Quietism清静无为

General Information一般资料

The term has several connotations and is often used in a broad sense to refer to the emphasis on human inactivity and passivity that has accompanied the mystic experience.这个词有几个内涵,而且往往在广泛意义上用来指对人类活动和被动的重点是伴随着神秘的经验。In a more specific way it refers to a manifestation of Roman Catholic mysticism in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.在更具体的方式是指罗马天主教神秘主义在十七和十八世纪的体现。This movement was inspired by the teachings of Miguel de Molinos, a Spanish priest who lived in Italy and published his views in a book entitled Spiritual Guide.这个动作的灵感来自于对米格尔Molinos,西班牙教士谁住在意大利和刊载于精神指南一书的教导他的看法。According to Molinos the goal of Christian experience is the perfect rest of the soul in God.据Molinos的基督教经验的目标是在上帝的灵魂完美的休息。Such a condition is possible when a person abandons himself completely to God and the will is totally passive.这种情况是可能的,当一个人放弃自己完全神和意志是完全被动的。Mental prayer rather than any external activity is the means to the state of absolute rest with God.而不是任何外部活动精神祷告是与神的绝对静止状态的手段。Molinos was accused of despising Christian virtue and of moral aberration because he believed that in a state of contemplation the soul is unaffected by either good works or sin. Molinos被指控蔑视基督教的美德和道德畸变,因为他认为,在沉思的状态,灵魂是不是好作品或罪恶的影响。The Jesuits led the attack on his doctrine, claiming that it was an exaggerated and unhealthy form of mysticism.耶稣会领导对他的学说的攻击,声称这是一个神秘主义的夸张和不健康的形式。Through their efforts he was arrested and imprisoned.通过他们的努力,他被逮捕和监禁。

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Despite the opposition quietism spread to France, where it found an outstanding proponent in Madame Guyon, a woman from an influential family.尽管反对派清静无为蔓延到法国,在那里发现了一个在夫人Guyon,从一个有影响力的家庭妇女杰出的支持者。Forced to abandon her desire to follow a religious vocation and instead to marry, she was constantly seeking a deeper spiritual life.被迫放弃她的愿望,遵循宗教职业,而是要结婚,她不断寻求更深层次的精神生活。Following the death of her husband she came under the influence of Molinos's thought and by 1680 felt herself so close to God that she received visions and revelations.随着她的丈夫去世,她受到了Molinos的思想影响和1680年觉得自己如此接近上帝,她收到异象和启示。 Traveling widely through France she won many converts, calling them "spiritual children."穿越法国广泛,她赢得了众多转换,称他们为“灵童”。Her teaching, elaborated in A Short and Easy Method of Prayer, emphasized passive prayer as the major Christian activity.她的教学,在一个简短的祈祷和简单的方法阐述,强调作为主要的基督教祈祷活动的被动。Eventually, she felt, the soul will lose all interest in its own fate, and even the truth of the gospel would be insignificant before "the torrent of the forces of God."最终,她觉得,灵魂将失去所有在它自己的命运的兴趣,甚至是福音真理会前微不足道“的神的力量洪流。”

On a popular level her teaching led to a disregard for the spiritual activities and the sacraments of the church.在她的教学水平流行导致了精神活动和教会的圣礼的漠视。The result was a belief in a vague pantheism which is closer to the South Asian religions than to Christianity.其结果是一个模糊的泛神论比这更接近基督教南亚的宗教信念。Bossuet, bishop of Meaux, warned her to stop propagating these ideas, and others considered her mentally unbalanced, but she continued to win followers.波舒哀主教莫城,警告她停止传播这些想法,和其他人认为她心理不平衡,但她不断赢得追随者。She exchanged a series of letters with Fenelon, who admired and defended her ideas.她交换了与Fenelon,谁崇拜和捍卫她的想法一系列信件。In 1687 Pope Innocent XI condemned quietism, and Guyon along with many of her followers suffered imprisonment and persecution.1687年教皇英诺森十一谴责清静无为,而且随着她的许多追随者Guyon遭受监禁和迫害。

RG Clouse RG Clouse
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary)(Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 参考书目
P. Hazard, The European Mind; RA Knox, Enthusiasm.P.,欧洲心灵危害; RA诺克斯,积极性。


Quietism清静无为

Catholic Information天主教信息

Quietism (Latin quies, quietus, passivity) in the broadest sense is the doctrine which declares that man's highest perfection consists in a sort of psychical self-annihilation and a consequent absorption of the soul into the Divine Essence even during the present life.在最广泛意义上清静无为(拉丁文quies,quietus,被动)的学说,其中宣布,人的最高完美的一个心理自我毁灭和灵魂进入,即使在现在的生活随之而来的神圣的精华吸收排序组成。 In the state of "quietude" the mind is wholly inactive; it no longer thinks or wills on its own account, but remains passive while God acts within it.在“宁静”的状态是完全无效的心灵,它不再认为自己的帐户或在其遗嘱,但仍然被动的,而上帝在它的行为。Quietism is thus generally speaking a sort of false or exaggerated mysticism, which under the guise of the loftiest spirituality contains erroneous notions which, if consistently followed, would prove fatal to morality.清静无为因此一般来说虚假或夸大的神秘主义,这下的最崇高的精神幌子包含错误的观念,如果一直跟着,将被证明是致命的道德排序。 It is fostered by Pantheism and similar theories, and it involves peculiar notions concerning the Divine cooperation in human acts.这是培育的泛神论和类似的理论,它涉及人类行为有关的神圣合作特有的概念。In a narrower sense Quietism designates the mystical element in the teaching of various sects which have sprung up within the Church, only to be cast out as heretical.在狭义上清静无为指定在这些如雨后春笋般出现在教堂,只待投出各教派为异端邪说教学神秘元素。In some of these the Quietistic teaching has been the conspicuous error, in others it has been a mere corollary of more fundamental erroneous doctrine.在上述一些寂静主义教学一直是显眼的错误,在其他人一直是更根本的错误的教条单纯的必然结果。Quietism finally, in the strictest acceptation of the term, is the doctrine put forth and defended in the seventeenth century by Molinos and Petrucci.清静无为终于,在长期严格的词义,是学说提出并在十七世纪辩护Molinos和彼得鲁奇。Out of their teaching developed the less radical form known as Semiquietism, whose principle advocates were Fénelon and Madame Guyon.开发出自己的教学形式较激进Semiquietism,其原则主张是Fénelon和夫人Guyon闻名。All these varieties of Quietism insist with more or less emphasis on interior passivity as the essential condition of perfection; and all have been proscribed in very explicit terms by the Church.所有这些品种的清静无为坚持以或多或少作为完善内部被动强调的必要条件,一切已经非常明确禁止的经堂。

In its essential features Quietism is a characteristic of the religions of India.在其清静无为的本质特征是对印度的宗教特点。Both Pantheistic Brahmanism and Buddhism aim at a sort of self-annihilation, a state of indifference in which the soul enjoys an imperturbable tranquillity.泛神论婆罗门教和佛教都瞄准了自我毁灭,一个冷漠的状态,其中的灵魂享有镇静安宁的排序。And the means of bringing this about is the recognition of one's identity with Brahma, the all-god, or, for the Buddhist, the quenching of desire and the consequent attainment of Nirvana, incompletely in the present life, but completely after death.而将这一有关手段,是一个人的身份与梵天,所有神,或者,对于佛教,欲望和随之而来的涅磐实现淬火,在现在的生活不完全认同,但后完全死亡。 Among the Greeks the Quietistic tendency is represented by the Stoics.在希腊人的寂静主义倾向的代表是斯多葛派。Along with Pantheism, which characterizes their theory of the world, they present in their apatheia an ideal which recalls the indifference aimed at by the Oriental mystics.随着泛神论,这刻画他们对世界的理论,他们目前在apatheia一个理想的回忆在由东方神秘主义者旨在冷漠。The wise man is he who has become independent and free from all desire.智者是谁,他已经成为所有渴望独立和自由。According to some of the Stoics, the sage may indulge in the lowest kind of sensuality, so far as the body is concerned, without incurring the least defilement of his soul.根据斯多葛一些,圣人可以沉醉于淫荡最低样,就身体而言,不会产生对他的灵魂至少污辱。The Neoplatonists (qv) held that the One gives rise to the Nous or Intellect, this to the world-soul, and this again to individual souls.在柏拉图(QV)举行,一个使人产生臭氧或智力,这对世界的灵魂,而这一次个人的灵魂。 These, in consequence of their union with matter, have forgotten their Divine origin.这些,在他们与物质联盟的后果,已经忘记了自己神圣的起源。Hence the fundamental principle of morality is the return of the soul to its source.因此,道德的基本原则是其源灵魂的回报。The supreme destiny of man and his highest happiness consists in rising to the contemplation of the One, not by thought but by ecstasy (ekstasis).该名男子和他的最高幸福的命运在于最高上升到了一个没有思想的观照,而是由摇头丸(ekstasis)。

The origin of these Quietistic tendencies is not hard to discover.这些寂静主义倾向的起源不难发现。However strongly the Pantheistic conception of the world may appeal to the philosophic minded, it cannot do away with the obvious data of experience.但强烈的世界泛神论的观念,可向哲学头脑,不能破除经验明显的数据。To say that the soul is part of the Divine being or an emanation from God enhances, apparently, the dignity of man; but there still remains the fact that passion, desire, and moral evil make human life anything but Divine.如果说灵魂是神圣的正在或神的化身部分an提高,显然,人的尊严,但仍然存在的事实,激情,欲望与道德的沦丧使人类的生活什么,但神。 Hence the craving for deliverance and peace which can be obtained only by some sort of withdrawal from action and from dependence on external things and by a consequent immersion, more or less complete, in the Divine being.因此,为拯救和渴望和平的,只能由一些从​​行动撤离排序和从外界事物的依赖和因此而产生的浸泡,或多或少地完成了神,获得。 These aberrations of Mysticism continued even after the preaching of Christianity had revealed to mankind the truth concerning God, the moral order, and human destiny.这些异常的神秘主义后,仍继续基督教说教曾透露给人类的真理关于上帝,道德秩序和人类的命运。Gnosticism, especially the Antinomian School, looked for salvation in a sort of intuitive knowledge of the Divine which emancipated the "spiritual" from the obligation of the moral law.诺斯替主义,尤其是唯信仰论学校,寻找救赎的其中一个翻身从道德法律义务的“精神”神圣的良知排序。The same Quietistic tendency appears in the teaching of the Euchites or Messalians, who maintained that prayer frees the body from passion and the soul from evil inclination, so that sacraments and penitential works are useless.同样的寂静主义倾向出现在Euchites或Messalians,谁主张,祈祷摆脱激情和邪恶的倾向,从灵魂的身体,使圣礼和悔罪的作品是没有用的教学。 They were condemned at the Synod of Side in Pamphilia (383) and at Ephesus (431).他们谴责在侧Pamphilia主教(383)和以弗所(431)。The Bogomili (qv) of the later Middle Ages were probably their lineal descendants.而后来的中世纪Bogomili(QV)很可能是他们的直系后裔。

Medieval Quietism is further represented in the vagaries of Hesychasm, according to which the supreme aim of life on earth is the contemplation of the uncreated light whereby man is intimately united with God.中世纪清静无为是进一步代表在Hesychasm变幻莫测,根据其中的地球上生命的最高目的是自存光,即人与神紧密团结沉思。 The means for attaining to such contemplation are prayer, complete repose of body and will, and a process of auto-suggestion.为实现这种沉思的手段是祈祷,身体完整的休息和意志,一种自我暗示的过程。Among the errors of the Beguines and Beghards condemned by the Council of Vienne (1311-12) are the propositions: that man in the present life can attain such a degree of perfection as to become utterly impeccable; that the "perfect" have no need to fast or pray, but may freely grant the body whatsoever it craves; that they are not subject to any human authority or bound by the precepts of the Church (see Denzinger-Bannwart, 471 sqq.).其中的Beguines和由维埃纳省议会(1311至1312年)谴责Beghards的错误的主张:即在现在的生活的人能够达到这样的完善程度才能成为完全无可挑剔;的“完美”有没有必要快速或祈祷,但可以自由地授予任何它的身体渴望,他们没有受到任何人的权力或教会的戒律(见登青格,Bannwart,471 SQQ)的约束。Similar exaggerations on the part of the Fraticelli led to their condemnation by John XXII in 1317 (Denzinger-Bannwart, 484 sqq.).对Fraticelli部分类似夸大领导的约翰二十二他们谴责1317(登青格,Bannwart,484 SQQ)。 The same pope in 1329 proscribed among the errors of Meister Eckhart the assertions that (prop. 10) we are totally transformed into God just as in the sacrament the bread is changed into the Body of Christ; that (14) since God wills that I should have sinned I do not wish that I had not sinned; that (18) we should bring forth the fruit, not of external actions, which do not make us good, but of internal actions which are wrought by the Father abiding within us (Denzinger-Bannwart, 501, sqq).在1329年同教皇之间的迈斯特艾克哈特认为(提案10)我们完全转化成神,就像在圣餐的面包是进入基督的​​身体改变断言错误被禁;的(14),因为上帝的意志,我应该犯了罪,我不希望我没有犯过罪,是(18),我们应该带来的果实,而不是外在的行动,不使我们好,但这些都是由父亲在我们守法造成内部行动(登青格,Bannwart,501,SQQ)。 Quite in accord with their Pantheistic principles, the Brethren and Sisters of the Free Spirit (thirteenth to fifteenth century) held that they who have reached perfection, ie complete absorption in God, have no need of external worship, of sacraments, or of prayer; they owe no obedience to any law, since their will is identical with God's will; and they may indulge their carnal desires to any extent without staining the soul.相当符合他们的泛神论的原则,兄弟和姐妹们的自由精神(十三至十五世纪)认为他们谁已经达到完美,即在神完全吸收,没有对外崇拜的需要,圣礼,或祈祷;他们欠没有任何法律的服从,因为他们的将是上帝的旨意一致,而他们可能没有染色的灵魂放纵肉体的欲望的任何程度。 This is also substantially the teaching of the Illuminati (Alumbrados), a sect that disturbed Spain during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.这也大大的光明(Alumbrados),一个教派的不安在十六,十七世纪西班牙教学。

It was the Spaniards Michael de Molinos who developed Quietism in the strictest sense of the term.这是西班牙人迈克尔DE Molinos谁开发,在严格意义上的长期清静无为。From his writings, especially from his "Dux spiritualis" (Rome, 1675), sixty-eight propositions were extracted and condemned by Innocent XI in 1687 (Denzinger-Bannwart, 1221 sqq.).从他的著作,特别是从他的“DUX spiritualis”(罗马,1675),68命题,分别提取和无辜第十一谴责1687(登青格,Bannwart,1221 SQQ)。The key-note of the system is contained in the first proposition: man must annihilate his powers and this is the inward way (via interna); in fact, the desire to do anything actively is offensive to God and hence one must abandon oneself entirely to God and thereafter remain as a lifeless body (prop. 2).该系统的关键,值得注意的是包含在第一个命题:人必须消灭他的权力,这是向内的方式(通过interna),事实上,做任何事情的愿望是积极进攻,以神,因此必须放弃自己完全神,此后继续作为一个尸体(2号提案)。 By doing nothing the soul annihilates itself and returns to its source, the essence of God, in which it is transformed and divinized, and then God abides in it (5).无为而灵魂歼本身和它的源返回,神的本质,它是在改造和神化,然后在它遵守神(5)。In this inward way, the soul has not to think either of reward or of punishment, of heaven or hell, of death or eternity.在这种向内的方式,灵魂也没有想到任何奖励或处罚,天堂或地狱,死亡或永恒。It must not concern itself about its own state, its defects, or its progress in virtue; having once resigned its will to God it must let Him work out His will without any action of the soul itself (7-13).它不能关注自己的状态,其缺陷,或凭借其本身的进展;有一次辞职的意愿,它必须让​​上帝他工作了,没有任何灵魂本身(7-13)动作,他的意志。 He who has thus committed himself entirely to God must not ask anything of God, or render thanks to Him; must take no account of temptations nor offer any active resistance; "and if nature be stirred one must permit its stirring because it is nature" (14-17).他谁也因此致力于自己完全不能问神神什么,或使感谢他,必须采取任何诱惑帐户,也不提供任何积极性;“如果自然被搅必须允许其搅拌,因为它的性质” (14-17)。In prayer one must not use images or discursive thought, but must remain in "obscure faith" and in quiet, forgetting every distinct thought of the Divine attributes, abiding in God's presence to adore, love and serve Him, but without producing any acts because with these God is not pleased.在祈祷必须不使用图像或话语的思想,​​但必须留在“模糊的信念”,并在安静,忘记每一个神圣的属性不同的思想,在神的存在,以崇拜,爱与服侍他中规中矩,但没有产生任何作用,因为这些神不是高兴。 Whatever thoughts arise during prayer, even though they be impure or against faith, if they are not voluntarily encouraged nor voluntarily expelled but are suffered with indifference and resignation, do not hinder the prayer of faith but rather enhance its perfection.无论想法出现在祈祷,即使他们是信仰不纯或反对,如果他们不鼓励,也不主动自愿驱逐,但遭到漠视和辞职,不妨碍信心的祈祷,而是加强完善。 He who desires sensible devotion is seeking not God but himself; indeed every sensible effect experienced in the spiritual life is abominable, filthy, unclean (18-20).他明智的奉献是谁的欲望不是神,但求自己,实际上每一个明智的效果,在精神生活经历恶劣,肮脏,不洁(18-20)。

No preparation is required before Communion nor thanksgiving after other than that the soul remain in its usual state of passive resignation; and the soul must not endeavour to arouse in itself feelings of devotion.无需配制,也不感恩圣餐前比后的灵魂留在其被动辞职通常状态;及灵魂不能努力唤起奉献自己的感受。Interior souls resign themselves, in silence, to God; and the more thorough their resignation the more do they realize that they are unable to recite even the "Pater Noster".内政部辞职自己的灵魂,在沉默中,神,以及更深入的辞职更做他们意识到他们不能背诵甚至是“佩特Noster”。 They should elicit no acts of love for the Blessed Virgin or the saints or the Humanity of Christ, because, as these are all sensible objects, love for them is also sensible.他们应该引出的圣母或圣人或基督的爱没有人性的行为,因为,因为这些都是明智的对象,为他们的爱情也合理。External works are not necessary to sanctification, and penitential works, ie voluntary mortification should be cast off as a grievous and useless burden (32-40).外部工程没有必要成圣,和悔罪工程,即自愿屈辱应该转换为严重的和无用的负担(32-40)关闭。God permits the demon to use "violence" with certain perfect souls even to the point of making them perform carnal actions either alone or with other persons.上帝允许恶魔使用某些完美的灵魂“暴力”甚至到了使他们执行单独或与其他人肉体的行动点。When these onsets occur, one must make no effort but let the demon have his way.当这些onsets发生,我们必须作出一切努力,但让妖有他的办法。Scruples and doubts must be set aside.顾忌和疑虑必须搁置。In particular, these things are not to be mentioned in confession, because by not confessing them the soul overcomes the demon, acquires a "treasure of peace", and attains to closer union with God (41-52).特别是,这些东西不被提及的供述,因为没有他们的灵魂忏悔克服了恶魔,获得了“和平之宝”,并达到更密切的与神(41-52)的结合。 The "inward way" has nothing to do with confession, confessors, cases of conscience, theology, or philosophy.而“向内的方式”已经没有任何关系供认,忏悔,良心,神学或哲学的案件。Indeed, God sometimes makes it impossible for souls who are advanced in perfection to go to confession, and supplies them with as much grace as they would receive in the Sacrament of Penance.事实上,神有时使得不可能谁是先进的完美去忏悔,并提供尽可能多的恩典他们,因为他们将接受灵魂的忏悔圣事。The inward way leads on to a state in which passion is extinguished, sin is no more, sense is deadened, and the soul, willing only what God wills, enjoys an imperturbable peace: this is the mystic death.向内的方式上,以在其中的激情熄灭状态的线索,犯罪是没有了,感觉是deadened,和灵魂,只愿意神的意志,享有镇静和平:这是神秘死亡。 They who pursue this path must obey their superiors outwardly; even the vow of obedience taken by religious extends only to outward actions, only God and the director enter into the soul's interior.他们谁追求这条道路必须服从上级的外表,甚至是由宗教所采取的服从誓言只向外延伸的行动,只有上帝和导演进入灵魂的内部。 To say that the soul in its interior life should be governed by the bishop is a new and very ridiculous doctrine; for on the hidden things the Church passes no judgment (55-68).如果说,在它的内部生命的灵魂应该是由主教管辖是一个新的和非常荒谬的学说,关于隐藏的东西教会传递任何判断(55-68)。 From this summary it is readily seen why the Church condemned Quietism.从这个总结是很容易看到为什么教会谴责清静无为。Nevertheless, these doctrines had found adherents even in the higher ranks of the clergy, such as the Oratorian, Pietro Matteo Petrucci (1636-1701), who was made Bishop of Jesi (1681), and raised to the cardinalate (1686).然而,这些理论发现,即使在较高职级的神职人员,如Oratorian,彼得利玛窦彼得鲁奇(1736至01年),谁被做了JESI(1681)主教,并提出了对cardinalate(1686),信徒。 His works on Mysticism and the spiritual life were criticized by the Jesuit Paolo Segneri, and a controversy ensued which resulted in an examination of the whole question by the Inquisition, and the proscription of fifty-four propositions taken from eight of Petrucci's writings (1688).关于神秘主义和精神生活他的作品被批评耶稣会保罗Segneri和争议随之而来的在一个由宗教裁判所的整体问题检查结果,以及54主张取缔从彼得鲁奇的著作八(1688)采取。 He submitted at once, resigned his bishopric in 1696, and was appointed by Innocent XII Apostolic visitor.他提交一次,1696年他辞去主教,并受到无辜十二使徒游客任命。Other leaders of the Quietist movement were: Joseph Beccarelli of Milan, who retracted before the Inquisition at Venice in 1710; François Malaval, a blind layman of Marseilles (1627-1719); and especially the Barnabite François Lacombe, the director of Mme.在寂静主义运动的其他领导有:约瑟夫Beccarelli米兰,威尼斯谁收回在1710年之前的宗教裁判所;弗朗索瓦Malaval,盲目外行的马赛(1627年至1719年),特别是Barnabite弗朗索瓦拉科姆,导演的夫人。 Guyon, whose views were embraced by Fénelon.Guyon,其被Fénelon接受意见。

The doctrine contained in Fénelon's "Explication de Maximes des Saints" was suggested by the teachings of Molinos, but was less extreme in its principles and less dangerous in its application; it is usually designated as Semiquietism.在Fénelon的“解释去Maximes DES圣徒”中所包含的原则是建议由Molinos的教导,但不极端的,少的原则在适用的危险,它通常被Semiquietism指定。The controversy between Bossuet and Fénelon has already been noticed.波舒哀和Fénelon之间的争议已经注意到了。The latter submitted his book to the Holy See for examination, with the result that twenty-three propositions extracted from it were condemned by Innocent XII in 1699 (Denzinger-Bannwart, 1327 sqq.).后者提交了他的书教廷审查,以致从中提取23命题被无辜第十二谴责1699(登青格,Bannwart,1327 SQQ)的结果。According to Fénelon, there is an habitual state of the love of God which is wholly pure and disinterested, without fear of punishment or desire of reward.据Fénelon,有一个神的爱是完全纯洁无私的惯性状态,没有惩罚或奖赏的欲望的恐惧。In this state the soul loves God for His own sake -- not to gain merit, perfection, or happiness by loving Him; this is the contemplative or unitive life (props. 1, 2).在这种状态下的灵魂爱为了自己的上帝 - 没有获得通过爱他的优点,完美和幸福,这是沉思或unitive生活(props. 1,2)。In the state of holy indifference, the soul has no longer any voluntary deliberate desire in its own behalf except on those occasions in which it does not faithfully cooperate with all the grace vouchsafed to it.在神圣的冷漠状态,灵魂已不再有任何在以自己的名义自愿除了在这些场合故意的愿望,其中没有忠实地与所有的赐予它的宽限期。 In that state we seek nothing for ourselves, all for God; we desire salvation, not as our deliverance or reward or supreme interest, but simply as something that God is pleased to will and that He would have us desire for His sake (4-6).我们寻求在该国没有为自己为上帝,一切,我们希望得救,而不是我们的救助或奖励或最高利益,而只是作为神的东西会很高兴,他将让我们为他着想的愿望(4 - 6)。The self-abandonment which Christ in the Gospel requires of us is simply the renunciation of our own interest, and the extreme trials that demand the exercise of this renunciation are temptations whereby God would purify our love, without holding out to us any hope even in regard to our eternal welfare.自我放弃它在基督福音,我们需要的是简单的放弃自己的利益,而这种需求在此放弃行使极端试验诱惑,即上帝会净化我们的爱不捧出来给我们任何希望,即使在关于我们永恒的福利。 In such trials the soul, by a reflex conviction that does not reach its innermost depths, may have the invincible persuasion that it is justly reprobated by God.在这种试验的灵魂,由反射信念,没有达到其内心深处,可能有无敌的劝说,这是公正的上帝reprobated。In this involuntary despair it accomplishes the absolute sacrifice of its own interest in regard to eternity and loses all interested hope; but in its higher and most inward acts it never loses perfect hope which is the disinterested desire of obtaining the Divine promises (7-12).在这种非自愿绝望它完成了它的关于永恒的绝对牺牲自己的利益,失去所有感兴趣的希望,但在其较高的和最向内行为它从未失去希望这是完美的获得(7-12神圣的承诺,无私的愿望)。 While meditation consists in discursive acts, there is a state of contemplation so sublime and perfect that it becomes habitual, ie whenever the soul prays, its prayer is contemplative, not discursive, and it needs not to return to methodical meditation (15-16).虽然冥想在话语行为组成,有一种沉思状态,这样崇高和完美,它成为习惯,即每当灵魂祈祷,祈祷是沉思的,而不是话语,它需要不回有条不紊冥想(15-16) 。In the passive state the soul exercises all the virtues without adverting to the fact that they are virtues; its only thought is to do what God wills; it desires even love, not as its own perfection and happiness, but simply in so far as love is what God asks of us (18-19).在被动状态的灵魂演习没有adverting的事实,他们是所有美德的美德,它的唯一的想法就是做上帝的意志,它的欲望,甚至爱,而不是其自身的完善和幸福,而只是在迄今为止的爱我们是神(18-19)要求。 In confession the transformed soul should detest its sins and seek forgiveness not as its own purification and deliverance but as something that God wills and that He would have us will for His glory (20).在改造灵魂的忏悔应该憎恨罪,不求其作为自己的净化和解脱的东西,但上帝的意志,他将让我们为他的荣耀(20)将宽恕。 Though this doctrine of pure love is the evangelical perfection recognized in the whole course of tradition, the earlier directors of souls exhorted the multitude of the just only to practices of interested love proportioned to the graces bestowed on them.虽然这种纯真的爱情完美主义是福音派在整个过程中的传统认识,灵魂的早期董事告诫的比例对他们赋予的青睐感兴趣爱仅仅只有众多的做法。 Pure love alone constitutes the whole interior life and is the one principle and motive of all actions that are deliberate and meritorious (22-23).纯真的爱情仅仅是构成整个室内生活,是一个原则和所有行动都是蓄意的,立功(22-23)动机。

While these condemnations showed the determined attitude of the Church against Quietism both in its extreme and in its moderate form, Protestantism contained certain elements which the Quietist might have consistently adopted.虽然这些谴责表明了反对极端清静无为,无论在形式,并在其温和的态度决定的教会,基督教中的寂静主义这可能一直采取了某些元素。 The doctrine of justification by faith alone, ie without good works, accorded very well with Quietistic passivity.对因信称义的教义单,没有良好的工程即给予很好的寂静主义被动。In the "visible Church" as proposed by the Reformers, the Quietist would have found a congenial refuge from the control of ecclesiastical authority.在“有形教会”由改革者提出,寂静主义会发现从教会权威控制适宜的避难所。 And the attempt to make the religous life an affair of the individual soul in its direct dealings with God was no less Protestant than it was Quietistic.而试图使在与上帝的直接交往的宗教生活中的个体灵魂的事是不低于是寂静主义新教。In particular, the rejection, in part or in whole, of the sacramental system, would lead the devout Protestant to a Quietist attitude.特别是,部分或全部拒绝,对圣事制度,将带领虔诚的新教到寂静主义的态度。As a matter of fact, traces of Quietism are found in early Methodism and Quakerism (the "inward light").作为事实上,清静无为的痕迹被发现在早期卫理公会和Quakerism(以下简称“向内轻”)。But in its later developments Protestantism has come to lay emphasis on the active, rather than the inert, contemplative life.但在其后来的发展奠定基督教已经在活动的重点,而不是惰性的,沉思的生活。Whereas Luther maintained that faith without work suffices for salvation, his successors at the present day attach little importance to dogmatic belief, but insist much on "religion as a life", ie as action.而路德认为没有足够的拯救工作的信念,在今天他的继任者重视不重视,以教条主义的信念,但坚持“以宗教作为生活”了,即作为行动。 The Catholic teaching avoids such extremes.天主教教学避免了这种极端。The soul indeed, assisted by Divine grace can reach a high degree of contemplation, of detachment from created things and of spiritual union with God.灵魂的确,神的恩典帮助可以达到的高度观照,从创造的东西和精神工会与上帝的超然。But such perfection, far from leading to Quietistic passivity and Subjectivism, implies rather a more earnest endeavour to labour for God's glory, a more thorough obedience to lawful authority and above all a more complete subjugation of sensuous impulse and tendency.但是,这种完美,远离通往寂静主义被动和主观主义,意味着一个更认真的努力,而为神的荣耀,更彻底的服从合法权威,首先是一种感性的冲动和倾向更完整的亡国劳动。

Publication information Written by EA Pace.出版信息书面由EA步伐。Transcribed by Paul T. Crowley.转录由保罗T.克劳利。Dedicated to Our Lady of Fatima and Fr.献给我们的法蒂玛和神父的夫人。Clarence F. Galli The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XII.克拉伦斯F.嘉丽天主教百科全书,卷十二。Published 1911.发布1911年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, June 1, 1911. Nihil Obstat 6月1日,1911。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰farley枢机主教,大主教纽约



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