Positive Thinking积极思考

Advanced Information先进的信息

Over the last decade or so a host of best-selling books have urged people to take a "positive" attitude to life.在过去的十年左右的畅销书籍主机已呼吁市民采取“积极”的人生态度。Some of these have been written from an explicitly Christian perspective, but the majority have been clearly secular.其中一些已被明确写入从基督教的观点,但多数已经明确世俗。Titles such as Robert Ringer's Looking Out for No. 1 (1978), David Schwartz's The Magic of Self-Direction (1975), and Wayne Dyer's Pulling Your Own Strings (1978) are typical of this genre of literature in its secular guise.如罗伯特林格标题的找寻第1号(1978),大卫Schwartz的的自导自演魔术(1975),和Wayne Dyer的拉自己的字符串(1978)是这在世俗的幌子文学流派的典型代表。The most popular religious writer in the new wave of positive thinkers is Robert Schuller with books such as Move Ahead with Possibility Thinking (1967) and his numerous seminars for church leaders and members.最流行的新一轮积极的思想家的宗教作家罗伯特,如移动与可能性的思考(1967)和他的教会领袖和成员多次研讨会前进书籍舒勒。

Still popular today and a classic of its type is Dale Carnegie's How to Win Friends and Influence People (1936).不过普及的今天和一个同类型的经典是卡内基的如何赢得朋友和影响人们(1936)。 Here the secular brand of positive thinking is seen at its best.在这里,积极思考世俗品牌被认为是处于最佳状态。Norman Vincent Peale represents the best of the older tradition of religiously motivated positive thinkers.诺曼文森特皮尔代表的宗教动机的老传统,最积极的思想家。Although he published several books in the 1930s, his first success was A Guide to Confident Living (1948), which was followed by his even more successful the Power of Positive Thinking (1952).虽然他在20世纪30年代出版的书籍,他的第一个成功是对自信的生活指南(1948年),是由他的更成功的积极思考的力量(1952)之后。 In the writing of these works Peale's mentor was the liberal theologian Harry Emerson Fosdick, whose On Being a Real Person (1943) expresses his mature thought on the subject.在这些作品皮尔的导师写作是自由神学家哈里艾默生福斯迪克,其在作为一个真正的人(1943)表达了他的成熟的主题思想。

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The religious roots of positive thinking can be traced back to the revivalism of Charles G. Finney, whose emphasis on the human element in conversion and the ability of men to create revivals broke with the Calvinist heritage of New England.积极思考的宗教根源可以追溯到查尔斯芬尼的,其重点是在转换和男人的能力,人的因素造成的复兴与新英格兰加尔文遗产爆发复兴。 As the inventor of "high pressure revivalism" Finney psychologized conversion and in his Lectures on Revivals of Religion (1854) gave his readers techniques for success.作为“高压复古主义”的发明者芬尼psychologized转换和对宗教的复兴(1854)他的演讲给他的读者成功的技术。

The secular roots of positive thinking are found in New England transcendentalism, especially the works of Henry David Thoreau.积极思考的世俗根源存在于新英格兰的先验论,尤其是亨利大卫梭罗的作品。 His now classic Walden or Life in the Woods (1854) develops a vision of faith as a psychological faculty which expresses a profound self-confidence in the ability of men and women to triumph in the ability of men and women to triumph against all odds.他现在还是在经典的瓦尔登伍兹(1854)生命发展的一种心理教师的表现在男人和女人的能力了深刻的自我信心的胜利,在男性和女性的能力排除万难取得胜利的信心愿景。

This faith in the will found expression in New Thought and Frank Haddock's best seller, Power of will, published in 1906.这种信念会发现在新思维和弗兰克黑线鳕的畅销书,意志的力量,在1906年出版的表达。 Traces of it are also to be found in Christian Science and a host of other nineteenth century new religious movements.它的踪迹,也将在基督教科学和其他十九世纪的新宗教运动的主机上找到。

Today the popularity of books like Napoleon Hill's Think and Grow Rich, first published in 1937, shows the continuity of this tradition.今天,像拿破仑希尔的思考致富书籍的普及,在1937年首次出版,显示了这一传统的连续性。At the same time a host of television evangelists and other preachers offer the public encouragement through books and cassette tapes that assure them of their self-worth and need to believe in themselves.在同一时间的电视福音传教士和其他主机提供通过书籍和录音带是保证他们的自我价值,需要他们相信自己的公众的鼓励。

Several systems of counseling have developed along these lines, such as the Psycho-Cybernetics (1960) of Maxwell Maltz and various techniques of inner healing associated with the charismatic movement.辅导几个系统已开发沿着这些线路,如心理控制论(1960)麦克斯韦马尔兹以及与魅力的运动相关的内部愈合的各种技术。

Psychologically, the need to think in positive ways has been severely criticized by Richard Lazarus in his book Psychological Stress and the Coping Process (1966).在心理上,要以积极的方式思考了严厉批评理查德拉撒路在他的著作的心理压力和应对过程(1966年)。Sociologically, a telling critique of the trends found in positive thinking is presented in Christopher Lasch's The Culture of Narcissism (1979).社会学,在积极思考的发现告诉批判的趋势,提出在克里斯托弗Lasch的自恋的(1979)文化。

Theologically, positive thinking encourages a form of humanism that has often led to the development of heretical movements along the lines of New Though, Christian Science, and a variety of semi-Christian groups today.神学,积极鼓励的人文主义思想的形式,往往导致沿新虽然,基督教科学和半基督教团体今天各种各样的线条异端运动的发展。 It overlooks biblical teachings about sin and the sovereignty of God to emphasize the essential goodness of humanity and the ability of people to solve their own problems through faith in their own abilities.俯瞰有关罪和神的主权圣经教义强调人类基本的善良和人民有能力解决自己的信仰,通过他们自己的问题的能力。In its Christianized form this self-faith is mediated through reference to Christian symbols, which upon closer examination are devoid of their original meaning.在其基督教化形成这种自我的信念是通过介导参考基督教符号,这是经仔细检查其原始毫无意义。

I Hexham我赫克瑟姆
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 参考书目
D. Meyer, The Positive Thinkers; PC Vitz, Psychology as Religion.D.迈耶,积极的思想家; PC威姿,作为宗教心理学。


Positivism实证

Catholic Information天主教信息

Positivism is a system of philosophical and religious doctrines elaborated by Auguste Comte.实证是由奥古斯特孔德阐述的哲学和宗教教义体系。As a philosophical system or method, Positivism denies the validity of metaphysical speculations, and maintains that the data of sense experience are the only object and the supreme criterion of human knowledge; as a religious system, it denies the existence of a personal God and takes humanity, "the great being", as the object of its veneration and cult.作为一种哲学体系或方法,实证否认形而上学的猜测是否有效,并认为感觉经验的数据是唯一的对象和人类知识的最高准则,作为一个宗教体系,它否定了个人的神的存在,并采取人性化“的大正”作为其尊敬和崇拜的对象。 We shall give a brief historical sketch of Positivism, an exposition of its fundamental principles, and a criticism of them.我们将给出一个简要的历史实证草图,这是其基本原则的论述,以及他们的批评。

HISTORY OF POSITIVISM历史实证

The founder of Positivism was Auguste Comte (born at Montpellier, 19 Jan., 1798; died at Paris, 5 Sept., 1857).实证创始人奥古斯特孔德(出生在蒙彼利埃,1798年1月19日,在巴黎,1857年9月5日去世)。 He entered the Ecole polytechnique at Paris in 1814, was a disciple of Saint-Simon until 1824, and began to publish his course of philosophy in 1826.他于1814年在巴黎高等综合理工学院,直到1824年的圣西门的门徒,并于1826年开始出版他的哲学课。About this period he became temporarily deranged (1826-27).关于这一时期,他成为暂时失常(1826年至1827年)。After recovering, he was appointed instructor (1832-52) and examiner in mathematics (1837-44) at the Ecole polytechnique, giving meanwhile a course of public lectures on astronomy.康复之后,他被任命为数学(1837年至1844年),讲师(1832至1852年)和考官在巴黎高等综合理工学院,同时提供了关于天文学公开讲座课程。 The unhappiness of his married life and his strange infatuation for Mme Clotilde de Vaux (1845-46) greatly influenced his naturally sentimental character.他的婚姻生活的不满和他的夫人克洛蒂尔德DE沃克斯(1845年至1846年),大大影响了他的奇怪的迷恋自然多愁善感的性格。 He realized that mere intellectual development is insufficient for life, and, having presented Positivism as the scientific doctrine and method, he aimed at making it a religion, the religion of humanity.他意识到,仅仅智力发展是不够的生命,并因表现为科学主义和实证主义的方法,他目的是使其成为一个宗教,人类的宗教。 Comte's chief works are his "Cours de philosophie positive" [6 vols.: Phiosophie mathématique (1830), astronomique et physique (1835), chimique et biologique (1838), partie dogmatique de la philosophie sociale (1839), partie historique (1840), complément de la philosophie sociale et conclusions (1842); translated by Harriet Martineau (London, 1853)] and his "Cours de politique positive" (3 vols., Paris 1815-54).孔德的主要作品是他的“赛道DE哲学的积极”[6卷:Phiosophie mathématique(1830),astronomique等体质(1835),化学公司等biologique(1838),partie dogmatique德拉哲学的sociale(1839),partie historique(1840 ),补德拉哲学的sociale等结论(1842年);由Harriet蒂诺(伦敦,1853年)]和他的“赛道德politique积极的”(3卷,巴黎1815年至1854年)翻译。 Various influences concurred to form Comte's system of thought: the Empiricism of Locke and the Scepticism of Hume, the Sensism of the eighteenth century and the Criticism of Kant, the Mysticism of the Middle Ages, the Traditionalism of De Maistre and de Bonald, and the Philanthropy of Saint-Simon.各种影响同意形成孔德的系统思想:在洛克的经验主义和休谟,在十八世纪Sensism和康德的中世纪神秘主义,对德梅斯特和de Bonald传统主义的批判怀疑主义,而慈善事业的圣西门。He maintains as a law manifested by history that every science passes through three successive stages, the theological, the metaphysical, and the positive; that the positive stage, which rejects the validity of metaphysical speculation, the existence of final causes, and the knowableness of the absolute, and confines itself to the study of experimental facts and their relations, represents the perfection of human knowledge.他认为作为历史科学的表现,每一个通过三个连续的阶段,神学,形而上学,并积极通过的法律;,积极的阶段,反对形而上学的猜测,最终的原因存在,而knowableness有效性在绝对的,束缚自己的实验事实及其相互关系的研究,代表了人类知识的完善。 Classifying the sciences according to their degree of increasing complexity, he reduces them to six in the following order: mathematics, astronomy, physics, chemistry, biology, and sociology.分类的科学根据其复杂程度的增加,他减少了他们六个以下顺序:数学,天文学,物理学,化学,生物学和社会学。 Religion has for its object the "great being" (humanity), the "great medium" (world-space), and the "great fetich" (the earth), which form the positivist trinity.宗教有其对象的“大正”(人类),“大媒介”(世界空间),和“大fetich”(​​地球),形成三位一体的实证。 This religion has its hierarchical priesthood, its positive dogmas, its organized cult, and even its calendar on the model of Catholicism (cf. Comte, "Catéchisme positiviste").这种宗教上的天​​主教模型(参见孔德,“Catéchisme positiviste”),其等级的祭司,其积极的教条,它的邪教组织,甚至它的日历。

At the death of Comte, a division arose among the Positivists, the dissident group being formed with Littré as its leader, and the orthodox group under the direction of Pierre Laffitte.在孔德死亡,表决产生的实证主义之间,持不同政见者群体正在形成与Littré作为它的领导,并根据皮埃尔拉菲特方向正统组。 Emile Littré (qv) accepted Positivism in its scientific aspect: for him Positivism was essentially a method, viz, that method which limits human knowledge to the study of experimental facts and neither affirms nor denies anything concerning what may exist outside of experience.埃米尔Littré(QV)接受其科学方面的实证:他基本上是实证方法,即,该方法限制了人类知识的研究和实验事实既不肯定也不否认任何有关可能存在什么外面的经验。 He rejected as unreal the religious organization and cult of Positivism.他拒绝了虚幻的宗教组织和邪教组织的实证。He considered all religions from the philosophical point of view, to be equally vain, while he confessed that, from the historical point of view, Catholicism was superior to all other religions.他认为从哲学的角度看所有的宗教,是同样徒劳无功,而他坦言,从历史的角度来看,天主教优于所有其他宗教。The true end of man, he maintained, was to work for the progress of humanity by studying it (science and education), loving it (religion), beautifying it (fine arts), and enriching it (industry).而人的真正目的,他认为,是为人类进步工作,通过研究它(科学教育),爱它(宗教),美化它(美术),丰富它(工业)。 The official successor of Comte and leader of the orthodox group of Postivists was Pierre Laffitte, who became professor of the general history of sciences in the Collège de France in 1892.对孔德和正统的Postivists组长正式继任者是皮埃尔拉菲特,谁成为法兰西学院的科学史教授于1892年一般。He maintained both the scientific and the religious teaching of Positivism with its cult, sacraments, and ceremonies.他认为既科学与邪教,圣礼和仪式和宗教教学的实证。Other orthodox groups were formed in England with Harrison as its leader and Congreve, Elliot, Hutton, Morrison etc. as its chief adherents; in Sweden with A. Nystrom.其他正统的群体形成于英格兰与哈里森作为它的领导和Congreve,埃利奥特,赫顿,莫里森等为主要追随者,在与A奈斯特龙瑞典。 An active and influential group was also founded in Brazil and Chile with Benjamin Constant and Miguel Lemos as leaders and a temple of humanity was built at Rio Janeiro in 1891.一个活跃和有影响力的集团也成立于巴西和智利与贡斯当和Miguel莱莫斯领导和人类的寺庙是在里约热内卢建于1891年。 The principles of Positivism as a philosophical system were accepted and applied in England by J. Stuart Mill, who had been in correspondence with Comte (cf. "Lettres d'Aug. Comte à John Stuart Mill, 1841-1844", Paris, 1877), Spencer, Bain, Lewes, Maudsley, Sully, Romanes, Huxley, Tyndall etc.; in France by Taine, Ribot, de Roberty etc.; in Germany by Dühring, Avenarius etc. Thus, the principles and spirit of Positivism pervaded the scientific and philosophical thought of the nineteenth century and exercised a pernicious influence in every sphere.作为一个哲学体系的实证原则,接受和应用在英国的J.密尔,谁曾在书信被孔德(参见“Lettres D'八月孔德à穆勒,1841年至1844年”,巴黎,1877 ),斯宾塞,贝恩,刘易斯,Maudsley,苏利,Romanes,赫胥黎,廷德尔等;在法国的丹纳,Ribot,去Roberty等;在德国由杜林论,阿芬那留斯等。因此,实证主义的原则和精神,弥漫着科学和哲学思想在十九世纪在各个领域和行使一种有害的影响。 They had their practical consequences in the systems of positive or so-called scientific morality and utilitarianism in ethics, of neutrality and naturalism in religion.他们在积极的或所谓的科学道德和功利主义的系统的实际后果,道德,宗教的中立性和自然。

PRINCIPLES OF POSITIVISM原则实证

The fundamental principle of Positivism is, as already said, that sense experience is the only object of human knowledge as well as its sole and supreme criterion.实证主义的基本原则是,前面已经说过,那感觉经验是人类知识的对象以及它的唯一和最高准则。Hence abstract notions or general ideas are nothing more than collective notions; judgments are mere empirical colligations of facts.因此,抽象的观念或一般的想法无非集体观念以上;判断是事实只是经验colligations。Reasoning includes induction and the syllogism: induction has for its conclusion a proposition which contains nothing more than the collection of a certain number of sense experiences, and the syllogism, taking this conclusion as its major proposition is necessarily sterile or even results in a vicious circle.包括归纳推理和三段论:感应有其结论的命题包含无非感一定数量的经验集合,而更多的三段论,采取这一结论,其主要命题必然是无菌的,甚至导致恶性循环。 Thus, according to Positivism, science cannot be, as Aristotle conceived it, the knowledge of things through their ultimate causes, since material and formal causes are unknowable, final causes illusions, and efficient causes simply invariable antecedents, while metaphysics, under any form, is illegitimate.因此,根据实证主义,科学不能,正如亚里士多德设想是,通过他们最终会导致对事物的知识,因为材料和正式的原因是不可知的,最终会导致幻想,高效的原因简单地不变的来路,而形而上学,在任何形式,是非法的。 Positivism is thus a continuation of crude Empiricism, Associationism, and Nominalism.因此,实证经验主义的原油,联想主义和唯名论的延续。The arguments advanced by Positivism, besides the assertion that sense experiences are the only object of human knowledge, are chiefly two: the first is that psychological analysis shows that all human knowledge can be ultimately reduced to sense experiences and empirical associations; the second, insisted upon by Comte, is historical, and is based on his famous "law of the three stages", according to which the human mind in its progress is supposed to have been successively influenced by theological preoccupations and metaphysical speculation, and to have finally reached at the present time the positive stage, which marks, according to Comte, its full and perfect development (cf. "Cours de philosophie positive", II, 15 sqq.).该论点的实证,除了断言这个意义上的经验是人类知识的对象,主要有两个:第一是心理分析,所有人类的知识可以最终降低到意义的经验和实证协会表示,第二,坚持经孔德,​​是历史的,是在他著名的“三阶段法”为基础,根据该人的头脑中的进步应该是已先后通过神学和形而上学的猜测成见的影响,并最终达成了在目前的积极的阶段,这标志着,根据孔德,全面,完善的发展(见“哲学的赛道去积极的”,二,15 SQQ)。

CRITICISM的批评

Positivism asserts that sense experiences are the only object of human knowledge, but does not prove its assertion.实证经验断言这个意义上说是人类知识的对象,但并不能证明其主张。It is true that all our knowledge has its starting point in sense experience, but it is not proved that knowledge stops there.诚然,我们所有的知识有其意义的经验出发点,但它不是证明知识停在那里。Positivism fails to demonstrate that, above particular facts and contingent relations, there are not abstract notions, general laws universal and necessary principles, or that we cannot know them.实证未能证明,上述具体事实和队伍的关系,也有不是抽象的概念,一般规律的普遍和必要的原则,或者说我们可以不认识他们。 Nor does it prove that material and corporeal things constitute the whole order of existing beings, and that our knowledge is limited to them.它也没有证明材料和有形的东西构成了现有的生命整体秩序,我们的知识是有限的给他们。Concrete beings and individual relations are not only perceptible by our senses, but they have also their causes and laws of existence and constitution; they are intelligible.混凝土生命和个人的关系不仅是我们的感官感知的,但他们有自己的原因,也存在和宪法法律,他们是可理解的。 These causes and laws pass beyond the particularness and contingency of individual facts, and are elements as fundamentally real as the individual facts which they produce and control.这些原因和法律通过以后的particularness和个别事实的应变,并为从根本上为个别的事实,他们生产和控制实质要件。 They cannot be perceived by our senses, but why can they not be explained by our intelligence?他们不能被视为我们的感官,但为何不被我们的情报解释呢?Again, immaterial beings cannot be perceived by sense experience, it is true, but their existence is not contradictory to our intelligence, and, if their existence is required as a cause and a condition of the actual existence of material things, they certainly exist.再次,非物质的生命不能由感觉经验认为,这是事实,但它们的存在并不矛盾我们的情报,而且,如果他们的存在是一个原因,也是物质的东西实际存在的条件需要,他们肯定存在。 We can infer their existence and know something of their nature.我们可以推断它们的存在,并知道其性质的东西。They cannot indeed be known in the same way as material things, but this is no reason for declaring them unknowable to our intelligence (see AGNOSTICISM; ANALOGY).他们不能被称为确实在与物质的东西一样,但这是没有宣布他们不可知,以我们的智慧(见不可知论;类比)的原因。 According to Positivism, our abstract concepts or general ideas are mere collective representations of the experimental order - for example, the idea of "man" is a kind of blended image of all the men observed in our experience.根据实证,我们的抽象的概念或普遍的想法是为了单纯的实验集体表象 - 例如,对“人”的想法是对所有的人在我们的经验观察到的一种混合的形象。This is a fundamental error.这是一个根本性的错误。Every image bears individual characters; an image of man is always an image of a particular man and can represent only that one man.每一个形象熊单个字符;一个人的形象始终是一个特定的人的形象,并只能代表一个人的。What is called a collective image is nothing more than a collection of divers images succeeding one another, each representing an individual and concrete object, as may be seen by attentive observation.什么是所谓的集体形象无非是彼此的潜水员成功,每个代表个体和具体的对象,可能是由细心的观察看到的图像集合。 An idea, on the contrary, abstracts from any concrete determination, and may be applied identically to an indefinite number of objects of the same class.一个想法,相反,文摘任何具体的决心,并可能被应用到一个相同的同一类的对象不定数。Collective images are more or less confused, and are the more so as the collection represented is larger; an idea remains always clear.集体形象都或多或少感到疑惑,更何况是作为集合为代表的大;一个想法仍然总是很清楚。 There are objects which we cannot imagine (eg a myriagon, a substance, a principle), and which we can nevertheless distinctly conceive.有对象,我们不能想象(如myriagon,物质,原则)的,我们仍然可以清楚地受孕。 Nor is the general idea a name substituted as a sign for all the individual objects of the same class, as stated by Taine (De l'Intelligence, I, 26).也不是一般的主意,因为对所有同一类的单个对象由丹纳说,代签一个名字(DE L'情报,I,26)。If a certain perception, says Taine, always coincides with or follows another perception (eg the perception of smoke and that of fire, the smell of a sweet odour and the sight of a rose), then the one becomes the sign of the other in such a way that, when we perceive one, we instinctively anticipate the presence of the other.如果某一个看法,说丹纳,总是不谋而合,或依循其他知觉(如烟雾和火,甜气味的气味和玫瑰的视线这种看法),然后变成了一个在其他签署这样的方式,当我们感知之一,我们本能地预见到其他的存在。 So it is, Taine adds, with our general ideas.原来如此,丹纳补充说,与我们的总体思路。When we have perceived a number of different trees, there remains in our memory a certain image made up of the characters common to all trees, namely the image of a trunk with branches.当我们认为不同树木的数量,在我们的记忆中仍然有一定的形象被造的人物共同所有的树木,即用树枝树干的形象。We call it "tree", and this word becomes the exclusive sign of the class "tree"; it evokes the image of the individual objects of that class as the perception of every one of these evokes the image of the sign substituted for the whole class.我们把它叫做“树”,和这个词成为类“树”的独家标志,它唤起了每一个作为其中一个感知的那个类的单个对象的形象唤起了整个取代的符号形象类。

Cardinal Mercier rightly remarks that this theory rests upon a confusion between experimental analogy and abstraction (Critériologie générale l, III c. iii, 2, pp. 237 sqq.).红衣主教名士正确的言论,这一理论在实验之间的比喻和抽象(Critériologie兴升,三角三,2,第237 SQQ)混乱休息。Experimental analogy plays indeed a large part in our practical life, and is an important factor in the education of our senses (cf. St. Thomas, "Anal. post.", II, xv).实验戏剧的比喻确实在我们的现实生活的很大一部分,并且是在我们的感官教育的重要因素(参见圣托马斯,“肛门。岗位 ”,第二十五)。But it should be remarked that experimental analogy is limited to the individual objects observed, to particular and similar objects; its generality is essentially relative.但应该指出,实验的比喻是仅限于个别对象观察,特定对象和类似,其本质上是相对的普遍性。Again, the words which designate the objects correspond to the characters of these objects, and we cannot speak of "abstract names" when only individual objects are given, Such is not the case with our general ideas.再次,也就是说它指定对象对应于这些对象的字符,我们不能说“抽象名称”时,只有个别对象都给出了,这样是不是与我们的总体思路的情况。 They are the result of an abstraction, not of a mere perception of individual objects, however numerous; they are the conception of a type applicable in its unity and identity to an indefinite number of the objects of which it is the type.他们是一个抽象的概念,一个独立的对象仅仅是知觉,但不会导致众多,他们是一个类型的团结和身份适用的对象,其中它是类型不定数量的概念。 They thus have a generality without limit and independent of any concrete determination.因此,他们在没有任何具体限制和决心以便无论一般性。If the words which signify them can be the sign of all the individual objects of the same class, it is because that same class has first been conceived in its type; these names are abstract because they signify an abstract concept.如果这意味着他们的话可以将所有同一类的单个对象的标志,这是因为同一类首先在它的类型设想,这些名称是抽象的,因为它们意味着一个抽象的概念。 Hence mere experience is insufficient to account for our general ideas.因此,单纯的经验不足占我们的总体思路。A careful study of Taine's theory and the illustrations given shows that the apparent plausibility of this theory comes precisely from the fact that Taine unconsciously introduces and employs abstraction.一丹纳的理论和图示,认真研究考虑表明,这种理论明显的合理性正是来自一个事实,即泰纳不自觉地引进和采用抽象。 Again, Positivism, and this is the point especially developed by John Stuart Mill (following Hume), maintains that what we call "necessary truths" (even mathematical truths, axioms, principles) are merely the result of experience, a generalization of our experiences.再次,实证,这是特别是约翰穆勒(以下休谟)制定了一点,认为我们所说的“必要的真理”(甚至数学真理,公理,原则)是仅仅是经验的结果,我们的经验概括。 We are conscious, eg that we cannot at the same time affirm and deny a certain proposition, that one state of mind excludes the other; then we generalize our observation and express as a general principle that a proposition cannot be true and false at the same time.我们意识到,例如,我们不能在同一时间肯定和否定某种主张,即一个心态排除了其他,然后我们推广我们的观察,并作为一般原则,表达一个命题不能在同一真假时间。 Such a principle is simply the result of a subjective necessity based on experience.这样的一个原则是简单的经验为基础的主观需要的结果。Now, it is true that experience furnishes us with the matter out of which our judgments are formed, and with the occasion to formulate them.现在,这是事实,经验furnishes此事,其中我们的判断是形成了我们,并与他们制定的场合。But mere experience does not afford either the proof or the confirmation of our certitude concerning their truth.但是,单纯的经验不承担任何证明或对我们关于他们的真相确定性确认。If it were so, our certitude should increase with every new experience, and such is not the case, and we could not account for the absolute character of this certitude in all men, nor for the identical application of this certitude to the same propositions by all men.如果是这样,我们的确定性要加强与每一个新的经验,而这样的情况并非如此,我们不能说明这个男人在所有确定性的绝对性,也为这一确定性相同的应用程序由同一命题所有的人。 In reality we affirm the truth and necessity of a proposition, not because we cannot subjectively deny it or conceive its contradictory, but because of its objective evidence, which is the manifestation of the absolute, universal, and objective truth of the proposition, the source of our certitude, and the reason of the subjective necessity in us.在现实中,我们肯定一个命题的真理性和必要性,不是因为我们不能主观地否认或怀孕的矛盾,但由于其客观证据,这是绝对的,普遍的,客观的命题真理的体现,源我们确实性,而在我们的主观必要性的原因。

As to the so-called "law of the three stages", it is not borne out by a careful study of history.至于所谓的“三阶段法”,这不是证明了一个历史的认真研究。It is true that we meet with certain epochs more particularly characterized by the influence of faith, or metaphysical tendencies, or enthusiasm for natural science.诚然,我们遇到更多的尤其是信仰的影响力,或形而上学的倾向,或自然科学的积极性一定时代特征。But even then we do not see that these characteristics realize the order expressed in Comte's law.但即使如此,我们看不到这些特点实现孔德的法律所表达的顺序。Aristotle was a close student of natural science, while after him the neo-Platonic School was almost exclusively given to metaphysical speculation.亚里士多德是自然科学的贴近学生,而在他之后的新柏拉图主义学校几乎完全给形而上学的猜测。In the sixteenth century there was a great revival of experimental sciences; yet it was followed by the metaphysical speculation of the German idealistic school.在十六世纪有一个实验科学的伟大复兴,然而它是由德国唯心主义形而上学的猜测学校后面。The nineteenth century beheld a wonderful development of the natural sciences, but we are now witnessing a revival of the study of metaphysics.十九世纪看见了自然科学的美好的发展,但我们现在看到的是形而上学研究的复兴。Nor is it true that these divers tendencies cannot exist during the same epoch.它也不是真正的趋势,这些潜水员无法存在于同一时代。Aristotle was a metaphysician as well as a scientist.亚里士多德是一个形而上学以及一个科学家。Even in the Middle Ages, which are so generally considered as exclusively given to a priori metaphysics, observation and experiment had a large place, as is shown by the works of Roger Bacon and Albertus Magnus.即使在中世纪,它是如此普遍认为是专门给一个先验形而上学,观察和实验有一个大的地方,是由罗杰培根和阿尔伯图斯马格努斯作品所示。 St. Thomas himself manifests a remarkably keen spirit of psychological observation in his "Commentaries" and in his "Summa theologica", especially in his admirable treatise on the passions.圣托马斯自己体现在他的“评”,并在他的“神学大全”的心理观察非常敏锐的精神,尤其是在他的激情令人钦佩的论文。 Finally, we see a harmonious combination of faith, metaphysical reasoning, and experimental observation in such men as Kepler, Descartes, Leibniz, Paschal etc. The so-called "law of the three stages" is a gratuitous assumption, not a law of history.最后,我们看到了信仰的和谐组合,形而上学的推理,并作为开普勒,笛卡尔,莱布尼兹,逾越节等所谓“三阶段法”是一个免费的假设,而不是这些人的历史规律的实验观察。

The positivist religion is a logical consequence of the principles of Positivism.实证宗教是对实证主义的原则的必然结果。In reality human reason can prove the existence of a personal God and of His providence, and the moral necessity of revelation, while history proves the existence of such a revelation.实际上人的理性可以证明个人的上帝和他的普罗维登斯的存在,而启示道德的必要性,而历史证明了这样一个启示的存在。 The establishment of a religion by Positivism simply shows that for man religion is a necessity.一个简单的实证表明,建立宗教对人的宗教是必要的。

Publication information Written by George M. Sauvage.出版信息写乔治M.索瓦。Transcribed by Douglas J. Potter.转录由道格拉斯J.波特。Dedicated to the Sacred Heart of Jesus Christ The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XII.献给耶稣基督的圣心天主教百科全书,卷十二。 Published 1911.发布1911年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, June 1, 1911. Nihil Obstat 6月1日,1911。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰farley枢机主教,大主教纽约

Bibliography参考书目

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