻译,产生了广泛流通,其受欢迎程度是由于相当肤浅的方式,海克尔的形而上学的最严重的超过任何内容或方法的内在卓越的问题作主。 Haeckel is honorary president of the Monistenbund (Society of Monists), founded at Jena in 1906, for the purpose of propagating the doctrines of Monism.海克尔是Monistenbund(的一元论者协会)在耶拿创建于1906年,名誉会长为传播的一元论学说的目的。 The society is openly anti-Christian, and makes active warfare against the Catholic Church.社会是公开反基督教,并使得对天主教活跃战争。

Its publications, "Der Monist" (a continuation of the "Freie Glocken" - first number, 1906), "Blätter des deutschen Monistenbunds" (first number, July, 1906), and various pamphlets (Flugblätter des Monistenbunds), are intended to be a campaign against Christian education and the union of Church and State.它的出版物,“明镜一元论”(这是“Freie Glocken”的延续 - 第一个数字,1906年),“布拉特DES deutschen Monistenbunds”(第一个数字,七月,1906年),和(Flugblätter DES Monistenbunds)的各种小册子,都是为了是一个对基督教教育,教会和国家的工会运动。The group of writers in America who, under the editorship of Dr. Paul Carus, have been identified with the "Monist" (Chicago, monthly, first number, Jan., 1891) are not, apparently, actuated by the same animosity against Christianity.在美国谁,在保罗Carus博士主编,已与“一元论者”(芝加哥,每月第一个数字,1月,1891年)确定的一批作家都没有,显然,对基督教的驱动相同的敌意。 Nevertheless, they hold Haeckel's fundamental tenet that Monism as a system of philosophy transcends Christianity as a form of belief, and is the only rational synthesis of science and religion.然而,他们持有海克尔的根本宗旨,作为一元论的哲学体系作为一种超越信仰基督教的形式,并且是唯一的科学与宗教理性的合成。 "Religious progress no less than scientific progress", writes Carus, "is a process of growth as well as a cleansing from mythology. . . . Religion is the basis of ethics. . . . The ideal of religion is the same as that of science, it is a liberation of the mythological elements and its aim is to rest upon a concise but exhaustive statement of facts" (Monism, Its Scope and Import, 8, 9). “宗教的进步并不比科学进步少”,写Carus,“是一个成长的过程,以及从神话清洗。。宗教是道德的基础。。宗教的理想是一样的相同科学,它是一个神话元素的解放,其目的是休息时的事实简明而详尽的陈述“(一元论,其范围和进口,8,9)。 This "concise but exhaustive statement of facts" is positive Monism, the doctrine, namely, that the whole of reality constitutes one inseparable and indivisible entirety.这种“简洁而详尽的事实陈述”是积极的一元论的学说,即认为现实构成一个不可分割的整体,不可分割的整体。

Monism is not the doctrine that one substance alone, whether it be mind or matter, exists: such a theory, says Dr. Carus, is best designated as Henism.一元论学说认为,是不是一种物质单独,无论是精神或物质,存在:这种理论博士说,Carus,最好是作为Henism指定。 True Monism "bears in mind that our words are abstracts representing parts or features of the One and All, and not separate existences" (op. cit., 7).真正的一元论“熊字的摘要,我们代表的部分或功能的一个和所有,而不是单独存在物记”(同前,7)。This Monism is Positivistic, because its aim is "the systematisation of knowledge, that is, of a description of facts" (ibid.).这种一元论是实证的,因为其目的是“系统化的知识,也就是一个事实的描述”(同上)。"Radical free thought" is the motto of this school of Monism; at the same time, it disclaims all sympathy with destructive Atheism, Agnosticism, Materialism, and Negativism in general. “激进的自由思想”是这样的一元论校训,在同一时间,它不承担任何与破坏性的无神论,不可知论,唯物主义,和一般消极的同情。Nevertheless, the untrained student of philosophy will be likely to be more profoundly influenced by the Monistic criticism of Christianity than by the constructive effort to put something in place of the errors referred to.然而,未经训练的学生将被哲学可能更深刻的基督教不是由建设性的努力,摆在错误的地方提到了一些一元论的批评的影响。

All Monism may be described as resulting from the tendency of the human mind to discover unitary concepts under which to subsume the manifold of experience.所有的一元论可以说是从人的心灵倾向导致发现单一的概念下,以归入多方面的经验。So long as we are content to take and preserve the world of our experience as we find it, with all its manifoldness, variety, and fragmentation, we are in the condition of primitive man, and little better than brute animals.只要我们的内容采取和保持我们的经验世界,我们发现它与所有manifoldness,品种,碎裂,我们在原始人的状况,只不过是野蛮动物更好。 As soon as we begin to reflect on the data of the senses, we are led by an instinct of our rational nature to reduce manifold effects to the unity of a causal concept.一旦我们开始反思感官的数据,我们是领导对我们的合理性本能,以减少多方面影响到一个因果概念的统一。This we first do in the scientific plane.这是我们第一次做的科学面。Afterwards, carrying the process to a higher plane, we try to unify these under philosophical categories, such as substance and accident, matter and force, body and mind, subject and object.随后,载着过程往高层次上,我们尽量统一,如在哲学范畴的物质和事故,物质和力量,身体和心灵,主体与客体,这些。 The history of philosophy, however, shows with unmistakable clearness that there is a limit to this unifying process in philosophy.哲学史,但是,显示是有这个哲学与统一进程限制清晰无误。If Hegel were right, and the formula, "The rational alone is real", were true, then we should expect to be able to compass all reality with the mental powers which we possess.如果黑格尔是对的,和公式,他说:“单是真正的理性”,是真实的,那么我们应该期待能指南针与我们拥有精神力量的现实。 But, Christian philosophy holds, the real extends beyond the domain of the (finite) rational.但是,基督教哲学认为,真正的延伸超出(有限)理性的领域。Reality eludes our attempt to compress it within the categories which we frame for it.现实弄不清楚我们在试图压缩帧的类别,我们为它。

Consequently, Dualism is often the final answer in philosophy; and Monism, which is not content with the partial synthesis of Dualism, but aims at an ideal completeness, often results in failure.因此,二元论哲学往往是最后的答案,以及一元论,这是不符合的二元论部分综合内容,但在一个理想的完整性,结果往往以失败告终的目的。 Dualism leaves room for faith, and hands over to faith many of the problems which philosophy cannot solve.二元论的信仰留下空间,并到信仰的问题的哲学解决不了许多手中。Monism leaves no room for faith.叶一元论没有信仰的空间。The only mysticism that is compatible with it is rationalistic, and very different from that "vision" in which, for the Christian mystic, all the limitations, imperfections, and other shortcomings of our feeble efforts are removed by the light of faith.唯一的神秘主义与它兼容的是理性的,而且非常从这个“愿景”中,对于基督教神秘不同,所有的限制,不完善的地方,我们微弱的努力等缺点是拆除信仰的光照。

Publication information Written by William Turner.出版信息写威廉特纳。Transcribed by Douglas J. Potter.转录由道格拉斯J.波特。Dedicated to the Sacred Heart of Jesus Christ The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume X. Published 1911.献给耶稣基督的圣心天主教百科全书,卷十,发布1911年。New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, October 1, 1911. Nihil Obstat,1911年10月1日。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰farley枢机主教,大主教纽约

Bibliography参考书目

See works referred to under METAPHYSICS; also, VEITCH, Dualism and Monism (London, 1895): WARD, Naturalism and Agnosticism (2 vols., London, 1899); ROYCE, The World and the Individual (New York, 1901); BAKEWELL, Pluralism and Monism in Philos.见工程所指形而上学;也维奇,二元和一元论(伦敦,1895年):病房里,自然主义和不可知论(2卷,伦敦,1899年);劳斯莱斯,世界和个人(纽约,1901年);贝克韦尔,多元化和一元论在PHILOS。 Rev., VII (1898), 355 sqq.; BOWEN, Dualism, Materialism or Idealism in Princeton Rev., I (1878), 423 sqq.; GURNEY, Monism in Mind, VI (1881), 153 sqq.; Articles in Monist (1891-); ADICKES, Kant contra Haeckel (Berlin, 1901); GUTBERLET, Der mechanische Monismus (Paderborn, 1893); ENGERT, Der naturalistiche Monismus Haeckels (Berlin, 1907); DREWS, Der Monismus (Leipzig, 1908); Articles by KLINIKE in Jahrbuch für Phil.牧师,七(1898),355 SQQ;鲍文,二元论,唯物主义或在普林斯顿牧师,我(1878),423 SQQ唯心主义;格尼,记一元论,六(1881),153 SQQ;在第一元论者(1891 - ); ADICKES,康德禁忌海克尔(柏林,1901年); GUTBERLET,DER mechanische Monismus(帕德博恩,1893年); ENGERT,DER naturalistiche Monismus Haeckels(柏林,1907年);德鲁斯,DER Monismus(莱比锡,1908年);由KLINIKE文章在Jahrbuch献给菲尔。u.美国Spek.Spek。Theol.Theol。(1905, 1906); MALTESE, Monismo e nichilismo (2 vols., Vittoria, 1887); ABATE, Il monismo nelle diverse forme (Catania, 1893); HAECKEL, Der Monismus als Band zwischen Religion und Wissenschaft, tr, GILCHRIST (London, 1894); IDEM, Die Welträthsel, tr. (1905年,1906年);马耳他,Monismo Ë nichilismo(2卷,维多利亚,1887年);减弱,伊尔monismo nelle不同印版(卡塔尼亚,1893年);海克尔,DER Monismus ALS乐队zwischen宗教与科学,TR,吉尔克里斯特(伦敦,1894);同上,模具Welträthsel,TR。McCABE (London, 1900).麦凯布(伦敦,1900年)。On Carus's School of Monism, besides The Monist (1891-) and The Open Court (pub. fortnightly, first number, Feb. 17, 1887), cf.在Carus的学校,除了一元一元论(1891 - ),并公开法院(pub.半月刊,第一个数字,1887年2月17日),比照。CARUS, Primer of Philosophy (Chicago. 1896); IDEM, Fundamental Problems (Chicago, 1894); IDEM, Monism, Its Scope and Import (Chicago. 1891).CARUS,底漆哲学(Chicago. 1896年),同上,基本问题(芝加哥,1894年),同上,一元论,其范围和导入(Chicago. 1891年)。



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