Natural Theology自然神学

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Truths about God that can be learned from created things (nature, man, world) by reason alone.关于上帝可以从创造的东西(自然,人,世界)学到的唯一的原因真理。The importance of natural theology to Christian thought has varied widely from age to age, depending largely upon the general intellectual climate.自然神学的基督教思想的重要性,从年龄相差很大的年龄,智力一般取决于气候而定。It first became a significant part of Christian teaching in the High Middle Ages, and was made a fixed part of Roman Catholic dogma in 1870 at Vatican Council I.它首先成为了在高中世纪基督教教学的重要组成部分,并提出在1870年在梵蒂冈理事会一对罗马天主教教义的固定部分

Its Dogmatic Constitution on the Catholic Faith made it a matter of faith to believe that God has revealed himself in two ways, naturally and supernaturally, and that "God can certainly be known [certo cognosci] from created things by the natural light of human reason. "The council sought thus to reaffirm, over against nineteenth century secularized skeptics and especially philosophical truths are a legitimate and true form of theology.其对天主教的信仰教条式的宪法使一个信仰问题相信上帝透露自己在两个方面,自然和超自然,而且“神当然可以被称为[certo cognosci]从人类理性的自然光创造的东西“安理会寻求从而重申,在对十九世纪的世俗化持怀疑态度,特别是哲学的真理是一种合法的和真正的神学形式。 This teaching was one among several factors which stimulated the growth of Neo-Thomism (Gilson, Maritian, etc.) in the early twentieth century.这种教学的人占这刺激了新托马斯主义的增长在二十世纪初(吉尔森,Maritian等)的几个因素。But quite apart from the original intent and later influence of this teaching, the Catholic Church now stands committed to the belief that there are two theologies.撇开原来的意图,后来这种教学的影响下,天主教会目前停留承诺的信念,有两个神学。

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Ancient philosophers spoke of a "natural theology," by which they meant philosophical discourse on the essential, "divine" nature of things as distinguished from the accidental and transient, and also philosophical truths about God as distinguished from state cults and religious myths.古代哲学家谈到了“自然神学”,其中他们的意思在必要的,“神圣”事物的本质的哲学从对神的话语作为国有邪教和宗教神话杰出的偶然和暂时的,也是哲学的真理区别开来。 Scripture, however, spoke of the world as created in time and sustained by its Creator.圣经,然而,谈到了世界创造了时间和持续的创造者。Creation points still toward its Creator (what Protestants later called general revelation), but that it does so is chiefly taught by Scripture (that is, special revelation) and confirmed in experience rather than deduced by reason alone.它的创造者仍然对(后来被称为什么新教徒一般启示),但它这样做主要是传授创建点由圣经(也就是特殊启示),并确认在经验而不是唯一的原因推断。 Only when the Judeo-Christian notion of "creation" is made equivalent to the Greek philosophical notion of "nature," something never done directly by the Greek and Latin church fathers, is the stage set for the development of a "natural theology."只有当“创造”犹太教和基督教的概念是由相当于希腊哲学的概念“的性质,”从来没有做过的东西由希腊和拉丁教父直接,是一个集开发阶段的“自然神学”。

The first great proponent of a natural theology distinguishable from revealed theology was Thomas Aquinas, the synthesizer of Greek philosophy and the gospel, who also laid the groundwork for notions of "natural law," the ethical equivalent of natural theology.第一个自然神学神学区别很大,从透露的支持者是托马斯阿奎那,希腊哲学和福音的集大成者,谁也奠定了“自然法”的伦理相当于自然神学观念的基础。 Aquinas defined theology as a "science" in the Aristotelian sense, that is, a definable body of knowledge with its own sources, principles, methods, and content, and he insisted that beyond the truths derived from the study of Scripture there was another body of (compatible) truths based upon the application of reason to the created world.阿奎那定义为“科学”在亚里士多德意义上说,就是一个与自己的来源,原则,方法和内容定义的身体神学知识,他坚持认为,超越从圣经研究中得出的真理有另一机构的(兼容)的原因后,应用到创造的世界的真理。 He supported this, as nearly all Catholics have, with reference to Rom.他支持这一点,因为几乎所有的天主教徒们参考ROM。 1:20-21 and to the actual accomplishments of pagan philosophers, especially Aristotle. 1:20-21和异教的哲学家,特别是亚里士多德的实际成绩。Such truths included especially the existence of God, which he laid out in five famous proofs near the beginning of his Summa (all of them essentially arguments for an Ultimate Cause) and the attributes (eternity, invisibility, etc.) which described God's nature.这样的真理,特别是包括神的存在,这奠定了他在五个附近的他大全(所有的人基本上是一个终极原因参数)和属性(永恒,隐形等),描述上帝的性质证明了著名的开始。 These were then complemented and enriched by supernaturally revealed truths such as the trinity of persons in the Godhead and the incarnation of God in Jesus.然后,这些补充和超自然揭示真理的人,在神和神的化身耶稣三位一体这样丰富。

Nearly all Catholic scholars of natural theology have built upon, refined, or qualified the position first articulated by Thomas.几乎所有的自然神学学者们建立在天主教,精,或合格的托马斯首先阐明的立场。In doing natural theology, first of all, they do not mean to have reason replace faith or philosophical discourse the grace of God revealed in Christ.在这样做的自然神学,首先,他们不是说要有理由取代信仰或哲学话语的神的恩典在基督显现出来。Faith and grace remain primary for all believers, but natural theology offers the opportunity to establish certain truths by means common to all persons.信仰和宽限期仍主要为所有信徒,但自然神学提供了契机,建立由手段共同所有的人一定的真理。Second, those truths are not taken to be "grounds" or "foundations" for additional, revealed truths.其次,这些真理不采取是“理由”或“基金会”的额外的,发现真理。Yet if these truths are established, it can be seen as "reasonable" to accept revealed truths as well.然而,如果这些真理是建立,它可以被看作是“合理”接受揭示的真理也是如此。And thus Catholics are in fact inclined to see a continuum between natural theology, that which is known of God by the light of natural reason, and revealed theology, that which is known by the light of faith.因而天主教徒是倾向于看到一个自然神学之间,即这是众所周知的神由自然理性之光,并透露神学,即它是由著名的信念光连续的事实。

The Protestant Reformers objected to the impact of philosophy upon theology and insisted upon a return to Scripture.新教改革者反对的神学和哲学的影响后,在坚持以圣经回报。They assumed that all men had some implicit knowledge of God's existence (Calvin's "sense of divinity"), but they declared it useless apart from the revelation of God's will and grace in Jesus Christ.他们认为所有的人有某种神的存在(卡尔文的“神性意识”)隐性知识,但他们宣布它无用除了神的启示将在耶稣基督的恩典。 Several early confessional documents (eg, the Westminster and the Belgic) do speak of God revealing himself in nature (citing still Rom. 1:20-21), but this is revelation not fully comprehensible apart from Scripture.一些早期(例如,西敏寺和Belgic)忏悔的文件做神说话露出自己的性质(援引仍然罗1:20-21),但这是不完全理解的启示,除了圣经。 Orthodox Protestants have generally raised three major objections to natural theology.东正教新教徒普遍提出了三个主要的反对自然神学。

First, it lacks scriptural basis.首先,它缺乏圣经的基础。Read in context, Rom.阅读背景下,光盘。1 and 2 teach that the pagan's natural knowledge of God is distorted and turned only to his judgment, in no way to the reasonable deduction of theological truths. 1和2教的异教的神的自然知识,是扭曲的,转身对他的判决只有在没有合理的神学真理演绎方式。Second, and perhaps most importantly, natural theology effectively exempts human reason from the fall and the effects of original sin.其次,也许是最重要的是,自然神学有效豁免人类理性从秋季和原罪的影响。Man's reason is now as perverse as any of his other faculties and therefore is not capable, apart from God's gracious intervention, of finding its way back to God and truly knowing him.人的理由是现在像他的其他院系的任何不正当,因此是没有能力,除了上帝的仁慈干预的方式找到回神,真正了解他。This point, which involves quite different anthropological views, will doubtless continue to divide Protestants and Catholics.这一点,它涉及到完全不同的人类学的观点,无疑将继续分化新教徒和天主教徒。Third, conceding the knowledge of God arrived at by pagan philosophers (his being, invisibility, omnipotence, etc.), Protestants object that this is wholly abstract and worthless.第三,承认上帝的知识时,可以异教的哲学家(他是,隐形,全能等),新教徒的对象,这是完全抽象的,不值钱。 This Supreme Being has little to do with the God of judgment and mercy, of righteousness and love, revealed all through Scripture and preeminently in Jesus Christ.这至高无上的关系不大的判断和怜悯的神,正义和爱,全部通过圣经和preeminently在耶稣基督显现出来。When Protestants retain descriptions of God's attributes, as they often have at the beginning of formal theologies, they argue and illustrate them from Scripture, not from philosophical discourse.当新教徒保留神的属性的描述,因为他们往往​​在正式的神学已经开始,并说明他们认为他们从圣经,从哲学的话语不是。

In modern times the impact of the Enlightenment drove both Catholic and Protestant thinkers to reduce the supernatural, miraculous elements and to construct a "natural theology" open to reason and common to all men.在近代启蒙运动的影响,驱车两个天主教和新教的思想家,以减少超自然,神奇的元素,构造一个“自然神学”开放的原因,共同对所有的人。 Kant rejected all proofs for the existence of God and sought to place religion "within the bounds of reason."康德拒绝上帝存在的证明,并要求所有的地方宗教“内情理之中。”This more liberal form of natural theology became very common in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries: the famous Gifford Lectures, for instance, are supposed to promote "Natural Theology."这种自然神学更自由的形式变得非常普遍,十八,十九世纪:著名的吉福德讲座,比如,应该提倡“自然神学”。Scottish commonsense realism may represent a unique effort to blend philosophy with fairly orthodox Christianity, but in general the miraculous grace of God had disappeared from these forms of theology.苏格兰常识现实可能代表了独特的努力,以融入相当正统基督教哲学,但在一般的神的恩典了奇迹般的从神学这些形式消失了。

In the twentieth century the so-called dialectical theologians vigorously objected against theologies which glossed over the radical intervention of God through Jesus Christ and his Word.在二十世纪的所谓的辩证神学家大力反对而反对神学对神通过耶稣基督和他的话语掩盖激进的干预。 Karl Barth in particular saw such natural religion as the great foe of true faith and rejected the Catholic "analogy of being" as an unwarranted jump (rather than deduction) from creation to Creator.卡尔尤其是巴特认为这是真正的信仰伟大的敌人这样的自然宗教和拒绝天主教作为一个莫须有跳从创建到造物主(而非扣除)“被比喻”。 Several others in turn, especially Emil Brunner, objected that Barth's exclusive emphasis upon Christ and the Word denied the reality of God's "general revelation" of himself in creation and especially human creatures, his image-bearers, something attested in Scripture.几个人在转,尤其是埃米尔布伦纳,反对说,巴特的基督和Word后,强调否认独家创作,特别是人类的生物现实的上帝的“普遍启示”的自己,他的形象承担者,这在圣经证明。

In recent times natural theology has received comparatively little attention apart from a few Catholic philosophers.在最近的时代自然神学已收到相对很少注意除了少数天主教哲学家。One interesting and related development has occured in the field of the history of religions.一个有趣的和相关的发展发生在宗教史领域。Certain such historians (especially G. van der Leeuw and M. Eliade) have discovered patterns of religious belief and practice (a High God, a fall from a past Golden Age, various salvation motifs, etc.) which do not make up a natural theology in the traditional sense, but which they believe could yield an instructive prolegomenon to the study of Christian theology.某些(尤其是G.范德莱乌和M.伊利亚德)等历史学家发现了宗教信仰和实践(高上帝,从过去的黄金时代下降,各种救亡图案等)的模式,不以一个自然神学传统意义上的,但他们认为可能产生一个启发绪论的基督教神学研究。

J Van EngenJ凡恩根
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 参考书目
LTK, VII, 811-17; RGG, IV, 1322-29; NCE, XIV, 61-64; M. Holloway, An Introduction to Natural Theology; G. Berkouwer, General Revelation; R. McInerny and A. Plantinga in the Proceedings of the American Catholic Philosophical Association, 1981.乐庭,七,811-17; RGG,IV,1322年至1329年; NCE,十四,61-64; M.霍洛威,对自然神学导言;,一般启示G. Berkouwer; R. McInerny和A.普兰廷卡在美国天主教哲学学会论文集,1981。



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