Nominalism唯名论

General Information一般资料

Nominalism is the designation usually applied to any philosophical system, ancient or modern, that denies all objectivity, whether actual or potential, to universals; in other words, nominalists grant no universality to mental concepts outside the mind.唯名通常适用于任何哲学体系,是古代还是现代,不论是实际的或潜在的否认,以普遍性的客观性,指定,换句话说,nominalists授予没有普遍性以外的头脑思想观念。 In this sense, the philosophical systems of Epicurus, William of Occam, George Berkeley, David Hume, John Stuart Mill, and of contemporary linguistic analysis may be called nominalistic in that they attribute universality only to words (nomina), mental habits, or concepts and maintain the objective existence only of the concrete, individual thing.在这个意义上说,伊壁鸠鲁的哲学系统,奥卡姆,乔治伯克利分校,大卫休谟,穆勒,以及当代语言分析威廉可称为唯名属性的普遍性,因为它们只字(nomina),心理习惯,或概念和维护的唯一具体,个别事物的客观存在。 Nominalism is simultaneously opposed to the philosophical idealism of Plato and to the moderate realism of Aristotle and Saint Thomas Aquinas.唯名是同时反对唯心主义哲学和柏拉图,亚里士多德和圣托马斯阿奎那温和的现实主义。The principal objection of nominalists is to the attribution of objective existence to ideas formally as they exist in the mind and fundamentally (or potentially) as they exist in particulars having some similarity to each other in any given class or species.反对的nominalists主要是客观存在的归属地想法,因为他们正式在头脑中存在,从根本上(或可能),因为他们在有一些在任何特定的类或种彼此相似详情存在。

BELIEVE Religious Information Source web-site相信宗教信息来源
BELIEVE Religious Information Source相信宗教信息来源
Our List of 2,300 Religious Subjects

我们2300 宗教科目名单
E-mail电子邮件
James A. Weisheipl詹姆斯A Weisheipl

Bibliography 参考书目
Carre, Meyrick H., Realists and Nominalists (1961); Field, Hartrey, Science without Numbers: Nominalism Revisited (1980); Goodman, Nelson, and Bochenski, Innocentius, eds., The Problem of Universals, A Symposium (1956); Van Iten, R., ed., The Problem of Universals (1970); Veatch, H., Realism and Nominalism Revisited (1954).家乐,蛾H.,现实主义者和Nominalists(1961年);领域,没有数字科学Hartrey:唯名再访(1980年);古德曼,纳尔逊和Bochenski,Innocentius合编,对共性问题,研讨会(1956年);凡Iten,R.,教育署,共性问题(1970年); Veatch公司,H.,现实主义和唯名探(1954)。


Nominalism唯名论

General Information一般资料

Nominalism (Latin nominalis,"of or pertaining to names"), in medieval Scholastic philosophy, doctrine stating that abstractions, known as universals, are without essential or substantive reality, and that only individual objects have real existence.唯名(拉丁语nominalis“或有关名称”),在中世纪士林哲学,抽象主义指出,由于众所周知普遍性,没有必要的或实质性的现实是,只有个别的对象有真正的存在。 These universals, such as animal, nation, beauty, circle, were held to be mere names, hence the term nominalism.如动物,民族,美的,圆这些共性,被认为是单纯的名称,因此称为唯名。For example, the name circle is applied to things that are round and is thus a general designation; but no concrete identity with a separate essence of roundness exists corresponding to the name. The nominalistic doctrine is opposed to the philosophical theory called extreme realism (see Realism), according to which universals have a real and independent existence prior to and apart from particular objects.例如,该名称圈应用到的东西是圆的,因此是一个统称,但任何一个单独的圆度存在本质的具体身份所对应的名称的唯名主义是反对极端现实主义的哲学理论称为 (见。现实主义),根据这一共性有一个真正的,独立的存在,除了之前和特定对象。

Nominalism evolved from the thesis of Aristotle that all reality consists of individual things; the extreme theory of realism was first enunciated by Plato in his doctrine of universal archetypal ideas.唯名演变从亚里士多德的论断,所有个别事物组成的现实,现实主义的极端理论最早是由柏拉图在阐述他的思想学说普遍原型。 The nominalist-realist controversy became prominent in the late 11th and 12th centuries, the nominalist position being expounded by the Scholastic Roscelin, and the realist by the Scholastics Bernard of Chartres and William of Champeaux.而唯名论现实主义的争论成为11年代末和12世纪突出,唯名的位置被阐述的学术罗瑟兰和现实主义由沙特尔和威廉Champeaux院哲学家伯纳德。

The issue between nominalism and realism was not only philosophical but also theological, for Roscelin maintained that the Trinity (Father, Son, and Holy Spirit), conceived in the traditional theology of the church as constituting a unity of one divine nature, cannot be understood, according to the individualizing method of nominalism, except as three distinct and separate gods, a doctrine known as tritheism. The church was therefore irreconcilably opposed to nominalism.之间的唯名论和现实问题,不仅哲学,而且神学为罗瑟兰,认为三位一体(圣父,圣子和圣灵),在教会的传统神学视为构成了一个神圣性的统一,不能被理解据唯名个体化的方法除三个不同的和独立的神,作为三神论着称的学说因此,不可调和的教会反对唯名。 The implications for ethics were also far-reaching.对道德的影响也深远。If there is no common nature for all individuals, then there is no "natural law" that governs all people; actions are morally right or wrong only because they are commanded or forbidden by God.如果没有对所有个人的共同性质,那么就没有“自然法”的规管所有的人,行动在道德上是对还是错,只是因为他们是神的命令或禁止。

A theory intermediate between nominalism and realism is that of conceptualism, in which universals, although they have no real or substantive existence in the external world, do exist as ideas or concepts in the mind and are thus something more than mere names.一个理论和现实之间的唯名中间的是, 概念论,其中共性,虽然他们没有在外部世界的真实的或实质性的存在,确实存在的想法或概念在脑子里的东西,因而比单纯的名字了。Another alternative theory is moderate realism, which locates universals in the mind but also admits a real basis in particular objects.另一种方法是温和的现实主义理论它座落在脑海共性,但也承认,在特定对象的真正基础。 The defense of nominalism undertaken by the 14th-century English Scholastic philosopher William of Ockham prepared the way for various modern nominalistic theories such as those of instrumentalism, pragmatism, semantics, and logical positivism.而唯名防御14世纪英国哲学家威廉的奥康学业准备进行各种现代唯名论者,如工具主义,实用主义,语义和逻辑实证主义的方法。


Nominalism唯名论

Advanced Information先进的信息

Nominalism is the theory of knowledge that maintains that "universals" (general concepts representing the common elements belonging to individuals of the same genus or species) are empty concepts that have no reality independent of their existence in the thought of an individual.唯名是知识的理论,认为“共相”(即属于同一属或种个人共同要素的一般概念)是有没有一个人的思想现实的独立存在空洞的概念。 In contrast to Platonic realism, which held that universals had a separate existence apart from the individual object, nominalism insisted that reality was found only in the objects themselves.相对于柏拉图的现实主义,认为普遍性有一个单独的存在,除了个别的对象,唯名论坚持认为,现实是只有在发现自己的对象。 This debate on universals, found in Porphyry's Isagogue, caused great controversy during the Middle Ages.这在斑岩的Isagogue发现共性,辩论,在中世纪引起很大的争议。Roscellinus of Compiegne, a teacher and priest in Brittany in the eleventh century, has been called the father of nominalism because he argued that universals are derived from one's observation of individuals and that concepts of genus and species are just abstractions. Roscellinus的贡比涅,老师和布列塔尼神父在十一世纪,被称为的唯名父亲,因为他认为,从一个普遍性的个人观察所得和属的概念和种类都只是抽象。 This affected his theology, because it led him to the belief that "God" was no more than a word, an empty abstraction, and that the divine reality was actually found in the three individuals of the Godhead.这影响了他的神学,因为它使他相信,“上帝”没有比一个字,一个空洞的抽象,而神圣的现实,实际上在神的三个人发现了更多。 He was condemned by the Synod of Soissons (1092) for holding to tritheism.他谴责了苏瓦松主教会议(1092)举行,以三神论。

In the fourteenth century William of Ockham devised a nominalistic system of theology based on his belief that universals were only a convenience of the human mind.在十四世纪的奥康威廉设计了一个神学唯名系统,他认为共相只是一个方便的人的心灵。According to this view, the fact of a resemblance between two individuals does not necessitate a common attribute; the universals one forms in his mind more likely reflect one's own purposes rather than the character of reality.根据这种观点,在两个人之间的相似性其实并不需要一个共同的属性;的共性之一,他的脑海形式更可能反映比现实人物自己的目的而。 This led William to question scholastic arguments built upon such abstractions.这导致威廉质疑建院后,这样的抽象争论。As he argues in his Centilogium, systematization of theology must be rejected, for theology can ultimately be based only on faith and not on fact.正如他在他的Centilogium认为,系统化的神学必须拒绝,神学才能最终只能在信仰和没有事实根据。Therefore, through grace and not knowledge, he accepted the teachings of the Roman Catholic Church, bowed to the authority of the pope, and declared the authority of Scripture.因此,通过优雅和不认识,他接受了罗马天主教的教义,拜倒在教皇的权威,并宣布了圣经的权威。His follower, Gabriel Biel, would carry his thought to its logical conclusion and declare that reason could neither demonstrate that God was the First Cause of the universe nor make a distinction between the attributes of God, including God's intellect and will.他的追随者,加布里埃尔比尔,将进行他认为其合乎逻辑的结论,并宣布因此既不能证明上帝是宇宙的第一原因,也使神之间的属性,包括神的智慧,将区别。 The reality of the Trinity, as well as any theological dogma, can be found only in the realm of faith, not in the realm of reason.三位一体的现实,以及任何神学教条,可以发现只有在信仰的领域,而不是在理性的境界。This was diametrically opposed to the natural theology of medieval scholasticism.这是针锋相对的中世纪经院哲学自然神学。

Nominalism continued to have an effect on theology.唯名继续有一个神学的影响。Its influence can be discerned in the writings of David Hume and John Stuart Mill.它的影响可以看出端倪的大卫休谟和穆勒的著作。

DA Rausch DA Rausch
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary)(Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 参考书目
DM Armstrong, Universals and Scientific Realism: Nominalism and Realism, I; FJ Copleston, History of Philosophy, III; RA Eberle, Nominalistic Systems; R. Seeberg, Text-book of the History of Doctrines, II.马克阿姆斯特朗,共性和科学实在论:唯名论和现实主义,我; FJ Copleston,哲学史,三; RA埃贝勒,唯名系统; R. Seeberg,对教义的历史教科书,II。


Nominalism, Realism, Conceptualism唯名论,现实主义,概念论

Catholic Information天主教信息

These terms are used to designate the theories that have been proposed as solutions of one of the most important questions in philosophy, often referred to as the problem of universals, which, while it was a favourite subject for discussion in ancient times, and especially in the Middle Ages, is still prominent in modern and contemporary philosophy.这些术语是用来指定已作为在哲学中最重要的问题之一解决办法提出的理论,通常被称为的普遍性,这虽然是一个古代的讨论喜欢的话题,尤其是在问题中世纪,仍然突出,在现代和当代哲学。 We propose to discuss in this article:我们建议在本文中讨论:

I. The Nature of the Problem and the Suggested Solutions;一,问题的性质和建议的解决方案;

II. II。The Principal Historic Forms of Nominalism, Realism, and Conceptualism;而唯名论,现实主义,历史和概念论的主要形式;

III. III。The Claims of Moderate Realism.适度现实主义的诉讼请求。

I. THE PROBLEM AND THE SUGGESTED SOLUTIONS一,问题和建议的解决方案

The problem of universals is the problem of the correspondence of our intellectual concepts to things existing outside our intellect.对共性问题是对我们知识产权的概念对应的东西不在我们的理智存在的问题。Whereas external objects are determinate, individual, formally exclusive of all multiplicity, our concepts or mental representations offer us the realities independent of all particular determination; they are abstract and universal.而外部对象是确定的,个别的,正式独家所有多重,我们的观念或精神表述为我们提供了现实的一切特别的决心独立的,它们是抽象的和普遍的。 The question, therefore, is to discover to what extent the concepts of the mind correspond to the things they represent; how the flower we conceive represents the flower existing in nature; in a word, whether our ideas are faithful and have an objective reality.现在的问题,因此,是发现到什么程度心灵的概念相对应的事情,他们表示,如何花我们想象中的花代表着自然界中存在,在一个字,无论我们的想法是忠实和有一个客观的现实。

Four solutions of the problem have been offered.四个问题的解决方案已经提出。It is necessary to describe them carefully, as writers do not always use the terms in the same sense.有必要仔细描述,作为作家并不总是在同一意义上使用的条款。

A. Exaggerated RealismA.夸张的现实主义

Exaggerated Realism holds that there are universal concepts in the mind and universal things in nature.夸张的现实主义认为,在自然界中存在的思想和普遍的事物的普遍概念。There is, therefore, a strict parallelism between the being in nature and the being in thought, since the external object is clothed with the same character of universality that we discover in the concept.还有就是,因此,两者之间在本质上和思想上受到严格的并行,因为外部对象与普遍性,我们发现同一性质的概念衣服。 This is a simple solution, but one that runs counter to the dictates of common sense.这是一个简单的解决方案,而是一个违背常理的使然。

B. NominalismB.唯名

Exaggerated Realism invents a world of reality corresponding exactly to the attributes of the world of thought.夸张的现实主义对现实世界的发明完全对应的思想世界的属性。Nominalism, on the contrary, models the concept on the external object, which it holds to be individual and particular.唯名论,相反,在外部对象模型,它认为是个别的和特殊的概念。Nominalism consequently denies the existence of abstract and universal concepts, and refuses to admit that the intellect has the power of engendering them.唯名因而否认抽象和普遍概念的存在,并拒绝承认,智力已编发了他们力量。What are called general ideas are only names, mere verbal designations, serving as labels for a collection of things or a series of particular events.什么是所谓的总体思路是只有名字,只是口头指定,作为一个事物的集合或特定事件系列标签服务。Hence the term Nominalism.因此,长期唯名。Neither Exaggerated Realism nor Nominalism finds any difficulty in establishing a correspondence between the thing in thought and the thing existing in nature, since in different ways, they both postulate perfect harmony between the two.既不夸大,也不唯名发现任何现实主义之间建立在思想和事情在自然界中存在的东西函授困难,因为在不同的方式,它们都假定两者之间的完美和谐。 The real difficulty appears when we assign different attributes to the thing in nature and to the thing in thought; if we hold that the one is individual and the other universal.真正的困难出现时,我们分配不同的属性,在自然的事情,并在思想的东西,如果我们认为,一个是个人和其他普遍的。 An antinomy then arises between the world of reality and world as represented in the mind, and we are led to inquire how the general notion of flower conceived by the mind is applicable to the particular and determinate flowers of nature.随之出现的矛盾之间的现实,作为代表世界在头脑中的世界,我们都导致了询问如何花一般概念的头脑构思是适用于特定的性质和确定的花朵。

C. ConceptualismC.概念论

Conceptualism admits the existence within us of abstract and universal concepts (whence its name), but it holds that we do not know whether or not the mental objects have any foundation outside our minds or whether in nature the individual objects possess distributively and each by itself the realities which we conceive as realized in each of them.概念论承认,在我们的抽象和普遍的概念(何处它的名字)的存在,但它认为,我们不知道是否有任何外来的精神对象的基础,还是我们的头脑中自然的各个对象本身具有distributively和各的现实,我们设想在他们每个人实现。 The concepts have an ideal value; they have no real value, or at least we do not know whether they have a real value.的概念有一个理想的价值,他们有没有真正的价值,或者至少我们不知道他们是否有真正的价值。

D. Moderate RealismD.温和的现实主义

Moderate Realism, finally, declares that there are universal concepts representing faithfully realities that are not universal.温和的现实主义,最后,宣称有代表忠实现实,不是普遍的普遍概念。

How can there be harmony between the former and the latter?如何能有和谐的前者和后者?The latter are particular, but we have the power of representing them to ourselves abstractly.后者是特定的,但我们有他们自己的代表抽象的权力。Now the abstract type, when the intellect considers it reflectively and contrasts it with the particular subjects in which it is realized or capable of being realized, is attributable indifferently to any and all of them.现在的抽象类型,当它反射的理智考虑和对比的,其中已实现或正在实现它能够特定主题,是因为漠然的任何及所有这些。This applicability of the abstract type to the individuals is its universality.这种抽象类型适用于个人是其普遍性。(Mercier, "Critériologie", Louvain, 1906, p. 343).(名士,“Critériologie”,鲁汶,1906年,第343页)。

II. II。THE PRINCIPAL HISTORICAL FORMS OF NOMINALISM, REALISM, AND CONCEPTUALISM而唯名论,现实主义,概念论主要历史形态

A. In Greek Philosophy答:在希腊哲学

The conciliation of the one and the many, the changing and the permanent, was a favourite problem with the Greeks; it leads to the problem of universals.在一个和许多人来说,不断变化的调解和永久的,是与希腊人喜欢的问题,它导致了普遍性的问题。The typical affirmation of Exaggerated Realism, the most outspoken ever made, appears in Plato's philosophy; the real must possess the attributes of necessity, universality, unity, and immutability which are found in our intellectual representations.夸张的现实主义典型的肯定,有史以来最直言不讳,出现在柏拉图的哲学,真正的必须具备的必要性,普遍性,团结,这是不可改变交涉发现在我们的智力的属性。 And as the sensible world contains only the contingent, the particular, the unstable, it follows that the real exists outside and above the sensible world.而作为世界上只包含合理的队伍,特别是不稳定的,它遵循,真正存在的外部及以上合理的世界。Plato calls it eîdos, idea.柏拉图称之为理式,想法。The idea is absolutely stable and exists by itself (óntos ón; autá kath' autá), isolated from the phenomenal world, distinct from the Divine and human intellect.这个想法是绝对稳定和存在本身(óntos上; autá凯丝“autá),从现象世界隔绝,从神和人的智力明显。 Following logically the directive principles of his Realism, Plato makes an idea entity correspond to each of our abstract representations.继他的现实主义逻辑的指导原则,柏拉图使一个想法实体对应于我们的每一个抽象的陈述。 Not only natural species (man, horse) but artificial products (bed), not only substances (man) but properties (white, just), relations (double, triple), and even negations and nothingness have a corresponding idea in the suprasensible world.不仅天然物种(人,马),但人工制品(床),不仅物质(人),但性能(白,刚),关系(双,三),甚至否定和虚无有一个相应的suprasensible世界理念。 "What makes one and one two, is a participation of the dyad (dúas), and what makes one one is a participation of monad (mónas)in unity" (Phædo, lxix). “是什么让一加一两个,是一个二分体(杜阿斯)的参与,是什么让一个个的单子(莫纳斯)团结参与”(斐多篇,lxix)。The exaggerated Realism of Plato, investing the real being with the attributes of the being in thought, is the principal doctrine of his metaphysics.夸张的现实主义的柏拉图,投资的实际,在思想与作为属性,但有他的形而上学的主要学说。

Aristotle broke away from these exaggerated views of his master and formulated the main doctrines of Moderate Realism.亚里士多德脱离他的掌握这些夸张的意见,并制定了温和的现实主义的主要理论。 The real is not, as Plato says, some vague entity of which the sensible world is only the shadow; it dwells in the midst of the sensible world.真正的并非如柏拉图说,一些模糊的实体,其中明智的世界只有影子,它在合理的世界中dwells。Individual substance (this man, that horse) alone has reality; it alone can exist.个人物质(这个人,那马)就有现实,它可以单独存在。The universal is not a thing in itself; it is immanent in individuals and is multiplied in all the representatives of a class.通用是不是事情本身,它是个体内在的,是在所有的一类代表成倍增加。As to the form of universality of our concepts (man, just), it is a product of our subjective consideration.至于我们的概念普遍性的形式(男人,只),它是一种主观的考虑产品。The objects of our generic and specific representations can certainly be called substances (ousíai), when they designate the fundamental reality (man) with the accidental determinations (just, big); but these are deúterai ousíai (second substances), and by that Aristotle means precisely that this attribute of universality which affects the substance as in thought does not belong to the substance (thing in itself); it is the outcome of our subjective elaboration.我们一般和具体交涉的对象当然可以被称为物质(ousíai),当他们指定的(只,大)意外裁定的基本事实(人),但这些都是deúterai ousíai(第二物质),以及亚里士多德意味着正是这种普遍性的影响,如认为该物质的属性不属于物质(自在之物),它是我们的主观制定的结果。 This theorem of Aristotle, which completes the metaphysics of Heraclitus (denial of permanent) by means of that of Parmenides (denial of change), is the antithesis of Platonism, and may be considered one of the finest pronouncements of Peripateticism.这亚里士多德,它完成了对巴门尼德(变化拒绝),这意味着对赫拉克利特(永久拒绝)形而上学,定理是柏拉图的对立面,并可能被认为是最优秀的逍遥声明之一。 It was through this wise doctrine that the Stagyrite exercised his ascendency over all later thought.正是通过这一明智学说认为Stagyrite行使对所有后来认为他的优越。

After Aristotle Greek philosophy formulated a third answer to the problem of universals, Conceptualism.后制定了亚里士多德希腊哲学的共性,概念论问题的第三个答案。This solution appears in the teaching of the Stoics, which, as is known, ranks with Platonism and Aristoteleanism among the three original systems of the great philosophic age of the Greeks.此解决方案出现在斯多葛,其中,众所周知,与柏拉图主义和之间的三个伟大的希腊哲学时代原有系统Aristoteleanism教学行列。 Sensation is the principle of all knowledge, and thought is only a collective sensation.感觉是一切知识的原则,并认为只有集体的感觉。Zeno compared sensation to an open hand with the fingers separated; experience or multiple sensation to the open hand with the fingers bent; the general concept born of experience to the closed fist.芝诺相比,感觉一个开放的手用手指分开;经验或多种感觉与手指的张开手弯曲,一般概念的经验,封闭的拳头诞生。Now, concepts, reduced to general sensations, have as their object, not the corporeal and external thing reached by the senses (túgchanon), but the lektóon or the reality conceived; whether this has any real value we do not know.现在,观念,减少一般的感觉,作为他们的对象,而不是有形的和外在的东西的感觉(túgchanon)达到,但lektóon或现实设想,这是否有任何真正的价值,我们不知道。 The Aristotelean School adopted Aristotelean Realism, but the neo-Platonists subscribed to the Platonic theory of ideas which they transformed into an emanationistic and monistic concepton of the universe.亚里士多德亚里士多德的学校采取现实主义的,但新柏拉图主义者签署的想法,他们成为了宇宙emanationistic和一元论concepton转化柏拉图的理论。

B. In the Philosophy of the Middle AgesB.在中世纪的哲学

For a long time it was thought that the problem of universals monopolized the attention of the philosophers of the Middle Ages, and that the dispute of the Nominalists and Realists absorbed all their energies.长期以来人们认为的共性问题,垄断了中世纪的哲学家的关注,并认为该Nominalists和现实主义者争议吸收所有的能量。 In reality that question, although prominent in the Middle Ages, was far from being the only one dealt with by these philosophers.在现实的问题,虽然在中世纪突出,远不是唯一一个处理这些哲学家了。

(1) From the commencement of the Middle Ages till the end of the 12th century.--It is impossible to classify the philosophers of the beginning of the Middle Ages exactly as Nominalists, Moderate and Exaggerated Realists, or Conceptualists. (1)从直到12世纪结束.--中世纪开始进行分类,是不可能的中世纪完全一样开始哲学家Nominalists,中度和夸张的现实主义者,或Conceptualists。 And the reason is that the problem of the Universals is very complex.而其原因是,该共性问题是非常复杂的。It not merely involves the metaphysics of the individual and of the universal, but also raises important questions in ideology--questions about the genesis and validity of knowledge.它不仅涉及到个人和形而上学的普遍性,但也提出了重要问题在意识形态 - 关于起源和知识的有效性问题。But the earlier Scholastics, unskilled in such delicate matters, did not perceive these various aspects of the problem.但是早期的经院哲学家,在这种微妙的问题不熟练,没有感知这些问题的各个方面。It did not grow up spontaneously in the Middle Ages; it was bequeathed in a text of porphyry's "Isagoge", a text that seemed simple and innocent, though somewhat obscure, but one which force of circumstances made the necessary starting-point of the earliest medieval speculations about the Universals.它没有长大自发在中世纪,它是留给在一个斑岩的“Isagoge”一文,似乎简单的和无辜的文字,虽然有些模糊,但有哪些情况下发力最早的必要起点对共性中世纪揣测。

Porphyry divides the problem into three parts:斑岩分为三部分问题:

Do genera and species exist in nature, or do they consist in mere products of the intellect?不要属,种在自然界存在的,还是他们只是在智力产品构成?

If they are things apart from the mind, are they coporeal or incorporeal things?如果他们的东西从头脑外,他们coporeal的或无形的东西呢?

Do they exist outside the (individual) things of sense, or are they realized in the latter?难道他们存在的意义外(个人)的东西,或者是他们在后实现的?

"Mox de generibus et speciebus illud quidem sive subsistant sive in nudis intelluctibus posita sint, sive subsistentia corporalia sint an incorporalia, et utrum separata a senaibilibus an in sensibilibus posita er circa haec subsistentia, decere recusabo."“混合氧化物燃料DE generibus等speciebus illud quidem sive在nudis intelluctibus posita SINT,sive subsistentia corporalia SINT an incorporalia,subsistant sive等utrum粘虫a senaibilibus在sensibilibus posita呃大约haec subsistentia,decere recusabo一个。”Historically, the first of those questions was discussed prior to the others: the latter could have arisen only in the event of denying an exclusively subjective character to universal realities.历史上,第一次是讨论这些问题之前,其他:后者可能只有在否定完全属于主观性质的普遍现实的事件发生。Now the first question was whether genera and species are objective realities or not: sive subsistant, sive in nudis intellectibus posita sint?现在,第一个问题是,是否属和种是客观的现实与否:sive subsistant,在nudis intellectibus posita SINT sive?In other words, the sole point in debate was the absolute reality of the universals: their truth, their relation to the understanding, was not in question.换句话说,在辩论中唯一的一点是绝对现实的共性:他们的道理,他们的关系的理解,是不是有问题。The text from Porphyry, apart from the solution he elsewhere proposed in works unknown to the early Scholastics, is an inadequate statement of the question; for it takes account only of the objective aspect and neglects the psychological standpoint which alone can give the key to the true solution.从斑岩,除了他提出的解决方案,其他文字作品未知的早期院哲学家,是一个不足的问题发言;它需要考虑的只是客观方面,忽视心理的角度来看只有这样才能给关键真正的解决方案。 Moreover, Porphyry, after proposing his triple interrogation in the "Isagoge", refuses to offer an answer (dicere recusabo).此外,斑岩,后提出的“Isagoge”他的三重审讯,拒绝提供答案(dicere recusabo)。Boëthius, in his two commentaries, gives replies that are vague and scarecely consistent.波爱修斯,在他的两篇评论,给的答复是含糊和scarecely一致。In the second comentary, which is the more important one, he holds that genera and species are both subsistentia and intellecta (1st question), the similarity of things being the basis (subjectum) both of their individuality in nature and their universality in the mind: that genera and species are incorporeal not by nature but by abstraction (2nd question), and that they exist both inside and outside the things of sense (3rd question).在第二comentary,这是更重要的之一,他认为属,种都subsistentia和intellecta(第1题),被他们的个性无论在自然和心灵的普遍性的基础(subjectum)相似的东西:即不属,种的性质,而是由抽象(第二题),它们存在的内外意义的东西(第三题)无形的。

This was not sufficiently clear for beginners, though we can see in it the basis of the Aristotlean solution of the problem.这是对初学者不够明确,虽然我们可以在这看到了问题的Aristotlean解决方案的基础。The early Scholastics faced the problem as proposed by Porphyry: limiting the controversy to genera and species, and its solutions to the altenatives suggested by the first question: Do objects of concepts (ie, genera and species) exist in nature (subsistentia), or are they mere abstractions (nuda intelecta)?早期的经院哲学家所面临的问题,由斑岩提出:限制向属和种的争议,其解决方案的第一个问题建议altenatives:执行的概念对象(即属,种)在自然界存在(subsistentia),或是他们(光壳intelecta)仅仅抽象? Are they, or are they not, things?是他们,还是他们没有,事情?Those who replied in the affirmative got the name of Reals or Realists; the others that of Nominals or Nominalists.这些谁在得到了肯定的回答雷亚尔或现实主义者名,其余的名词或Nominalists的。The former or the Realist, more numerous in the early Middle Ages (Fredugisus, Rémy d'Auxerre, and John Scotus Eriugena in the ninth century, Gerbert and Odo of Tournai in the Tenth, and William of Chapeaux in the twelfth) attribute to each species a universal essence (subsistentia), to which all the subordinate individuals are tributary.前者或写实,更在众多的中世纪早期(Fredugisus,雷米D'欧塞尔,约翰司各脱Eriugena在第九世纪,格伯特和小户的图尔奈在第十,第十二和威廉的开头语)属性,以每个物种的普遍本质(subsistentia),这是所有的下属个人的支流。 The Nominalists, who should be called rather the anti-Realists, assert on the contrary that the individual alone exists, and that the universals are not things realized in the universal state in nature, or subsistentia.该Nominalists,谁应该叫而反现实主义者,断言相反,个人单独存在,而不是普遍性的具有普遍性的状态,或subsistentia实现的东西。 And as they adopt the alternative of Porphyry, they conclude that the universals are nuda intellecta (that is, purely intellectual representations).而他们采用斑岩替代,他们得出结论认为,共性是光壳intellecta(即纯粹的智力表示)。

It may be that Roscelin of Compiègne did not go beyond these energetic protest against Realism, and that he is not a Nominalist in the exact sense we have attributed to the word above, for we have to depend on others for an expression of his views, as there is extant no text of his which would justify us in saying that he denied the intellect the power of forming general concepts, distinct in their nature from sensation.这可能是对贡比涅罗瑟兰没有超越这些充满活力的对现实主义的抗议,他是不是一个确切的意义上,我们都归结为一句话唯名以上,因为我们要依靠他人表达了他的看法,因为他是现存文字没有将他辩解说,否定了理智的形成一般概念,其性质不同于我们感觉力量。 Indeed, it is difficult to comprehend how Nominalism could exist at all in the Middle Ages, as it is possible only in a sensist philosophy that denies all natural distinction between sensation and the intellectual concept.事实上,这是很难理解,为什么唯名可能存在于所有在中世纪,因为它可能只在sensist哲学,否认之间的所有感觉和智力的概念自然的区别。 Futhermore there is little evidence of Sensism in the Middle Ages, and, as Sensism and Scholasticism, so also Nominalism and Scholasticism are mutually exclusive.此外,还有的在中世纪Sensism什么证据,而且,随着Sensism和士林,所以也唯名论和士林是并行不悖的。 The different anti-Realist system anterior to the thirteenth century are in fact only more or less imperfect forms of the Moderate Realism towards which efforts of the first period were tending, phases through which the same idea passed in its organic evolution.不同的反现实主义制度前的十三世纪,实际上只是或多或少不完善的温和现实主义的形式对其中的第一个时期的努力抚育,通过这些同样的想法通过其生物进化阶段。 These stages are numerous, and several have been studied in recent monograph (eg the doctrine of Adélard of Bath, of Gauthier de Mortagne, Indifferentism, and the theory of the collectio).这些阶段是很多,和几个已经在最近的研究专着(如巴斯主义Adélard,戈捷德Mortagne,Indifferentism,以及collectio理论)。 The decisive stage is marked by Abélard, (1079-1142), who points out clearly the role abstraction, and how we represent to ourselves elements common to different things, capable of realization in an indefinite number of individuals of the same species, while the individual alone exists.决战阶段的特点是阿贝拉尔(1079年至1142年),谁明确指出抽象的作用,以及如何对自己所代表的不同元素共同的东西,在一个同种个体数量不定能够实现,而个人单独存在。 From that to Moderate Realism there is but a step; it was sufficient to show that a real fundamentum allows us to attribute the general represention to individual thing.从现实主义,要适度,但有一个步骤,它足以表明,一个真正的fundamentum使我们能够属性一般represention个人的事情。 It is impossibe to say who was the first in the twelfth century to develop the theory in its entirety.这是impossibe说谁是在第十二世纪的第一个开发的全部理论。Moderate Realism appears fully in the writing of John of Salisbury.温和的现实主义似乎完全在索尔兹伯里的约翰写作。

C. From the thirteenth CenturyC.从13世纪

In the thirteenth century all the great Scholastics solved the problem of the universals by the theory of Moderate Realism (Thomas Aquinas, Bonaventure, Duns Scotus), and are thus in accord with Averroes and Avicenna, the great Arab commentators of Aristotle, whose works hasd recently passed into circulation by means of tranlations.在十三世纪所有伟大的经院哲​​学家解决了温和的现实主义理论(托马斯阿奎那,文德,邓司各脱)的共性问题,并在与阿威罗伊和阿维森纳,亚里士多德的伟大的阿拉伯评论家,其作品hasd符合从而最近通过由tranlations进入流通的手段。 St. Thomas formulates the doctrine of Moderate Realism in precise language, and for that reason alone we can give the name of Thomistic Realism to this doctrine (see below).圣托马斯制定了精确的语言温和的现实主义学说,并为这个唯一的原因,我们可以给Thomistic现实主义这一学说的名称(见下文)。 With William of Occam and the Terminist School appear the strictly conceptualist solution of the problem.随着奥卡姆的威廉和Terminist学校出现问题的严格概念论的解决方案。The abstract and universal concept is a sign (signum), also called a term (terminus; hence the name Terminism given to the system), but it has no real value, for the absract and the universl do not exist in any way in nature and have no fundamentum outside the mind.抽象和普遍的概念是一个符号(正负号),也称为一个名词(总站;故名Terminism给系统),但它为absract和universl没有真正的价值,不存在任何性质的方式并没有心外fundamentum。 The universal concept (intentio secunda) has as it object internal representations, formed by the understanding, to which nothing external corresponding can be attributed.通用概念(intentio塞康达)作为它的对象的内部表示,由认识形成的,对此没有相应的外部可以归因。 The role of the universals is to serve as a label, to hold the place (supponere) in the mind of multitude of things which it can be attributed.的共性作用是作为一个标签,在举行了它可以归结千头万绪头脑的地方(supponere)。Occam's Conceptualism would be frankly subjectivistic, if, together with the abstract concepts which reach the individual thing, as it exists in nature.奥卡姆的概念论会坦率地说主观主义,如果再加上它达到个人的事情,因为它存在于自然界中抽象的概念。

D. In Modern and Contemporary PhilosophyD.在现代和当代哲学

We find an unequivocal affirmation of Nominalism in Positivism.我们发现在实证主义的唯名明确的肯定。For Hume, Stuart Mill, Spencer, and Taine there is strictly speaking no universal concept.对于休谟,密尔,斯宾塞,并泰纳有严格地说没有普遍的概念。The notion, to which we lend universality, is only a collection of individual perceptions, a collective sensation, "un nom compris" (Taine), "a term in habitual association with many other particular ideas" (Hume), "un savoir potentiel emmagasiné" (Ribot).这一概念,这是我们提供的普遍性,仅仅是收集个人的看法,集体感,“联合国NOM compris”(丹纳),“一个术语与许多其他特别的想法习惯性协会”(休谟),“联合国处世potentiel emmagasiné“(Ribot)。The problem of the correspondence of the concept to reality is thus at once solved, or rather it is suppressed and replaced by the psycological question: What is the origin of the illusion that induces us to attribute a distinct nature to the general concept, though the latter is only an elaborated sensation?而现实的问题是这样的概念对应于一次解决,或者更确切地说,它是抑制和取代的psycological问题:什么是错觉,诱导我们独特的自然属性的一般概念的起源,虽然后者只是阐述的感觉? Kant distinctly affirms the existence within us of abstract and general notions and the distinction between them and sensations, but these doctrines are joined with a characteristic Phonmenalism which constitutes the most original form of modern Conceptualism.康德明显申明在我们的抽象和一般概念以及它们之间的区别和感觉的存在,但这些理论与一个特点Phonmenalism它构成​​了现代概念论最原始的形式加入。 Universal and necessary representations have no contact with external things, sinct they are produced exclusively by the structual functions (a priori forms) of our mind.通用和必要的交涉没有与外界事物接触,sinct他们所生产的structual职能我们的头脑(先验形式)专用。Time and space, in which we frame all sensible impressions,cannot be obtained from expierence, which is individual and contigent; they are schemata which arise from our mental organization.时间和空间,在我们的印象帧的所有合理的,不能取得expierence,这是个人和contigent,他们是从我们的心理图式的组织出现。 Consequently, we have no warrant for establishing a real correspondence between the world of reality.因此,我们没有任何的现实之间建立一个真正的世界通讯手令。Science, which is only an elaboration of the data of sense in accordance with other structural determinations of the mind (the categories), becomes a subjective poem, which has value only for us and not for a world outside us.科学,这只是一个与心灵(类别)按照其他结构测定的检测数据的阐述,成为一种主观的诗,它的价值不仅为我们和我们的世界之外没有。 A modern form of Platonic or Exaggerated Realism is found in the ontologist doctrine defended by certain Catholic philosophers in the middle of the nineteenth century, and which consist in identifying the objects of universal ideas with the Divine ideas or the archetypes on which the world was fashioned.柏拉图式的或夸大的现实主义的现代形式存在于某些天主教哲学家辩护在十九世纪中叶的本体论学说,并确定与神的想法或在其上的世界是老式的原型对象的普遍观念的组成。 As to Moderate Realism, it remains the doctrine of all those who have returned to Aristotleanism or adopted the neo-Scholastic philosophy.至于温和的现实主义,它仍然是所有那些谁已返回Aristotleanism或通过的新士林哲学学说。

III. III。THE CLAIMS OF MODERATE REALISM温和的现实主义的索赔

This system reconciles the characteristics of external objects (particularity) with those of our intellectual representations (universality), and explains why science, though made up of abstract notions, is valid for the world of reality.该系统调和与我们(普遍性)知识表示那些(特殊性)的外部对象的特点,并解释为什么科学,虽然由抽象的概念时,是对现实世界的有效。 To understand this it suffices to grasp the real meaning of abstraction.要理解这一点就足够把握抽象的真正意义。When the mind apprehends the essence of a thing (quod quid est; tò tí en eînai), the external object is perceived without the particular notes which attach to it in nature (esse in singularibus), and it is not yet marked with the attribute of generality which reflection will bestow on it (esse in intellectu).当心灵apprehends一个事物的本质(狴镑EST;到TI EN einai的),外部对象被认为没有特别注意到它在性质上重视它(Esse品牌在singularibus),它是尚未与属性标记一般性的反思将赐给它(Esse品牌在intellectu)。 The abstract reality is apprehended with perfect indifference as regards both the individual state without and the universal state within: abstrahit ab utroque esse, secundum quam considerationem considerattur natura lapidis vel cujus cumque alterius, quantum ad ea tantum quæ per se competunt illi naturæ (St Tomas, "Quodlibeta", Q. i, a. 1).抽象的现实是冷漠的完美拘捕方面都没有和个别国家内的普遍状态:abstrahit AB utroque Esse品牌,继发孔型华富considerationem considerattur NATURA lapidis VEL cujus cumque alterius,量子广告EA tantum quæ本身competunt illi naturæ(圣托马斯“Quodlibeta”,问我,A. 1)。Now, what is thus conceived in the absolute state (absolute considerando) is nothing else than the reality incarnate in any give individual: in truth, the reality, represented in my concept of man, is in Socrates or in Plato.现在,因此在绝对状态构思(绝对considerando)无非是在给其他任何现实体现个人:说实话,现实,人的概念在我的代表,在苏格拉底还是柏拉图。 There is nothing in the abstract concept that is not applicable to every individual; if the abstract concept is inadequate, because it does not contain the singular notes of each being, it is none the less faithful, or at least its abstract character does not prevent it from corresponding faithfully to the objects existing in nature.有在抽象的概念,并不适用于每一个人无关,如果抽象的概念是不够的,因为它不包含每个被奇异指出,这是没有少忠实的,或至少它的抽象性质并不妨碍它忠实地从相应的对象在自然界中存在。 As to the universal form of the concept, a moment's consideration shows that it is subsequent to the abstraction and is the fruit of reflection: "ratio speciei accidit naturæ humanæ".至于概念的普遍形式,片刻的考虑表明,它是继抽象,是反思的成果:“比speciei accidit naturæ humanæ”。Whence it follows that the universality of the concept as such is the work purely of the intellect: "unde intellectus est qui facit universalitatem in rebus" (St. Thomas, "De ente et essentia," iv).何处它遵循的是,这种普遍性的概念是纯粹的智力工作:“unde智洋EST魁facit universalitatem在情势”(圣托马斯,“德恩特等essentia,”四)。

Concerning Nominalism, Conceptualism, and Exaggerated Realism, a few general considerations must suffice.关于唯名论,概念论,和夸张的现实主义,少数一般性的考虑必须就够了。Nominalism, which is irreconcilable with a spiritualistic philosophy and for that very reason with scholasticism as well, presupposes the ideological theory that the abstract concept does not differ essentially from sensation, of which it is only a transformation.唯名,这是一个不可调和的理念和唯灵与经院哲学为好,前提是思想理论,抽象的概念,从本质上没有区别感,它只是一个转换非常的原因。 The Nominalism of Hume, Stuart Mill, Spencer, Huxley, and Taine is of no greater value than their ideology.休谟,密尔,斯宾塞,赫胥黎和丹纳唯名是没有比自己更大的价值理念。The confound essentially distinct logical operations--the simple decomposition of sensible or empirical representations with abstraction properly so called and sensible analogy with the process of universalization.本质上不同的混淆逻辑运算 - 明智的或经验的陈述与所谓正确的抽象和理性的普遍化过程比喻简单分解。The Aristotleans recognize both of these mental operations, but they distinguish carefully between them.该Aristotleans承认这些心理操作两个,但他们仔细区分。As to Kant, all the bounds that might connect the concept with the external world are destroyed in his Phenomenalism.至于康德,所有的界限可能连接与外部世界的概念被摧毁在他的现象论。Kant is unable to explain why one and the same sensible impression starts or sets in operation now this, now that category; his a priori forms are unintelligible according to his own principles, since they are beyond experience.康德是无法解释为什么同一个明智的印象开始或操作集现在这个,现在这一类,他的先验形式是不知所云根据他自己的原则,因为他们超越经验。 Moreover, he confuses real time and space, limited like the things they develop, with ideal or abstract time and space, which alone are general and without limit.此外,他混淆了真正的时间和空间,如他们开发的东西有限,理想或抽象的时间和空间,这仅是一般,没有限制。For in truth we do not create wholesale the object of our knowledge, but we beget it within us under the causal influence of the object that reveals itself to us.对于真理,我们不创造批发我们的知识的对象,但我们生出在我们下的对象,揭示本身给我们的因果影响它。Ontologism, which is akin to Platonic Realism, arbitrarily identifies the ideal types in our intellect, which come to us from the sensible world by means of abstraction, with the ideal types consubstantial with the essence of God. Ontologism,这是类似于柏拉图式的现实主义,随意确定了我们的智力的理想类型,它们来自世界给我们的理智的抽象手段,与神的本质与同质的理想类型。 Now, when we form our first abstract ideas we do not yet know God.现在,当我们形成我们的第一个抽象的概念,我们还不知道神。We are so ignorant of Him that we must employ these first ideas to prove a posteriori His existence.我们所以他一无所知,我们必须采用这些第一的思想,以证明他的存在后验。Ontologism has lived its life, and our age so enamoured of observation and experiment will scarcely return to the dreams of Plato.Ontologism一直住其生命,而我们的年龄,观察和实验的迷恋将几乎回到柏拉图的梦想。

Publication information Written by M. De Wulf.出版信息由M.德沃尔夫书面。Transcribed by Drake Woodside, Atom M. Eckhardt, and Yaqoob Mohyuddin.转录由德雷克伍德赛德,原子M. Eckhardt和Yaqoob Mohyuddin。The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XI.天主教百科全书,卷席。Published 1911.发布1911年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, February 1, 1911. Nihil Obstat,1911年2月1日。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰farley枢机主教,大主教纽约



Also, see:此外,见:
Scholasticism 士林
Scholasticism 士林
Protestant Scholasticism新教士林

This subject presentation in the original English language这在原来的主题演讲, 英语



Send an e-mail question or comment to us:发送电子邮件的问题或意见给我们:E-mail电子邮件

The main BELIEVE web-page (and the index to subjects) is at:的, 主要相信网页(和索引科目),是在:
BELIEVE Religious Information Source相信宗教信息来源
http://mb-soft.com/believe/beliecha.html