Monotheism一神教

General Information一般资料

Monotheism is the religious conception of a single and transcendent God. It contrasts particularly with Polytheism, belief in many gods, and Pantheism, belief in God as synonymous with the universe. 一神教是一个单一的和超验的神的宗教观,它特别是多神教,在多神信仰,泛神论,对上帝的信仰与宇宙的代名词对比。Judaism, Christianity, and Islam are the principal monotheistic religions.犹太教,基督教和伊斯兰教是主要的一神教。

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Bibliography 参考书目
Albright, William F., From the Stone Age to Christianity: Monotheism and the Historical Process, 2d ed.奥尔布赖特,威廉F,从石器时代到基督教:一神教的历史进程中,2版。(1957); Niebuhr, H. Richard, Radical Monotheism and Western Culture (1960). (1957年);尼布尔,H.理查德,根治一神教和西方文化(1960年)。


Monotheism一神教

Advanced Information先进的信息

[[6]] Topics: Monotheism Monotheism is the belief that there is only one God. [[6]]主题:一神教一神教是相信只有一个神。Related terms are polytheism (the belief that there are many gods), henotheism (belief in one supreme god, though not necessarily to the exclusion of belief in other lesser gods), monolatry (worship of only one god, though not necessarily denying that other gods exist), and atheism (denying or disbelieving in the existence of any gods at all).相关条款多神教(相信有很多神),henotheism(在一个至高无上的神的信仰,虽然不一定要在其他较小的神灵信仰排除),monolatry(只有一个神的崇拜,虽然不一定否认其他神存在),和无神论(否认或在任何不相信神的存在于所有)。

Atheism was not particularly attractive to the Israelite people in ancient times.无神论是不是特别有吸引力的古代以色列人的人。They were convinced that only fools would be so spiritually ignorant as to deny the existence of a supreme being (Pss. 14:1; 53:1).他们深信,只有傻子会如此无知的精神上来否定一个至高无上的存在(Pss. 14:1,53:1)。 For the people of God, the fear of the Lord was the beginning of wisdom and knowledge (Ps. 111:10; Prov. 1:7; 9:10).对于神的人,敬畏耶和华,是智慧和知识的开端(诗111:10;箴1:7; 9:10)。But if the Israelites did not doubt that there was at least one God, the nations on their borders faced them with the tantalizing possibility that there might be more than one.但是,如果以色列人不怀疑至少有一位神,在其境内的国家面临着诱人的可能性,可能有一个以上的。Egypt, Phoenicia, Aram, Ammon, Moab, Edom, these and other nations were polytheistic, henotheistic, or monolatrous throughout their history in ancient times.埃及,腓尼基,亚兰,亚扪,摩押,以东,这些和其他国家是多神教,henotheistic,或在其整个古代历史monolatrous。 One of the questions raised by the OT is whether Israel would remain monotheistic or be attracted by the religious options preferred by its pagan neighbors.由OT提出的问题之一是以色列是否会继续一神教或由它的邻居首选异教的宗教选项所吸引。

Students of comparative religion have suggested that the religions of mankind evolved from lower stages to ever higher stages, the highest of all being monotheism.比较宗教学生们认为,人类的宗教演变从较低阶段向越来越高的阶段,所有被一神教最高的。They have proposed that Israelite religion began as animism, the belief that every natural object is inhabited by a supernatural spirit.他们提出,以色列人的宗教作为万物有灵开始,每一个自然对象是由一种超自然的精神居住的信念。 After animism, we are told, the idea developed in Israel that some spirits were more powerful than others and deserved to be called "gods."经过万物有灵,我们被告知,在以色列的想法发展,一些白酒被比其他人更强大,当之无愧地被称为“神”。Eventually the most powerful of all became preeminent above the others, and the people believed in his supreme authority and worshipped him alone.最终,最上面的所有强大成了杰出的人,和人民相信自己的最高权威,崇拜他了。Finally, Israel became willing to admit that the lesser gods had no existence whatever.最后,以色列成为愿意承认,较小的神的存在并没有什么。Comparative religion, then, often teaches that Israel's religion underwent a process of evolution from animism to polytheism to henotheism to monotheism.比较宗教,那么,经常教导我们,以色列的宗教经历了从万物有灵到多神教的演变过程,henotheism到一神教。

But it cannot be shown that polytheistic religions always gradually reduce the number of their gods, finally arriving at only one.但它不能被证明,多神教的宗教总是逐渐减少他们的神数,最后只在一个到达。For example, there are innumerable Hindu deities (estimates range from several hundred thousand to 800 million, depending on how deity is defined), and the number seems actually to be increasing.例如,有无数的印度神(估计范围从几十万到800万,神是如何定义而定),实际数量似乎在增加。Since a religion may add more and more deities as it followers become aware of more and more natural phenomena to deify, it is just as plausible to assume that polytheism is the end product of evolution from an original monotheism as it is to assume the reverse.由于宗教可以添加越来越多的神,因为它的追随者成为越来越多的自然现象神化知道,它只是作为合理的假设是多神教的演变,从原始一神教的最终产品,因为它是假设相反。

(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary)(Elwell宣布了福音字典)


Monotheism一神教

Catholic Information天主教信息

Monotheism (from the Greek monos "only", and theos "god") is a word coined in comparatively modern times to designate belief in the one supreme God, the Creator and Lord of the world, the eternal Spirit, All-powerful, All-wise, and All-good, the Rewarder of good and the Punisher of evil, the Source of our happiness and perfection.一神教(从希腊MONOS“唯一”,并THEOS“神”)是在比较近代创造指定在一个至高无上的神,造物主和上帝的世界,永恒的精神,无所不能,所有信仰的一个词 - 明智的,全善,善和恶的赏赐,我们的幸福和完善来源处罚。It is opposed to Polytheism, which is belief in more gods than one, and to Atheism, which is disbelief in any deity whatsoever.它是反对多神教,这是在超过一个多神的信仰,并无神论,这是任何神任何怀疑。In contrast with Deism, it is the recognition of God's presence and activity in every part of creation.自然神论与此相反,它是上帝的存在和活动的每一个创作的一部分的认同。In contrast with Pantheism, it is belief in a God of conscious freedom, distinct from the physical world.泛神论与此相反,它是在一个有意识的自由,从物理世界不同的神的信仰。Both Deism and Pantheism are religious philosophies rather than religions.双方自然神论和泛神论的宗教哲学而不是宗教。

On the other hand, Monotheism, like Polytheism, is a term applying primarily to a concrete system of religion.另一方面,一神教一样,多神教,是一个长期实行主要以宗教的具体制度。The grounds of reason underlying monotheism have already been set forth in the article GOD.根本的原因一神教的理由已经在文章中提出的上帝。These grounds enable the inquiring mind to recognize the existence of God as a morally certain truth.这些理由使虚心的态度认识到作为一个道德上一定的道理的神的存在。Its reasonableness acquires still greater force from the positive data associated with the revelation of Christianity.它的合理性获取更大的启示与基督教有关的利好经济数据的力量。(See REVELATION.)(见启示。)

PRIMITIVE MONOTHEISM本原一神教

Was monotheism the religion of our first parents?是我们的第一个一神教的父母的宗教吗?Many Evolutionists and Rationalist Protestants answer No. Rejecting the very notion of positive, Divine revelation, they hold that the mind of man was in the beginning but little above that of his ape-like ancestors, and hence incapable of grasping so intellectual a conception as that of Monotheism.许多进化论者和理性主义新教徒拒绝回答号的正,很神圣启示的概念,他们认为,人的头脑中开始了,但上面没有他的类人猿的祖先,因此把握这样一个概念作为智力能力一神论的。

They assert that the first religious notions entertained by man in his upward course towards civilization were superstitions of the grossest kind.他们断言,人类所受理他对文明向上的过程中,第一个宗教概念是一种迷信的粗暴。In a word, primitive man was, in their opinion, a savage, differing but little from existing savages in his intellectual, moral, and religious life.总之,原始的男子,在他们看来,野蛮,但很少从他的智力,道德和宗教生活中存在的野蛮人不同。Catholic doctrine teaches that the religion of our first parents was monotheistic and supernatural, being the result of Divine revelation.天主教教义教导我们,我们的第一个父母宗教是一神论和超自然,即神圣启示的结果。 Not that primitive man without Divine help could not possibly have come to know and worship God.这并不是说没有神的帮助原始人不可能有来认识和崇拜上帝。The first man, like his descendants today, had by nature the capacity and the aptitude for religion.第一个男人,喜欢他的后代今天,有宗教性质的能力和资质。Being a man in the true sense, with the use of reason, he had the tendency then, as men have now, to recognize in the phenomena of nature the workings of a mind and a will vastly superior to his own.作为一个真正意义上的男子使用的原因,他有倾向的话,作为男人现在,认识到在大自然的心灵运作的现象和将大大优于自己。But, as he lacked experience and scientific knowledge, it was not easy for him to unify the diverse phenomena of the visible world.但是,正如他缺乏经验和科学知识,它是不容易的他,以统一的有形世界的各种现象。Hence he was not without danger of going astray in his religious interpretation of nature.因此,他不是没有打算在他的宗教性的解释引入歧途的危险。He was liable to miss the important truth that, as nature is a unity, so the God of nature is one.他很可能被错过了重要的真理,作为自然是一个团结的,所以自然神之一。Revelation was morally necessary for our first parents, as it is for men today, to secure the possession of true monotheistic belief and worship.道义上的启示是我们的第一个父母必要的,因为它是男人的今天,要确保真正的一神教信仰和崇拜占有。The conception that Almighty God vouchsafed such a revelation is eminently reasonable to everyone who recognizes that the end of man is to know, love, and serve God.的观念,万能的上帝赐予这样的启示绝对有合理的大家谁认识到,人最终是要知道,爱和事奉神。It is repugnant to think that the first generations of men were left to grope in the dark, ignorant alike of the true God and of their religious duties, while at the same time it was God's will that they should know and love Him.这是令人厌恶认为男人的第一代被留在黑暗中摸索,同样的真神和他们的宗教职责一无所知,而在同一时间它是上帝的旨意,他们应该知道,爱他。 The instruction in religion which children receive from their parents and superiors, anticipating their powers of independent reasoning, and guiding them to a right knowledge of God, being impossible for our first parents, was not without a fitting substitute.在宗教的指令,从他们的孩子接受家长和上级,预计独立推理的权力,并指导他们对神正确的知识,正在为我们的第一个父母是不可能的,也不是没有一个合适的替代品。 They were set right from the first in the knowledge of their religious duties by a Divine revelation.他们分别设置权从他们的宗教职责由一个神圣的启示知识第一。It is a Catholic dogma, intimately connected with the dogma of original sin and with that of the Atonement, that our first parents were raised to the state of sanctifying grace and were destined to a supernatural end, namely, the beatific vision of God in heaven.这是一个天主教教条,密切与原罪教义,并与赎罪,那我们的第一个父母提出的圣洁恩典国家和注定要一个超自然的结束,即上帝在天上beatific视野相连。 This necessarily implies supernatural faith, which could come only by revelation.这必然意味着超自然的信仰,这可能得的启示而已。

Nor is there anything in sound science or philosophy to invalidate this teaching that Monotheistic belief was imparted by God to primitive man.也没有在合理的科学或哲学什么无效这是一神教信仰是上帝传授给原始人教学。While it may be true that human life in the beginning was on a comparatively low plane of material culture, it is also true that the first men were endowed with reason, ie, with the ability to conceive with sufficient distinctness of a being who was the cause of the manifold phenomena presented in nature.虽然它可能是真实的,一开始人类生活在一个相对低的物质文化飞机,这也是事实,第一个男子赋有理性,即与受孕能力与一个被谁是足够的特异性,造成自然界中提出的多方面的现象。 On the other hand, a humble degree of culture along the lines of art and industry is quite compatible with right religion and morality, as is evident in the case of tribes converted to Catholicism in recent times; while retaining much of their rude and primitive mode of living, they have reached very clear notions concerning God and shown remarkable fidelity in the observance of His law.在另一方面,文化以及艺术和工业线谦虚程度是相当正确的宗教和道德与兼容,因为是在转换近代天主教部落的情况下明显;同时保留他们的粗鲁和原始模式多生活,他们已达到非常清晰的概念关于上帝和显示在他的守法显着的保真度。 As to the bearing of the Evolutionistic hypothesis on this question, see FETISHISM.至于在这个问题上Evolutionistic假设轴承,见拜物教。It is thus quite in accordance with the accredited results of physical science to maintain that the first man, created by God, was keen of mind as well as sound of body, and that, through Divine instruction, he began life with right notions of God and of his moral and religious duties.因此,这是与物理科学的评审结果认为,根据第一人,上帝创造的,是敏锐的头脑以及身体的声音,而且相当,通过神圣的指令,他开始与神权的概念生活和他的道德和宗教义务。 This does not necessarily mean that his conception of God was scientifically and philosophically profound.这并不一定意味着他对上帝的概念是科学和哲学的深刻。Here it is that scholars are wide of the mark when they argue that Monotheism is a conception that implies a philosophic grasp and training of mind absolutely impossible to primitive man.这里是学者们的广泛的标记时,他们认为,一神教是一种观念,蕴涵着哲理的把握和心态绝对不可能原始人培训。

The notion of the supreme God needed for religion is not the highly metaphysical conception demanded by right philosophy.至高无上的神的概念的宗教需要的不是形而上的高度正确的哲学观的要求。 If it were, but few could hope for salvation.如果它是,但很少人会希望得救。The God of religion is the unspeakably great Lord on whom man depends, in whom he recognizes the source of his happiness and perfection; He is the righteous Judge, rewarding good and punishing evil; the loving and merciful Father, whose ear is ever open to the prayers of His needy and penitent children.宗教的神是人对人依赖无法形容的伟大的主,在其中他认识到他的幸福和完善的来源,他是正义的法官,奖励良好和惩治邪恶;的爱心和仁慈的父亲,他的耳朵是永远开放他的贫困儿童和忏悔的祈祷。 Such a conception of God can be readily grasped by simple, unphilosophic minds -- by children, by the unlettered peasant, by the converted savage.这样的神的概念可以很容易地掌握了简单,unphilosophic头脑 - 儿童,胸无点墨的农民,通过转换野蛮。

Nor are these notions of a supreme being utterly lacking even where barbarism still reigns.也不是一个至高无上的这些概念是完全缺乏,即使仍然野蛮统治。Bishop Le Roy, in his interesting work, "Religion des primitifs" (Paris, 1909), and Mr. A. Lang, in his "Making of Religion" (New York, 1898), have emphasized a point too often overlooked by students of religion, namely, that with all their religious crudities and superstitions, such low-grade savages as the Pygmies of the Northern Congo, the Australians, and the natives of the Andaman Islands entertain very noble conceptions of the Supreme Deity.罗伊乐主教,在他的有趣的工作,“宗教DES primitifs”(巴黎,1909年),A.郎先生,在他的“宗教制作”(纽约,1898),强调学生往往忽略了一点宗教,即认为所有的宗教crudities和迷信,这种低档作为北方刚果,澳大利亚,以及安达曼群岛的俾格米人的当地人招待最高神的观念非常高贵野蛮人。 To say, then, that primitive man, fresh from the hand of God, was incapable of monotheistic belief, even with the aid of Divine revelation, is contrary to well-ascertained fact.如果说,那么,原始人,从新鲜的上帝之手,是一神教信仰无力,甚至与神的启示援助,是违背精心确定的事实。From the opening chapters of Genesis we gather that our first parents recognized God to be the author of all things, their Lord and Master, the source of their happiness, rewarding good and punishing evil.从创世纪的开放章节我们收集我们的第一次家长承认上帝是万物的,其主,主,他们幸福的源泉,良好的奖励和惩治邪恶的作者。 The simplicity of their life made the range of their moral obligation easy of recognition.简单的生活作出了自己的道德义务的范围很容易识别。Worship was of the simplest kind.崇拜是最简单的一种。

MOSAIC MONOTHEISM马赛克一神教

The ancient Hebrew religion, promulgated by Moses in the name of Jehovah (Jahweh), was an impressive form of Monotheism.古代希伯来宗教,摩西颁布的耶和华(亚威)的名称,是一个令人印象深刻的一神教的形式。That it was Divinely revealed is the unmistakable teaching of Holy Scripture, particularly of Exodus and the following books which treat explicitly of Mosaic legislation.这是上天显示的是明白无误的圣经教学,特别是出埃及记和它的花叶立法明确把下面的书籍。Even non-Catholic Scriptural scholars, who no longer accept the Pentateuch, as it stands, as the literary production of Moses, recognize, in great part, that, in the older sources which, according to them, go to make up the Pentateuch, there are portions that reach back to the time of Moses, showing the existence of Hebrew monotheistic worship in his day.即使非天主教的圣经学者,他们不再接受摩西五,既然这样,作为文学生产摩西,承认在很大程度上,是在旧的来源,据他们,去弥补的五,也有部分是达到回的时候,摩西,显示了他一天的希伯来一神教崇拜的存在。 Now, the transcendent superiority of this Monotheism taught by Moses offers a strong proof of its Divine origin.现在,这个一神教的摩西教授超越的优越性提供了其神圣的起源有力的证明。At a time when the neighbouring nations representing the highest civilization of that time -- Egypt, Babylonia, Greece -- were giving an impure and idolatrous worship to many deities, we find the insignificant Hebrew people professing a religion in which idolatry, impure rites, and a degrading mythology had no legitimate place, but where, instead, belief in the one true God was associated with a dignified worship and a lofty moral code.而此时的邻国代表当时最高的文明 - 埃及,巴比伦,希腊 - 人给出一个不纯的崇拜和偶像崇拜许多神,我们找到了微不足道的希伯来人信奉的宗教中,偶像崇拜,不纯的仪式,和有辱人格的神话没有合法地位,但如果相反,在一个真正的上帝的信仰是一个有尊严的崇拜和崇高的道德准则有关。 Those who reject the claim of Mosaic Monotheism to have been revealed have never yet succeeded in giving a satisfactory explanation of this extraordinary phenomenon.这些谁拒绝马赛克一神教已发现声称从未尚未成功地给了这个非同寻常的现象令人满意的解释。It was, however, pre-eminently the religion of the Hebrew people, destined in the fullness of time to give place to the higher monotheistic religion revealed by Christ, in which all the nations of the earth should find peace and salvation.它是,但是,前突出的是希伯来文中的时间让位于更高的神论宗教的基督,在所有地球国家应该寻求和平和拯救透露丰满注定的人,宗教。 The Jewish people was thus God's chosen people, not so much by reason of their own merit, as because they were destined to prepare the way for the absolute and universal religion, Christianity.犹太人民因此上帝的选民,而不是让他们通过自己的优点的原因很多,如因为他们注定要作好准备,绝对和普遍的宗教,基督教的方式。 The God of Moses is no mere tribal deity.在摩西的上帝并非仅仅是部落的神。He is the Creator and Lord of the world.他是创造者和世界的主。He gives over to His chosen people the land of the Chanaanites.他给到他的选民的Chanaanites土地。He is a jealous God, forbidding not only worship of strange gods, but the use of images, which might lead to abuses in that age of almost universal idolatry.他是一个嫉妒的上帝,不仅禁止怪神崇拜,但图像的使用,这可能导致在那几乎普遍的偶像崇拜的年龄滥用。Love of God is made a duty, but reverential fear is the predominant emotion.上帝的爱是由一种责任,但虔诚的恐惧是主要的情感。The religious sanction of the law is centred chiefly in temporal rewards and punishments.该法的主要宗教的制裁是集中在颞奖惩。Laws of conduct, though determined by justice rather than by charity and mercy, are still eminently humane.法律的行为,虽然由正义而不是施舍和怜悯决定的,仍然突出的人性化。

CHRISTIAN MONOTHEISM基督教一神论

The sublime Monotheism taught by Jesus Christ has no parallel in the history of religions.一神教的崇高教导耶稣基督没有在宗教历史的平行。God is presented to us as the loving, merciful Father, not of one privileged people, but of all mankind.神向我们提出的爱心,仁慈的父亲不是一个特权的人,而是全人类。In this filial relation with God -- a relation of confidence, gratitude, love -- Christ centres our obligations both to God and to our fellow-men.在这个与神孝顺的关系 - 信任的关系,感激之情,爱 - 基督中心的义务既给上帝,我们的同胞男子。He lays hold of the individual soul and reveals to it its high destiny of Divine sonship.他奠定举办了个人的灵魂,它揭示了其神圣sonship高的命运。At the same time, He impresses on us the corresponding duty of treating others as God's children, and hence as our brethren, entitled not simply to justice, but to mercy and charity.与此同时,他对我们的印象当作神的儿女别人相应的义务,从而为我们的兄弟,有权不只是为了正义,而是怜悯和施舍。 To complete this idea of Christian fellowship, Jesus shows Himself to be the eternal Son of God, sent by His heavenly Father to save us from sin, to raise us to the life of grace and to the dignity of children of God through the atoning merits of His life and death.要完成这个团契的想法,耶稣表明自己是神永恒的儿子,由他的天父派拯救我们脱离罪恶,提高我们生活的恩典和对神的儿女通过赎罪优点尊严他的生活和死亡。 The love of God the Father thus includes the love of His incarnate Son.神的爱的父亲因此包括他的儿子爱的化身。Personal devotion to Jesus is the motive of right conduct in Christian Monotheism.个人奉献给耶稣是基督教一神教权利的行为动机。Co-operating in the sanctification of mankind is the Holy Ghost, the Spirit of truth and life, sent to confirm the faithful in faith, hope, and charity.在人类的圣洁合作,是圣灵,真理和生命的精神,在发送确认信友们,希望和慈善事业。These three Divine Persons, distinct from one another, equal in all things, Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, are one in essence, a trinity of persons in the one, undivided Godhead (see TRINITY).这三个神圣的人,从彼此不同,在万物平等,父,子,圣灵,是一个本质,一个人在一个三位一体,不可分割的神(见三一)。 Such is the Monotheism taught by Jesus.这就是耶稣教的一神教。The guaranty of the truth of His teaching is to be found in His supreme moral excellence, in the perfection of His ethical teaching, in His miracles, especially His bodily resurrection, and in His wonderful influence on mankind for all time.而他的教学真理担保是要发现在他的至高无上的美德,在他的伦理教学在他的完美的奇迹,尤其是他的身体复活,并在他的影响,对人类美好的所有时间。 (Cf. John 17:3; 1 Corinthians 8:4) As Christianity in its beginnings was surrounded by the polytheistic beliefs and practices of the pagan world, a clear and authoritative expression of Monotheism was necessary. (参见约翰福音17:3,哥林多前书8:4)作为基督教在它的起点是由多神教信仰和习俗的异教徒的世界,一个一神教明确和权威性的表述包围是必要的。 Hence the symbols of faith, or creeds, open with the words: "I [we] believe in God [theon, deum]" or, more explicitly, "I [we] believe in one God [hena theon, unum deum]".因此,符号的信仰,或信仰,与开放的话:“我(我们)​​相信神[theon,deum]”,或者更明确地说:“我[我们]相信在一个神[河那theon,UNUM deum]” 。(See Denzinger-Bannwart, "Enchiridion", 1-40; cf. APOSTLES' CREED; ATHANASIAN CREED; NICENE CREED.) Among the early heresies, some of the most important and most directly opposed to Monotheism arose out of the attempt to account for the origin of evil. (见登青格,Bannwart,“便览”,1-40;比照使徒信经,阿他那修CREED;尼西亚)在早期的异端邪说,其中最重要和最直接反对一神教出现了一些尝试出帐户对邪恶的起源。 Good they ascribed to one divine principle, evil to another.好,他们归咎于一个神圣的原则,邪恶到另一个地方。(See GNOSTICISM; MANICHÆISM; MARCIONITES.) These dualistic errors gave occasion for a vigorous defence of Monotheism by such writers as St. Irenæus, Tertullian, St. Augustine, etc. (see Bardenhewer-Shahan, "Patrology", St. Louis, 1908).(见诺斯替主义,摩尼教; MARCIONITES)这些错误给了一个二元的一神教所为圣Irenæus,良,圣奥古斯丁,等等(见巴登黑韦尔 - 沙汗,“Patrology”,圣路易斯等作家积极防御之际, 1908年)。

The same doctrine naturally held the foremost place in the teaching of the missionaries who converted the races of Northern Europe; in fact, it may be said that the diffusion of Monotheism is one of the great achievements of the Catholic Church.同样的自然主义在举行的传教士谁转换北欧的比赛教学首要位置,事实上,它可以说是一神教的扩散是对天主教教会的伟大成就之一。 In the various conciliar definitions regarding the Trinity of Persons in God, emphasis is laid on the unity of the Divine nature; see, eg, Fourth Council of Lateran (1215), in Denzinger-Bannwart, "Enchiridion", 428.在关于在三位一体神的人的各种conciliar的定义,重点在于对神性的统一;看到,例如:拉特兰(1215)第四届理事会,在登青格,Bannwart,“便览”,428。 The medieval Scholastics, taking up the traditional belief, brought to its support a long array of arguments based on reason; see, for instance, St. Thomas, "Contra Gentes", I, xlii; and St. Anselm, "Monol.", iv.中世纪经院哲学家,采取了传统的信仰,提请其支持的基于理性的论据多头排列,参见,例如,圣托马斯,“魂斗罗氏族”,我,四十二;“。Monol”和圣安瑟伦, ,四。During the last three centuries the most conspicuous tendency outside the Catholic Church has been towards such extreme positions as those of Monism and Pantheism in which it is asserted that all things are really one in substance, and that God is identical with the world.在过去三个世纪之外的天主教会最显着的趋势是向那些为一元论和泛神论在它所宣称,所有的东西都是真的物质之一,上帝是与世界identical这种极端的立场。 The Church, however, has steadfastly maintained, not only that God is essentially distinct from all things else, but also that there is only one God.教会,然而,坚定不移地维护,不仅上帝是万物的本质上有别于其他,但也有只有一个神。"If any one deny the one true God, Creator and Lord of all things visible and invisible, let him be anathema" (Conc. Vatican., Sess. III, "De fide", can. i). “如果任何一个否定一个真神,造物主和万物的主有形和无形的,让他被诅咒”(Conc.梵蒂冈,SESS三,“德善意”,可我)。

MOHAMMEDAN MONOTHEISM伊斯兰教一神教

Of Mohammedan Monotheism little need be said. The Allah of the Koran is practically one with the Jehovah of the Old Testament. Its keynote is islam, submissive resignation to the will of God, which is expressed in everything that happens.一神教的伊斯兰教一点需要说的可兰经真主实际上是与旧约的耶和华之一,其主旨是伊斯兰教,顺从辞职到神,这是发生在一切所表达的意愿。 Allah is, to use the words of the Koran, "The Almighty, the All-knowing, the All-just, the Lord of the worlds, the Author of the heavens and the earth, the Creator of life and death, in whose hand is dominion and irresistible power, the great all-powerful Lord of the glorious throne. God is the mighty . . . the Swift in reckoning, who knoweth every ant's weight of good and of ill that each man hath done, and who suffereth not the reward of the faithful to perish. He is the King, the Holy, . . . the Guardian over His servants, the Shelterer of the orphan, the Guide of the erring, the Deliverer from every affliction, the Friend of the bereaved, the Consoler of the afflicted, . . . the generous Lord, the gracious Hearer, the Near-at-hand, the Compassionate, the Merciful, the Forgiving" (cited from "Islam", by Ameer Ali Syed).安拉是,要使用可兰经的话,他说:“全能,全知,全刚,对世界的主,在天空和大地,生命与死亡的创造者,作者在其手是自治领和不可抗拒的力量,伟大的无所不能的光辉的宝座主神是强大的。在心目当中,谁knoweth每一个蚂蚁的重量良好和生病,每个人祂所完成雨燕,谁suffereth不忠实于灭亡的奖励,他是国王,神圣,。过他的仆人监护人,对孤儿Shelterer,对犯错误的指南,从每一个痛苦订购者信息,对失去亲人的朋友,Consoler的折磨,。慷慨的主,殷勤聪的,近在手,体恤,仁慈,在宽恕“(引自”伊斯兰“的阿米尔阿里赛义德)。 The influence of the Bible, particularly the Old Testament, on Mohammedan Monotheism is well known and need not be dwelt on here.圣经的影响,特别是旧约关于伊斯兰教一神教,是众所周知的,不需要住在这里。

MONOTHEISM AND POLYTHEISTIC RELIGIONS一神教和多神教的宗教

What has thus far been said leads to the conclusion that Christian Monotheism and its antecedent forms, Mosaic and primitive Monotheism, are independent in their origin of the Polytheistic religions of the world.什么迄今一直表示引出的结论是,基督教的一神论和它的前身形式,马赛克和原始一神教,都在他们的世界的多神教宗教的起源无关。 The various forms of polytheism that now flourish, or that have existed in the past, are the result of man's faulty attempts to interpret nature by the light of unaided reason.各种形式的多神教,现在蓬勃发展,或者说,在过去存在的,是人的错误试图解释由独立的理性之光的性质的结果。Wherever the scientific view of nature has not obtained, the mechanical, secondary causes that account for such striking phenomena as sun, moon, lightning, tempest, have invariably been viewed either as living beings, or as inert bodies kept in movement by invisible, intelligent agents.无论是科学性看法并没有得到,机械,中学,对于作为太阳,月亮,雷电,暴风雨,这种惊人的现象帐户都不约而同地被看作是活生生的人,或在运动中保持惰性机构或者由无形的原因,智能代理。 This personalizing of the striking phenomena of nature was common among the highest pagan nations of antiquity.这种对大自然的突出现象是常见的个性化的古代最高异教徒国家。It is the common view among peoples of inferior culture today.它是文化的人民之间的劣质今天的共同看法。It is only since modern science has brought all these phenomena within the range of physical law that the tendency to view them as manifestations of distinct personalities has been thoroughly dispelled.这只是因为现代科学带来了所有这些范围内的物理定律范围的倾向,认为他们的独特个性的表现已经彻底消除的现象。 Now such a personalizing of nature's forces is compatible with Monotheism so long as these different intelligences fancied to produce the phenomena are viewed as God's creatures, and hence not worthy of Divine worship.现在,这种自然的力量与个性化兼容一神教,只要这些不同的智能想象,产生这种现象被视为上帝的造物,因此不值得神崇拜。 But where the light of revelation has been obscured in whole or in part, the tendency to deify these personalities associated with natural phenomena has asserted itself.但是,在光的启示已全部或部分遮挡,神化的倾向与自然现象有关这些人士曾断言自己。

In this way polytheistic nature-worship seems to have arisen.这样多神教性质崇拜似乎已经出现。 It arose from the mistaken application of a sound principle, which man everywhere seems naturally to possess, namely, that the great operations of nature are due to the agency of mind and will.它从一个应用程序出现错误的稳健性原则,这名男子似乎无处不在,自然拥有,那就是大自然的伟大行动是由于机构的心态和意志。 Professor George Fisher observes: "The polytheistic religions did not err in identifying the manifold activities of nature with voluntary agency. The spontaneous feelings of mankind in this particular are not belied by the principles of philosophy. The error of polytheism lies in the splintering of that will which is immanent in all the operations of nature into a plurality of personal agents, a throng of divinities, each active and dominant within a province of its own" ("Grounds of Christian and Theistic Belief", 1903, p. 29).乔治费舍尔教授指出:“没有宗教的多神教与志愿机构在确定自然的多方面活动ERR在这个特殊的人类自发的感情不掩饰的哲学原理的多神教错误在该分裂所在。这将是在所有的性质的行动转化为个人内在多个代理商,一个神灵人群,每个活动,并在其本省优势“(”基督教和有神论信仰“,1903年,第29页的理由)。 Polytheistic nature-worship is to be found among practically all peoples who have lacked the guiding star of Divine revelation.多神教的自然崇拜是要各国人民之间几乎谁也缺乏神圣启示的指导明星发现。Such history of these individual religions as we possess offers little evidence of an upward development towards Monotheism: on the contrary, in almost every instance of known historic development, the tendency has been to degenerate further and further from the monotheistic idea.这些个别的宗教,因为我们拥有这样的历史提供了一个向一神教向上的发展没有什么证据:相反,几乎每一个著名的历史发展为例,已退化的趋势从一神教的想法越走越远。 There is, indeed, scarcely a Polytheistic religion in which one of the many deities recognized is not held in honour as the father and lord of the rest.还有就是,的确,几乎没有一个多神论宗教在其中认识到很多神一个不是在荣誉举行的父亲和其他领主。That this is the result of an upward development, as non-Catholic scholars very generally assert, is speculatively possible.这是一个向上发展的结果,因为非天主教学者断言非常一般,可能是投机。But that it may as well be the outcome of a downward development from a primitive monotheistic belief cannot be denied.但它也可能是从原始的一神教信仰向下发展的结果不能否认的。The latter view seems to have the weight of positive evidence in its favour.后者的观点似乎有在其的正面证据的分量。 The ancient Chinese religion, as depicted in the oldest records, was remarkably close to pure Monotheism.中国古代宗教,如最古老的记录描述,是非常接近纯一神教。The gross Polytheistic nature-worship of the Egyptians of later times was decidedly a degeneration from the earlier quasi-Monotheistic belief.在毛多神教的后来的埃及人自然崇拜是断然从早期的准一神教信仰变性。In the Vedic religion a strong Monotheistic tendency asserted itself, only to weaken later on and change into Pantheism.在吠陀神论宗教的强烈倾向断言本身,只是削弱以后,变成泛神论。The one happy exception is the upward development which the ancient Aryan Polytheism took in the land of the Iranians.一个幸福的例外是向上发展,古代雅利安人多神教在伊朗的土地了。Through the wise reform of Zoroaster, the various gods of nature were subordinated to the supreme, omniscient spirit, Ormuzd, and were accorded an inferior worship as his creatures.通过琐罗亚斯德明智的改革,大自然的各种神灵都服从于最高权力机构,无所不知的精神,Ormuzd,并给予他的动物作为劣质崇拜。 Ormuzd was honoured as the creator of all that is good, the revealer and guardian of the laws of religious and moral conduct, and the sanctifier of the faithful. Ormuzd很荣幸作为一切是好的创作者,启示者和宗教和道德行为的法律监护人,并且忠实圣者。The sense of sin was strongly developed, and a standard of morality was set forth that justly excites admiration.该罪感强烈发展,以及道德标准是提出,公正地激发钦佩。Heaven and hell, the final renovation of the world, including the bodily resurrection, were elements in Zoroastrian eschatology.天堂与地狱,世界的最后装修,包括身体复活,是在拜火教末世元素。A nobler religion outside the sphere of revealed religion is not to be found.外的启示宗教领域的崇高信仰是不被发现。Yet even this religion is rarely classed by scholars among monotheistic religions, owing to the polytheistic colouring of its worship of the subordinate nature-spirits, and also to its retention of the ancient Aryan rite of fire-worship, justified by Zoroastrians of modern times as a form of symbolic worship of Ormuzd.然而,即使这种宗教是很少归类学者之间的一神教,由于其下属自然神灵崇拜多神教色彩,同时也为古代雅利安人对火的崇拜仪式保留,通过合理的近代拜火教一个象征性的Ormuzd崇拜形式。

The so-called survivals in higher religions, such as belief in food-eating ghosts, pain-causing spirits, witchcraft, the use of amulets and fetishes, are often cited as evidence that even such forms of Monotheism as Judaism and Christianity are but outgrowths of lower religions.在较高的宗教所谓的残余食物,如吃鬼,疼痛引起的精神,巫术,符咒的使用和偶像,信仰,经常被引用作为证据,作为犹太教和基督教的一神论形式,但即使是这样副产物较低的宗教。 The presence of the greater part of these superstitious beliefs and customs in the more ignorant sections of Christian peoples is easily explained as the survival of tenacious customs that flourished among the ancestors of European peoples long before their conversion to Christianity.对这些迷信的信仰和基督教人民更无知的部分关税,大部份的存在是很容易解释为是在他们之间的转换,以基督教的欧洲人民的祖先长期繁荣海关顽强生存。 Again, many of these beliefs and customs are such as might easily arise from faulty interpretations of nature, unavoidable in unscientific grades of culture, even where the monotheistic idea prevailed.同样,这些信仰和习俗很多,如可能很容易产生错误的解释的性质,在文化成绩不可避免的不科学,即使在一神教的想法占了上风。 Superstitions like these are but the rank weeds and vines growing around the tree of religion.像这些迷信的,但排名杂草和藤蔓围绕宗教树生长。

Publication information Written by Charles F. Aiken.出版信息写查尔斯F艾肯。Transcribed by Gerald Rossi.转录由杰拉尔德罗西。The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume X. Published 1911.天主教百科全书,卷十,发布1911年。New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, October 1, 1911. Nihil Obstat,1911年10月1日。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰farley枢机主教,大主教纽约

Bibliography参考书目

KRIEG, Der Monotheismus d.克里格,德Monotheismus D.Offenbarung u.Offenbarung U.das Heidentum (Mainz, 1880); BOEDDER, Natural Theology (New York, 1891); DRISCOLL, Christian Philosophy.DAS Heidentum(美因茨,1880年); BOEDDER,自然神学(纽约,1891年),斯科尔,基督教哲学。God (New York, 1900); HONTHEIM, Institutiones Theodicæ (Freiburg, 1893); LILLY,The Great Enigma (2nd ed., London, 1893); RICKABY, Of God and His Creatures (St. Louis, 1898); MICHELET, Dieu et l'agnosticisme contemporain (Paris, 1909); DE LA PAQUERIE, Eléments d'apologétique (Paris, 1898); GARRIGOU-LAGRANGE, in Dictionnaire apologétique de la foi catholique (Paris, 1910), sv Dieu; FISHER, The Grounds of Theistic and Christian Belief (New York, 1897); CAIRD, The Evolution of Religion (2 vols., Glasgow, 1899); GWATKIN, The Knowledge of God and its Historic Development (Edinburgh, 1906); FLINT, Theism (New York, 1896); IDEM, Anti-Theistic Theories (New York, 1894); IVERACH, Theism in the Light of Present Science and Philosophy (New York, 1899); ORR, The Christian View of God and the World (New York, 1907); RASHDALL, Philosophy and Religion (New York, 1910); SCHURMANN, Belief in God, its Origin, Nature, and Basis (New York, 1890).神(纽约,1900年); HONTHEIM,Institutiones Theodicæ(弗赖堡,1893年); LILLY,大谜(第二版,伦敦,1893年); RICKABY,上帝和他的动物(圣路易斯,1898年);米什莱, Dieu酒店等当代L' agnosticisme(巴黎,1909年); DE LA PAQUERIE,元素D' apologétique(巴黎,1898年); GARRIGOU - LAGRANGE,在辞典apologétique DE LA FOI天主教(巴黎,1910年),SV Dieu酒店;稳的理由有神论和基督教信仰(纽约,1897年);凯尔德,宗教的演进(2卷,格拉斯哥,1899年); GWATKIN,神和它的历史发展(爱丁堡,1906年)知识;弗林特,有神论(纽约,1896年);同上,反有神论理论(纽约,1894年); IVERACH,在当代科学与哲学(纽约,1899年)轻有神论; ORR,神和世界(纽约,1907年基督教查看); RASHDALL,哲学和宗教(纽约,1910); SCHURMANN,在上帝的信仰,它的起源,本质和基础(纽约,1890)。



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