Process Theology, Process Theism过程神学

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Process Theology is a contemporary movement of theologians who teach that God is dipolar, or has two natures, and that he is integrally involved in the endless process of the world.过程神学是当代运动的神学家谁教导上帝是偶极,或有两个性质,而且他是一体的,世界无尽的过程。God has a "primordial" or transcendent nature, his timeless perfection of character, and he has a "consequent" or immanent nature by which he is part of the cosmic process itself.神有一个“原始”或超越性,他的性格永恒的完美,他有一个“结果”或内在性质,其中他是宇宙的过程本身的一部分。This process is "epochal," ie, not according to the motion of atoms or changeless substances but by events or units of creative experience which influence one another in temporal sequence.这个过程是“时代”,即不按物质的原子或不变的议案,由事件或单位的创作经验的影响在时间序列彼此。

The method of process theology is more philosophically than biblically or confessionally based, though many of its proponents use process thought as a contemporary way of expressing traditional Christian teachings or seek to relate biblical themes to process concepts.该过程神学方法更比圣经或confessionally哲学基础,但其使用过程中的许多支持者认为是一种传统的基督教教义,表达当代的方式或寻求与圣经的主题,过程的概念。 Also the method emphasizes the importance of the sciences in theological formulation.另外该方法强调了科学在神学制定的重要性。Thus process theology generally stands in the tradition of natural theology, and in particular is associated with the empirical theology tradition in America (Shailer Mathews, DC Macintosh, Henry Nelson Wieman) which championed the inductive, scientific approach in liberal theology.因此,过程神学一般屹立在世界的自然神学的传统,尤其是与在美国(Shailer马修斯,直流Macintosh上,亨利尼尔森威曼),它倡导的自由神学归纳,科学方法的实证神学的传统有关。 Also process theology has some philosophical kinship with the evolutionary thinking of H. Bergson, S. Alexander, C. Lloyd Morgan, and P. Teilhard de Chardin.也有一些与过程神学的H.柏格森,S.亚历山大,C.劳埃德摩根和P.德日进的哲学思维的进化亲缘关系。But its true fountainhead is Whiteheadian philosophy.但其真正的源头是怀特海哲学。

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The Influence of Whitehead白石的影响

Alfred North Whitehead (1861-1947), the famed mathematician-philosopher, sought a set of metaphysical concepts that would be able to explain all individual beings, from God to the most insignificant thing.怀特海(1861年至1947年),著名数学家,哲学家,寻求一种形而上学的概念,将能解释所有个体生命,从上帝到最微不足道的事集。 Through philosophical speculation in interaction with science he developed his notable model of the basic unit of reality, which he called the "actual occasion" or "actual entity."通过与科学的互动哲学思辨,他发展了他对现实的基本单位显着的模型,他称之为“实际场合”或“实际的实体。”All things can be explained as processes of actual occasions, interrelated and varying in degree of complexity.所有的东西都可以解释为实际场合流程,相关性,复杂程度不同。Each actual occasion is a momentary event which is partially self-created and partially influenced by other actual occasions.每个实际场合是一时的事件而被部分自我创造和部分其他实际场合的影响。

Every actual occasion or entity is dipolar, having both physical and mental functions.每一个实际场合或实体是偶极,兼有生理和心理功能。With its physical pole the actual entity feels or "prehends" the physical reality of other actual entities, and with the mental pole it prehends the "eternal objects" by which actual entities have conceptual definiteness.凭借其极的实际物理实体的感觉还是“prehends”的其他实际实体的物理现实,并与心理极它prehends“永恒的对象”,其中实际实体的概念定性。 The eternal objects are the abstract possibilities of the universe, and actual entities are distinct from each other according to the way they realize or actualize these possibilities.永恒的对象是宇宙的抽象的可能性,实际实体根据彼此不同的方式或具体化他们意识到这些可能性。

Whitehead uses the term "prehend" to refer to a feeling or grasping of the physical and conceptual data of actual entities.白石使用术语“prehend”来指一种感觉或实际实体的物理和概念数据把握。By prehending each other actual entities are internally related (instead of externally related, as in materialistic or mechanistic philosophies).通过prehending对方的实际实体内部相关(而不是外部相关的,如在机械唯物主义或哲学)。This means that the entities are not isolated or independent beings but are present in other actual entities as interrelated moments of an ongoing process.这意味着实体都不是孤立的或独立的生命,但在一个持续的过程,作为相互关联的时刻其他实际存在的实体。This characteristic of prehension or feeling is not a conscious or intelligent act except with higher forms of life, but the dipolar structure and the prehensive function are there to some degree in every actual entity, however elementary or complex its level of existence.这种捏或感觉的特点是不是除非更高的生活形式自觉或智能行为,但偶极结构和prehensive功能是有一定程度在每一个实际的实体,但其基本的或复杂程度的存在。

Creativity is another of Whitehead's universal concepts; every actual entity has a measure of freedom which is expressed in an individual "subjective aim."创造力是白石的普遍观念另一个,每实际实体有一个自由的措施,是在一个单独的表示“主观目的”。The self-creative process by which an actual entity realizes its subjective aim includes unifying its many prehensions of the past and adding to them something new which is the entity's own creative contribution to the cosmic process.自我创作过程,一个真实的实体实现其主观目的包括统一了对过去许多prehensions并增加一些新的东西这是他们的实体本身的创造性贡献,宇宙的过程。 When the actual entity has realized its subjective aim, it attains "satisfaction," and thereafter ceases to exist as an experiencing subject, becoming instead the object or datum of the prehensions of subsequent actual entities.当实际的实体实现其主观目的,它达到“满意”,此后不再存在,只是遇到的问题,而不是成为对象或随后的实际实体的prehensions基准。 Thus the "life" of an actual entity is completed in the moment, and process in the world must be seen as a succession of organically related occasions or momentary experiences.因此,“生活”的一个实际的实体是在瞬间完成,并在世界的过程中,必须作为一个有机联系的场合或一时的经验继承看到。

Hence what traditional philosophy would call an enduring substance, Whitehead calls a succession or "route" of actual occasions with a common characteristic.因此,传统的哲学,什么叫持久的物质,白石电话与一个共同的特点继承或“路线”的实际场合。Change is explained by the creative contribution of each occasion in the series, and endurance is explained by common qualities which are inherited from antecedent occasions.变化是解释每个系列中的一次创造性的贡献,和耐力是它从先前的场合共同继承素质解释。The flux and stability of all things are explained in this way, whether they be electrons, rocks, plants, mammals, or men.助焊剂和一切事物的稳定,是这样解释,无论是电子,岩石,植物,动物或人。Man is an extremely complex route or "nexus" of occasions with memory, imagination, and heightened conceptual feelings.人是一个极其复杂的路线或“承上启下”的记忆,想象,感情和高度概念的场合。

God is the supreme actual entity, and as such he perfectly exhibits all the functions of the actual entity.上帝是至高无上的实际实体,因此他完全表现出所有的实际实体的功能。Whitehead contends that metaphysical coherence cannot be had by seeing God as an exception to the rules; on the contrary, he is the chief exemplification of the metaphysical principles by which all things are to be explained.怀特黑德声称,形而上学的连贯性不能被视为对规则的例外上帝,相反,他是由所有东西都加以解释形而上学的原则主要例证。 Thus God perfectly prehends all entities in the universe and is prehended in part by them.因此,上帝在宇宙中完全prehends所有实体,并在部分prehended他们。He also has the supreme influence on all actual entities, setting the limits of their creativity and influencing their subjective aims by supplying each one with an ideal "initial aim."他还对所有实际实体至上的影响,他们的创造力设置的限制和影响通过提供一个理想的每一个自己的主观目的是“最初的目的。” God does this by virtue of his mental pole or "primordial nature" in which he envisions all the eternal objects and their graded values relevant to the actual world.神是通过他的精神极或“原始性”,他设想所有的永恒对象及其梯度值有关的现实世界凭借这一点。

In arguing for the existence of God, Whitehead contends that without the eternal objects there would be no definite rational possibilities or values to be actualized, and yet only that which is actual is able to affect actual entities.在为上帝的存在争论,白石争辩,没有永恒的对象就没有明确的合理可能性,或者被现实化的价值观,然而只是这实际是能够影响实际的实体。 Therefore there must be some actual entity which grasps and valuates all of the eternal objects and can act as the universal agent and transcendent source of order and value in the world.因此,必须有一些实际的实体,掌握和valuates永恒的所有对象,并可以作为通用代理和秩序,在世界上的价值超越性的来源。 For Whitehead, then, without God the cosmic process would not be an orderly, creative process, but only a chaos.对于怀特黑德的话,没有上帝的宇宙过程不会是一个有序的,创造性的过程,但只有混乱。God, by his primordial nature, acts as the "principle of limitation" or "concretion," enabling the world to become concretely determinate by aiming at certain values within divinely given limits of freedom.神,他的原始性,充当“时效原则”或“凝固”,这使世界成为在一定范围内自由价值观瞄准神给予限制具体确定的。

God, as dipolar, also has a physical pole, or "consequent nature," by which he feels the completed actuality of each occasion.神,作为偶极,也有身体极,或“随之而来的性质”,其中他觉得每次完成的现实。(Remember that "physical" does not mean physical substance, as in materialism.) He actually takes the complete entities into his divine life as objects of his perfect prehension and gives them "objective immortality" in his consequent being by his valuation of their achievements. (请记住,“物理”并不意味着在唯物主义的物理实质内容。)他其实考虑到他作为他的完美涵摄对象神圣的生命完整的实体,并让他们在他随后被他自己的成就估价“客观不朽” 。(No actual entity has subjective immortality except God; finite living beings continue subjectively only by virtue of a continuing succession of actual occasions.) Moreover, God "gives back" to the world the data of the objectified entities he has prehended so that the world process will continue and be enriched by the past. (没有实际的实体,除了主观的不朽神;有限的众生只有通过不断的实际场合继续继承凭借主观)此外,神“还给”走向世界的对象化的实体,他已prehended数据,以便世界进程将继续下去,由过去丰富。

Thus God, by prehending and being prehended, interacts with every being in the world, in every momentary event in the succession of occasions that constitute the "life" of that being.因此上帝,prehending与被prehended,交互与世界上所有的幸福,在每一个场合,构成了“生命”的那瞬间被继承事件。 In this way God is radically immanent in the world process itself, leading it on toward greater value and aesthetic intensity, not by coercion but by sympathetic persuasion.这样上帝是内在的根本,在世界的过程本身,从而实现更大的价值和审美强度它,而不是强制,而是由同情说服力。 And although God in his primordial nature transcends the world, he as actual entity includes the world consequently within himself, and suffers and grows along with it through the creativity which he and the world possess.虽然在他的原始自然神超越的世界,因为他包含了实际的实体因而在自己的世界,遭受和与它一起成长,通过他的创造力和世界拥有。

The Contributions of Hartshorne会费的哈茨霍恩

Though Whitehead's philosophy had already reached maturity with the publication of Process and Reality in 1929, only a few used Whitehead as a source for theological thought before the 1950s.虽然怀特海的哲学已经达到了与现实的过程和出版于1929年到期,只有少数用来作为20世纪50年代之前的神学思想来源白石。 Most theologians in the intervening years were preoccupied with the rise of neo-orthodoxy, which tended to reject natural theology and compartmentalize theology and science.在其间的大多数神学家都忙于为新的正统,这往往拒绝自然神学和划分神学和科学的兴起。One notable exception was Charles Hartshorne (1897-), who developed the theological implications of Whitehead's thought and acted as the chief catalyst for the process theology movement of the 60s and 70s.一个值得注意的例外是查尔斯哈茨霍恩(1897 - ),谁开发的白石的神学思想的影响,并作为60年代和70年代的过程神学运动的主要催化剂行事。

Like Whitehead, Hartshorne was interested in metaphysics as the study of those general principles by which all particulars of experience are to be explained.像白石,哈茨霍恩是为那些通过它的经验,所有细节都加以解释的一般原则,研究形而上学感兴趣。But Hartshorne was more rationalistic about this study.但哈茨霍恩更理性关于这项研究。For him metaphysics deals with what is externally necessary, or with "a priori statements about existence," ie, statements which are necessarily true of any state of affairs regardless of the circumstances.对于什么是外部必要的,他的形而上学或交易“先验存在报表约”,即声明这是必然的任何事务,无论真实的情况。

Hartshorne took up Whitehead's metaphysical system and, with some modifications, defended it as the most coherent and viable alternative.哈茨霍恩拿起怀特海的形而上学体系,并与一些修改,捍卫了作为最连贯和可行的替代它。He agreed with Whitehead on the primacy of becoming (which is inclusive of being, in contrast to classical philosophy), and he emphasized even more than Whitehead the category of feeling as a quality of every entity (panpsychism).他同意就成为白石(这是被包容在对比古典哲学)的首要地位,甚至比他强调,作为白石的每一个实体(panpsychism)质量感觉品类更多。

In accordance with the "law of polarity" Hartshorne developed his dipolar view of God, though somewhat differently from Whitehead.按照“极性法”的规定哈茨霍恩发展了他的神偶极认为,虽然有所不同,从白石。Rejecting Whitehead's notion of eternal objects, Hartshorne called the mental pole of God the "abstract nature" of God, which is simply the character through all the stretches of time.拒绝白石的永恒对象的概念,哈茨霍恩称为神的精神极的“抽象性”上帝,这简直是在所有的时间绵延字符。The consequent nature Hartshorne called God's "concrete nature," which is God in his actual existence in any given concrete state, with all the wealth of accumulated values of the world up to that present state.随之而来的自然哈茨霍恩称为上帝的“具体性”,这是上帝在他的任何具体国家的实际存在,所有的累计值世界最高,目前的国家财富。 The attributes of God's abstract nature are those divine qualities that are eternally, necessarily true of God regardless of the circumstances; whereas the qualities of God's concrete nature are those particulars of God's being which he has gained by his interaction with the world in accordance with the circumstances.上帝的抽象性的属性是那些永远,一定神的真实,无论在何种情况下神圣的素质;而神的具体性质的品质是上帝的被那些他已经获得了与世界由他的互动,与按照详情情况。 God in his concrete actuality is a "living person," in process; his life consists of an everlasting succession of divine events or occasions.在他的具体的现实上帝是一个“活生生的人,”在过程中,他的生命的神圣的事件或场合永远继承组成。(Here again Hartshorne differs from Whitehead, who viewed God as a single everlasting actual entity.) (在这里再次哈茨霍恩不同,从白石,谁视为一个单一的永恒的实际实体神)

The polar opposites in God, therefore, mean that God is necessary according to his abstract nature but contingent according to his concrete nature, and, again, that he is independent in his abstract nature but dependent in his concrete nature.在神的对立的两极,因此,是否意味着神就要根据他的抽象性质,而是根据他的具体队伍的性质,并再次,他是独立于他的抽象性质,但在他的具体性质而定。 God is independent in the sense that nothing can threaten his existence or cause him to cease acting according to his loving and righteous character, but God is dependent in that what the creatures do affects his response, his feelings, and the content of his divine life.上帝在这个意义上是独立的,没有什么能威胁到他的存在,或导致他停止代理根据他的爱心和正义的性格,但上帝是什么动物做的依赖会影响他的反应,他的感情,和他的神圣的生活内容。

According to Hartshorne, God's perfection should not be seen exclusively in terms of absoluteness, necessity, independence, infinity, and immutability wholly in contrast to the relatively, contingency, dependence, finitude, and changeability of the creatures.据哈茨霍恩,上帝的完美不应该看到的绝对性,必要性,独立,无穷大,相对于全不变性完全是相对而言,应变,依赖,有限性,以及生物变性。 For Hartshorne this is the great mistake of classical theism (of such theologians as Thomas Aquinas), resulting in all sorts of problems like the contradiction of God's necessary knowledge of a contingent world, or God's timeless act of creating and governing a world which is temporal, or God's love for man which supposedly involves God in history yet in no way makes him relative to or dependent on man.对于哈茨霍恩这是古典有神论极大的错误(作为托马斯阿奎那这样的神学家),在各种各样的问题造成的,如神的队伍世界的必要知识的矛盾,或上帝的创造和管理的世界是颞永恒的行为,或上帝对人的爱的假想涉及上帝在历史中还没有办法使他相对或依赖于人。 Hartshorne contends that if temporal process and creativity are ultimately real, then God himself must be in process in some sense and must be dependent upon the free decisions of the creatures.哈茨霍恩争辩说,如果时间和创造性的过程,最终都是真实的,那么上帝本人必须在过程在某种意义上说,必须根据该生物的自由决定而定。

In opposition to classical theism, then, Hartshorne develops his "neoclassical" theism in which perfection is understood to mean that God is unsurpassable in social relatedness.在反对古典有神论,那么,哈茨霍恩发展他的“新古典主义”有神论,其中完美是理解为上帝是无法超越的社会关联性。 If God really is perfect love, then he perfectly feels or has total sympathetic understanding of every creature and responds appropriately to every creature in every event.如果上帝真的是完美的爱情,那么他完全感觉或拥有总,各种生物同情的理解和适当的响应每个事件中的每一个生物。Thus God is supremely absolute in his abstract nature but supremely relative in his concrete nature.因此,上帝是至高无上的绝对在他的抽象性质,但在他的千钧混凝土性质相对的。No one can surpass him in the supremacy of his social relatedness to every creature.没有人能超越他的社会关联的每一个生物至高无上他。But God can surpass himself, ie, he can and does "grow," not to become morally better or more perfect, but to grow in the joy and feeling of the world, in knowledge of actual events, and in the experience of the values created by the world.但神能超越自己,也就是说,他可以,而且确实“成长”,而不是成为道德上更好或更完美,但在成长的喜悦和对世界的感觉在实际事件的知识,并在经验值,创造的世界。 (Note that for Hartshorne, God cannot foreknow future contingent events, and so his knowledge, which is complete of what can be known, nevertheless continues to grow with the process of the world.) Thus God is the "self-surpassing surpasser of all." (请注意,对于哈茨霍恩,神不能预见未来队伍的事件,因此他的知识,这是什么可以被称为完整的,但继续增长,对世界的过程。)因此上帝是“自我超越所有surpasser “

God is more than just the world in its totality (contra pantheism) because he has his own transcedent self-identity; yet God includes the world within himself (contra classical theism) by his knowledge and love, which are simply his perfect prehension or taking in of the creative events of the world.上帝不只是在其整体的世界(销泛神论),更多的是因为他有自己的transcedent自我认同,然而上帝包括在自己(销古典有神论),由他的知识和爱,这只是他完美的捏或采取世界在世界的创造性活动。 Such a view of God is thus termed "panentheism" (all-in-God-ism).这种看法是这样的神称为“panentheism”(全部是在神主义)。

With the panentheistic view of God, Hartshorne has become one of the chief protagonists in the twentieth century reassertion of the ontological argument.随着神panentheistic认为,哈茨霍恩已成为在本体论的争论二十世纪重新抬头的主要倡导者之一。He says that the medieval Anselm really discovered something which was fundamental to the theistic proofs, namely the idea of "perfection" and its uniqueness among concepts.他说,中世纪的安瑟伦真的发现了一些这是根本的有神论的证据,即“完善”和概念之间的独特性的想法。But Anselm's argument lacked cogency because it depended on a classical theistic view of perfection.但安瑟伦的说法缺乏说服力,因为它在一个古典的完美有神论的观点而定。The neoclassical view of perfection, Hartshorne contends, overcomes the objection of modern philosophers that perfection cannot be consistently defined.完美的新古典主义认为,哈茨霍恩争辩,克服了现代哲学家的反对,一直无法完美定义。The thrust of Hartshorne's argument, then, is that perfection or "most perfect being" by definition either exists necessarily or is necessarily nonexistent, and since only the self-contradictory is necessarily nonexistent, perfect being, if it is self-consistent to speak of such, is in reality necessarily existent.而哈茨霍恩的说法推力,那么,是完善或定义“最完美的存在”之一存在一定或一定不存在的,并且因为只有自我矛盾的必然是不存在的,完美的存在,如果是自洽可言这样,必然是存在的现实。

Most philosophers still hold that such an argument is defining God into existence by confusing logical necessity with existential necessity.大多数哲学家仍然认为这种说法是定义为存在的困惑与存在的必然性逻辑的必然性神。But Hartshorne argues that the relation of logic to existence is unique in the case of perfection; ie, perfection, if it really is perfection, exists necessarily as the logically required ground of all existence and thought.但哈茨霍恩认为,逻辑关系的存在是在完美的情况下唯一的,即完美,如果它真的是完美的,存在一定的逻辑上存在的所有需要​​的地面和思想。

Here one can see Hartshorne's aprioristic approach to metaphysics very much at work, and the philosophical debate on that issue continues.在这里,人们可以看到哈茨霍恩的aprioristic方法,在工作中非常形而上学,并就这一问题的哲学争论仍在继续。 Nevertheless philosophers (eg, even a nontheist like JN Findlay) admit that Hartshorne has made the concept of perfection rationally conceivable and has reopened the ontological argument which before seemed closed.然而哲学家(例如,即使是像JN芬德利nontheist)承认,哈茨霍恩取得了完美的概念,合理想象,并已重新开放的本体论论证面前显得封闭。

Christian Process Thought基督教思想的过程

After 1960, as the influence of neo-orthodoxy was waning, an increasing number of theologians turned to Whitehead and Hartshorne as new philosophical sources for a contemporary expression of Christian faith. 1960年以后,作为新的正统观念的影响逐渐减弱,越来越多的神学转向白石及哈茨霍恩作为一种新的表达基督教信仰的当代哲学的来源。Beginning with the doctrine of God, such theologians as John Cobb, Schubert Ogden, Daniel D. Williams, and Norman Pittenger sought to show that the process view of God is more in accord with the biblical view of God (as dynamically related to human history) than is the more traditional Christian view of classical theism.首先是神的教义,约翰科布,舒伯特奥格登,丹尼尔D.威廉姆斯和诺曼Pittenger这些神学家试图证明上帝的过程中给予更多的看法是与上帝的圣经的看法(如动态与人类历史)比是比较传统的古典有神论的基督教观点。 They argued that the monopolar conception of God as timeless, immutable, impassible, and in every sense independent was more hellenistic than biblical.他们认为,作为永恒的,不可改变的,恝,在任何意义上的独立神单极构想超过圣经希腊。Williams analyzed the biblical, Christian theme of love and argued that Whitehead's metaphysics helps the theologian to explain God's loving action in ways not possible with classical notions of God as being-itself or absolute predestinator.威廉姆斯分析了圣经,基督教的爱的主题,并认为怀特海的形而上学的神学家帮助的方式来解释神的爱与神的经典动作概念作为是不可能的,本身还是绝对predestinator。

Ogden argued that the "new theism" of process thought, with its world-affirming emphasis, expresses the relevance of Christian faith to secular man, who needs an ultimate ground for his "ineradicable confidence" in the final worth of human existence.奥格登认为,“新有神论”思想的过程与它的世界肯定的重视,体现了基督教信仰有关的世俗人,谁需要他的“根深蒂固的信心”,在人类存在的最终价值的终极理由。 Cobb showed how Whiteheadian philosophy can be the basis of a new Christian natural theology, a theology which by philosophical means demonstrates that the peculiar vision of the Christian community of faith illuminates the general experience of mankind.科布展示了如何怀特海哲学可以成为一个新的基督教自然神学,哲学神学的方式表明,通过对信仰基督教社会特有的眼光照亮了人类的普遍经验的基础上。

Process theologians then began to concentrate on Christology, especially in the 70s, though Pittenger led the way by writing several works on the subject from a process view, the first in 1959.过程神学家则开始专心基督,特别是在70年代,尽管Pittenger领导写关于这个问题从过程来看,在1959年第几部作品的方式。 For Pittenger the uniqueness of Christ is seen in the way he actualized the divine aim for his life.对于Pittenger基督的独特性被认为是现实化的方式,他为他的生命的神圣目标。Sin is "deviation of aim"; man in his subjective aim distorts or deviates from God's initial aim.仙是“偏离目标”,在他的主观目的的人歪曲或上帝的最初目标相背离。In his subjective aims Christ actualized the ideal aim of God (as the cosmic Lover) with such intensity that Christ became the supreme human embodiment of "love-in-action."在他的主观目的是基督现实化等强度神的理想目标(如宇宙情人),基督成为人类的最高体现“爱的行动。” The deity of Jesus does not mean that he is an eternally preexistent person, but refers to God's act in and through the life of Jesus, who incarnated and transformed the whole of Israel's religion and became the eminent example of God's creative love which is at work universally.耶稣的神并不意味着他是一个永远先在人,而是指在并通过耶稣,谁化身和改变了以色列的宗教整体,成为神的创造爱的工作是杰出的例子生​​活中上帝的行为普遍。

David Griffin has spoken similarly, suggesting that Jesus actualized God's decisive revelation; ie, the "vision of reality" shown in his words and actions was the supreme expression of God's eternal character and purpose.大卫格里芬发言同样,暗示耶稣现实化神的决定性启示,即“现实的眼光”在他的言论和行动表明是神永恒的性质和宗旨的最高体现。

Cobb emphasizes a Logos Christology.科布强调一个标志基督。The Logos as the primordial nature of God is present (incarnate) in all things in the form of initial aims for creatures.作为上帝的原始性质的标识存在(化身)在对动物的初步目标是形成一切事物。But Jesus is the fullest incarnation of the Logos because in him there was no tension between the divine initial aim and his own self-purposes of the past.但耶稣是最大的标志,因为在他的化身之间没有任何神圣的初步目标,过去他自身的目的而紧张。Jesus so prehended God that God's immanence was "coconstitutive" of Jesus' selfhood.耶稣使prehended神,神的内在性是“coconstitutive”耶稣的个性。Cobb thus suggests (as opposed to other process thinkers) that Jesus was different from others in his "structure of existence" not merely by degree but in kind.科布因此建议(相对于其他进程的思想家),耶稣在他的“结构存在着”不只是由学位,但在那种与众不同。

Lewis Ford places emphasis on the resurrection as the basis for a Christology.刘易斯福特地方在复活的基督为基础的重视。According to him, what the first disciples experienced was neither a bodily appearance of Christ nor merely a hallucination, but a vision, or an encounter with a "nonperceptual reality" made perceptual by "hallucinatory means."据他介绍,什么第一弟子经历既不是基督的身体,也不只是一个幻觉的出现,但视力,或以“nonperceptual现实”遇到由感性“幻觉的手段”。 Thus the resurrection is of a spiritual kind; it is a new emergent reality, the "body of Christ," in which mankind is transformed into a new organic unity by the living spirit of Christ.因此,复活的是一种精神的一种,它是一个新出现的现实,“基督的身体”,即人类正在进入一个新的有机统一改造的基督的生命与精神。 Ford also suggests a process view of the Trinity; the Father is the transcendent unity of God, who by a creative "nontemporal act" generates the Logos (the primordial nature) as the eternal expression of divine wisdom and valuation, and the Spirit is the consequent nature in the sense of the immanent being and providential power of God.福特还表明了三位一体的进程;父是神的超越性的统一,谁是一个创造性的“nontemporal法”产生的标识(原始性)作为神的智慧和永恒的价值体现,圣灵是随之而来的自然中的内在的福祉和天赐神力量感。

At present, process works continue to abound, dealing with various Christian concepts and concerns: sin and evil, a theodicy, the church, pastoral care, ecology, liberation, and the relation of theology to science, philosophy, and culture.目前,工艺作品依然大量存在,与各种基督教的概念和处理问题:罪恶和邪恶,一个自然神学,教会,照顾田园,生态,解放和神学与科学,哲学和文化。 Though process theology has not yet become a major force in the church pew, it is very influential in the intellectual world of the seminaries and graduate schools, and no doubts is the most viable form of neoliberal theology now in the United States.虽然过程神学尚未成为教堂座位的主要力量,这是非常有影响力的神学院和研究生院的智力世界,毫无疑问是最可行的新自由主义神学的形式在美国现在。

Some other writers of Christian theology from a process perspective are Bernard Meland, Ian Barbour, Peter Hamilton, Eugene Peters, Delwin Brown, William Beardslee, Walter Stokes, Ewert Cousins, E. Baltazar, and Bernard Lee.从过程来看其他一些基督教神学作家伯纳德Meland,伊恩巴伯,彼得汉密尔顿,尤金彼得斯,Delwin布朗,威廉Beardslee,沃尔特斯托克斯,尤尔特表兄弟,E.巴尔塔扎尔和伯纳德李。 Though process theology developed mainly within Protestantism, it now has influence also with Roman Catholic thinkers (as is evident from the last four names just mentioned).虽然在发展过程神学新教为主,现在也与罗马天主教思想家(如从过去四年刚才提到的名字明显)的影响。Catholic process thinkers have been coming to grips not only with Whitehead but also with Teilhard de Chardin, whose thought is historically separate from, but has some philosophical affinity with, the Whiteheadian tradition.天主教进程的思想家已经来到交手不仅与白石还与德日进,其思想是历史上分开,但有一些,传统的怀特海哲学的亲和力。

Evaluation评价

By philosophical or rational standards process theology has several commendable points.通过哲学或理性的标准过程神学有几个值得称道点。First, it emphasizes metaphysical coherence; ie, it seeks to express a vision of God and the world by a coherent and clearly defined set of metaphysical concept.首先,它强调形而上的连贯性,也就是说,它旨在表达一个连贯的和形而上学的概念设定明确的上帝和世界的眼光。Second, it integrates science and theology, and vice versa; they are together in the same universal sphere of discourse, namely, process metaphysics.其次,它集成了科学和神学,反之亦然,它们是在同一个话语的普遍领域,即过程形而上学。Consequently, and in the third place, process theology provides a tenable answer to the charge that theological language is meaningless.因此,在第三位,过程神学提供了神学语言的指责是没有意义的站得住脚的答案。

The process theologian contends that if metaphysics describes those general concepts or principles by which all particulars are to be explained, and if God is the chief exemplification of those principles, then talk about God is eminently meaningful and basic to the meaningfulness of everything else.这个过程神学家说,如果形而上学介绍这些基本概念或原则通过,所有细节都加以解释,如果上帝是这些原则的主要例证,再来谈神是突出的意义和基本的一切意义。 Fourth, process theology eloquently champions natural theology.第四,过程神学雄辩地冠军自然神学。Fifth, process theology gives clear and plausible form to a dynamic, personal view of God.第五,过程神学提供了明确的和可信的形式向动态,神个人的看法。Personal qualities such as self-consciousness, creatively, knowledge, and social relatedness are attributed to God in the most literal sense.如自我意识,创造性,知识,个人素质和社会的关联,是由于上帝在最字面意义。

By rational standards process theology also has its weaknesses or questionable features.通过合理的标准,过程神学也有其弱点或可疑的特点。First, one may question whether the process model does justice to the self-identity of an individual person in process.首先,人们可以质疑过程模型不正义的过程中个别人的自我认同。Second, process theology has some problems concerning the finitude and temporality of God, eg, the problem of relating God's infinite, nontemporal, primordial nature of God's finite, temporal, growing, and consequent nature, or the problem of seeing unity of experience in each moment of God's omnipresent existence in view of the teaching of relativity physics that there is no simultaneous present throughout the universe.二,过程神学有一些问题的有限性和暂时性的神,例如,有关上帝的无限,nontemporal,神的有限,颞原始性问题,不断增长,随之而来的性质,或者看到在每个经验的统一问题目前神在相对论物理教学,没有整个宇宙同时目前的看法无所不在的存在。 Third, there is the question of the religious adequacy of panentheism.第三,是对宗教的panentheism充足的问题。Is the most worthy object of worship of God who needs the world in order to be a complete personal being or a God who is a complete personal being prior to the world?就是神的崇拜对象谁最值得需要世界,才能成为一个完整的个人正在或神谁是完整的个人被前世界?

In addition to these philosophical problems, there are some characteristics of process theology which, from the viewpoint of evangelical theology, are contrary to Scripture.除了这些哲学问题,也有一些特点,过程神学,从福音派神学的观点,都违背圣经。These include a nontripersonal view of the Trinity, a Nestorian or Ebionite tendency in Christology, a nonsupernaturalistic view of the Bible and of Christ's works, the denial of divine foreknowledge and predestination, and a weak view of human depravity.这些措施包括三位一体nontripersonal认为,在基督景教或Ebionite倾向,对圣经和基督的作品nonsupernaturalistic认为,神圣的预知和预定论的否定,是人类堕落薄弱的看法。

DW Diehl DW迪尔

(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary)(Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 参考书目
JB Cobb, Jr., A Christian Natural Theology; LS Ford, The Lure of God; D. Griffin, A Process Christology; C. Hartshorne, The Divine Relativity, The Logic of Perfection, and Creative Synthesis and Philosophic Method; S. Ogden, The Reality of God; N. Pittenger, Christology Reconsidered and Process Thought and Christian Faith; AN Whitehead, Process and Reality; D. Brown, R. James, and G. Reeves, eds., Process Philosophy and Christian Thought; W. Christian, An Interpretation of Whitehead's Metaphysics; JB Cobb, Jr., and D. Griffin, Process Theology: An Introductory Exposition; N. Geisler, "Process Theology," in Tensions in Contemporary Theology, ed.LS,神的诱惑福特;; D.格里芬,这个过程基督; C.哈茨霍恩,神圣的相对论,完美的逻辑,哲学和创造性的合成和方法; JB科布,A基督教自然神学小S.奥格登,上帝的现实; N. Pittenger,基督的再思考和处理思想和基督教信仰;,过程和现实AN怀特海; D.布朗,R.詹姆斯和G.里夫斯编,过程哲学和基督教思想; W。基督教,一个怀特海的形而上学的解释; JB科布,小,和D,过程神学格里芬:介绍博览会; N.盖斯勒,“过程神学”,在当代神学,编辑的紧张关系。SN Gundry and AF Johnson.SN Gundry和AF约翰逊。



Also, see:此外,见:
Pantheism 泛神论
Theism 有神论
Rationalism 理性
Agnosticism 不可知论
Panentheism panentheism

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