Christian View of Philosophy基督教认为哲学

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Certain Greek thinkers in the seventh and sixth centuries BC were the first to call themselves philosophers, literally "lovers of wisdom."在第七和第六公元前数百年的某些希腊思想家是第一个自称哲学家,字面意思是“智慧的情人”。Discounting the traditional myths, doctrines, and common sense of the priests and poets of classical Greece, the first philosophers held that the most important questions all human beings need to answer are those concerning social order and the origin, nature, and development of the material world.除去传统的神话,教条,和祭司和古典希腊诗人常识,认为最重要的问题,所有的人需要回答的是那些涉及社会秩序和起源,性质和物质发展的第一个哲学家世界。 Their method of approaching these questions included the critical scrutiny of confessedly human theories about the natural order.他们接近这些问题的方法包括对自然秩序的人明白地理论严格审查。Alleged revelation from the gods offered by the religious leaders was explicitly repudiated.由宗教领袖所提供的启示是神据称明确否定。Not all philosophers since the first ones in ancient Greece have been antisupernaturalists, but they have all been concerned primarily with the most basic questions common to every human being, and they have adopted a method which tries to be critical of every assertion and the assumptions behind it.因为不是所有的古希腊哲学家的第一已经antisupernaturalists,但他们都一直关注最常见的基本问题每个人为主,他们都采用了方法,努力做到每一个断言和假设背后的关键它。

Focusing on the most fundamental and general issues facing mankind, philosophers traditionally have attempted to synthesize all knowledge into a coherent, consistent system.在最根本的和一般人类面临的问题为重点,传统的哲学家试图综合成一个连贯的,一致的系统中的所有知识。No scientist or group of scientists can accomplish this task, for they are all limited in the scope of their investigations to just parts or certain aspects of the experienced world.没有科学家或科学家可以完成这个任务,因为他们都在其调查范围只部分或有经验的世界的某些方面的限制。The dominance of the scientific method in the modern era has brought with it a skepticism by many, including some scholars in philosophy, about going beyond the methods of science in describing reality.而在近代科学方法的优势已经带来了由许多持怀疑态度,包括一些学者在哲学,关于超越科学的方法去在描述现实。Consequently the synthetic and synoptic function of philosophy is considered less than attainable by some philosophers today.因此哲学的合成和天气功能被认为是由一些哲学家不到今天实现。

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More in vogue presently is the other characteristic associated with the philosophers from the time of the ancient Greeks onward, namely, their attempt to be analytical.目前流行的更多是其他特征与古希腊人开始,即企图将分析时间的哲学家有关。In this role the philosopher gives leadership in the careful evaluation of the assertions, concepts, assumptions, methods, and conclusions of anyone who claims to be describing reality or prescribing for human behavior.在这个角色给人的哲学家在断言,概念,假设,方法和任何人谁自称是描述现实或人类行为的结论处方仔细评估领导。

The Four Types of Philosophical Problems哲学问题的四种类型

Logic逻辑

Distinguishing good reasoning from bad cannot be done scientifically, for the ability to make this distinction is presupposed by all thinkers, scientific or otherwise.区分好坏推理无法做到科学,为能够使这种区别是由所有的思想家,科学或其他先决条件。The philosophical field of logic seeks to ascertain the principles of the thought patterns one ought to follow if reality is to be reflected adequately or if reality is intentionally not being reflected in one's thought or utterances.逻辑哲学领域的目的,是确定的思维模式的原则之一,应遵循现实,如果是要充分反映现实,或者是故意不被自己的思想或话语中得到反映。 Thus logic is the normative discipline of correct reasoning as such.这样的逻辑是正确的,因为这种推理的规范纪律。

Theory of Knowledge理论知识

Although as important as any area in philosophy, the theory of knowledge, also designated epistemology, has seen surprisingly little progress in moving past the issues raised by the first philosophers over two and a half millennia ago.尽管像任何在哲学领域,理论知识,还指定认识论,重要的已经看到过去却微乎其微超过两个半千年的第一个哲学家提出的问题移动的进展。 These issues include the definition, criteria, and sources of knowledge.这些问题包括定义,标准和知识来源。Equally significant is the question of whether there is a foundational structure of directly known principles of evidence upon which reasoning can be built.同样重要的是是否有一个直接的证据可以称为推理赖以建立的原则基础结构问题。Also, there is the problem of deciding on the conditions that must exist for a statement to be true.另外,还有就是对的条件,必须存在一个声明是真实的决定问题。

Metaphysics and Ontology形而上学和本体论

The term "metaphysics" was first used to refer to what Aristotle claimed to be "a science which investigates being as being and the attributes which belong to this in virtue of its own nature."所谓“形而上学”是第一个用来指亚里士多德自称是“一门科学,作为被调查的属性和它属于它自己的性质而这之中。” He distinguished this "science" from all the "so-called special sciences," for none of them dealt "generally with being as being."他区别于所有“所谓的特殊科学,”为他们没有处理这种“科学”,“一般用的是幸福。”Although the etymology and traditional use of the term "ontology" makes it a synonym of "metaphysics," its meaning has become narrowed in contemporary philosophy.虽然对“本体论”的词源和传统的使用使得它的同义词“形而上学”,其含义已成为当代哲学收窄。This constriction began with Immanuel Kant's theoretical separation of reality from the appearance of reality and the limitation of human knowledge to the latter.这种收缩始于康德的理论分离的现实,从现实的外观和人类知识后者的限制。

Prior to Kant metaphysics was commonly understood as the theoretical grasp of the overall structure of reality.在此之前康德形而上学是普遍理解为对现实的整体结构的理论把握。Following Kant's distinction between reality and appearance metaphysics has been seen by many as the dispelling of illusion about what can be known of reality, assuming the human inability to transcend the realm of appearance.继康德的形而上学之间的区别现实和外观已经被很多的关于什么可以称为现实的幻想散寒,假设人类无法超越的外观境界。

In the analytically oriented philosophy of today's English-speaking world metaphysics amounts to a rigorous examination of the concepts used when referring to the basic categories of being.在今天的英语世界的形而上学解析为本的理念相当于一个严格的考试时使用的概念指的是对基本范畴。The term "ontology" is usually preferred, leaving "metaphysics" for the largely discredited speculative account of reality as a whole.所谓“本体论”通常是首选,留下“形而上学”为主要无颜作为一个整体现实的投机帐户。 By way of contrast, continental European philosophy considers ontology to be the disclosure of the world of appearance which is reality.通过对比的方式,欧洲大陆哲学的本体论被认为是世界上的外观是现实的披露。 Many philosophers, however, reject the kantian distinction between appearance and reality by striving to grasp reality as a coherent system toward which human thought is advancing.许多哲学家,然而,拒绝之间的外观和努力把握一个统一的系统对这些人的思想,是推进现实现实康德的区别。For them metaphysics is understood in its traditional sense.对于他们形而上学据了解,在其传统意义上的。

Value Theory价值论

The fourth major department of philosophy includes ethics and aesthetics.第四,哲学的主要部门包括道德和美学。The primary focus of the study of aesthetics is upon the question of whether beauty is relative to the observer.对美学的研究的主要焦点是建立在美是否是相对于观察者的问题。The answer has a direct bearing on the practical problem of whether standards should be imposed upon the creation, appreciation, and criticism of art works.答案有一个标准,就是否应在创作,欣赏,批评和艺术作品所施加的实际问题有直接关系。

Ethics is mainly concerned with the grounds warranting human actions to be judged right or wrong, and persons and events good or evil.道德主要是与人的行动值得来评判对错,以及人物与事件的善恶之分的理由关注。Ethicists who take moral statements to be cognitively meaningful and who find an objective basis for ethical values are divided into two standpoints in their theory as to what makes human behavior morally right or wrong.伦理学家谁采取道德语句是有意义的认知,谁找到一个道德价值目标的基础上分为两个他们的理论立场,以什么使人类行为在道德上正确或错误。 The teleological approach looks for the moral quality of an action in its tendency to bring about an intrinsically good state of affairs.在目的论的方法寻找一个行动的倾向,带来了良好的状态事务本质的道德品质。Instances of such states that have been proposed include the greatest pleasure for the largest number of people, the full development of one's potential as a rational being, and the attainment of eternal peace.这些国家已提出的情况,包括为最广大人民群众,一个作为理性存在潜力的充分发​​展,实现永久和平的最大的乐趣。The competing standpoint is that of deontological ethics, which maintains that the rightness or wrongness of some human actions is not based on the results of those actions.相互竞争的角度看是道义论的道德,这认为,正确性或某些人的行为不正当性的,并不是对这些行动的结果为基础的。Keeping a promise, for example, is thought right in any situation, because it is one's duty or is commanded by God.保持一个承诺,例如,被认为有权在任何情况下,因为它是一个人的责任或由神吩咐。Traditionally Christian ethics has had both teleological and deontological elements.传统的基督教道德的目的论和道义论有两个元素。

The Christian Attitude Toward Philosophy哲学走向基督教的态度

The apostle Paul's warning to the Colossian believers is clear: "See to it that no one makes a prey of you by philosophy and empty deceit, according to human tradition, according to the elemental spirits of the universe, and not according to Christ" (Col. 2:8).使徒保罗的警告,Colossian信徒是明确的:“看到它,没人让了你的哲学和空欺骗猎物,根据人体的传统,根据宇宙的元素的精神,而不是根据基督”(上校2:8)。 Such a warning was to be expected in light of what passed for philosophy in Paul's time.这样的警告是在什么样的在保罗的时间哲学通过光的预期。But he makes a philosophical assertion himself by continuing in the same passage to point out that in Christ "the whole fulness of deity dwells bodily" and that Christ is "the head of all rule and authority" (Col. 8:9-10).但他使得在同一通道继续指出,在基督里“的神丰满dwells整个身体”,而基督是“一切执政的头”的哲学断言自己(西8:9-10) 。Apparently Paul regarded at least some problems of interest to the philosophers of his day worth addressing.显然,保罗认为至少有一些感兴趣的问题,他一天的哲学家值得寻址。For instance, "Christ" and "the elemental spirits of the universe" are taken by Paul to be alternative answers to a philosophical question he considers important.例如,“基督”和“宇宙的元素精神”均是由保罗是一个哲学问题,他认为重要的备选答案。

Secular philosophers began losing the initiative to Christian thinkers within a few centuries after Paul's death.世俗的哲学家开始失去在后保罗的死亡数百年主动基督教思想家。Indeed, during the thousand years prior to the modern era virtually all European philosophers were Christians.事实上,在千年前现代时代几乎所有的欧洲哲学家都是基督徒。They took seriously the need of providing an interpretation of divine revelation in nature, Christ, and Scripture for a culture built on the framework of the ancient Greek philosophers.他们认真对待所提供的性质,基督的神的启示解释的必要性,并就古希腊哲学家框架建立了一个文化圣经。The basic questions every human must ask had been so clearly articulated by the Greeks that the Christian philosophers sought to formulate equally cogent answers from the standpoint of God's general and special revelation.每个人的基本问题必须问清楚地阐明了这样的希腊人,基督教哲学家试图从神制定的一般和特殊启示的角度来看同样有说服力的答案。

Secular philosophy, often anti-Christian, has regained the leadership in the modern period.世俗哲学,往往反基督教,已经恢复在现代时期的领导。The foundational issues with which philosophy deals have not changed, but their specific formulations and proposed solutions in the last few centuries have not always been compatible with Christianity.其中哲学与交易的基本问题并没有改变,但其具体配方,在过去几个世纪提出的解决方案并不总是与基督教兼容。 Hence, there is a great need for the insights and truths of divine revelation to be reestablished as being worthy of philosophical consideration.因此,有一个神圣的见解和启示真理是不作为是值得考虑的哲学重建的巨大需求。

This goal of contemporary Christian philosophy cannot be attained apart from the assistance of biblical scholarship and theology, however.这是当代基督教哲学的目标就不可能实现除了圣经神学奖学金和援助,但是。Since orthodox Christianity is grounded upon, and intended to be consistent with, the events recorded and interpreted in Scripture, the Christian philosopher must come to understand Scripture as it understands itself.由于正统基督教接地后,并拟一致,记录和圣经解释的事件,基督教哲学家一定要来了解圣经,因为它了解自己。Of particular assistance will be theological interpretations of Scripture limited to the problems dealt with by God's inspired prophets and apostles.特别援助将圣经的神学仅限于处理神的先知和使徒的启发与问题的解释。The Christian in philosophy will build upon this theological framework but will never supplant it.在哲学基督教神学将建立在这个框架,但不会取代它。

Since much has been learned from and about both God's and mankind's creative work since the origin of the human race, the Christian thinker must contemplate more than the problems of concern to the biblical writers.由于很多已经从约两个神和人类以来,人类起源的创造性劳动学会,基督教思想家必须考虑比圣经作者关注的问题更多。 Moreover, in order to encompass as much of God's truth as possible from natural revelation within a comprehensive view of the universe created and sustained by the merciful, loving God of Scripture, the Christian must engage in philosophical speculation.此外,为了从自然流露包括在创造和仁慈的,慈爱的上帝,宇宙的经文持续全面的看法一样多,上帝的真理可能,基督徒必须搞哲学思辨。 This does not entail an outlook inconsistent with Scripture.这并不意味着与圣经不符的前景。Specifically, there is no need to repudiate the miraculous, historical events upon which the Christian faith rests.具体来说,有没有必要推翻腐朽为神奇,在此基础在于基督教信仰的历史事件。

A philosopher's synthetic standpoint is not necessarily secular, much less anti-Christian, even though the first philosophy began this way and has largely reverted to this stance in the modern era.一位哲人的合成角度看不一定世俗,更反基督教,尽管第一哲学开始了这一方式,已经在很大程度上恢复了在现代时代的这一立场。 All that a Christian must do to pursue philosophy properly is critically to scrutinize the discoveries, insights, and theories that have increased our knowledge of God's universe, and coherently to weave this knowledge into an adequate whole consistent with Scripture.所有的基督徒必须追求正确的理念是至关重要审议的发现,感悟,而且增加了我们的上帝的宇宙知识,连贯编织成一个整体与圣经一致的足够知识理论。 This will involve a consideration, assessment, and evaluation from the scriptural viewpoint of every area of the human quest for knowledge, for control of the environment, for human governance, and for artistic expression.这将涉及一个考虑因素,评估,从每个人对知识的追求面积圣经的观点,对环境的控制,为人类治理和艺术表现和评价。

The Christian philosopher's overriding purpose is to love God with one's entire being, including the mind.基督教哲学家的首要目的,是爱上了一个人的整个人的神,包括头脑。In addition, the Christian philosopher desires to assist the theologian in two important ways.此外,基督教哲学家的欲望,以协助在两个重要方面的神学。One is to provide leadership in developing techniques of rigorous, critical analysis of both cultural and theological assumptions, concepts, and doctrines and their implications.一个是提供发展严谨,文化和神学假设,概念和理论及其影响的关键分析技术的领导地位。The other line of assistance is in the formulation of a synthetic and synoptic scheme of thought in order that the systematic theologian, particularly, can show Scripture to be relevant to contemporary life and thought.其他线路的援助是在一个思想合成和天气,以便有系统的神学家,特别是能显示圣经是有关当代生活和思想计划的制定。 The simple fact that any systematic theologican must adopt a philosophical system makes it crucial that Christian philosophers make available guidance in the selection and use of one consistent with the teachings of Scripture.一个简单的事实,任何系统的theologican必须采取一种哲学系统,使至关重要的是使基督教哲学家在选择和一个与圣经的教导一致使用现有指导。

SR Obitts SR Obitts
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary)(Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 参考书目
RM Chisholm et al., Philosophy; MD Hunnex, Philosophies and Philosophers; HA Wolfson, The Philosophy of the Church Fathers; BL Hebblethwaite, The Problems of Theology; R. Nash, The Word of God and the Mind of Man; W. Corduan, Handmaid to Theology.RM奇泽姆等人,哲学; MD Hunnex,哲学和哲学家,医管局,欧胜的教父哲学; BL Hebblethwaite,神学的问题; R.纳什,神的话语和人的头脑; W. Corduan ,对神学的婢女。



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