Jesus on the Cross耶稣在十字架上

The Seven Words该七字

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Our Lord uttered seven memorable "words" (or statements) from the cross, namely,我们的主发出一声从十字架seven难忘的“字”(或陈述),即

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The Seven Words该七字

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(Beginning in Book 5, Chapter 15, Life and Times of Jesus(开始在图书5,第15章, 耶稣的生活和时代
the Messiah by Alfred Edersheim, 1886)弥赛亚由阿尔弗雷德爱德生,1886年)

It was when they thus nailed Him to the Cross, and parted His raiment, that He spake the first of the so-called 'Seven Words': 'Father, forgive them, for they know not what they do.' (Luke 23:34) [4 The genuineness of these words has been called in question.这是当他们因此他钉在十字架,和他分手了衣服,那他说话了所谓的“七字”第一:“父亲,原谅他们,因为他们不知道他们做什么”(路加福音23: 34)[4这些话的真实性一直在质疑。But alike external and internal evidence demands their retention.] Even the reference in this prayer to 'what they do' (not in the past, nor future) points to the soldiers as the primary, though certainly not the sole object of the Saviour's prayer.但同样的外部和内部的证据要求其保留。]即使在这种祈祷参照“他们做了什么”(而不是在过去,也没有未来)点,为兵主,但肯定不是救世主的祈祷的唯一对象。 [b Comp.[B比赛。Acts iii.行为三。17 1 Cor.17 1肺心病。ii.II。8.]8。]

[5 It would be presumptuous to seek to determine how far that prayer extended. [5这将是放肆寻求以确定如何远,祈祷延长。Generally, I agree with Nebe, to all (Gentiles and Jews) who, in their participation in the sufferings inflicted on Jesus, acted in ignorance.] But higher thoughts also come to us.一般来说,我同意Nebe,所有(外邦人和犹太人)谁,他们在耶稣所遭受的苦难的参与,演过的无知。]但是较高的思想也来找我们。 In the moment of the deepest abasement of Christ's Human Nature, the Divine bursts forth most brightly.在基督的人性,神最明亮的阵阵提出最深的屈辱的时刻。

It is, as if the Saviour would discard all that is merely human in His Sufferings, just as before He had discarded the Cup of stupefying wine.它,仿佛救世主将放弃所有的仅仅是人类在他的痛苦,就像之前他丢弃的愚民葡萄酒杯。These soldiers were but the unconscious instruments: the form was nothing; the contest was between the Kingdom of God and that of darkness, between the Christ and Satan, and these sufferings were but the necessary path of obedience, and to victory and glory.这些士兵,但潜意识文书:形式是什么;之间的较量是在神的国和黑暗,基督与撒旦之间,而这些痛苦是必要的,但服从的道路,走向胜利和辉煌。 When He is most human (in the moment of His being nailed to the Cross), then is He most Divine, in the utter discarding of the human elements of human instrumentality and of human suffering.当他是大多数人(在他被钉在十字架的时刻),则是他最神圣的,在人类的工具性和对人类苦难的人的要素完全抛弃。 Then also in the utter self-forgetfulness of the God-Man, which is one of the aspects of the Incarnation, does He only remember Divine mercy, and pray for them who crucify Him; and thus also does the Conquered truly conquer His conquerors by asking for them what their deed had forfeited.然后又在神人,这是的化身的一个方面,完全自我遗忘他是否只记得神的怜悯,并为他们祈祷谁钉死他,因而也不会被征服的真正征服了他的征服者他们问什么他们的契约已经被没收。

And lastly, in this, that alike the first and the last of His Utterances begin with 'Father,' does He show by the unbrokenness of His faith and fellowship the real spiritual victory which He has won.最后,在此,这都第一次和他的话语去年开始以“父亲”,难道他拿出了他的信仰和团契的真正精神胜利的他赢得了unbrokenness。 And He has won it, not only for the martyrs, who have learned from Him to pray as He did, but for everyone who, in the midst of all that seems most opposed to it, can rise, beyond mere forgetfulness of what is around, to realising faith and fellowship with God as 'the Father,', who through the dark curtain of cloud can discern the bright sky, and can feel the unshaken confidence, if not the unbroken joy, of absolute trust.而且他已经赢得了它,不仅为烈士,谁从他学会了祈祷像他那样,但大家谁,在一切似乎最反对的中间,能起到什么是超越了单纯的健忘左右, ,有利于实现与上帝的信仰和研究金为“父”,谁通过暗幕云可以看出明亮的天空,并能感受到矢志不渝的信心,如果没有完整的喜悦绝对信任。

This was His first Utterance on the Cross, as regarded them; as regarded Himself; and as regarded God.这是他第一次在十字架上的话语,因为他们认为,如认为自己;和视为上帝。So, surely, suffered not Man.所以,可以肯定,没有人遭受。Has this prayer of Christ been answered?有这样一个基督祷告未获答复?We dare not doubt it; nay, we perceive it in some measure in those drops of blessing which have fallen upon heathen men, and have left to Israel also, even in its ignorance, a remnant according to the election of grace.我们不敢怀疑;不仅如此,我们认为在一些祝福已在异教徒的男子倒下的下降衡量它,并已离开以色列还,甚至在其无知,一个残余根据选举的宽限期。 [1 In reference to this St. Augustine writes: 'Sanguinem Christi, quem saevientes fuderunt, credentes biberunt.'[1写在谈到这个圣奥古斯丁:“Sanguinem斯蒂,quem saevientes fuderunt,credentes biberunt。”The question why Christ did not Himself forgive, but appeal for it to the Father, is best answered by the consideration, that it was really a crimen laesae majestatis against the Father, and that the vindication of the Son lay with God the Father.]问题为何基督没有原谅自己,但它呼吁父亲,是最好的回答了审议,这是一个真正的crimen laesae majestatis对父亲,并认为与神的儿子平反奠定了父亲。]

And now began the real agonies of the Cross, physical, mental, and spiritual.现在开始真正痛苦的十字架,身体,心理和精神。It was the weary, unrelieved waiting, as thickening darkness gradually gathered around.这是疲倦,unrelieved等待,因为黑暗逐渐增厚周围聚集。Before sitting down to their melancholy watch over the Crucified, [a St. Matthew.] the soldiers would refresh themselves, after their exertion in nailing Jesus to the Cross, lifting it up, and fixing it, by draughts of the cheap wine of the country.前坐下来观看他们的忧郁在十字架,[A圣马太。]士兵将刷新自己,在以后的耶稣钉在十字架,解除它,并修复它劳累,由草案的廉价酒国家。 As they quaffed it, they drank to Him in their coarse brutality, and mockingly came to Him, asking Him to pledge them in response.当他们一饮而尽了,他们给他喝的粗暴行,并嘲弄来找他,要求他承诺在应对它们。

Their jests were, indeed, chiefly directed not against Jesus personally, but in His Representative capacity, and so against the hated, despised Jews, whose King they now derisively challenged to save Himself.他们的玩笑了,事实上,主要不是针对耶稣本人,但在他的代表的身份,所以对痛恨,鄙视犹太人,他们现在嘲笑国王的挑战,以拯救自己。 [b St. Luke.] Yet even so, it seems to us of deepest significance, that He was so treated and derided in His Representative Capacity and as the King of the Jews. [B圣卢克。]然而即便如此,它似乎是最深的意义,他是这样看待和他的代表身份,并作为犹太人的王嘲笑我们。It is the undesigned testimony of history, alike as regarded the character of Jesus and the future of Israel.这是历史的非故意的证词,都称得上是耶稣的性格和对以色列的未来。But what from almost any point of view we find so difficult to understand is, the unutterable abasement of the Leaders of Israel, their moral suicide as regarded Israel's hope and spiritual existence.但是,从几乎任何角度来看,我们发现这样很难理解的是,在以色列的领导人,他们的作为视为以色列的希望和精神存在的道德自杀难言屈辱。

There, on that Cross, hung He, Who at least embodied that grand hope of the nation; Who, even on their own showing, suffered to the extreme for that idea, and yet renounced it not, but clung fast to it in unshaken confidence; One, to Whose Life or even Teaching no objection could be offered, save that of this grand idea.还有,在此交叉,挂着他,谁至少体现的宏伟希望的民族;谁,即使是在自己的展示,受到到该想法极端,但它没有放弃,而是抱着坚定不移的信心,迅速在它;一,谁的生活,甚至没有异议教学可以提供,保存这一宏伟想法。 And yet, when it came to them in the ribald mockery of this heathen soldiery, it evoked no other or higher thoughts in them; and they had the indescribable baseness of joining in the jeer at Israel's great hope, and of leading the popular chorus in it!然而,当它来到这个异教徒士兵类下流嘲弄他们,它诱发他们没有其他的或更高的想法,以及他们有在对以色列的巨大希望咻加入难以形容的卑鄙,并领导流行合唱它!

For, we cannot doubt, that, perhaps also by way of turning aside the point of the jeer from Israel, they took it up, and tried to direct it against Jesus; and that they led the ignorant mob in the piteous attempts at derision.因为,我们不能怀疑,这,或许也转向一边的以色列咻点的方式,他们采取了它,并试图直接对耶稣它,并认为他们领导了在嘲笑the可怜尝试无知暴徒。 And did none of those who so reviled Him in all the chief aspects of His Work feel, that, as Judas had sold the Master for nought and committed suicide, so they were doing in regard to their Messianic hope?而且也没有那些谁如此辱骂所有他的工作感受,即作为犹大出卖了化为乌有和自杀法师,所以他们对于自己的救世主希望他做的主要方面?

For, their jeers cast contempt on the four great facts in the Life and Work of Jesus, which were also the underlying ideas of the Messianic Kingdom: the new relationship to Israel's religion and the Temple ('Thou that destroyest the Temple, and buildest it in three days'); the new relationship to the Father through the Messiah, the Son of God ('if Thou be the Son of God'); the new all-sufficient help brought to body and soul in salvation ('He saved others'); and, finally, the new relationship to Israel in the fulfilment and perfecting of its Mission through its King ('if He be the King of Israel').因为,他们的嘲笑声令人对四大事实,在生活和耶稣的工作,这也是该弥赛亚王国的基本思想轻视:新的关系,以色列的宗教和寺庙('你的destroyest寺,并buildest它在三天');新关系的父亲通过弥赛亚,是神的儿子(“你若是神的儿子”),新的全带来了足够的帮助拯救身体和灵魂(“他救了别人');,最后,新的关系,实现和通过其完善以色列王团(“如果他是以色列的王)。

On all these, the taunting challenge of the Sanhedrists, to come down from the Cross, and save Himself, if he would claim the allegiance of their faith, cast what St. Matthew and St. Mark characterise as the 'blaspheming' [1 The two Evangelists designate by this very word the bearing of the passersby, rendered in the AV 'reviled' and 'railed.'在所有这些,对Sanhedrists嘲弄的挑战,从十字架上下来,并保存自己,他是否会要求他们信仰的忠诚,铸什么马太和圣马克描述为“亵渎”[1 two福音指定由这个字的路人轴承在AV“唾骂”的渲染,“抱怨”。of doubt.的疑问。We compare with theirs the account of St. Luke and St. John.与他们相比,我们的圣路加和圣约翰帐户。That of St. Luke reads like the report of what had passed, given by one who throughout had been quite close by, perhaps taken part in the Crucifixion.圣路加,上面写着这样的报告通过了什么,一个谁各地已相当接近了,也许在十字架上所采取的部分给出。

[2 The peculiarities in it are (besides the titulus): what passed on the procession to Golgotha (St. Luke xxiii. 27-31); the prayer, when affixed to the Cross (ver. 34 a); the bearing of the soldiers (vv. 36, 37); the conversion of the penitent thief; and the last words on the Cross (ver. 46).] one might almost venture to suggest, that it had been furnished by the Centurion. [2它的特点是:(除了titulus):什么转嫁到墓地游行(。圣卢克二十三27-31);的祈祷,当贴到十字架(版本34);轴承的士兵(vv. 36,37);的忏悔小偷转换;及在十字架上(版本46)最后的话]人们几乎会大胆地提出,它已被百夫长布置。[3 There is no evidence, that the Centurion was still present when the soldier 'came' to pierce the Saviour's side (St. John xix. 31-37). [3没有证据,那百夫长仍然存在,当战士“来到”刺穿救世主的一面(圣约翰十九。31-37)。The narrative of St. John reads markedly like that of an eyewitness, and he a Judaen.叙事的圣约翰读取明显像一名目击者说,和他一个Judaen。[1 So from the peculiar details and OT quotations.][1因此,从独特的细节和OT报价。]

And as we compare both the general Judaen cast and Old Testament quotations in this with the other parts of the Fourth Gospel, we feel as if (as so often), under the influence of the strongest emotions, the later development and peculiar thinking of so many years afterwards had for the time been effaced from the mind of St. John, or rather given place to the Jewish modes of conception and speech, familiar to him in earlier days.当我们比较这两个一般Judaen演员和旧约在这个报价与四福音的其他部分,我们觉得如果(经常)根据最强的情绪影响,后来的发展和独特的思维如此很多年后已被抹去的时间从圣约翰精神,或者说给地方的观念和语言的犹太模式,熟悉早期给他。 Lastly, the account of St. Matthew seems as if written from the priestly point of view, as if it had been furnished by one of the Priests or Sanhedrist party, present at the time.最后,圣马太帐户好像书面从祭司的角度来看,好像它一直由牧师或Sanhedrist党,当时呈列一份布置。

Yet other inferences come to us.然而,其他推论到我们这里来。First, there is a remarkable relationship between what St. Luke quotes as spoken by the soldiers: 'If Thou art the King of the Jews, save Thyself,' and the report of the words in St. Matthew: [a St. Matt.首先,有一个什么圣卢克引号之间的关系,显着的士兵说:“如果你是犹太人的王,救你自己”,以及在圣马太的话报道:[一个圣马特。 xxvii.二十七。42] He saved others, Himself He cannot save.42]他救了别人,自己救不了他。He [2 The word 'if' (if He) in our AV is spurious.] is the King of Israel!他[2字'如果'(如果他)在我们的AV是虚假的。]是以色列的王!Let Him now come down from the Cross, and we will believe on Him!'让他现在从十字架下来,我们会相信他!“These are the words of the Sanhedrists, and they seem to respond to those of the soldiers, as reported by St. Luke, and to carry them further.这些都是Sanhedrists的话,他们似乎回应兵的人,如圣路加报告,并进行他们进一步。 The 'if' of the soldiers: 'If Thou art the King of the Jews,' now becomes a direct blasphemous challenge.而“如果”的士兵:“如果你是犹太人的王”,现在变成了直接的亵渎挑战。As we think of it, they seem to re-echo, and now with the laughter of hellish triumph, the former Jewish challenge for an outward, infallible sign to demonstrate His Messiahship.当我们想起来了,他们似乎重新回音,而现在随着地狱般的胜利,前者为向外,万无一失的标志,以证明他的弥赛亚犹太挑战笑声。

But they also take up, and re-echo, what Satan had set before Jesus in the Temptation of the wilderness.但他们也拿起来,并重新呼应,收到了什么撒旦耶稣设置在旷野诱惑。At the beginning of His Work, the Tempter had suggested that the Christ should achieve absolute victory by an act of presumptuous self-assertion, utterly opposed to the spirit of the Christ, but which Satan represented as an act of trust in God, such as He would assuredly own.在他工作的开始,试探基督曾建议应实现由一个自以为是自作主张的行为绝对的胜利,完全反对基督的精神,但撒旦作为天灾的信任表示,如他将自己的稳妥。 And now, at the close of His Messianic Work, the Tempter suggested, in the challenge of the Sanhedrists, that Jesus had suffered absolute defeat, and that God had publicly disowned the trust which the Christ had put in Him.而现在,在他的救世主的工作结束时,诱惑的建议,在Sanhedrists,耶稣遭受了绝对的失败,上帝曾公开否认了该基督在他把信任的挑战。 'He trusteth in God: let Him deliver Him now, if He will have Him.'“他trusteth上帝:让他提供他现在,如果他有他。”[3 This is the literal rendering.[3这是文字的呈现。

The 'will have Him' has pleasure in Him, like the German: 'Wenn Er Ihn will.'] Here, as in the Temptation of the Wilderness, the words misapplied were those of Holy Scripture, in the present instance those of Ps.而“将他”有像德国在他高兴:“东方网二IHN的意志。”]在这里,因为在荒野的诱惑,误用的话都是圣经那些在目前情况下,对诗的人。 xxii.二十二。8.8。And the quotation, as made by the Sanhedrists, is the more remarkable, that, contrary to what is generally asserted by writers, this Psalm [b Ps.而报价单,由Sanhedrists制成,是比较显着,说,相反的是一般的作家宣称,这诗篇[B聚苯乙烯。xxii.] was Messianically applied by the ancient Synagogue.二十二。]是由古代犹太教堂Messianically应用。[1 See Appendix IX.] [1见附录九。]

More especially was this verse, [a Ps.更多特别是这一节,[一个PS。xxii.二十二。7] which precedes the mocking quotation of the Sanhedrists, expressly applied to the sufferings and the derision which Messiah was to undergo from His enemies: 'All they that see Me laugh Me to scorn: they shoot out the lip, they shake the head.' 7],它先于明确适用的痛苦和嘲笑的弥赛亚,是从他的敌人进行的Sanhedrists,嘲讽语录:“他们只看到我的笑我蔑视:他们拍出来的唇,他们摇头。 “[b Yalkut on Is.[B Yalkut上的。lx.LX。vol.第一卷。ii.II。p.56 d, lines 12 &c, from bottom] [2 Meyer actually commits himself to the statement, that Ps.56 D,12&C线,从下] [2迈耶实际承诺自己的声明,即聚苯乙烯。xxii.二十二。was not Messianically applied by the Jews.没有Messianically应用的犹太人。Other writers follow his lead.其他作家追随他的领先优势。The objection, that the Sanhedrists could not have quoted this verse, as it would have branded them as the wicked persons described in the Psalm, has no force when we remember the loose way in which the Jews were in the habit of quoting the Old Testament.]的反对,认为Sanhedrists不可能援引这节经文,因为这将有品牌的诗篇中所描述的这些邪恶的人,已经没有力量,当我们记得松散方式,犹太人在引用旧约习惯了。]

The derision of the Sanhedrists under the Cross was, as previously stated, not entirely spontaneous, but had a special motive.下的十字架Sanhedrists嘲笑是,如前所述,并非完全自发的,但有一个特殊的动机。The place of Crucifixion was close to the great road which led from the North to Jerusalem.受难的地方是接近伟大道路而导致从北到耶路撒冷。On that Feast-day, when, as there was no law to limit, as on the weekly day of rest, locomotion to a 'Sabbath day's journey,' many would pass in and out of the City, and the crowd would naturally be arrested by the spectacle of the three Crosses.在这个节日天的时候,因为没有法律限制的关于休息,运动以每周一天,“安息日的旅程,”很多人进出的城市,人群自然会被逮捕由三个十字奇观。 Equally naturally would they have been impressed by the titulus over the Cross of Christ.同样自然地将他们留下深刻印象的在基督的十字架titulus。The words, describing the Sufferer as 'the King of the Jews,' might, when taken in connection with what was known of Jesus, have raised most dangerous questions.字样,说明作为受害者“犹太人的王”,可能,当与耶稣知道什么是方面所采取的,提出最危险的问题。

And this the presence of the Sanhedrists was intended to prevent, by turning the popular mind in a totally different direction.而这个Sanhedrists存在的目的是要防止把在一个完全不同的方向流行头脑。It was just such a taunt and argumentation as would appeal to that coarse realism of the common people, which is too often misnamed 'common sense.'这只是这样的嘲讽和论证会呼吁为老百姓认为,这往往名不副实的粗现实主义“常识”。St. Luke significantly ascribes the derision of Jesus only to the Rulers, [3 The words, 'with them,' in St. Luke xxiii.圣卢克大大嘲笑归因于耶稣只对统治者,[3话说,“他们,”在圣路加二十三。35, are spurious.] and we repeat, that that of the passers by, recorded by St. Matthew and St. Mark, was excited by them.35,是虚假的。]我们重复,即由之途,由圣马修和圣马克记录,是由他们兴奋。Thus here also the main guilt rested on the leaders of the people.因此,这里也是主要的有罪休息对人民的领袖。[4 St. Mark introduces the mocking speeches (xv. 29) by the particle ova ('Ah') which occurs only here in the NT It is evidently the Latin 'Vah,' an exclamation of ironical admiration. [4圣马克介绍了由粒子卵子嘲讽讲话(xv. 29)('啊'),它发生在NT只有在这里它显然是拉丁语“VAH,”一个讽刺钦佩感叹。(See Bengel and Nebe, ad loc.) The words literally were: 'Ha!(见Bengel和Nebe,广告同上)字面上的话是:“哈!the downbreaker of the sanctuary and upbuilding it in three days, save Thyself.'该保护区downbreaker和upbuilding三天,保存你自己。“Except the introductory particle and the order of the words, the words are the same in St. Matthew.除介绍粒子和秩序的话,言是相同的圣马太。The is used in the sense of a substantive (comp. Winer, Gram. p. 122, and especially p. 316).]该是用在实质性意义(comp.温纳,克。第122页,特别是第316页)。]

One other trait comes to us from St. Luke, confirming our impression that his account was derived from one who had stood quite close to the Cross, probably taken official part in the Crucifixion.另外一个特点给我们留下圣卢克,证实了我们的印象是,他的帐户是从一个谁主张相当接近,十字架,在十字架上可能采取的正式部分而得。 St. Matthew and St. Mark merely remark in general, that the derision of the Sanhedrists and people was joined in by the thieves on the Cross.马太和圣马克只是一般的话,那对Sanhedrists和人民嘲笑也加入了在十字架上的小偷在。 [5 The language of St. Matthew and St. Mark is quite general, and refers to 'the thieves;' that of St. Luke is precise and detailed.[5的圣马太和圣马克语言是相当普遍,并指“的thieves;'的圣卢克that精确和详细。But I cannot agree with those who, for the sake of 'harmony,' represent the penitent thief as joining in his comrade's blasphemy before turning to Christ.但我不能同意那些谁,为求“和谐”,表示在他的战友的亵渎加入前转向基督的忏悔小偷。

I do not deny, that such a sudden change might have taken place; but there is no evidence for it in the text, and the supposition of the penitent thief first blaspheming gives rise to many incongruities, and does not seem to fit into the text.] A trait this, which we feel to be not only psychologically true, but the more likely of occurrence, that any sympathy or possible alleviation of their sufferings might best be secured by joining in the scorn of the leaders, and concentrating popular indignation upon Jesus.我不否认,这样的突然变化可能已经发生,但没有它在文字证据,小偷的忏悔第一亵渎假设引起了诸多不适应,而且似乎不适合文本。]一个特征这一点,我们感受到不仅心理上如此,但更可能发生,任何同情或尽可能减轻他们的痛苦可能最好在领导人的蔑视加入担保,并集中在人神共愤耶稣。 But St. Luke also records a vital difference between the two 'robbers' on the Cross.但圣路加也记载了两者之间的“强盗”在十字架上的重要区别。[1 Tradition names the impenitent thief Gestas, which Keim identifies with, silenced, hardened, although the derivation seems to me forced. [1传统名字的不知悔改的小偷Gestas,其中凯姆认同,沉默,硬化,虽然在我看来,强迫的推导。

The penitent thief is called Dysmas, which I would propose to derive from in the sense of 'the setting,' viz, of the sun: he who turns to the setting sun.小偷的忏悔被称为Dysmas,我会建议从派生的意义上“的设置,”即,太阳:他谁轮流到夕阳。Sepp very fancifully regards the penitent thief as a Greek (Japhetisch), the impenitent as a negro.] The impenitent thief takes up the jeer of the Sanhedrists: 'Art Thou not the Christ?布拉特很fancifully视为希腊(Japhetisch)时,不知悔改的忏悔小偷为黑人]的不知悔改的小偷占用的Sanhedrists嘲笑:“你没有艺术的基督? [2 So according to the right reading.] Save Thyself and us!'[2因此,根据阅读的权利。]保存你自己和我们!“The words are the more significant, alike in their bearing on the majestic calm and pitying love of the Saviour on the Cross, and on the utterance of the 'penitent thief,' that, strange as it may sound, it seems to have been a terrible phenomenon, noted by historians, [3 See the quotations in Nebe, ii.言越显着,都在他们的雄伟的冷静和怜悯的救主在十字架上的爱情关系,以及对话语“忏悔的小偷,”说,奇怪,因为它可能声音,它似乎是一个可怕的现象,历史学家指出,[3见Nebe,II的报价。 258.] that those on the cross were wont to utter insults and imprecations on the onlookers, goaded nature perhaps seeking relief in such outbursts. 258。]认为在十字架上的人习惯说出侮辱和围观的诅咒,也许是为了怂恿性质等爆发救济。Not so when the heart was touched in true repentance.不是这样的时候,心里是真忏悔感动。

If a more close study of the words of the 'penitent thief' may seem to diminish the fulness of meaning which the traditional view attaches to them, they gain all the more as we perceive their historic reality.如果对“忏悔小偷”的话似乎更仔细研究,以减少可能的含义的传统观点的重视,他们丰满,他们获得更因为我们认为他们的历史现实。 His first words were of reproof to his comrade.他的第一句话是责备他的战友。In that terrible hour, amidst the tortures of a slow death, did not the fear of God creep over him, at least so far as to prevent his joining in the vile jeers of those who insulted the dying agonies of the Sufferer?在这种可怕小时的浪潮中,一个缓慢的死亡折磨,没有对上帝的敬畏蠕变过他,至少到目前为止,以防止在那些谁侮辱了患者的死亡痛苦的卑鄙嘲笑他的加盟? [4 'Dost not thou even fear God, seeing thou art in the same condemnation?'[4'DOST你甚至不敬畏神,看到在同一个谴责你的艺术?“ Condemnation here means that to which one is condemned: the sufferings of the cross; and the expostulation is: Suffering as thou art like Him and me, canst thou join in the jeers of the crowd?谴责这里指的是哪一个是谴责:十字架的苦难,以及expostulation是:他和我像你的艺术苦难,canst你加入人群的嘲笑? Dost thou not even fear God, should not fear of Him now creep over thy soul, or at least prevent thee from insulting the dying Sufferer?难道你甚至不敬畏神,不应该害怕他现在蠕变过你的灵魂,或至少防止侮辱垂死的患者你呢?And this all the more, since the circumstances are as immediately afterwards described.]而这一切的多,因为情节的随即描述。]

And this all the more, in the peculiar circumstances.而这一切的多,在特殊情况。They were all three sufferers; but they two justly, while He Whom he insulted had done nothing amiss.他们三个患者,但他们两个公正,而被他侮辱他做了什么不对劲。From this basis of fact, the penitent rapidly rose to the height of faith.从这一事实的基础上,忏悔迅速上升到信仰的高度。This is not uncommon, when a mind is learning the lessons of truth in the school of grace.这并不少见,当心灵是学习的宽限期学校真理的教训。Only, it stands out here the more sharply, because of the dark background against which it is traced in such broad and brightly shining outlines.只是,它代表了这里更尖锐,因为它黑暗的背景是如此广泛和光辉轮廓跟踪。 The hour of the deepest abasement of the Christ was, as all the moments of His greatest Humiliation, to be marked by a manifestation of His Glory and Divine Character, as it were, by God's testimony to Him in history, if not by the Voice of God from heaven.而在基督最深的屈辱小时的,因为所有的时刻他最大的侮辱,是由他的光荣与神圣性格的体现标志,因为它是由神的见证在历史上他,如果没有语音神从天降。 And, as regarded the 'penitent' himself, we notice the progression in his soul.而且,都把“忏悔”自己,我们注意到在他的灵魂的进展。

No one could have been ignorant, least of all those who were led forth with Him to crucifixion, that Jesus did not suffer for any crime, nor for any political movement, but because He professed to embody the great hope of Israel, and was rejected by its leaders.没有人能一直无知,所有这些谁是主导与他来回十字架,耶稣并没有受到任何犯罪,也不对任何政治运动最少,但因为他自称体现了以色列很大的希望,并拒绝其领导人。 And, if any had been ignorant, the 'title' over the Cross and the bitter enmity of the Sanhedrists, which followed Him with jeers and jibes, where even ordinary humanity, and still more Jewish feeling, would have enjoined silence, if not pity, must have shown what had been the motives of 'the condemnation' of Jesus.而且,如果任何已经懵了,“标题”在十字架和Sanhedrists,它遵循的嘲笑和嘲弄,在这里即使是普通人类,还有更多的犹太人的感觉,会责成沉默,如果不是可怜他苦敌意必须表明了什么被“对号入座”耶稣的动机。 But, once the mind was opened to perceive all these facts, the progress would be rapid.但是,一旦被打开心灵去感知所有这些事实,进度会快。In hours of extremity a man may deceive himself and fatally mistake fear for the fear of God, and the remembrance of certain external knowledge for spiritual experience.在下肢小时的人可以欺骗自己和致命的错误害怕上帝的恐惧,以及某些外部知识经验的精神纪念。But, if a man really learns in such seasons, the teaching of years may be compressed into moments, and the dying thief on the Cross might outdistance the knowledge gained by Apostles in their years of following Christ.但是,如果一个男人真的在这样的季节获悉,在多年的教学可能被压缩成的时刻,并死在十字架上的小偷可能抛在后头在自己多年跟随基督使徒获得的知识。

One thing stood out before the mind of the 'penitent thief,' who in that hour did fear God.站前有一点头脑的“忏悔的小偷,”谁在这一个小时没有敬畏神。Jesus had done nothing amiss.耶稣做了什么不对劲。And this surrounded with a halo of moral glory the inscription on the Cross, long before its words acquired a new meaning.而这周围有光环的道德光辉题词在十字架上,没过多久,其词有了新的含义。But how did this Innocent One bear Himself in suffering?但如何做这个无辜的一个承担自己在痛苦?Right royally, not in an earthly sense, but in that in which alone He claimed the Kingdom.庄严的权利,而不是在地上的感觉,但在那,因为只有他声称王国。He had so spoken to the women who had lamented Him, as His faint form could no longer bear the burden of the Cross; and He had so refused the draught that would have deadened consciousness and sensibility.他曾说过这样的妇女谁曾哀叹他,他淡淡的形式可以不再承担十字架的负担,并因此拒绝了他,将有deadened意识和感性草案。

Then, as they three were stretched on the transverse beam, and, in the first and sharpest agony of pain, the nails were driven with cruel stroke of hammer through the quivering flesh, and, in the nameless agony that followed the first moments of the Crucifixion, only a prayer for those who in ignorance, were the instruments of His torture, had passed His lips.然后,他们三人倒在横梁,并在第一个和最尖锐的疼痛痛苦,指甲均与残忍锤中风驱动通过颤抖的肉体,并在随后的无名痛苦的第一时刻受难,只为那些谁在无知,被他的酷刑手段祈祷,已经通过他的嘴唇。 And yet He was innocent, Who so cruelly suffered.但他是无辜的,他如此残酷地受到影响。All that followed must have only deepened the impression.所有这一切之后必须只有加深了印象。With what calm of endurance and majesty of silence He had borne the insult and jeers of those who, even to the spiritual unenlightened eye, must have seemed so infinitely far beneath Him!通过什么样的耐力和他的沉默所承担的侮辱和那些谁,甚至到了精神闭塞眼睛,似乎必须下嘲笑他,所以无限远的威严平静!This man did feel the 'fear' of God, who now learned the new lesson in which the fear of God was truly the beginning of wisdom.这个人的确感到了神的“恐惧”,谁现在学会了新的教训中,对上帝的敬畏是真正的智慧的开端。And, once he gave place to the moral element, when under the fear of God he reproved his comrade, this new moral decision because to him, as so often, the beginning of spiritual life.而且,一旦他给地方的道德元素,当在神怕他责备他的同志介绍,这种新的道德决定,因为他,像这样的时候,对精神生活的开始。 Rapidly he now passed into the light, and onwards and upwards: 'Lord, remember me, when Thou comest in Thy Kingdom!'他现在迅速传递到轻,起及以上:'主啊,还记得我,当祢在你的王国COMEST!“

The familiar words of our Authorised Version, 'When Thou comest into Thy Kingdom', convey the idea of what we might call a more spiritual meaning of the petition.我们的授权版本熟悉的话,“当祢进入你的王国COMEST”,传达了我们可以称之为一个请愿更多的精神含义的概念。 But we can scarcely believe, that at that moment it implied either that Christ was then going into His Kingdom, or that the 'patient thief' looked to Christ for admission into the Heavenly Kingdom.但是,我们几乎可以相信,在那一刻它意味着要么基督然后去到他的王国,或者说,“以病人贼”寻找到太平天国进入基督。 The words are true to the Jewish point of vision of the man.的话是真实的对人类视觉犹太点。He recognised and owned Jesus as the Messiah, and he did so, by a wonderful forthgoing of faith, even in the utmost Humiliation of Christ.他承认和拥有的弥赛亚耶稣,他这样做,由一个信念精彩forthgoing,甚至在基督最大的屈辱。And this immediately passed beyond the Jewish standpoint, for he expected Jesus soon to come back in His Kingly might and power, when he asked to be remembered by Him in mercy.而这立即通过超出了犹太人的角度来看,耶稣对他预计很快回来在他的王道可能和力量,当他打听到了他记忆中的摆布。

And here we have again to bear in mind that, during the Life of Christ upon earth, and, indeed, before the outpouring of the Holy Ghost, men always first learned to believe in the Person of the Christ, and then to know His teaching and His Mission in the forgiveness of sins.在这里我们再次以铭记的是,在基督在地上生活,的确,以前的圣灵浇灌,总是先学会相信基督的人,而男人然后知道他的教学和他的罪的赦免使命。 It was so in this case also.正是在这种情况下也是如此。If the 'penitent thief' had learned to know the Christ, and to ask for gracious recognition in His coming Kingdom, the answering assurance of the Lord conveyed not only the comfort that his prayer was answered, but the teaching of spiritual things which he knew not yet, and so much needed to know.如果“忏悔的小偷”学会了认识基督,并要求英国在他的未来亲切的认可,主的回答,不仅保证转达他的祈祷得到回答的舒适性,但精神的东西,他知道教学还未等急需知道的。

The 'patient' had spoken of the future, Christ spoke of 'to-day'; the penitent had prayed about that Messianic Kingdom which was to come, Christ assured him in regard to the state of the disembodied spirits, and conveyed to him the promise that he would be there in the abode of the blessed, 'Paradise', and that through means of Himself as the Messiah: 'Amen, I say unto thee, To-day with Me shalt thou be in the Paradise.' (Luke 23:43) Thus did Christ give him that spiritual knowledge which he did not yet process, the teaching concerning the 'to-day,' the need of gracious admission into Paradise, and that with and through Himself, in other words, concerning the forgiveness of sins and the opening of the Kingdom of Heaven to all believers.而“病人”已对未来的发言,谈到了基督“向天”;的忏悔了有关该弥赛亚王国这是来祈祷,基督保证在关于游魂状态的他,并向他转达了他承诺,将在福地,“天堂”,并有通过自己的手段作为弥赛亚:“阿门,我告诉你说,为了天与我shalt你在天堂 ”(路加福音23时43分),因此没有基督给他的灵识,他还没有过程,教学有关的“向天,”亲切的入场到天堂的需要,并通过与自己,换句话说,有关宽恕的罪恶和所有信徒的天堂王国开幕。 This, as the first and foundation-creed of the soul, was the first and foundation-fact concerning the Messiah.对此,作为第一个和灵魂基金会的信条,是第一个和基础,实际上关于弥赛亚。

This was the Second Utterance from the Cross.这是从十字架第二话语。The first had been of utter self-forgetfullness; the second of deepest, wisest, most gracious spiritual teaching.第一个已经被彻底的自我forgetfullness;的最深,最明智,最亲切的精神教学第二。And, had He spoken none other than these, He would have been proved to be the Son of God.而且,如果他说没有比这些外,他将被证明是神的儿子。[1 Fully to understand it, we ought to realise what would be the Jewish ideas of the 'penitent thief,' and what his understanding of the words of Christ. [1充分了解它,我们应该认识到这将是对“忏悔的小偷”,以及什么样的基督的话他的理解犹太人的想法。Broadly, one would say, that as a Jew he would expect that his 'death would be expiation of his sins.'从广义上讲,一会说,作为一个犹太人,他会想到,他的死将是他的罪孽赎罪。“Thoughts of need of forgiveness through the Messiah would not therefore come to him.对需要通过宽恕弥赛亚思想不会因此来找他。 But the words of Christ must have supplied all this.但基督的话必须提供这一切。Again when Christ spoke of 'Paradise,'当基督再次谈到了“天堂”

His hearer would naturally understand that part of Hades in which the spirits of the righteous dwelt till the Resurrection.他的听者自然会明白,阎王,其中正义的精神,直到复活住一部分。On both these points there are so many passengers in Rabbinic writings that it is needless to quote (see for ex. Westein, ad loc., and our remarks on the Parable of Lazarus and Dives).在这两点在拉比的著作有这么多的乘客,这是不必要的引用(为前。Westein,广告同上。,我们的言论上看到拉撒路和富豪寓言)。 Indeed, the prayer: let my death be the expiation of my sins, is still in the Jewish office for the dying, and the underlying dogma is firmly rooted in Rabbinic belief.事实上,祈祷:让我死是我的罪过罪过,还是在为死去的犹太人的办公室,和底层的教条是牢牢扎根在拉比的信念。The words of our Lord, so far from encouraging this belief, would teach him that admission to Paradise was to be granted by Christ.我们的主的话,那么远鼓励这样的信念,会教他进入天堂,是由基督理所当然的。It is scarcely necessary to add, that Christ's words in no way encouraged the realistic conceptions which Judaism attached to Paradise.这几乎是必要的补充,即在没有办法基督的话鼓励的犹太教重视天堂现实的观念。In Biblical Hebrew the word is used for a choice garden: in Eccl.在圣经的希伯来语单词是用于选择花园:在传道书。ii.II。5; Cant.5,公会。iv.四。13; Nehem.13; Nehem。 ii.II。8.8。But in the LXX.但在LXX。 and the Apocr.和Apocr。 the word is already used in our sense of Paradise.这个词已经被应用在我们的天堂的感觉。Lastly, nothing which our Lord had said to the 'penitent thief' about being 'to-day' with Him in Paradise, is in any way inconsistent with, rather confirms, the doctrine of the Descent into Hades.]最后,没有什么是我们的主所说的“忏悔的小偷”大约是“以天”与他在天堂,在任何方面不符合,而证实,该下降到阎王主义。]

Nothing more would require to be said to the 'penitent' on the Cross.没有什么更多的要求可说的“忏悔”在十字架上。The events which followed, and the words which Jesus would still speak, would teach him more fully than could otherwise have been done.这之后的事件,而这句话是耶稣仍然说话,教他将更加充分地比本来已经完成。Some hours, probably two, had passed since Jesus had been nailed to the Cross.几个小时,可能有两个,已经过去了,因为耶稣被钉在十字架上。We wonder how it came that St. John, who tells us some of the incidents with such exceeding particularity, and relates all with the vivid realisation of a most deeply interested eyewitness, should have been silent as to others, especially as to those hours of derision, as well as to the conversion of the penitent thief.我们不知道它是如何来的圣约翰,谁告诉我们的这样一些超过特殊性事件,并涉及与一个最生动的实现深感兴趣目击者所有,本来应该沉默以他人尤其是那些个小时,嘲笑,以及忏悔的小偷转换。 His silence seems to us to have been due to absence from the scene.他的沉默,似乎我们已经由于从现场的情况下。We part company with him after his detailed account of the last scene before Pilate.我们与他分手后,他对彼拉多前的最后一个场景的详细说明。[a St. John xix. [一个圣约翰十九。2-16] 2-16]

The final sentence pronounced, we suppose him to have hurried into the City, and to have acquainted such of the disciples as he might find, but especially those faithful women and the Virgin-Mother, with the terrible scenes that had passed since the previous evening.最后一句明显,我们假设他有匆匆进入城市,并有熟悉的弟子,比如他可能会发现,特别是那些忠实的妇女和维尔京娘,与民政事务总署自前一天晚上通过的可怕景象。 Thence he returned to Golgotha, just in time to witness the Crucifixion, which he again describes with peculiar fulness of details.从那里,他回到墓地,正好见证十字架上,他再次用特有的丰满的细节描述。[b vv.[B VV。17-24] When the Saviour was nailed to the Cross, St. John seems once more to have returned to the City, this time, to bring back with him those women, in company of whom we now find him standing close to the Cross. 17-24]当救主被钉在十字架,圣约翰似乎再次又回到了城市,这一次,他带回来的妇女,在公司的人,我们现在发现他站在靠近交叉。A more delicate, tender, loving service could not have been rendered than this.更细腻,温柔,有爱心服务无法已变得比这个。Alone, of all the disciples, he is there, not afraid to be near Christ, in the Palace of the High-Priest, before Pilate, and now under the Cross.仅此一项,所有的弟子,他在那里,不怕靠近基督,在高牧师宫前彼拉多,现在下十字架。

And alone he renders to Christ this tender service of bringing the women and Mary to the Cross, and to them the protection of his guidance and company.而他独自呈现基督这使妇女和玛丽在十字架上,并给他们的保护他的指导和公司投标服务。He loved Jesus best; and it was fitting that to his manliness and affection should be entrusted the unspeakable privilege of Christ's dangerous inheritance.他爱耶稣最好的,以及它是恰当的,以他的气概和爱戴应当委托基督的危险继承无法形容的特权。[1 The first impression left is, of course, that the 'brothers' of Jesus were not yet, at least in the full sense, believers.[1左边的第一印象,当然,认为“兄弟”的耶稣还没有,至少在完整意义上,信徒。But this does not by any means necessarily follow, since both the presence of John under the Cross, and even his outward circumstances, might point him out as the most fit custodian of the Virgin-Mother.但是,这并不一定遵循以任何方式,因为无论是在十字架约翰的存在,甚至他的向外的情况下,可能点作为处女,母亲最适合的保管人他。 At the same time it seems the more likely supposition, that the brothers of Jesus were converted by the appearance to James of the Risen One (1 Cor. xv. 7).]同时,它似乎更可能的假设,认为耶稣的兄弟是由复活的外观,詹姆斯(林前十五7)转换。]

The narrative [a St. John xix.叙述[一个圣约翰十九。25-27] leaves the impression that with the beloved disciple these four women were standing close to the Cross: the Mother of Jesus, the Sister of His Mother, Mary the wife of Clopas, and Mary of Magdala. 25-27]叶的印象,与心爱的弟子这四个妇女站在靠近十字架:耶稣的母亲,他母亲姐妹,玛丽的Clopas妻子,玛丽抹大拉。[2 This view is now generally adopted.] A comparison with what is related by St. Matthew [b St. Matt. [2这种观点是现在普遍采用。]一个用的是什么圣马太[B圣马特相关比较。xxvii.二十七。55] and St. Mark [c St. Mark xv. 55]和圣马克[中圣马克十五。40, 41] supplies further important particulars.40,41]提供进一步的重要资料。We read there of only three women, the name of the Mother of our Lord being omitted.我们读到的只有3名妇女那里,母亲,我们的主名字被省略。But then it must be remembered that this refers to a later period in the history of the Crucifixion.但是必须记住,这是指在受难的历史后期。It seems as if John had fulfilled to the letter the Lord's command: 'Behold thy mother,' (John 19:26-27) and literally 'from that very hour' taken her to his own home.它好像约翰已经履行的信主的命令:“看哪,你母亲,”(约19:26-27)和字面上“从很小时的”带她到自己的家。If we are right in this supposition, then, in the absence of St. John, who led away the Virgin-Mother from that scene of horror, the other three women would withdraw to a distance, where we find them at the end, not 'by the Cross,' as in St. John xix.如果我们在这个假设正确,那么,在圣约翰,谁领走从这个恐怖场景的处女,母亲的情况下,其他三名妇女将撤回向远处眺望,在那里我们找到他们到底,不“借十字架,”在圣约翰十九。 25, but 'beholding from afar,' and now joined by others also, who had loved and followed Christ. 25日,但“仰望远方,”现在其他人也,谁曾爱和基督之后加入。

We further notice that, the name of the Virgin-Mother being omitted, the other 'three are the same as mentioned by St. John; only, Mary of Clopas is now described as 'the mother of James and Jose,' [3 There is, of course, the difficulty that Judas (Lebbaeus) and Simon Zelotes are not here mentioned as her sons.我们还注意到,在维京,母亲被忽略的名字,对方的三个是一样的圣​​约翰提到,只有,现在的Clopas玛丽形容为“詹姆斯和何塞的母亲,”[3有当然,难度是犹大(Lebbaeus)和西蒙Zelotes不在这里提到她的儿子。 But they may have been her stepsons, or there may have other reasons for the omission.但他们可能已被她的继子,或有可能有遗漏等原因。'Judas of James' could scarcely have been the son of James, and Simon is expressly mentioned by Hegesippus as the son of Clopas.] and Christ's Mother's Sister' as 'Salome' [d St. Mark] and 'the mother of Zebedee's children.' “詹姆斯犹大”可能几乎一直是詹姆斯的儿子,和西蒙是明确Hegesippus提到的Clopas的儿子。]和基督的母亲的姐姐“为”莎乐美“[D圣马克]和”西庇太的孩子的母亲“ [e St. Matthew] Thus Salome, the wife of Zebedee and St.John's mother, was the sister of the Virgin, and the beloved disciple the cousin (on the mother's side) of Jesus, and the nephew of the Virgin.[E马太]因此莎乐美,和圣约翰的西庇太的母亲妻子是处女的妹妹,和心爱的弟子,耶稣表兄(在母亲的身边)和圣母的侄子。 This also helps to explain why the care of the Mother had been entrusted to him.这也有助于解释为什么一直照顾母亲托付给他。

Nor was Mary the wife of Clopas unconnected with Jesus.也不是玛丽的Clopas与耶稣无关的妻子。What we have every reason to regard as a trustworthy account [f Hegesippus in Euseb.我们有理由认为值得信赖帐户Euseb [F Hegesippus。HE iii.何三。11 and iv. 11和四。22] describes Clopas as the brother of Joseph, the husband of the Virgin. 22]描述为约瑟,圣母丈夫的弟弟Clopas。Thus, not only Salome as the sister of the Virgin, but Mary also as the wife of Clopas, would, in a certain sense, have been His aunt, and her sons His cousins.这样,不仅莎乐美作为处女妹妹,但玛丽也作为Clopas妻子,将在一定意义上说,是他的姑姑,她的儿子,他的表兄弟。

And so we notice among the twelve Apostles five cousins of the Lord: the two sons of Salome and Zebedee, and the three sons of Alphaeus or Clopas [1 Alphaeus and Clopas are the same name.因此,我们注意到其中的十二使徒five堂兄弟主:莎乐美和西庇太的两个儿子,和或Clopas亚勒腓的三个儿子[1亚勒腓和Clopas是相同的名称。 The first occurs in the Babylon Talmud as Ilphai, or Ilpha [ ] as in R. haSh.第一次发生[]在河哈希在与Ilphai巴比伦犹太法典,或Ilpha。17 b, and often; the other in the Jerusalem Talmud as Chilphai [ ] , as for ex.17 B,常,在耶路撒冷犹太法典作为Chilphai [],其他为前。in Jer.在哲。B. Kama 7 a.] and Mary: James, Judas surnamed Lebbaeus and Thaddaeus, and Simon surnamed Zelotes or Cananaean.B. A.卡马7]和玛丽:詹姆斯,犹大姓Lebbaeus和达太,和西蒙姓Zelotes或Cananaean。[2 I regard the Simon Zelotes of the list of Apostles as the Simon son of Clopas, or Alphaeus, of Hegesippus, first, because of his position in the lists of the Apostles along with the two other sons of Alphaeus; secondly, because, as there were only two prominent Simons in the NT (the brother of the Lord, and Zelotes), and Hegesippus mentions him as the son of Clopas, it follows that the Simon son of Clopas was Simon Zelotes. [2我认为有作为的Clopas西蒙的儿子,或亚勒腓的Hegesippus,第一,西蒙Zelotes使徒名单,因为他在使徒的名单位置以及另外两个儿子是亚勒腓;其次,因为,因为只有两个突出的西门子在新台币(主的兄弟,Zelotes)和Hegesippus提到作为他的儿子Clopas,它遵循的是,西蒙的儿子西蒙Clopas Zelotes。Levi Matthew was, indeed, also a son of Alphaeus, but we regard this as another Clopas than the husband of Mary.]列维马修是,事实上,也有亚勒腓的儿子,但我们认为这比玛丽的丈夫另一个​​Clopas这一点。]

We can now in some measure realise events.现在,我们可以实现一定程度的事件。When St. John had seen the Saviour nailed to the Cross, he had gone to the City and brought with him for a last mournful farewell the Virgin, accompanied by those who, as most nearly connected with her, would naturally be with her: her own sister Salome, the sister-in-law of Joseph and wife (or more probably widow) of Clopas, and her who of all others had experienced most of His blessed power to save, Mary of Magdala.当圣约翰看到救主钉在十字架,他去了城,并与他带来了最后的告别悲伤的圣母,那些谁,因为大多数几乎与她相连的陪同下,自然会与她:她的莎乐美自己的妹妹,妹妹女婿约瑟夫和妻子Clopas(或更有可能的遗孀),和她谁所有其他人经历过他的祝福,以节省电力,抹大拉的玛丽最。 Once more we reverently mark His Divine calm of utter self-forgetfulness and His human thoughtfulness for others.我们再一次虔诚地纪念他的彻底自我健忘神圣平静,他对人体贴人。As they stood under the Cross, He committed His Mother to the disciple whom He loved, and established a new human relationship between him and her who was nearest to Himself.当他们站在十字架下,他承诺他的母亲给他的弟子人的喜爱,并建立了一个新的他和她之间的关系谁是人类最接近自己。 [3 Incongruous though the interruption be, we cannot help noticing that the introduction of such a scene seems inconsistent with the whole theory of an Ephesian authorship of the Fourth Gospel.[3异向虽然中断,但我们不能不注意到的是,这样的场景似乎与引进的第四福音以弗所作者全部理论不一致。

On the other hand, it displays evidence of the true human interest of an actor in the scene.] And calmly, earnestly, and immediately did that disciple undertake the sacred charge, and bring her, whose soul the sword had pierced, away from the scene of unutterable woe to the shelter of his home.另一方面,它显示了真实场景中的演员人类利益的证据。]冷静,认真,并立即做了神圣的弟子进行充电,并把她的灵魂的剑刺穿了,离难言荣辱与共的现场,他家的住房。 [4 Nothing is really known of the later history of the Blessed Virgin.] And this temporary absence of John from the Cross may account for the want of all detail in his narrative till quite the closing scene. [4真的没有什么是已知的圣母后来的历史。]而这种约翰从十字架暂时缺席可能占所有想在他的叙述,直到完全结束现场的细节。[a St. John xix. [一个圣约翰十九。28.] 28。]

Now at last all that concerned the earthward aspect of His Mission, so far as it had to be done on the Cross, was ended.现在终于一切有关他的使命地向方面,到目前为止,因为它必须在十字架上完成,被结束。 He had prayed for those who had nailed Him to it, in ignorance of what they did; He had given the comfort of assurance to the penitent, who had owned His Glory in His Humiliation; and He had made the last provision of love in regard to those nearest to Him.他祈祷为那些谁钉了他吧,在他们所做的无知,他已经考虑到保证舒适的忏悔,谁拥有了在他的羞辱他的荣耀和他做了爱就最后条款那些最接近他。 So to speak, the relations of His Humanity, that which touched His Human Nature in any direction, had been fully met.可以这么说,他的人性,这里面提到他在任何方向的人性,两国关系得到了充分满足。He had done with the Human aspect of His Work and with earth.他做了与他的工作,并与地球人的方面。And, appropriately, Nature seemed now to take sad farewell of Him, and mourned its departing Lord, Who, by His Personal connection with it, had once more lifted it from the abasement of the Fall into the region of the Divine, making it the dwelling-place, the vehicle for the manifestation, and the obedient messenger of the Divine.而且,适当,自然似乎现在利用他伤心告别,并哀悼其离开主,谁,由他个人与它连接,再次解除了从它进入秋季屈辱的神圣区域,使其成为住宅位,为表现形式,和听话的神圣使者车辆。

For three hours had the Saviour hung on the Cross.三个小时有救世主挂在十字架上。It was midday.这是中午。And now the Sun was craped in darkness from the sixth to the ninth hour.现在太阳craped在黑暗中从第六至第九小时。No purpose can be served by attempting to trace the source of this darkness.没有目的可以送达试图追查这黑暗的来源。It could not have been an eclipse, since it was the time of full moon; nor can we place reliance on the later reports on this subject of ecclesiastical writers.它已经不能蚀,因为它是满月时,也不能放在我们对这个教会作家主体的后报告的依赖。[1 I do not think the testimony of Phlegon, as quoted by Eusebius, is available (see the discussion in Wieseler's Synopse, p. 387, note 1). [1我不认为Phlegon证词,由尤西比乌斯引用,可用(参见Wieseler的Synopse讨论,第387页,注1)。Still, if the astronomical calculations of Ideler and Wurm are correct, 'the eclipse' recorded by Phlegon [whether 'eclipse' in the scientific sense, or 'darkness,'] would have taken place in the very year of our Lord's death, AD 29, but, as they reckon, on November 24.不过,如果Ideler和亚龙的天文计算是正确的,“这次月食”由Phlegon录[是否“蚀”的科学意义上的,还是“黑暗”]会采取在当年我们的上帝的死亡地点,AD 29,但是,他们估计11月24日。

I do not possess the special knowledge requisite to verify these calculations; but that it is described by Phlegon as an 'eclipse', which this could not have been, does not necessarily invalidate the argument, since he might have used the term inaccurately.我不具备必要的专业知识来验证这些计算,但它是由Phlegon形容为“蚀”,它不可能一直这样,并不一定无效的说法,因为他可能使用的术语不准确。 It is in this sense that St. Luke (xxiii. 45) uses the verb, that is, if we adopt the amended reading.正是在这个意义上,圣卢克(xxiii. 45)使用动词,也就是说,如果我们采用经修订的阅读。What Nebe writes on this subject (vol. ii. p. 301), and the illustrations of the popular use of the word from Pliny and Plutarch, deserve the most serious consideration.什么Nebe写在这个问题(第二卷,第301页),以及从普林尼和普鲁塔克字普遍使用的插图,值得认真考虑。 But, I repeat, I cannot attach weight in this argument to such testimonies, nor yet to the sayings of Origen, Tertullian, &c., nor to the Acta Pilati (the ecclesiastical testimonies are discussed by Nebe, usp 299).]不过,我再说一遍,我不能将这个参数重量等证词,也未对奥利,良,&C的说法,也不向文献皮拉蒂(教会的证词是由Nebe,USP 299中讨论)。]

It seems only in accordance with the Evangelic narrative to regard the occurrence of the event as supernatural, while the event itself might have been brought about by natural causes; and among these we must call special attention to the earthquake in which this darkness terminated.它似乎只与福音叙事方面的作为根据超自然事件的发生,而事件本身所带来的可能是自然原因有关,而在这些问题,我们必须调用特别注意在此黑暗终止地震。 [a St. Matt.[一个圣马特。 xxvii.二十七。51.] For, it is a well-known phenomenon that such darkness not infrequently precedes earthquakes. 51]因为,这是一个众所周知的现象并不罕见,这种黑暗之前地震。On the other hand, it must be freely admitted, that the language of the Evangelists seems to imply that this darkness extended, not only over the land of Israel, but over the inhabited earth.另一方面,必须坦率地承认,认为语言的福音,这似乎暗示黑暗扩展,不仅在以色列的土地,但在有人居住的地球。The expression must, of course, not be pressed to its full literality, but explained as meaning that it extended far beyond Judaea and to other lands.该表达式必须的,当然,不能充分发挥其直译压,但解释为意味着它远远超出了犹太和其他土地的扩展。

No reasonable objection can be raised from the circumstance, that neither the earthquake nor the preceding darkness are mentioned by any profane writer whose works have been preserved, since it would surely not be maintained that an historical record must have been preserved of every earthquake that occurred, and of every darkness that may have preceded it.无异议,可提出合理的情况下,即无论是地震前的黑暗,也不是任何世俗的作家,其作品已被保存提到的,因为它肯定是不会维持一个历史记录必须被每一个地震发生的保存,和每一个黑暗,可能早于它。 [2 There are frequent notices in classical writers of eclipses preceding disastrous events or the death of great men, such as of Caesar (Nebe, usp 300).[2有在前面的灾难性事件或伟人,如凯撒,(Nebe,USP 300)死亡日食经典作家经常告示。But these were, if correctly related, eclipses in the true sense, and, as such, natural events, having in no way a supernatural bearing, and hence in no sense analogous to this 'darkness' at the Crucifixion.] But the most unfair argument is that, which tries to establish the unhistorical character of this narrative by an appeal to what are described as Jewish sayings expressive of similar expectancy.但这些人,如果能正确有关,在真正意义上的日食,月食,因此,自然事件,决不有一种超自然的关系,因此在没有任何意义类似于这种“黑暗”在十字架上。]但最不公平理由是,它试图通过上诉的这种叙事文​​保字符是什么预期表现为类似的犹太谚语形容。

[1 So Strauss (after Wetstein) and even Keim.[1所以斯特劳斯(后Wetstein),甚至凯姆。Painful as controversy is in connection with the last hours of Jesus, I would not have shrunk from contesting the positions of Keim, if I had not felt that every unprejudiced person must see, that most of them are mere assertions, without an attempt at anything like historical evidence.] It is quite true that in old Testament prophecy, whether figuratively or really, the darkening, though not only of the sun, but also of the moon and stars, is sometimes connected, not with the Coming of Messiah, still less with His Death, but with the final Judgement.痛苦的争论与耶稣的最后几个小时的连接,我也不会缩水,从参选的凯姆的位置,如果我没有感到不带偏见的人都必须看到,他们大多数都只是断言,如果没有在任何企图喜欢历史的见证。]这是很不错,在旧约的预言,无论是形象还是真的,在昏暗,但不是唯一的太阳,也是月亮和星星,有时连接,不与未来的弥赛亚,仍与他的死亡,但最后的判决少。 [2 Strauss (ii. p. 556), and more fully Keim (iii. p. 438, Note 3), quote Joel ii. [2斯特劳斯(白介素第556页),并更充分凯姆(III.第438页,注3),报价乔尔二。10, 31; Amos viii. 10,31;阿莫斯八。9; Is. 9;的。xiii.十三。10; 1.10:1。3; Job ix.3,作业九。7; Jer.7;耶。xv.十五。9.9。Of these passages some have no bearing, however remote, on the subject, while the others refer not to the Messiah but to the final judgement.]其中有些段落有没有关系,但是关于这个问题的远端,而其他提到的不是弥赛亚,但到最后的判决。]

But Jewish tradition never speaks of such an event in connection with Messiah, or even with the Messianic judgments, and the quotations from Rabbinic writings made by negative critics must be characterised as not only inapplicable but even unfair.但是,犹太传统从来没有谈到这样一个与弥赛亚连接事件,甚至与救世主的判断,并从负面的批评作出拉比著作的报价必须被视为不仅不适用,但更不公平的特点。 [3 To be quite fair, I will refer to all the passages quoted in connection with the darkening of the sun as a token of mourning.[3是相当公平的,我会把所有与太阳变暗作为一种象征哀悼的连接引用的段​​落。

The first (quoted by Wetstein) is from the Midrash on Lament.第一个(由Wetstein引用)从上离骚米德拉士。iii.三。28 (ed. Warsh. p. 72 a). 28(编辑沃什,第72)。But the passage, evidently a highly figurative one, refers to the destruction of Jerusalem and the dispersion of Israel, and, besides the darkening of the sun, moon, and stars (not the sun only), refers to a realistic fulfilment of Nah.但通过,显然是高度形象化之一,是指耶路撒冷的毁灭和以色列分散,而且,除了太阳,月亮和星星(不是太阳只)变暗,是指NAH实际履行。 i.3 and Lament.3,慨叹。iii.三。28 in God's walking in dust and keeping silence.在神的尘土,保持沉默走28。The second quotation of Wetstein, that when a great Rabbi dies it is as portentous as if the sun went down at midday, has manifestly no bearing whatever on the matter in hand (though Strauss adduces it).第二次报价的Wetstein,当一个伟大的拉比去世是因为自命不凡,仿佛太阳在中午去了,也明显没有关系的事无论在手(尽管斯特劳斯举出它)。 The last and only quotation really worth mention is from Sukk.最后,只有报价实在值得一提的是从Sukk。29 a.29 A。In a somewhat lengthened statement there, the meaning of an obscuration of the sun or moon is discussed.在有些加长语句那里,一个朦胧的太阳或月亮的含义进行了讨论。I have here to remark (1) that these phenomena are regarded as 'signs' in the sense of betokening coming judgments, such as war, famine, &c., and that these are supposed to affect various nations according as the eclipse is towards the rising or setting of the sun.我这里要注(1),这些现象被视为“标志”中的betokening未来的判断意义,如战争,饥荒,&C,而这些都应该根据影响各国的月食是朝着上升或太阳的设置。

The passage therefore can have no possible connection with such a phenomenon as the death of Messiah.因此,该通道可以没有这样的作为弥赛亚死亡现象可能的连接。(2) This is further confirmed by the enumeration of certain sins for which heavenly luminaries are eclipsed. (2)这是进一步证实了对这些天上的灯具都黯然失色某些罪枚举。Some are not fit for mention, while others are such as false witness-bearing, the needless cutting down of fruit-trees, &c.有些人不适合提,而其他如虚假证人轴承,不用切割的果树以降,下略(3) But the unfairness, as well as the inaptitude, of the quotation appears from this, that only the beginning of the passage is quoted (Strauss and Keim): 'At a time when the sun is obscured, it is an evil sign to all the world,' while what follows is omitted: 'When the sun is obscured, it is an evil sign to the nations of the world; when the moon is obscured, it is an evil sign to Israel, because Israel reckons according to the moon, the nations of the world according to the sun.' (3)但是,不公平,以及inaptitude的报价,似乎从这个,这仅仅是开始,是通过引用(施特劳斯和凯姆):“在一个当太阳被遮住的时候,它是一个邪恶的标志所有的世界“,而接下来被省略了:”当太阳遮住,这是一个邪恶的标志,世界各国,当月球遮蔽,这是一个邪恶的标志,以色列,因为以色列根据估计月亮,是根据太阳世界民族之林。“ And yet Wunsche (Erlauter. pp. 355, 356) quotes both that which precedes and that which follows this passage, but leaves out this passage itself.然而Wunsche(Erlauter.第355,356)报价都认为这之前,并且它遵循这样一段话,但留下了这段话本身。 (Comp. Mechilta, p. 3 b.](Comp. Mechilta,第3 B.]

But to return from this painful digression.但是,为了回报这个痛苦的题外话。The three hours' darkness was such not only to Nature; Jesus, also, entered into darkness: Body, Soul, and Spirit.三个小时的黑暗是如此,不仅自然,耶稣,也进入黑暗:身体,灵魂和精神。It was now, not as before, a contest, but suffering.这是现在,而不是像以前那样,竞赛,而是痛苦。Into this, to us, fathomless depth of the mystery of His Sufferings, we dare not, as indeed we cannot, enter.到这一点,我们对他的苦难的奥秘深不可测的深入,我们也不敢,因为我们确实不能进入。It was of the Body; yet not of the Body only, but of physical life.它是身体;但不是唯一的身体,但身体的生活。And it was of the Soul and Spirit; yet not of them alone, but in their conscious relation to man and to God.并且它的灵魂和精神,然而他们并不孤独,但在他们的意识与人与神。And it was not of the Human only in Christ, but in its indissoluble connection with the Divine: of the Human, where it reached the utmost verge of humiliation to body, soul, and spirit, and in it of the Divine, to utmost self-examination.而且它不是唯一的基督人,但在其与神圣不可分割的联系:人权,它达到了最屈辱的边缘身体,灵魂和精神,在它的神圣,以最大限度的自我检查。

The increasing, nameless agonies of the Crucifixion were deepening into the bitterness of death.日益增加,对受难无名痛苦是深化到死亡的痛苦。All nature shrinks from death, and there is a physical horror of the separation between body and soul which, as a purely natural phenomenon, is in every instance and overcome, and that only by a higher principle.从死亡的所有自然收缩,并有一个身体和心灵之间的,作为一种纯粹的自然现象,是在每一个实例,并克服分离的物理恐怖,只有通过更高的原则。 And we conceive that the purer the being the greater the violence of the tearing asunder of the bond with which God Almighty originally bound together body and soul.而我们设想的更纯净的作为越大,与上帝的全能原本结合在一起的身体和灵魂债券撕裂四分五裂的暴力行为。In the Perfect Man this must have reached the highest degree.在这个完美的人必须达到的最高程度。So, also, had in those dark hours the sense of man-forsakenness and His own isolation from man; so, also, had the intense silence of God, the withdrawal of God, the sense of His God-forsakenness and absolute loneliness.因此,也有在那些黑暗的时间内人为forsakenness和他的从人自身的孤立感,因此,也有强烈的沉默神,神的撤离,他的神forsakenness和绝对的孤独感。

We dare not here speak of punitive suffering, but of forsakenness and loneliness.我们不敢在这里讲的惩罚性的痛苦,但forsakenness溢于言表。And yet as we ask ourselves how this forsakeness can be though of as so complete in view of His Divine consciousness, which at least could not have been wholly extinguished by His Self-examination, we feel that yet another element must be taken into account.然而当我们问自己,如何forsakeness可以看作所以在他的神的意识,其中至少不可能全数由他的自我检查extinguished查看完整不过,我们觉得又一个环节都必须考虑。 Christ on the Cross suffered for man; He offered Himself a sacrifice; He died as the Representative of man, for man and in room of man; He obtained for man 'eternal redemption, ' [a Hebr.基督在十字架上所受的人,他提出自己牺牲;他死的人代表了人与人的房间;他的人“永恒的赎回,”[1黑布尔获得。ix.九。12] having given His Life 'a ransom,[b St. Matt.12]有鉴于他的生活'了赎金,[B圣马特。xx.XX。28] for many.28]许多。 For, men were 'redeemed' with the 'precious Blood of Christ, as of a Lamb without blemish and without spot;' [c 1 Pet.因为,男人是“赎回”与“基督的宝血,作为一个没有污点的羔羊,没有现货; [C 1宠物。i.19] and Christ 'gave Himself for us, that He might "redeem" us from all iniquity; [d Tit. 19]和基督给了我们自己,那他可能“赎回”我们所有的罪孽; [D山雀。ii.II。14] He 'gave Himself "a ransom" for all;' [e 1 Tim.14]他“给了自己所有的”赎金“,”[E 1蒂姆。ii.II。6.] Christ died for all;' [f2 Cor.6]基督死的所有“; [F2肺心病。v. 15.] Him, Who knew no sin, God 'made sin for us;' 'Christ redeemed us from the curse of the Law, having become a curse for us', and this, with express reference to the Crucifixion.诉15]他,谁知道没有罪,神“为我们的罪作出;'。”基督救赎从律法的咒诅我们,已成为我们的一个诅咒“,而这一点,与明确提到的十字架。

[g Ga. iii.[G佐治亚州第三。13.] This sacrificial, vicarious, expiatory, and redemptive character of His Death, if it does not explain to us, yet helps us to understand, Christ's sense of God-forsakenness in the supreme moment of the Cross; if one might so word it, the passive character of His activeness through the active character of His passiveness. 13]这牺牲,替代,赎罪,和他的死亡救赎的字符,如果它不向我们解释,但可以帮助我们了解,在十字架的最高时刻基督的神forsakenness感;如果有可能使字它,他通过他的消极被动的积极性格活跃人物。

It was this combination of the Old Testament idea of sacrifice, and of the Old Testament ideal of willing suffering as the Servant of Jehovah, now fulfilled in Christ, which found its fullest expression in the language of the twenty-second Psalm.正是这种牺牲和痛苦的愿意旧约理想作为耶和华的仆人现在在基督完成,从而发现在第二十二届诗篇的语言中得到充分表达旧约思想的结合。 It was fitting, rather, it was true, that the willing suffering of the true Sacrifice should now find vent in its opening words: 'My God, My God, why hast Thou forsaken Me?', Eli, Eli, lema sabachthanei? (Matthew 27:46)[1 So in St. matthew, according to the best reading.这是配件,相反,它是真实的,那是真正愿意牺牲的痛苦现在应该找到发泄在其开场白:“?我的上帝,我的上帝,为什么离弃我”,礼,礼,勒马sabachthanei(马太福音27:46)[1因此,在圣马太,根据最好的阅读。 In St. Mark, Eloi, Eloi [apparently the Syriac form], lema sabachthanei? (Mark 15:34).在圣马克, 埃洛伊,埃洛伊[显然是叙利亚形式],勒马sabachthanei?(马可福音15:34)。 Might it be that St. Matthew represents the current Judaean or Galilean dialect, and St. Mark the Syrian, and that this casts light alike on the dialects in Palestine at the time of Christ, and even, to some extent, on the composition of the Gospels, and the land in which they were written?可能不会是圣马太表示当前Judaean或伽利略方言,和圣马克叙利亚,并认为这对演员的光都在基督时代的方言在巴勒斯坦,甚至对组成,在一定程度上,福音书,以及土地,他们写的? The Targum renders Ps.该Targum呈现聚苯乙烯。xxii.二十二。2: Eli, Eli, metul mah shebhaqtani?2:礼,礼,metul麻将shebhaqtani?('On account of what hast Thou forsaken me?').](“论什么离弃我的帐户?').]

These words, cried with a loud voice [2 This in the extreme agony of soul, not to mark His Divinity.] at the close of the period of extreme agony, [3 'About the ninth hour.'这些话,就大声喊道[2极度痛苦的灵魂这不是为纪念他的神性。]在极度痛苦期结束后,[3“关于第九个小时。”I cannot bring myself here to discuss the supposed analogous quotations of Ps.我不能让自己在这里讨论的PS应该类似报价。 xxii.二十二。1 in Rabbinic writings. 1在拉比的著作。The comparison is equally inapt and irreverent.] marked the climax and the end of this suffering of Christ, of which the utmost compass was the withdrawal of God and the felt loneliness of the Sufferer.这种比较是同样inapt和不敬。]标记的高潮和本基督的苦难,其中最大的指南针是上帝的撤出和对患者感到孤独结束。 But they that stood by the Cross, misinterpreting the meaning, and mistaking the opening words for the name Elias, imagined that the Sufferer had called for Elias.但他们认为站在交叉,曲解含义,误以为该名称埃利亚斯想到,患者已经为埃利亚斯称,开头语。We can scarcely doubt, that these were the soldiers who stood by the Cross.我们几乎可以肯定,这些士兵是站在谁的十字架。They were not necessarily Romans; on the contrary, as we have seen, these Legions were generally recruited from Provincials.他们不一定是罗马人,相反,正如我们所看到的,这些军团一般由外省人招聘。

On the other hand, no Jew would have mistaken Eli for the name of Elijah, not yet misinterpreted a quotation of Psalm xxii.另一方面,没有犹太人会误认为以利亚名礼,尚未误解的诗篇二十二报价。1 as a call for that prophet.作为该先知电话1。And it must be remembered, that the words were not whispered, but cried with a loud voice.它必须记住,这两个词并不小声,但一个响亮的声音喊道。But all entirely accords with the misunderstanding of non-Jewish soldiers, who, as the whole history shows, had learned from His accusers and the infuriated mob snatches of a distorted story of the Christ.但是,所有完全符合非犹太士兵,谁,因为整个历史表明,从他的指控和一个扭曲的基督故事激怒暴民抢据悉误解。

And presently the Sufferer emerged on the other side.而目前的患者出现在另一边。It can scarcely have been a minute or two from the time that the cry from the twenty-second Psalm marked the high-point of His Agony, when the words 'I thirst' [a St. John xix.它可以从几乎一直是两分钟的时间,从第二十二届诗篇哭标志着他的痛苦,高点时的话:“我渴”[1圣约翰十九。28.] seem to indicate, by the prevalence of the merely human aspect of the suffering, that the other and more terrible aspect of sin-bearing and God-forsakenness was past. 28]似乎表明,受的苦难仅仅是人的方面的盛行,使罪轴承和神forsakenness其他更可怕的方面是过去。To us, therefore, this seems the beginning, if not of Victory, yet of Rest, of the End.对我们来说,因此,这似乎是开始,如果没有胜利,但在休息,结束。St. John alone records this Utterance, prefacing it with this distinctive statement, that Jesus so surrendered Himself to the human feeling, seeking the bodily relief by expressing His thirst: 'knowing that all things were now finished, that the Scripture might be fulfilled.'圣约翰仅记录本话语,前面加上这种独特的声明中,耶稣使自首的人的感觉,寻求以表达他渴望身体的救济:“知道所有的事情现在已经完成,该经文可能实现。 “

[1 The words last quoted can, of course, and have by most writers been connected with the thirst of Christ, as the fulfilment of Ps. [1最后引用的话当然可以,和大多数作家都被连接与基督的渴望,因为PS的履行。lxix.lxix。21.21。But the structure of the sentence leads rather to the punctuation adopted in the text, while I have the greatest difficulty in applying Ps.但句子结构,而导致在文本采用的标点符号,而我在申请诗的最大困难。lxix.lxix。21 in the manner proposed, and still more grave objection to the idea that Christ uttered the words in order to fulfil the Psalm, although the word 'that' must, as previously shown (p. 503), not be taken in the sense of 'in order that.' 21建议的方式,和更严重的反对的想法基督说出的话,以履行诗篇,虽然这个词“说”必须如前所示(第503),而不是在意义上采取“为了这一点。” There is, of course, a tertium quid, and the Evangelist may be supposed to have expressed only his own sense that the Scripture was fulfilled, when he saw the thirst of the Saviour quenched in the 'vinegar' of the soldiers.有,当然,tertium镑,和传播者可能应该有表达只有他自己感觉到,圣经被满​​足,当他看到了救世主的渴望在“醋”的士兵淬火。 But in that case we should expect the words 'that the Scripture might be fulfilled,' placed after the 'I thirst.']但在这种情况下,我们应该期待的话“,认为圣经可能实现,”后放置'我渴。“]

In other words, the climax of Theanthropic Suffering in His feeling of God-forsakenness, which had led to the utterance of Psalm xxii.换句话说,在Theanthropic苦难在他的神forsakenness,这导致了诗篇二十二话语感觉高潮。1, was now, to His consciousness, the end of all which in accordance with Scripture-prediction He had to bear. 1,现在,以他的意识,所有这与圣经,根据预测,他不得不承担的结束。He now could and did yield Himself to the mere physical wants of His Body.他现在可以而且也产生自己的身体仅仅希望他的身体。

It seems as if St. John, having perhaps just returned to the scene, and standing with the women 'afar off,' beholding these things, [a St. Luke xxiii.它好像圣约翰,有可能只是返回现场,并站在女子远处,“仰望这些东西,[一个圣卢克二十三。49.] had hastened forward on the cry from Psalm xxii., [2 Whether or not he heard the words of the cry.] and heard Him express the feeling of thirst, which immediately followed. 49]曾就赶紧从诗篇二十二哭泣着。[2无论他听到了哭泣的话。]和听到他表达了口渴的感觉,这紧接着。And so St. John alone supplies the link between that cry and the movement on the part of the soldiers, which St. Matthew and St. Mark, as well as St. John, report.因此圣约翰独自用品上的士兵组成部分之间的联系和运动的呐喊,其中圣马修和圣马克,以及圣约翰的报告。For, it would be impossible to understand why, on what the soldiers regarded as a call for Elijah, one of them should have hastened to relieve His thirst, but for the Utterance recorded in the Fourth Gospel.因为,就不可能理解为什么,有什么作为以利亚,其中一人叫都把士兵应该赶紧解除他的干渴,但在第四福音记载的话语。 But we can quite understand it, if the Utterance, 'I thirst,' followed immediately on the previous cry.但是,我们可以很明白,如果话语,“我渴”,随后立即在上哭。

One of the soldiers, may we not be allowed to believe, one who either had already learned from that Cross, or was about to learn, to own Him Lord, moved by sympathy, now ran to offer some slight refreshment to the Sufferer by filling a sponge with the rough wine of the soldiers and putting it to His lips, having first fastened it to the stem ('reed') of the caper ('hyssop'), which is said to grow to the height of even two or three feet.其中一名士兵,可我们不能相信,谁不是已经学到的十字架,或正要学习,他自己的主,由同情感动,现在跑了提供茶点填写一些轻微的患者与战士们粗糙的葡萄酒并把它举到嘴边,先有固定它的跳跃干(“芦苇”)(“牛膝草”),据说这是长到甚至两三个高度海绵脚。 [3 Comp.[3比赛。Tristram Nat.崔斯特瑞姆的NAT。 Hist.历史。of the Bible, p.圣经的,第 457.] But, even so, this act of humanity was not allowed to pass unchallenged by the coarse jibes of the others who would bid him leave the relief of the Sufferer to the agency of Elijah, which in their opinion He had invoked. 457。]但是,即便如此,这种人类行为是不允许通过由其他人谁就会叫他离开的患者救济的以利亚,这在他们看来,他援引机构粗嘲弄受到挑战。Nor should we perhaps wonder at the weakness of that soldier himself, who, though he would not be hindered in his good deed, yet averted the opposition of the others by apparently joining in their mockery.也许我们也不应怀疑在该士兵自己的弱点,谁,但他不会在他的好事阻碍,但避免了显然是在​​其参加的嘲弄别人的反对。 [b St. Matt.[B圣马特。xxvii.二十七。48, 49; St. Mark xv. 48,49;圣马克十五。36.] 36。]

By accepting the physical refreshment offered Him, the Lord once more indicated the completion of the work of His Passion.通过接受身体点心给他,主再一次表明了他的工作激情完成。For, as He would not enter on it with His senses and physical consciousness lulled by narcotised wine, so He would not pass out of it with senses and physical consciousness dulled by the absolute failure of life-power.因为,因为他不会在它进入他的感官和体育意识的narcotised酒麻痹,所以他不会传递出来的感官和体育意识的生命的力量绝对失败迟钝。 Hence He took what for the moment restored the physical balance, needful for thought and word.因此,他采取了什么暂时恢复了身体平衡,思考和文字needful。And so He immediately passed on to 'taste death for every man.'于是他立即通过了“为每个人口味的死亡。”到For, the two last 'sayings' of the Saviour now followed in rapid succession: first, that with a loud voice, which expressed it, that the work given Him to do, as far as concerned His Passion, was 'finished;' (John 19:30) [a St. John.] and then, that in the words of Psalm xxxi.因为,在最后两个“说法”的救世主现在遵循的快速继承:第一,用响亮的声音,这表示它,这项工作给他做,就有关他的激情,是“成品”;(约翰19:30)[一个圣约翰],然后,在诗篇三十一的话。5, in which He commended His Spirit into the Hands of the Father. (Luke 23:46) [b St. Luke.]5, 赞扬他的精神到了父亲的手。(路加福音23:46)[B圣卢克。]

Attempts at comment could only weaken the solemn thoughts which the words awaken.在评论企图只能削弱它的话唤醒庄严的想法。Yet some points should be noted for our teaching.然而,有些点应该注意到我们的教学。His last cry 'with a loud voice' was not like that of one dying.他最后一声“随着一声声”是不是像一个奄奄一息。St. Mark notes, that this made such deep impression on the Centurion.圣马可指出,这百夫长就这样深刻的印象。[c St. Mark xv.[C圣马克十五。 39.] In the language of the early Christian hymn, it was not Death which approached Christ, but Christ Death: He died without death.39]在早期基督教赞美诗的语言,它不是死亡的接近基督,但基督的死:他没有死亡死亡。 [1 En pessima, non tu Pervenis ad Christum, sed Christus pervenit ad te, Cui licuit sine morte mori. [1恩pessima,非广告Christum TU Pervenis,SED CHRISTUS pervenit广告特,崔licuit正弦莫提森。 Sedulius.] Christ encountered Death, not as conquered, but as the Conqueror. Sedulius。]基督遇到死亡,而不是征服,而是作为征服者。And this also was part of His work, and for us: now the beginning of His Triumph.而这也是他工作的一部分,并为我们:现在他的胜利的开始。And with this agrees the peculiar language of St. John, that He 'bowed the Head, and gave up the Spirit'.而与此一致的圣约翰奇特的语言,让他“鞠躬头,并放弃了精神”。

Nor should we fail to mark the peculiarities of His last Utterance.我们不能也不应该以纪念他最后的话语的特殊性。The 'My God' of the fourth Utterance had again passed into the 'Father' of conscious fellowship. “我的上帝”的第四话语再次传递到“父亲”的意识奖学金。And yet neither in the Hebrew original of this Psalm, nor in its Greek rendering by the LXX., does the word 'Father' occur.然而无论是在希伯来文原来这诗篇,也没有在其由LXX。希腊渲染这个词“父亲”时有发生。Again, in the LXX.再次,在LXX。translation of the Hebrew text this word expressive of entrustment, the commending, is in the future tense; on the lips of our Lord it is in the present tense.在希伯来文翻译这个词表达的委托,表彰,在未来的紧张;在我们的主的嘴唇它在目前紧张的。[2 So according to the better reading.] And the word, in its New Testament sense, means not merely commending: it is to deposit, to commit for safe keeping. [2因此,根据更好的阅读]和字,在其新约意义,意味着不只是赞扬:它是存款,承诺保管。[3 Comp.[3比赛。the use of the verb in such passages as St. Luke xii.在这样的圣卢克十二通道使用的动词。48; Acts xiv.48;徒十四。 23; xx.23,XX。32; 1 Tim.32; 1蒂姆。i.18; 2 Tim.18,2添。ii.II。2.] That in dying, or rather meeting and overcoming Death, He chose and adapted these words, is matter for deepest thankfulness to the Church. 2]认为在死亡,或者更确切地说,会议和克服死亡,他选择和调整了这些话,是最深切的感谢教会的事。

He spoke them for His people in a twofold sense: on their behalf, that they might be able to speak them; and 'for them,' that henceforth they might speak them after Him.他谈到他的人民在他们的双重意义:代表他们,他们也许能说话;及“对他们来说,”从今以后,他们可能会说他以后他们。How many thousands have pillowed their heads on them when going to rest!数以千计的多少枕在头上时,他们要休息了!They were the last words of a Polycarp, a Bernard, Huss, Luther, and Melanchthon.他们是一个波利卡普,一个伯纳德,胡斯,路德和梅兰希顿的最后一句话。And to us also they may be the fittest and the softest lullaby.而我们也可能是最软的优胜劣汰和摇篮曲。And in 'the Spirit' which He had committed to God did He now descend into Hades, 'and preached unto the spirits in prison.'而在“精神”这是他致力于上帝没有他现在下到地狱,“和你们在监狱的精神宣扬。”[a 1 Pet.[1宠物。iii.三。18, 19.] But behind this great mystery have closed the two-leaved gates of brass, which only the Hand of the Conqueror could burst open.18日,19]但是这背后大有玄机已关闭的黄铜两叶门,其中仅手的征服者可以爆裂开来。

And now a shudder ran through Nature, as its Sun had set.而现在不寒而栗贯穿自然,因为它的太阳已成立。 We dare not do more than follow the rapid outlines of the Evangelic narrative.我们不敢做的比遵循福音叙事的轮廓更加迅速。 As the first token, it records the rending of the Temple-Veil in two from the top downward to the bottom; as the second, the quaking of the earth, the rending of the rocks and the opening of the graves.作为第一个标记,它记录了从自上而下的底部的两个寺面纱认定,作为第二,地球,心碎的岩石和开放的坟墓发抖。 Although most writers have regarded this as indicating the strictly chronological succession, there is nothing in the text to bind us to such a conclusion.虽然大多数作家都视为表示严格按时间顺序继承这一点,在文中有没有什么约束我们这样一个结论。Thus, while the rending of the Veil is recorded first, as being the most significant token to Israel, it may have been connected with the earthquake, although this alone might scarcely account for the tearing of so heavy a Veil from the top to the bottom.因此,虽然心碎的面纱记录第一,作为是最重要的象征以色列,它可能已被连接的地震,但仅此可能几乎占撕裂从上如此沉重的面纱的底部。

Even the latter circumstance has its significance.即使是后者的情况有其意义。That some great catastrophe, betokening the impending destruction of the Temple, had occurred in the Sanctuary about this very time, is confirmed by not less than four mutually independent testimonies: those of Tacitus, [1 Hist.这一些大灾难,betokening圣殿即将毁灭,曾在这个非常时期保护区发生的,由不少于四个相互独立的证词证实:塔西人,[1组织胺。 v. 13.] of Josephus, [2 Jew.五,13]的约瑟夫,[2犹太人。War vi.战争六。5, 3.] of the Talmud, [3 Jer. 5,3]的犹太法典,[3哲。Yoma 43 c; Yoma 39 b.] and of earliest Christian tradition.山脉43 C;山脉B. 39]和最早的基督教传统。[4 So in the Gospel according to the Hebrews, from which St. Jerome quotes (in Matt. xxvii. 51, and in a letter to Hedibia) to the effect, that the huge lintel of the Temple was broken and splintered, and fell. [4因此,在根据希伯来福音,从中圣杰罗姆引号(在太二十七51,并在给Hedibia字母)的效果,那巨大的神殿门楣被打破和分裂,摔。St. Jerome connects the rending of the Veil with this, and it would seem an obvious inference to connect again this breaking of the lintel with an earthquake.]圣杰罗姆与此相连的面纱的认定,它似乎一个明显的推论再次连接与地震这一门楣断裂。]

The most important of these are, of course, the Talmud and Josephus.其中最重要的是,当然,犹太法典和约瑟夫。The latter speaks of the mysterious extinction of the middle and chief light in the Golden Candlestick, forty years before the destruction of the Temple; and both he and the Talmud refer to a supernatural opening by themselves of the great Temple-gates that had been previously closed, which was regarded as a portent of the coming destruction of the Temple.后者讲的是在黄金烛台,四十前的圣殿被毁年中,总的光神秘的灭绝,以及他和塔木德指的是自己的伟大寺大门超自然开放了以前封闭的,这是作为未来的圣殿毁灭预兆认为。 We can scarcely doubt, that some historical fact must underlie so peculiar and widespread a tradition, and we cannot help feeling that it may be a distorted version of the occurrence of the rending of the Temple-Veil (or of its report) at the Crucifixion of Christ.我们可以几乎怀疑,一些历史事实必须的基础,以便奇特和广泛的一个传统,我们不禁感慨,这可能是对的寺面纱(或报告)认定发生在受难扭曲版本基督。 [5 A story is told in Jewish tradition (Gitt, 56 b, about the middle; Ber. R. 10; Vayyik. R. 22, and in other places) to the effect that, among other vilenesses, 'Titus the wicked' had penetrated into the Sanctuary, and cut through the Veil of the Most Holy Place with his sword, when blood dropped down.[5 A的故事告诉记者,在犹太传统(Gitt,56 B,对中间;误码率10条规则; Vayyik R. 22,而在其他地方)的影响,除其他vilenesses,“泰特斯恶人”已经渗透到了保护区,并通过与他的剑,当血液掉了下来至圣所面纱削减。

I mention the legend to express my emphatic protest against the manner in which Dr. Joel (Blicke in d. Religionsgesch. i. pp. 7, 8, treating of the passage in the Midr. on Lam. ii. 17) has made use of it.我提到的传说,表达反对在其中博士乔尔(Blicke在D Religionsgesch。岛第7,8,通过治疗的Midr上林二17)我已经用有力的抗议方式它。He represents it, as if the Veil had been rent (Zerreissen des Vorhanges bei d. Tempelzerstorung), not cut through by Titus, and on the basis of this misrepresentation has the boldness to set a legend about Titus side by side with the Evangelic account of the rending of the Temple-Veil!他代表它,仿佛面纱已租(Zerreissen DES Vorhanges北D. Tempelzerstorung),而不是通过削减提图斯,并在此基础上歪曲了的气魄来设置方面与福音帐户有关泰特斯的图例对寺庙,认定面纱! I write thus strongly because I am sorry to say that this is by no means the only instance in which Jewish writers adapt their quotations to controversial purposes.因此强烈,因为我写我很抱歉地说,这绝不是唯一的实例,其中犹太人作家调整其报价有争议的目的。Joel refers to Dr. Sachs, Beitr.乔尔是指博士高盛,Beitr。ip 29, but that learned writer draws no such inference from the passage in question.]IP 29,但没有学到作家绘制在有关通过这种推断。]

But even if the rending of the Temple-Veil had commenced with the earthquake, and, according to the Gospel to the Hebrews, with the breaking of the great lintel over the entrance, it could not be wholly accounted for in this manner.但即使在寺面纱认定已开始与地震,而且,根据的希伯来人的福音,与伟大的门楣打破了入口,它不能完全以这种方式入账的。 According to Jewish tradition, there were, indeed, two Veils before the entrance to the Most Holy Place.根据犹太人的传统,有确实,两个面纱之前到至圣所的入口。[a Yoma v.] The Talmud explains this on the ground that it was not known, whether in the former Temple the Veil had hung inside or outside the entrance and whether the partition-wall had stood in the Holy or Most Holy Place. [一个山脉诉]犹太法典上的解释,这是不知道这个理由,无论是在原寺的面纱已挂内部或外部的入口,以及是否分区壁曾在圣或至圣所站。[b Yoma 51 b.] Hence (according to Maimonides) [c Hilkh.[B山脉B. 51]因此(根据迈蒙尼德)[C Hilkh。Beth ha-Bech, iv.贝丝公顷比彻,四。2, ed.2,编辑。Amst vol.Amst卷。iii.三。p.149 b.] there was not any wall between the Holy and Most Holy Place, but the space of one cubit, assigned to it in the former Temple, was left unoccupied, and one Veil hung on the side of the Holy, the other on that of the Most Holy Place.B. 149]之间没有任何存在的神圣和最神圣的地方墙,但一肘空间,分配给它的前寺,是左空置,和一个挂在面纱的圣方,其他的最神圣地方。According to an account dating from Temple-times, there were altogether thirteen Veils used in various parts of the Temple, two new ones being made every year.据帐户从寺次约会,有在寺庙各部分使用完全thirteen面纱,被两个新的一年发。

[d Yoma 54 a Kethub.[D山脉54 Kethub。106 a; Sheqal.106 A; Sheqal。viii.八。5.] The Veils before the Most Holy Place were 40 cubits (60 feet) long, and 20 (30 feet) wide, of the thickness of the palm of the hand, and wrought in 72 squares, which were joined together; and these Veils were so heavy, that, in the exaggerated language of the time, it needed 3000 priests to manipulate each. 5]前至圣所面纱40肘(60英尺)长,20(30英尺)宽的手的手掌厚度,并在72个广场,这是合二为一的锻造,而这些面纱是如此沉重,这在当时夸张的语言,它需要每3000祭司操纵。 If the Veil was at all such as is described in the Talmud, it could not have been rent in twain by a mere earthquake or the fall of the lintel, although its composition in squares fastened together might explain, how the rent might be as described in the Gospel.如果在所有这类面纱被视为是在塔木德介绍,它不能一直在TWAIN租金由一个单纯的地震或门楣下降,虽然其在广场组成固定在一起或许可以解释,如何租金可能会被视为描述在福音。

Indeed, everything seems to indicate that, although the earthquake might furnish the physical basis, the rent of the Temple-Veil was, with reverence be it said, really made by the Hand of God.事实上,一切似乎表明,尽管地震可能提供的物质基础,对寺面纱租金与崇敬,无论是说,真正的上帝之手了。As we compute, it may just have been the time when, at the Evening-Sacrifice, the officiating Priesthood entered the Holy Place, either to burn the incense or to do other sacred service there.当我们计算,它可能只是被的时候,在晚上牺牲,主礼圣职进入圣地,既可以烧高香,或做其他神圣的服务那里。To see before them, not as the aged Zacharias at the beginning of this history the Angel Gabriel, but the Veil of the Holy Place rent from top to bottom, that beyond it they could scarcely have seen, and hanging in two parts from its fastenings above and at the side, was, indeed, a terrible portent, which would soon become generally known, and must, in some form or other, have been preserved in tradition.要看到在他们面前,还不如在这个历史的天使加布里埃尔撒迦利亚岁开始,但对从上到下圣地租金面纱,即他们可以超越它几乎已经看出来了,挂在两部分从紧固件上面和侧面,是确实是一个可怕的预兆,这将很快成为一般人都知道,而且必须以某种形式或其他已在传统保留下来。

And they all must have understood, that it meant that God's Own Hand had rent the Veil, and for ever deserted and thrown open that Most Holy Place where He had so long dwelt in the mysterious gloom, only lit up once a year by the glow of the censer of him, who made atonement for the sins of the people.他们都必须明白,这意味着神的自己的手已经租了面纱,并永远遗弃,被打开的至圣地方,他有这么久的神秘幽暗住,只点亮每年一次由发光他的香炉,谁取得为人民的罪恶赎罪。 [1 May this phenomenon account for the early conversion of so many priests recorded in Acts vi. [5月1日这为在行为VI记录这么多的教士早帐户转换的现象。7?]7?]

Other tokens were not wanting.其它的令牌没有希望。In the earthquake the rocks were rent, and their tombs opened.在地震岩石租金,他们的墓打开。This, as Christ descended into Hades.对此,作为基督降临到地狱。And when He ascended on the third day, it was with victorious saints who had left those open graves.而当他在第三天登高,它与谁离开这些开放坟墓胜利圣人。To many in the Holy City on that ever-memorable first day, and in the week that followed, appeared the bodies of many of those saints who had fallen on sleep in the sweet hope of that which had now become reality.要在该不断难忘的第一天,在随后的一周圣城许多,出现了那些谁睡了就爱上了这里面现在已经成为现实甜希望圣人许多尸体。 [2 I dare express myself dogmatically on the precise import of St. Matt.[2我不敢表达自己的教条的圣太精确的进口。xxvii.二十七。52, 53.52,53。Does it mean that they were actually clothed with the Resurrection-body, or with the body which they had formerly borne, or that many saints from out Hades appeared to those who loved them, and with them had waited for the Kingdom, in the forms which they had known?这是否意味着他们实际上与复活体衣,或与他们有以前承担,或由许多圣人出阎王似乎那些谁爱他们,和他们一起等了王国的形式,体他们早知道? We know too little of the connection between the other world and this, and the mode in which the departed may communicate with those here, to venture on any decided statement, especially as we take into account the unique circumstances of the occasion.]我们知道得太少之间的其他世界的联系,这和模式,其中离去可能与这里的沟通,为企业的任何决定的声明,特别是当我们考虑到的场合的特殊情况。]

But on those who stood under the Cross, and near it, did all that was witnessed make the deepest and most lasting impression.但对那些谁站在十字架下,并在它附近,做了所有该做见证最深,最持久的印象。 Among them we specially mark the Centurion under whose command the soldiers had been.其中我们特别标记的命令下,士兵一直是百夫长。Many a scene of horror must he have witnessed in those sad times of the Crucifixion, but none like this.许多恐怖的场景,他目睹必须在十字架上那些忧伤的时候,但像这样没有。Only one conclusion could force itself on his mind.结论只有一个可能迫使自己在他的脑海。It was that which, we cannot doubt, had made its impression on his heart and conscience.这是这,我们不能怀疑,作出了对他的心和良心的印象。Jesus was not what the Jews, His infuriated enemies, had described Him.耶稣不是犹太人,他激怒了敌人,曾形容他。He was what He professed to be, what His bearing on the Cross and His Death attested Him to be: 'righteous,' and hence, 'the Son of God.'他是他自称是什么,他在十字架上的死亡和他的关系证明他是:“上帝的儿子”,“正义”,因此,From this there was only a step to personal allegiance to Him, and, as previously suggested, we may possibly owe to him some of those details which St. Luke alone has preserved.由此,只有一个步骤,他个人效忠,而且,如前面所说,我们有可能欠他的那些圣卢克仅保留了一些细节。

The brief spring-day was verging towards the 'evening of the Sabbath.'在短暂的春天,一天接近于实现“的安息日晚上。”In general, the Law ordered that the body of a criminal should not be left hanging unburied over night.一般来说,法律下令刑事机构不应该离开悬在夜间掩埋。[a Deut.[A申。xxi.XXI。23; comp.23;比赛。Jos. Wariv.圣何塞Wariv。 5, 2] Perhaps in ordinary circumstances the Jews might not have appealed so confidently to Pilate as actually to ask [3 'ask,' St. John xix. 5,2]或许在一般情况下,犹太人可能没有这么自信地呼吁彼拉多的实际要求[3'问'圣约翰十九。31.] him to shorten the sufferings of those on the Cross, since the punishment of crucifixion often lasted not only for hours but days, ere death ensued. 31]他在十字架上缩短者的痛苦,因为受难的处罚往往不仅持续了几个小时,但天,​​ERE死亡接踵而至。But here was a special occasion.但这里是一个特殊的场合。The Sabbath about to open was a 'high-day', it was both a Sabbath and the second Paschal Day, which was regarded as in every respect equally sacred with the first, nay, more so, since the so-called Wavesheaf was then offered to the Lord.安息日即将开放是一个“高天”,这既是一个安息日和逾越节的第二日,这是因为在各方面都同样与第一,不仅如此,更使神圣认为,由于所谓的Wavesheaf当时提供给主。

And what the Jews now proposed to Pilate was, indeed, a shortening, but not in any sense a mitigation, of the punishment.犹太人现在什么建议彼拉多的确是缩短了,但不是在任何意义上的缓解,处罚。 Sometimes there was added to the punishment of crucifixion that of breaking the bones (crucifragium) by means of a club or hammer.有时有添加到受难打破由俱乐部或锤指骨头(crucifragium)的处罚。This would not itself bring death, but the breaking of the bones was always followed by a coup de grace, by sword, lance, or stroke (the perforatio or percussio sub alas), which immediately put an end to what remained of life.这本身不会带来死亡,但骨头断裂总是跟一个致命一击的剑,枪,或中风(即perforatio或percussio子唉),立即制止什么样的生活依然。 [1 Comp.[1比赛。Friedlieb, Archaeol. Friedlieb,考古。d. D.Leidensgesch. Leidensgesch。pp.163-168; but especially Nebe, us ii.pp.163 - 168,但特别Nebe,我们二。pp. 394, 395.] Thus the 'breaking of the bones' was a sort of increase of punishment, by way of compensation for its shortening by the final stroke that followed.第394,395]因此,“打破的骨头”是一种惩罚增加排序,以补偿其缩短行程的最后跟随方式。

It were unjust to suppose, that in their anxiety to fulfil the letter of the Law as to burial on the eve of that high Sabbath, the Jews had sought to intensify the sufferings of Jesus.它是不公正的假设,即在他们的焦虑履行的法律,以对高安息日前夕埋葬的信中,犹太人曾试图加大耶稣的苦难。The text gives no indication of this; and they could not have asked for the final stroke to be inflicted without the 'breaking of the bones,' which always preceded it.该文本没有给这个指示,而他们不可能在最后行程是没有“骨头断了,”它总是先问它造成的。The irony of this punctilious care for the letter of the Law about burial and high Sabbath by those who had betrayed and crucified their Messiah on the first Passover-day is sufficiently great, and, let us add, terrible, without importing fictitious elements.此为大约埋葬和那些谁背叛和钉在十字架上逾越节的第一天他们的弥赛亚足够大,而且,让我们添加,可怕的是没有进口虚构的元素,高安息日法执信医疗讽刺。 St. John, who, perhaps, immediately on the death of Christ, left the Cross, alone reports circumstance.圣约翰,谁,也许,立即对基督的死,离开了十字架,单独报告的情况。

Perhaps it was when he concerted with Joseph of Arimathaea, with Nicodemus, or the two Marys, measures for the burning of Christ, that he learned of the Jewish deputation to Pilate, followed it to Praetorium, and then watched how it was all carried out on Golgotha.也许是当他与约瑟夫Arimathaea,与尼哥底母,或两个玛利亚,为基督的焚烧措施,他的犹太代表团彼拉多据悉,一致遵循它Praetorium,然后看着它是如何进行的所有在各各他。 He records, how Pilate acceded to the Jewish demand, and gave directions for the crucifragium, and permission for the after-removal of the dead bodies, which otherwise might have been left to hang, till putrescence or birds of prey had destroyed them.他的记录,如何彼拉多加入犹太人的需求,又给了crucifragium方向,并为尸体,其中否则可能已离开挂起,直到腐烂或猛禽摧毁了他们后去除权限。 But St. John also tells us what he evidently regards as so great a prodigy that he specially vouches for it, pledging his own veracity, as an eyewitness, and grounding on it an appeal to the faith of those to whom his Gospel is addressed.但圣约翰还告诉我们他显然认为这如此巨大的天才,他特意为它vouches,表示自己的真实性,作为目击者,和接地它呼吁的那些人是写给他的福音信仰。

It is, that certain 'things came to pass [not as in our AV, 'were done'] that the Scripture should be fulfilled,' or, to put it otherwise, by which the Scripture was fulfilled.这是,某些'事情来通过[不是在我们的视听,“分别做了”]认为圣经应得到履行,“或者,把它,否则,其中圣经的完成。 These things were two, to which a third phenomenon, not less remarkable, must be added.这些东西是两个,到其中三分之一的现象,而不是更少显着,必须加入。For, first, when, in the crucifragium, the soldiers had broken the bones of two malefactors, and then came to the Cross of Jesus, they found that He was dead already, and so 'a bone of Him' was 'not broken.'因为,第一,时,在crucifragium,战士打破了两个坏人的骨头,然后来到了耶稣的十字架,他们发现,他已经死了,所以“一骨的他'是'不破。 “Had it been otherwise, the Scripture concerning the Paschal Lamb, [a Ex.它当时否则,圣经关于逾越节的羔羊,[A前。xii.十二。46; Numb.46;麻木。ix.九。12] as well that concerning the Righteous Suffering Servant of Jehovah, [b Ps. 12]以及有关耶和华的正义受苦的仆人,[B聚苯乙烯。xxxiv.三十四。20] would have been broken. 20]将被打破。In Christ alone these two ideas of the Paschal Lamb and the Righteous Suffering Servant of Jehovah are combined into a unity and fulfilled in their highest meaning.在基督的逾越节羔羊单独和耶和华的正义受苦的仆人这两种思想结合成一个团结,实现其最高的意义。And when, by a strange concurrence of circumstances, it 'came to pass' that, contrary to what might have been expected, 'a bone of Him' was 'not broken' this outward fact served as the finger to point to the predictions which were fulfilled of Him.而当一个奇怪的同意的情况下,它来通过“说,相反的是人们意料之中,”骨的他'是'不破“这一事实,手指向外担任指向预测的为满足他。

Not less remarkable is the second fact.不少于引人注目的是第二个事实。If, on the Cross of Christ, these two fundamental ideas in the prophetic description of the work of the Messiah had been set forth: the fulfilment of the Paschal Sacrifice, which, as that of the Covenant, underlay all sacrifices, and the fulfilment of the ideal of the Righteous Servant of God, suffering in a world that hated God, and yet proclaimed and realising His Kingdom, a third truth remained to be exhibited.如果在基督的十字架,这两个在​​工作的弥赛亚预言的描述基本思想已经提出:对逾越节牺牲,其中,作为该公约认为,所有的牺牲底图履行,以及履行对上帝的义仆理想,苦难的世界,痛恨上帝,但宣告,实现他的王国,第三真相仍有待展出。 It was not in regard to the character, but the effects, of the Work of Christ, its reception, alike in the present and in the future.这不是在考虑到性格,但基督的工作的影响,其接待,都在现在和未来。This had been indicated in the prophecies of Zechariah, [c Zech.这已在撒迦利亚的预言表明,[C撒加利亚。xii.十二。10] which foretold how, in the day of Israel's final deliverance and national conversion, God would pour out the spirit of grace and of supplication, and as 'they shall look on Him Whom they pierced,' the spirit of true repentance would be granted them, alike nationally and individually. 10]这预示如何,在以色列的最终解脱和国家转换一天,上帝会倒出来的恩典和恳求的精神,为“他们应当在他身上看他们所刺穿,”对确有悔改的精神将被授予其中,国家和个人的一致好评。

The application of this to Christ is the more striking, that even the Talmud refers the prophecy to the Messiah.本应用到基督是更醒目,即使是塔木德,是指对弥赛亚的预言。[d Sukk.[D Sukk。52 a] And as these two things really applied to Christ, alike in His rejection and in His future return, [e Rev. i.52]而作为这两个真正应用到基督,在他拒绝和他今后的回报一样的东西,[E牧师岛7] so did the strange historical occurrence at His Crucifixion once more point to it as the fulfilment of Scripture prophecy.7]所以没有怪在他受难的历史再次发生点为圣经的预言实现它。For, although the soldiers, on finding Jesus dead, broke not one of His Bones, yet, as it was necessary to make sure of His Death, one of them, with a lance, 'pierced His Side, with a wound so deep, that Thomas might afterwards have thrust his hand into His Side.因为,虽然战士们,在寻找耶稣的死,打破了不属于他的骨头之一,然而,因为它是必要的,使用长矛他的死亡,其中一人,当然,“刺穿他的身边,与伤口如此之深,事后,托马斯有可能推到他身边他的手。 [f St. John xx.[F圣约翰XX。 27]27]

And with these two, as fulfilling Holy Scripture, yet a third phenomenon was associated, symbolic of both.而这两个,为符合圣经,但第三个现象相关联,既象征。As the soldier pierced the side of the Dead Christ, 'forthwith came there out Blood and Water.'由于士兵划破了死基督的一面,“立即就出来了血和水存在。”It has been thought by some, [1 So, with various modifications, which need not here be detailed, first, Dr. Gruner (Comment. Antiq. Med. de Jesu Christ Morte, Hal. 1805), who, however, regarded Jesus as not quite dead when the lance pierced the heart, and, of late, Dr. Stroud (The Physical Cause of the Death of Christ, 1871), and many interpreters (see Nebe, us pp. 400, 401).] that there was physical cause for this, that Christ had literally died of a broken heart, and that, when the lance pierced first the lung filled with blood and then the pericardium filled with serous fluid, [2 But certainly not through a separation of the serum and the cruor, which is the mark of beginning putrefaction.] there flowed from the wound this double stream.它被一些思想,[1所以与各种修改,这就需要在这里不详细,第一,格鲁纳博士(Comment. Antiq。医学山Jesu基督莫提,哈尔,1805年),谁,但是,都把耶稣因为不是很死的时候长矛刺穿心脏,而且,最近,博士斯特劳德(即基督的,1871年死亡的物理原因),以及许多翻译(见Nebe,我们第400,401)。]有这是身体的原因,基督已经从字面上死于心都碎了,而且,当长矛刺穿首充满血液的肺,但肯定不是通过对血清中分离,然后心包与浆液性液体,[2填充和对凝血,这是开始腐烂大关。]有从伤口流这双码流。 [3 The fullest and most satisfactory physical explanation is that given by the Rev. S. Haughton, MD, and reprinted in the Speaker's Commentary on 1 John, pp. 349, 350. [3最充分,最满意的物理解释是,鉴于由牧师S.霍顿,医学博士,并在议长对约翰一书,第349,350评论重印。

It demonstrates, that this phenomenon would take place, but only if a person who was also being crucified died of rupture of the heart.] In such cases, the lesson would be that reproach had literally broken His Heart.它表明,这种现象会发生,但只有一个人谁也被钉在十字架上的心脏破裂死亡。]在这种情况下,教训将是责备字面上打破了他的心。 [a Ps.[一个PS。ixix.ixix。20.] But we can scarcely believe that St. John could have wished to convey this without clearly setting it forth, thus assuming on the part of his readers knowledge of an obscure, and, it must be added, a scientifically doubtful phenomenon. 20]但是,我们几乎无法相信,圣约翰可能希望转达没有明确规定其设置,从而承担对他的读者的一个不起眼的知识的一部分,而且,它必须补充说,这个科学现象值得怀疑。 Accordingly, we rather believe that to St. John, as to most of us, the significance of the fact lay in this, that out of the Body of One dead had flowed Blood and Water, that corruption had not fastened on Him.因此,我们宁愿相信圣约翰,对于我们大多数人,事实的意义在于这一点,即对已流入血液和水,腐败现象还没有在他身上系一具尸体了。 Then, there would be the symbolic meaning conveyed by the Water (from the pericardium) and the Blood (from the heart), a symbolism most true, if corruption had no power nor hold on Him, if in Death He was not dead, if He vanquished Death and Corruption, and in this respect also fulfilled the prophetic ideal of not seeing corruption.然后,将有象征意义的水(从心包)和血液(发自内心),一个象征最真实的传达,如果腐败没有权力也没有抱他,如果他死没死,如果他征服死亡和腐败,并在这方面也履行了腐败的预言没有看到理想。 [b Ps.[B诗篇。xvi.十六。10.]10。]

To this symbolic bearing of the flowing of Water and Blood from His pierced side, on which the Evangelist dwells in his Epistle, [c 1 John v. 6.] and to its external expression in the symbolism of the two Sacraments, we can only point the thoughtful Christian.对于这种水和从他划破一面象征轴承血液流动,对其中的传播者居住在他的书信,[C约翰一书诉6],并在两个圣礼象征的外在表现,我们只能点周到的基督徒。 For, the two Sacraments mean that Christ had come; that over Him, Who was crucified for us and loved us unto death with His broken heart, Death and Corruption had no power; and that He liveth for us with the pardoning and cleansing power of His offered Sacrifice.因为,这两个圣礼意味着基督已经到来;超过他,谁是钉在十字架上为我们和喜爱,以至于死与他的心都碎了我们,死亡和腐败没有权力,并认为他活着的赦免和洁净电力为我们他提供的牺牲。

Excerpts from Book 5, Chapter 15, Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah摘录图书5,第15章, 生活和时代的耶稣弥赛亚
by Alfred Edersheim, 1886由阿尔弗雷德爱德生,1886年


Author Edersheim refers to MANY reference sources in his works.作者爱德生提到许多参考来源,他的作品。As a Bibliography resource, we have created a separate Edersheim References list.作为一个书目资源,我们创建了一个单独的爱德生参考清单。 All of his bracketed references indicate the page numbers in the works referenced.他表示在括号内的所有引用引用作品的页码。



Also, see:此外,见:
Cross 两岸关系
Crucifix 十字架
Words Inscribed on the Cross换言之者在十字架上
The Arising of Jesus产生的耶稣

This subject presentation in the original English language这在原来的主题演讲, 英语



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