Pacifism和平主义

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Pacifism is a term, derived from the Latin word for peacemaking, that has been applied to a spectrum of positions covering nearly all attitudes toward war.和平主义是一个术语,从拉丁词派生为建立和平,已应用到几乎覆盖了所有对战争的态度立场谱。On one extreme pacifist designates any person who desires peace, thus describing those who wage war as much as those who refuse participation in war.在指定一个极端的和平主义者任何人谁希望和平,从而描述那些谁发动战争一样拒绝那些在战争中谁参与了。On the other extreme pacifism also describes renunciation of force and coercion in all forms.在另一个极端和平主义力量,也说明了一切形式的强迫放弃。A mediating definition sometimes distinguishes nonresistance, which renounces force in all forms, from pacifism, which rejects participation in war but allows the use of nonviolent kinds of force.中介的定义有时区别不抵抗,而放弃一切形式的力量,从和平主义,它拒绝在战争中的参与,但允许使用武力非暴力种。It makes most sense to reserve the term "pacifism" for that part of the spectrum which includes at least a refusal to participate in war.它使最有意义预留,该频谱,其中包括至少拒绝参加战争的一部分,所谓“和平主义”。Those individuals who refuse to do this are called conscientious objectors.这些人谁拒绝做这个被称为良心拒服兵役。

History历史

Pacifism is one of three historic attitudes of the church toward war.和平主义是三个教会走向战争的历史态度之一。In some form it has existed throughout the entire history of the Christian church.它以某种形式存在贯穿于整个历史的基督教教堂。 Since the fourth century it has often been overshadowed by the just war theory and the concept of crusade, or aggressive war for a holy cause.自四世纪,人们经常被蒙上了一层阴影正义战争理论和运动的概念,或一个神圣的事业侵略战争。The early church was pacifist.早期的教会是和平主义者。Prior to AD 170-80 there are no records of soldiers in the Roman army.此前公元170-80中有罗马军队的士兵没有记录。Following that epoch there are both Christians in the army and also writings which opposed the practice from church fathers such as Tertullian.经过那个时代有基督徒都在军队的反对,也著作,如良教父的做法。Some Christian writers sanctioned police functions and military service, provided these did not entail bloodshed and killing.一些基督教认可的警察职能和军事服务的作家,只要这些不涉及流血和杀戮。Under Emperor Constantine, who closely identified the interests of the empire with the interests of Christianity, Christian soldiers were common.在君士坦丁,谁密切确定了与基督教的利益帝国的利益,基督教士兵普遍。 During the rule of Theodosius II only Christians could serve as soldiers.在狄奥多西二世的统治只有基督徒可以作为士兵。

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When confronted by the barbarian invasions that seemed to threaten Roman civilization and thus the Christianity identified with it, Augustine of Hippo developed the idea, rooted in Roman Stoic philosophy and first given a Christian formulation by Ambrose, which has come to be called the just war theory.当由野蛮入侵,似乎威胁到罗马文明,因此用它确定了基督教面前,奥古斯丁的河马开发的思路,在罗马的斯多葛哲学层次和首次给予刘汉铨,这已经到了被称为正义战争的一个基督教的制定理论。 It intended not to advocate war but to limit the conditions under which Christians could participate in war, accepting it as an unfortunately necessary tool for preserving the civilization to which Christianity belonged.它打算不主张战争,但限制的条件下,基督徒可以参与战争,接受作为维护文明的基督教属于不幸的必要工具。Since Augustine some form of the just war theory has been the majority position of most Christian traditions.由于奥古斯丁一些正义战争理论的形式一直是最传统的基督教多数地位。

In the Middle Ages the idea of the crusade developed from another attempt by the church to limit warfare.在中世纪的十字军东征的想法发展,从另一个由教会试图限制战争。The peace of God and the truce of God limited times for fighting and banned clerical participation in war.神和神的有限次战斗文书,禁止在战争中参加停战和平。To enforce these limitations the church itself came to conduct warring activity.为执行这些限制教会本身来进行交战的活动。This act associated war with a holy cause, namely the enforcement of peace.这种行为与战争相关的一个神圣的事业,即执行和平。 This association developed into the crusades, the holy cause of rescuing the Holy Land from the Moslems.该协会发展到十字军东征,从挽救穆斯林圣地的神圣事业。Pope Urban II preached the first crusade in 1095.教皇乌尔班二世在1095年第一鼓吹讨伐。In either religious or secular versions the crusade has been a part of the church's tradition ever since.在任何一种宗教或世俗版本的运动一直是教会的传统的一部分至今。

During the Middle Ages it was the sectarians who kept alive the pacifist tradition.在中世纪的宗派主义是谁,更让和平的传统。Groups of Waldensians and Franciscan Tertiaries refused military service.在韦尔济Tertiaries组和拒绝服兵役。The Cathari were pacifist.该卡塔利是和平主义者。The Hussite movement developed two branches, a crusading one under blind general Jan Zizka and a pacifist one under Peter Chelciky.胡斯运动发展的两个分支,根据盲人一般一月Zizka以及根据彼得Chelciky和平one讨伐之一。

The period of the Renaissance and Reformation saw assertions of all three attitudes toward war.文艺复兴和宗教改革时期看到了对战争的态度三个断言。Renaissance humanism developed a pacifist impulse, of which Erasmus is one of the most important examples.文艺复兴时期的人文主义开发出一种和平的冲动,伊拉斯谟是其中最重要的例子之一。Humanist pacifism appealed to such philosophical and theological principles as the common humanity and brotherhood of all persons as children of God, the follies of war, and the ability of rational individuals to govern themselves and their states on the basis of reason.以人为本的和平主义呼吁这样的哲学和神学的共同人性和作为神的儿女,战争的愚蠢所有人兄弟,而理性的个人执政能力的基础上的理性自己和国家的原则。

All Protestant churches except the Anabaptists accepted the inherited tradition of the just war. Luther identified two kingdoms, of God and of the world.除了 ​​基督教再洗礼派全部接受了继承传统的正义战争。路德确定了上帝和世界两个王国。While he rejected the idea of crusade, his respect for the state as ordained by God to preserve order and to punish evil in the worldly realm made him a firm supporter of the just war approach.虽然他拒绝了十字军东征的想法,他对神所命定为维护秩序,惩治邪恶的境界,在世俗国家的尊重使他的正义战争方式的坚定支持者。 The Reformed tradition accepted the crusade concept, seeing the state not only as the preserver of order but also as a means of furthering the cause of true religion.改革后的传统接受了讨伐的概念,看到的不仅是为了维系,而且作为一种促进宗教事业的真正手段的状态。Zwingli died in a religious war; Calvin left the door open to rebellion against an unjust ruler; and Beza developed not only the right but the duty of Christians to revolt against tyranny.茨温利死于一场宗教战争;卡尔文敞开了大门,以防止不公正的统治者叛乱和Beza发展不仅有权利,但基督徒的责任,以对暴政的反抗。 Cromwell's pronouncement of divine blessing on the massacre of Catholics at Drogheda illustrates the crusade idea in English Puritanism.克伦威尔的神圣祝福宣告对天主教徒在德罗赫达屠杀说明了英国清教运动的想法。

Alongside the wars of religion of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries arose the pacifist traditions which for the most part have preserved their opposition to war until the present time.除了对十六,十七世纪宗教战争产生的和平主义者其中大部分都保存下来,直到目前他们反对战争的传统。 Pacifism emerged as the dominant position of the Anabaptists, who rejected not only the sword of war but also refused to engage in political life.和平主义成为了再洗礼派,谁拒绝不仅是战争的主导地位,但剑也拒绝参与政治生活。Although their identification of two kingdoms paralleled Luther's analysis closely, the Anabaptists denied that Christians could in any way exercise the sword of the magistrate in the worldly kingdom.虽然他们的两个王国识别并联路德的分析紧密合作,再洗礼派教徒否认基督徒可以以任何方式行使裁判官在世俗王国剑。 When Alexander Mack organized the Church of the Brethren in 1708, Anabaptism was the major impulse in dialectic with pietism.当亚历山大麦克举办1708年教会的弟兄,Anabaptism是在虔诚主义辩证法的主要动力。While Quakers, who emerged in the midseventeenth century, distinguished the kingdom of God from that of the world, they did not utterly despair of the world and involved themselves in its political processes up to the point of war.虽然贵格会,谁在midseventeenth世纪出现的,有别于世界,神的国度,他们并没有完全绝望的世界和参与其政治进程投案自首战争的问题。 Appeals to individual conscience played an important role in Quaker nonviolent political activity on behalf of justice and peace.个人良心上诉发挥了对正义与和平的名义在奎克非暴力的政治活动的重要作用。Anabaptists, the immediate predecessors of the Mennonites, were the most withdrawn from participation in government, with the Quakers the least separated.再洗礼派教徒,在门诺教派的前任,是最退出与政府的参与是最不分开贵格。The Brethren occupied a median position.弟兄们占据了中间位置。

Wars in North America, from Puritan conflicts with the Indians through the Revolutionary War to the world wars, have all been defended in religious and secular versions of the just war theory or the crusade idea.在北美地区的战争,从清教徒与印第安人的冲突,通过革命战争到世界大战,都被捍卫的正义战争理论或十字军东征的想法宗教和世俗的版本。 For example, World War I, fought "to make the world safe for democracy," was a secular crusade.例如,第一次世界大战,转战“使世界民主安全”,是一个世俗的讨伐。Throughout the North American experience Mennonites, Brethren, and Quakers maintained a continuing if at times uneven witness against war as well as a refusal to participate in it.在整个北美洲的经验门诺教派,弟兄们,和贵格会保持如果有时反对战争以及拒绝参与,参差不齐的见证继续。In the twentieth century they have come to be called the historic peace churches.在二十世纪,他们已经到了被称为历史性的和平教堂。

The nineteenth century saw the formation of a number of national and international pacifist societies.十九世纪,一个和平的国家和国际社会形成若干。The Fellowship of Reconciliation was founded as an interdenominational and international religious pacifist organization on the eve of World War I and established in the United States in 1915.该联谊会成立的和解作为一个教派和国际宗教和平组织在第一次世界大战前夕,于1915年在美国成立。It continues today as an interfaith activist force for peace.它今天继续作为和平活动家信仰的力量。In reaction to the horror of World War I and buttressed by an optimistic belief in the rationality of humanity, the period between the world wars saw another wave of pacifist sentiment, both inside and outside the churches.在反应到第一次世界大战的恐怖,由一个在人类理性的乐观信念支撑,在两次世界大战之间的时期看到了另一种和平气氛,内外教会的浪潮。 These efforts to create peace included political means such as the League of Nations and nonviolent pressure such as the activities of Mohandas Gandhi to influence British withdrawal from India.这些努力创造和平的包括诸如国家和非暴力的圣雄甘地的压力,这样的活动影响从英国撤出印度联盟的政治手段。

Spurred by the growing possibility of a nuclear holocaust and the realization that military solutions do not fundamentally resolve conflicts, the era begun in the late 1960s is experiencing another round of increasing attention to pacifist perspectives.由核灾难的可能性越来越大,并认识到,军事解决方案并不能从根本上解决冲突的带动下,20世纪60年代中后期开始的时代正在经历另一种日益重视全面和平的观点。 In addition to the historic peace churches, denominations which have traditionally accepted the just war theory or the crusade idea have also issued declarations accepting pacifist positions within their traditions.除了历史性的和平教堂,其中有传统接受了正义战争理论或讨伐想法面额也发表声明,接受在其传统的和平主义立场。 Two significant examples are Vatican II's Pastoral Constitution on the Church in the Modern World, which for the first time endorsed pacifism as compatible with Catholic teaching, and the declaration of the United Presbyterian Church (USA), Peacemaking: The Believer's Calling.两个重要的例子是梵二的田园宪法对教会在现代世界,这对于第一次通过与天主教教学兼容和平主义,以及美国长老教会(美国)的声明,缔造和平:信徒的呼唤。

Intellectual Basis for Pacifism知识基础的和平主义

Pacifism encompasses many kinds of oppositions to war, deriving support from a variety of overlapping philosophical, theological, and biblical sources, not all of which are explicitly Christian.和平主义包含了多种反对战争,派生从重叠的哲学,神学和圣经的来源,并不是所有的基督徒都明确支持多种。

Pacifism may proceed from various pragmatic and utitarian arguments.和平主义可能要从不同的务实和utitarian参数。Consideration of the destructiveness of modern warfare and the realization that it fails to resolve conflicts can lead to the conclusion that avoidance of war best serves the interests of humanity at all levels, from the individual person to the human race as a whole.现代战争和实现它未能解决冲突的破坏性可以考虑导致的结论是避免战争最好的服务在各级人类的利益,从个人到整个人类。 The threat of nuclear war has given these arguments particular weight in recent times, resulting in what has been called nuclear pacifism.核战争的威胁已经给了这些参数在近代特别重,在这个被称为核的和平主义产生。

Varying individual and collective impulses may support these arguments.不同的个人和集体的冲动可能支持这些论点。Pacifism can appear as the only logical extension of the categorical imperative.和平主义可以显示为唯一的绝对命令合乎逻辑的延伸。 Convictions concerning the uniqueness or sanctity of human life, whether based on intuition, logic, or divine revelation, proscribe war.关于定罪的独特性或人类生命的神圣,无论是直觉,逻辑,或神的启示,取缔战争。 Others may adopt pacifist suffering not only as a means of unilaterally breaking the chain of violence which more violent acts will only prolong but also as an instrument to touch the conscience of the oppressors and turn them into friends.其他人可能采取和平不仅是单方面打破暴力链,更多的暴力行为只会延长手段,而且作为一种工具来触摸压迫者的良知,使之成为朋友们的痛苦。

Pacifism informs or is an outgrowth of a number of social and political strategies.通知或和平主义是一个社会和政治战略数目的产物。Some argue that political measures such as the negotiation of nuclear weapons bans and promotion of international cooperation are more effective than war in promoting peace.有人认为,如核武器的禁令和促进国际合作谈判的政治措施,较有效的促进和平的战争。Nonviolent techniques attempt not only to prevent the outbreak of violence but also to move society, even against its will, toward a more just disposition.非暴力的技术尝试,不仅以防止发生暴力也给移动的社会,甚至违背其意愿,向着一个更加公正的处理。Notable examples are the efforts of Gandhi and the movement of Martin Luther King, Jr., in the United States to acquire civil rights for black people.显着的例子是甘地和马丁路德金,小运动的努力,在美国,以收购黑人民权。

As the dominant view of the early church pacifism stands squarely within the Christian tradition and has theological and biblical bases more specific to Christianity.作为早期教会的和平主义的主流观点主张正视在基督教传统和神学和圣经基地有更具体的基督教。Pacifists appeal to the authority of the Bible, using specific texts such as the Decalogue and the Sermon on the Mount.和平主义者呼吁圣经的权威,使用诸如十诫并在山的宝训的具体文本。The incarnation and the priestly office of Jesus make his specific teachings authoritative and therefore binding on his followers.耶稣的化身和司铎的办公室使他的具体教法的权威和他的追随者,因此具有约束力。Pacifism also finds support in broader biblical injunctions such as the call to express God's love to all persons or to witness to the presence of the Kingdom of God on earth.和平主义还认为,如通话,表达神的爱所有的人或见证了上帝的王国在地球上存在广泛的圣经禁令的支持。

The examples of Jesus and of the early church also support Christian pacifism.耶稣和早期教会的例子也支持基督教和平主义。The incarnation defines Jesus' action as reflective of the will of God.化身定义为神将反射耶稣的行动。The ideas of imitation of Christ and obedience to his command to "follow me" then demand pacifism of those who understand Christians as followers of Jesus.模仿基督和服从他的命令的思想,以“跟我学”,那么这些谁理解为耶稣的追随者基督徒需求的和平主义。Following includes specifically the idea that with Jesus they will endure suffering for the kingdom of God without violent resistance.包括以下具体的想法,他们将忍受与耶稣为神的国度的苦难没有暴力反抗。Beginning with the generation that experienced Jesus' personal headship, the church of the first century exemplifies obedience to the pacifist example of Jesus.同一代人经历了耶稣的个人校长开始,第一个世纪的教堂体现服从耶稣的和平主义的例子。

Theological motifs central to Christianity also support pacifism.基督教神学的中心主题也支持和平主义。For one, since life is sacred and a gift from God, no individual has the right to take it.原因之一,因为生命是神圣的,来自上帝的礼物,任何个人都有权采取它。This divine source of life leads directly to the brotherhood of all persons and their divinely given purpose of living for God as his children.这神圣的生命源直接导致了所有的人以及他们神圣的上帝给他的孩子们生活的目的,兄弟。With every human being then either actually or potentially a child of God, no Christian may take the life of a fellow member of the family of God.由于每个人然后或者实际或潜在的神的孩子,没有基督教可能采取的神资深会员家庭生活。The presence of the kingdom of God on earth similarly links all persons under God's rule and therefore proscribes violence toward anyone.对地球上的国度神的存在同样的链接在神的统治所有的人,因此规定禁止对任何人的暴力行为。

JD Weaver JD韦弗
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary)(Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 参考书目
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CG Rutenber, The Dagger and the Cross; G. Sharp, Exploring Nonviolent Alternatives and The Politics of Nonviolent Action; RJ Sider, Christ and Violence; RK Ullman, Between God and History; A. Weinberg and L. Weinberg, ed., Instead of Violence; JC Wenger, Pacifism and Biblical Nonresistance; JH Yoder, Nevertheless: Varieties of Religious Pacifism, The Original Revolution, and The Politics of Jesus.CG,匕首和十字Rutenber; G.夏普,探索非暴力的其他选择和非暴力行动的政治; RJ SIDER,基督和暴力; RK乌尔曼,与上帝和历史; A. Weinberg和L.温伯格,ED,相反。暴力; JC,和平主义和圣经不抵抗温格; JH尤德,然而:和平主义的宗教,原革命,和耶稣的政治品种。



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