Protestant Ethic新教伦理

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The Protestant ethic, also called the work ethic, is a code of morals based on the principles of thrift, discipline, hard work, and individualism.新教伦理,也叫职业道德,是道德守则的节俭,纪律,勤奋工作,和个人主义的原则为基础。The adjective Protestant is explained by the fact that these qualities were seen to have been especially encouraged by the Protestant religion, especially those denominations based on the tenets of Calvinism.形容词新教的解释是,这些素质被视为已特别是新教的宗教,特别是那些对加尔文的信条的教派鼓舞的事实。The major formulators of the concept of the Protestant ethic were the German political philosopher and sociologist Max Weber and the English historian Richard H. Tawney.对新教伦理观念的主要配方是德国政治哲学家和社会学家马克斯韦伯和英国史学家理查德H.托尼。Both men saw a close relationship between the Protestant ethic and the rise of capitalism.只见两人之间的新教伦理与资本主义的兴起密切的关系。

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Weber was impressed by the seeming fact that modern capitalism had developed mainly in those areas of Europe where Calvinistic Protestantism had taken root early in the Protestant Reformation.韦伯印象深刻的是表面上的事实,现代资本主义已发展欧洲那些加尔文新教已扎根在新教改革初期的地区为主。 In The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism (1905; rev. 1920; Eng. trans., 1930), Weber argued that a causal connection existed between the two; his concern was with the effect of religion on economic life, but he claimed that the reverse influences were equally important.在新教伦理与资本主义精神(1905年;转1920;。工程反,1930年),韦伯坚持认为,两者之间的因果关系存在,他的关心与宗教对经济生活的影响,但他声称该反向的影响也同样重要。 Weber held that the doctrine of predestination, central to Calvinism, and the remote and unknowable Protestant God created intense anxieties in the individual regarding that person's state of grace.韦伯认为,宿命主义,加尔文主义的核心,而远程和不可知的新教上帝创造了个人的强烈忧虑有关该人的国家的宽限期。Practical means of reducing those anxieties took the form of a systematic commitment to a calling, that is, to hard work, thrift, and self-discipline, the material rewards of which were not consumed personally but saved and reinvested.这些忧虑减少了切实可行的手段是一个系统的承诺形成了呼叫,也就是要艰苦奋斗,勤俭节约,自律,其中的物质奖励,但不消耗个人保存和再投资。 Because these qualities were also those required for success in the newly emerging capitalist economy, it followed that these practicing Calvinists should also form the nucleus of the new capitalist class.因为这些特质也为新兴的资本主义经济成功所需的,它遵循这些实践加尔文主义者也应形成新的资本家阶级的核心。Furthermore, success in the commercial world tended to assure the individual that he or she was in fact in a state of grace because God had smiled on his or her endeavors.此外,在商业世界的成功往往以确保个人,他或她在一个国家的宽限期其实是因为神已经在他或她的努力笑了。Weber theorized that with the waning of a religious world view, the Protestant ethic remained as "the spirit of capitalism."韦伯的理论,随着宗教世界观逐渐消退,新教伦理的仍然是“资本主义精神”。

Weber's theories, first put forth in 1905, were widely circulated, defended, and criticized.韦伯的理论,首次提出在1905年提出的,被广为流传,辩护,并批评。Tawney's major work on the subject, Religion and the Rise of Capitalism, was published in 1926.陶尼的关于这个问题,宗教与资本主义的兴起主要工作,是出版于1926年。Tawney basically agreed with Weber, although he put less emphasis on the causal relationship between Protestantism and capitalism and less emphasis on the Calvinism.陶尼基本上同意韦伯,虽然他把新教与资本主义之间和减少对加尔文强调因果关系不太重视。He pointed out that modern capitalism had begun to emerge long before the Protestant Reformation; he cited such 15th-century commercial centers as Venice, Florence, and Flanders as examples of this emerging capitalism.他指出,现代资本主义已开始出现前宗教改革长;他引为这一新兴资本主义的例子,如15世纪的威尼斯,佛罗伦萨,和佛兰德的商业中心。 According to Tawney, the fact that the established churches--the Roman Catholic church on the Continent and the Anglican church in England--were so closely allied with the old landholding aristocracy caused the newly emerging middle class to gravitate toward the new Protestant sects.据托尼,认为建立教会的事实 - 罗马天主教教会在欧洲大陆和英国圣公会教堂 - 是如此紧密地与旧的土地持有贵族结盟所造成的新兴中产阶级倾向于新的新教教派。In sum, the two institutions developed side by side, without one "causing" the other.总之,这两个机构并存发展,无一“导致”对方。

The idea of the Protestant ethic has had substantial influence in 20th-century history, sociology, and political science.而新教伦理观念已在20世纪的历史学,社会学,政治学和实质性的影响。 Nationalism and socialism, for example, are seen by some as being secular ethics affecting types of economic development.民族主义和社会主义的,例如,是被有些人看作是影响经济发展类型的世俗道德。Other theorists focus on the relative decline of capitalist economic influence in the United States and Great Britain, a result, they claim, of a deterioration in the Protestant ethic among the peoples of those countries.其他理论家着眼于资本主义经济的影响力相对下降,美国和英国,因此,他们声称在这些国家之间人民的新教伦理恶化。

David Westby大卫韦斯特比

Bibliography 参考书目
Eisenberger, Robert, Blue Monday: The Loss of the Work Ethic in America (1989); Eisenstadt, Schmuel N., ed., The Protestant Ethic and Modernization; A Comparative View (1968); Green, Rupert W., ed., Protestantism and Capitalism: The Weber Thesis and Its Critics (1959); Jacobs, Norman, The Origin of Modern Capitalism and Eastern Asia (1958; repr. 1980); Samuelsson, Kurt, Religion and Economic Action: A Critique of Max Weber, trans. Eisenberger,罗伯特,蓝色星期一:对在美国(1989年)工作伦理的丧失;艾森斯塔特,Schmuel N.,教育署,新教伦理与现代化;一个比较查看(1968),绿,鲁珀特W.,ED新教与资本主义:韦伯论文和批评(1959年);雅各布,诺曼,现代资本主义和东亚起源(1958年再版1980年); Samuelsson先生,库尔特,宗教和经济行动:马克斯韦伯,反批判。by EG French (1961).例如由法国(1961年)。

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