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Philosophical rationalism encompasses several strands of thought, all of which usually share the conviction that reality is actually rational in nature and that making the proper deductions is essential to achieving knowledge.理性主义哲学包括几股思想,所有这些通常是共享的信念,现实是实际性质,作出正确的扣除是对实现知识的理性。 Such deductive logic and the use of mathematical processes provide the chief methodological tools.这种演绎逻辑和数学的过程中使用的工具提供的主要方法。Thus, rationalism has often been held in contrast to empiricism.因此,理性主义经常被关押在对比的经验主义。

Earlier forms of rationalism are found in Greek philosophy, most notably in Plato, who held that the proper use of reasoning and mathematics was preferable to the methodology of natural science.理性主义的早期形式存在于希腊哲学,特别是在柏拉图,谁认为,数学推理和正确使用是最好的天然科学的方法论。The latter is not only in error on many occasions, but empiricism can only observe facts in this changing world.后者不仅是在多次错误,但经验主义只能观察这个变化的世界的事实。By deductive reason, Plato believed that one could extract the innate knowledge which is present at birth, derived from the realm of forms.通过演绎的原因,柏拉图认为,人们可以提取存在先天的知识,在出生时,从形式境界而得。

However, rationalism is more often associated with Enlightenment philosophers such as Descartes, Spinoza, and Leibniz.然而,更多的时候是理性主义与如笛卡尔,斯宾诺莎和莱布尼茨启蒙哲学家。 It is this form of continental rationalism that is the chief concern of this article.正是这种大陆理性主义形式,本文主要关注的问题。

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Innate Ideas天赋观念

Descartes enumerated different types of ideas, such as those which are derived from experience, those which are drawn from reason itself, and those which are innate and thus created in the mind by God.笛卡尔列举的想法不同类型,如那些从经验来看,那些从理性本身绘制的,那些先天,从而在头脑中创造的神而得。This latter group was a mainstay of rationalistic thought.这后者是一种理性思维的主体。

Innate ideas are those that are the very attributes of the human mind, inborn by God.天赋观念是那些对人的心灵非常的属性,天生神。As such these "pure" ideas are known a priori by all humans, and are thus believed by all.因此,这些“纯粹”的思想被称为先验所有人类,因此所有相信。So crucial were they for rationalists that it was usually held that these ideas were the prerequisite for learning additional facts.所以关键是他们为这是通常认为这些想法是学习额外的事实前提理性主义。Descartes believed that, without innate ideas, no other data could be known.笛卡尔认为,没有天生的想法,没有其他的数据可能是已知的。

The empiricists attacked the rationalists at this point, arguing that the content of the socalled innate ideas was actually learned through one's experience, though perhaps largely unreflected upon by the person.而经验主义者袭击了这一点理性主义,认为所谓的天赋观念的内容实际上是通过一个学习的经验,虽然也许在很大程度上unreflected的人时。 Thus we learn vast amounts of knowledge through our family, education, and society which comes very early in life and cannot be counted as innate.因此,我们通过学习我们的家庭,教育,社会,很早就在生活中来,不能因为先天的计算大量的知识。

One rationalistic response to this empirical contention was to point out that they were many concepts widely used in science and mathematics that could not be discovered by experience alone.一个理性应对这一论点是经验指出,他们广泛在科学和无法被经验发现单独使用的许多数学概念。The rationalists, therefore, concluded that empiricism could not stand alone, but required large amounts of truth to be accepted by the proper use of reason.理性主义,因此,经验主义的结论是不能单独存在,但需要大量的事实被正确使用的原因接受的数额。


Rationalists had much to say about knowledge and how one might gain certainty.理性主义有什么好说的有关知识和怎样可能获得肯定。Although this query was answered somewhat differently, most rationalists eventually got back to the assertion that God was the ultimate guarantee of knowledge.虽然这个查询是回答有所不同,大多数理性主义最终会回来的说法,上帝是知识的最终保证。

Perhaps the best example of this conclusion is found in the philosophy of Descartes.也许这个结论最好的例子是在笛卡尔的哲学。Beginning with the reality of doubt he determined to accept nothing of which he could not be certain.与现实开始怀疑他决定接受什么,而他不能肯定。However, at least one reality could be deduced from this doubt: he was doubting and must therefore exist.不过,至少有一个现实可以推断,从这个疑问:他是怀疑,因此必须存在。In the words of his famous dictum, "I think, therefore I am."在他的著名格言的话,“我思故我在。”

From the realization that he doubted, Descartes concluded that he was a dependent, finite being.从认识到他怀疑,笛卡尔认为他是一个依赖有限的福利。He then proceeded to the existence of God via forms of the ontological and cosmological arguments.他继而通过对神的存在的本体论和宇宙论的争论形式。In Meditations III-IV of his Meditations on First Philosophy Descartes argued that his idea of God as infinite and independent is a clear and distinct argument for God's existence.在沉思III - IV笛卡尔的第一哲学沉思辩称,他的神的主意,因为他的无限和独立是对上帝的存在清楚和明确的说法。

In fact, Descartes concluded that the human mind was not capable of knowing anything more certainly than God's existence.事实上,笛卡尔认为,人的头脑是不是知道什么比神的存在更肯定的能力。 A finite being was not capable of explaining the presence of the idea of an infinite God apart from his necessary existence.是不是一个有限的解释了一个无限的神,从他的思想的存在,除了必要的存在的能力。

Next Descartes concluded that since God was perfect, he could not deceive finite beings.下一步笛卡尔认为,既然上帝是完美的,他不能欺骗有限的生命。Additionally Descartes's own facilities for judging the world around him were given him by God and hence would not be misleading.此外为判断他周围的世界笛卡尔自己的设施是上帝赋予他的,因此不会产生误导。The result was that whatever he could deduce by clear and distinct thinking (such as that found in mathematics) concerning the world and others must therefore be true.其结果是,无论他可以推断出的清晰的思维和独特的关于世界和他人(如在数学中找到),因此必须是真实的。Thus the necessary existence of God both makes knowledge possible and guarantees truth concerning those facts that can be clearly delineated.因此,上帝存在的必要都使知识成为可能,并保证有关的事实可以清楚界定的事实。 Beginning with the reality of doubt Descartes proceeded to his own existence, to God, and to the physical world.与现实的怀疑开始着手笛卡尔他自己的存在,对神,对物理世界。

Spinoza also taught that the universe operated according to rational principles, that the proper use of reason revealed these truths, and that God was the ultimate guarantee of knowledge.斯宾诺莎还告诉我们,宇宙按照合理的经营原则,即理性的正确使用发现这些真理,上帝是知识的最终保证。However, he rejected Cartesian dualism in favor of monism (referred to by some as pantheism), in that there was only one substance, termed God or nature.不过,他拒绝了一元论主张(简称为泛神论由一些)笛卡尔的二元论,因为只有一个物质,被称为神或自然。Worship was expressed rationally, in accordance with the nature of reality.有人崇拜理性,与现实性的规定。Of the many attributes of substance thought and extension were the most crucial.思想的实质和扩展的许多属性是最关键的。

Spinoza utilized geometrical methodology to deduce epistemological truths which could be held as factual.斯宾诺莎利用几何方法推导出可以作为事实进行认识论的真理。By limiting much of knowledge to self-evident truths revealed by mathematics, he thereby constructed one of the best examples of rationalistic system-building in the history of philosophy.通过限制知识的多少由数学透露不言而喻的真理,从而构建了他的理性主义的制度建设上最好的哲学史的一个例子。

Leibniz set forth his concept of reality in his major work Monadology.莱布尼茨在他提出的主要工作单子论他对现实的概念。In contrast to the materialistic concept of atoms, monads are unique metaphysical units of force that are not affected by external criteria.与此相反的原子物质的概念,单子是唯一的形而上学的力量,不受外界条件影响的单位。Although each monad develops individually, they are interrelated through a logical "preestablished harmony," involving a hierarchy of monads arranged by the culminating in God, the Monad of monads.虽然每个单子个别发展,他们是通过一个逻辑“预先设定的和谐”,涉及的最终上帝,单子的单子安排单子层次相互关联的。

For Leibniz a number of arguments revealed the existence of God, who was established as the being responsible for the ordering of the monads into a rational universe which was "the best of all possible worlds."对于莱布尼茨的参数数量揭示了上帝的存在,谁是作为订货的单子到一个合理的宇宙这是负责任建立了“所有可能的世界上最好的。” God also was the basis for knowledge, and this accounts for the epistemological relationship between thought and reality.神也是对知识的基础上,为思想和现实之间关系的认识论这个帐户。Leibniz thus returned to a concept of a transcendent God much closer to the position held by Descartes and in contrast to Spinoza, although neither he nor Spinoza began with the subjective self, as did Descartes.莱布尼茨从而回到了一个超越神更接近了笛卡尔和斯宾诺莎相反的立场的概念,虽然没有他也不斯宾诺莎与主观自我开始,就像笛卡尔。

Thus rationalistic epistemology was characterized both by a deductive process of argumentation, with special attention being given to mathematical methodology, and by the anchoring of all knowledge in the nature of God.因此,理性主义认识论的特点都被演绎的论证过程中,特别注意考虑的数学方法,由所有知识锚定在神的性质和。Spinoza's system of Euclidean geometry claimed demonstration of God or nature as the one substance of reality.斯宾诺莎的欧几里德几何体系要求作为现实的一种物质或自然神的示范。Some scholars of the Cartesian persuasion moved to the position of occasionalism, whereby mental and physical events correspond to each other (as the perceived noise of a tree falling corresponds with the actual occurrence), as they are both ordained by God.在笛卡尔说服一些学者提出来的occasionalism,即身心的活动相互对应(作为一个下降与实际发生的对应树感觉噪声),因为它们都是由神命定的位置。 Leibniz utilized a rigorous application of calculus to deductively derive the infinite collection of monads which culminate in God.莱布尼茨的微积分利用了严格的申请,以演绎推导出的单子这在神高潮无限集合。

This rationalistic methodology, and the stress on mathematics in particular, was an important influence on the rise of modern science during this period.这种理性主义方法论,尤其是数学上的压力,是对现代科学在这一时期崛起的重要影响。Galileo held some essentially related ideas, especially in his concept of nature as being mathematically organized and perceived as such through reason.伽利略正在举行有组织的数学和认为,通过这样一些原因,特别是在他的性质的概念基本上与想法。

Biblical Criticism圣经批评

Of the many areas in which the influence of rationalistic thought was felt, higher criticism of the Scriptures is certainly one that is relevant to the study of contemporary theological trends.在其中的理性主义思想的影响感到许多领域,更高的圣经批评肯定是一个是有关当代神学趋势的研究。Spinoza not only rejected the inerrancy and propositional nature of special revelation in the Scriptures, but he was also a forerunner of both David Hume and some of the English deists who rejected miracles.斯宾诺莎不仅拒绝无误,并在圣经的特殊启示命题的性质,但他也是一个既大卫休谟和谁拒绝了奇迹英语自然神论者一些先行者。 Spinoza held that miracles, if denied as events which break the laws of nature, do not occur.斯宾诺莎认为,奇迹,如果作为事件而打破自然规律否认,不发生。

A number of trends in English deism reflect the influence of, and similarities to, continental rationalism as well as British empiricism.在英国自然神论的若干趋势反映了影响,并相似之处,大陆理性主义以及英国经验主义。Besides the acceptance of innate knowledge available to all men and the deducing of propositions from such general knowledge, deists such as Matthew Tindal, Anthony Collins, and Thomas Woolston attempted to dismiss miracles and fulfilled prophecy as evidences for special revelation.除了先天的知识提供给所有男人和从命题的一般知识推断接受,如马修Tindal,安东尼柯林斯和托马斯伍尔斯顿自然神论者试图解雇奇迹和履行作为特别的启示证据的预言。 In fact deism as a whole was largely characterized as an attempt to find a natural religion apart from special revelation.其实作为一个整体自然神论的主要特征是试图找到一种自然特殊的启示宗教分开。Many of these trends had marked effects on contemporary higher criticism.这些趋势对当代许多人明显更高的批评效果。


Although rationalism was quite influential in many ways, it was also strongly criticized by scholars who noticed a number of weak points.尽管理性主义在许多方面非常有影响力的,也有人强烈批评学者谁发现了微弱的点数。

First, Locke, Hume, and the empiricists never tired of attacking the concept of innate ideas.首先,洛克,休谟和经验主义者乐此不疲的攻击先天思想观念。They asserted that young children gave little, if any, indication of any crucial amount of innate knowledge.他们宣称,幼儿少了,如果有的话,任何先天的知识量的关键指标。Rather the empiricists were quick to point to sense experience as the chief school-teacher, even in infancy.而经验主义很快指向感为主要学校教师的经验,即使在起步阶段。

Second, empiricists also asserted that reason could not be the only (or even the primary) means of achieving knowledge when so much is gathered by the senses.第二,经验主义者也宣称,原因可能不是唯一的(甚至是主要的)手段实现知识的时候与其说是由感官聚集。While it is true that much knowledge may not be reducible to sense experience, this also does not indicate that reason is the chief means of knowing.虽然这是事实,很多知识可能无法还原为感性经验,这也并不表明原因是认识的主要手段。

Third, it has frequently been pointed out that reason alone leads to too many contradictions, metaphysical and otherwise.第三,经常有人指出,唯一的原因导致了太多的矛盾,形而上学和其他。For example, Descartes's dualism, Spinoza's monism, and Leibniz's monadology have all been declared as being absolutely knowable, in the name of rationalism.例如,笛卡尔的二元论,斯宾诺莎的一元论和莱布尼茨的单子论都被宣布为是绝对可知,在理性主义的名称。If one or more of these options is incorrect, what about the remainder of the system(s)?如果一个或多个选项是不正确的,怎么样系统(S)的其余部分?

Fourth, rebuttals to rationalistic and deistic higher criticism appeared quickly from the pens of such able scholars as John Locke, Thomas Sherlock, Joseph Butler, and William Paley.第四,理性和自然神论的更高的批评反驳出现迅速从作为约翰洛克,托马斯福尔摩斯,约瑟夫巴特勒和威廉佩利这样能学者笔。 Special revelation and miracles were especially defended against attack.特别启示和奇迹了,尤其是防守的攻击。Butler's Analogy of Religion in particular was so devastating that many have concluded that it is not only one of the strongest apologetics for the Christian faith, but that it was the chief reason for the demise of deism.巴特勒的宗教,特别是如此比喻毁灭性的,许多的结论是,它不仅是对基督教信仰的最强护之一,但它是为自然神论消亡的主要原因。

GR HabermasGR哈贝马斯
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 参考书目
R. Descartes, Discourse on Method; P. Gay, Deism: An Anthology; G. Leibniz, Monadology; B. Spinoza, Ethics and Tractatus Theologico-Politicus; CL Becker, The Heavenly City of the Eighteenth-Century Philosophers; J. Bronowski and B. Mazlish, The Western Intellectual Tradition: From Leonardo to Hegel; F. Copleston, A History of Philosophy, IV; WT Jones, A History of Western Philosophy, III; B. Williams, Encyclopedia of Philosophy, VII.R.,在方法话语笛卡尔; P.盖伊,自然神论:一个文集; G.莱布尼茨,单子论; B.斯宾诺莎,伦理和逻辑哲学论Theologico - Politicus; CL贝克尔,在十八世纪哲学家的天城; J.布罗诺夫斯基和B,西方思想传统Mazlish:从达芬奇到黑格尔,F. Copleston,哲学史,第四; WT琼斯,西方哲学史,三; B.威廉斯,哲学百科全书,第七。


Catholic Information天主教信息

(Latin, ratio -- reason, the faculty of the mind which forms the ground of calculation, ie discursive reason. See APOLOGETICS; ATHEISM; BIBLE; DEISM; EMPIRICISM; ETHICS; BIBLICAL EXEGESIS; FAITH; MATERIALISM; MIRACLE; REVELATION).(。拉丁美洲,比例 - 原因,心灵的形成地面教员的计算,即话语原因见护;无神论圣经;自然神论,经验主义,伦理,圣经注释;信念;唯物主义;奇迹;启示)。

The term is used: (1) in an exact sense, to designate a particular moment in the development of Protestant thought in Germany; (2) in a broader, and more usual, sense to cover the view (in relation to which many schools may he classed as rationalistic) that the human reason, or understanding, is the sole source and final test of all truth.这个词是用来:(1)在一个确切的意义上,指定了在德国新教思想的发展特别的时刻(2)在更广泛,更通常的,有意义的覆盖视图(相对于许多学校可他归类为理性),人的原因,或理解,是唯一的来源和最终检验一切的真理。 It has further: (3) occasionally been applied to the method of treating revealed truth theologically, by casting it into a reasoned form, and employing philosophical Categories in its elaboration.它进一步:(3)偶尔会被应用到治疗神学启示的真理,通过转换成一个合理的形式,在其制定和运用哲学的分类方法。 These three uses of the term will be discussed in the present article.这三个词的使用将在目前的讨论文章。

(1) The German school of theological Rationalism formed a part of the more general movement of the eighteenth-century "Enlightenment". (1)德国理性主义的神学学校形成了十八世纪的“启蒙”更普遍的运动的一部分。It may be said to owe its immediate origin to the philosophical system of Christian Wolff (1679-1754), which was a modification, with Aristotelean features, of that of Leibniz, especially characterized by its spiritualism, determinism, and dogmatism.可以说欠它的直接起源于基督教沃尔夫(1679年至1754年),这是一个与亚里士多德的功能修改,对莱布尼茨的,尤其是它的唯灵论,决定论和教条主义为特征的哲学体系。 This philosophy and its method exerted a profound influence upon contemporaneous German religious thought, providing it with a rationalistic point of view in theology and exegesis.这种哲学及其方法施加在当时的德国宗教思想的深刻影响,提供了一个在神学观点和训诂学理性点。German philosophy in the eighteenth century was, as a whole, tributary to Leibniz, whose "Théodicée" was written principally against the Rationalism of Bayle: it was marked by an infiltration of English Deism and French Materialism, to which the Rationalism at present considered had great affinity, and towards which it progressively developed: and it was vulgarized by its union with popular literature.在十八世纪德国的哲学是,作为一个整体,支流莱布尼茨,其“Théodicée”一书主要针对的培尔理性:它是由英语自然神论和法国唯物主义浸润明显,以理性的考虑,目前已极具亲和力,并朝着它逐步发展:它是由工会与通俗文学的庸俗化。 Wolff himself was expelled from his chair at the University of Halle on account of the Rationalistic nature of his teaching, principally owing to the action of Lange (1670-1774; cf. "Causa Dei et reilgionis naturals adversus atheismum", and "Modesta Disputatio", Halle, 1723).沃尔夫本人被开除他的椅子在账上大学的哈勒对他的教学理性主义的性质,主要是由于朗格行动(1670年至1774年,比照“Causa业会等reilgionis土黄adversus atheismum”和“Modesta Disputatio “哈雷,1723)。Retiring to Marburg, he taught there until 1740, when he was recalled to Halle by Frederick II.退休到马尔堡,他教,直到1740年,当他回顾了腓特烈二世对哈雷。Wolff's attempt to demonstrate natural religion rationally was in no sense an attack upon revelation.沃尔夫试图证明自然宗教理性是没有根据的启示意义上的攻击。As a "supranaturalist" he admitted truths above reason, and he attempted to support by reason the supernatural truths contained in Holy Scripture.作为“supranaturalist”他承认上述原因的真理,他试图支持的原因在圣经中的超自然的真理。But his attempt, while it incensed the pietistic school and was readily welcomed by the more liberal and moderate among the orthodox Lutherans, in reality turned out to be strongly in favour of the Naturalism that he wished to condemn.但他的尝试,而它激怒的虔信派的学校,是容易被更多的自由和正统路德之间适度的欢迎,竟然在现实中出的自然主义,他希望谴责强烈支持。 Natural religion, he asserted, is demonstrable; revealed religion is to be found in the Bible alone.自然宗教,他断言,是显而易见的;启示宗教是要单独在圣经中找到。But in his method of proof of the authority of Scripture recourse was had to reason, and thus the human mind became, logically, the ultimate arbiter in the case of both.但他对圣经的追索权的权威证明方法是有理性,因而人的心灵变得在逻辑上,在这两个案件的最终仲裁者。Supranaturalism in theology, which it was Wolff's intention to uphold, proved incompatible with such a philosophical position, and Rationalism took its place.在神学,它是沃尔夫的意图在于坚持,Supranaturalism证明了这样的哲学立场相抵触,而理性了它的位置。 This, however, is to be distinguished from pure Naturalism, to which it led, but with which it never became theoretically identified.然而,这是从纯粹的自然主义区别开来,以它为首,但它从来没有成为理论上确定。 Revelation was not denied by the Rationalists; though, as a matter of fact, if not of theory, it was quietly suppressed by the claim, with its ever-increasing application, that reason is the competent judge of all truth.启示录是不否认理性主义,但是,作为一个事实上,如果不是理论,它是静静地与不断增加的应用要求,压抑,因此是所有真理的主管法官。 Naturalists, on the other hand, denied the fact of revelation.博物学家,另一方面,否认事实的启示。As with Deism and Materialism, the German Rationalism invaded the department of Biblical exegesis.如同自然神论和唯物主义,德国理性主义侵略的圣经注释部门。Here a destructive criticism, very similar to that of the Deists, was levelled against the miracles recorded in, and the authenticity of the Holy Scripture.这里一个破坏性的批评,非常类似于自然神论者认为,对被夷为平地记录在创造奇迹,对圣经的真实性。Nevertheless, the distinction between Rationalism and Naturalism still obtained.然而,理性主义和自然主义之间的区别仍然获得。 The great Biblical critic Semler (1725-91), who is one of the principal representatives of the school, was a strong opponent of the latter; in company with Teller (1734-1804) and others he endeavoured to show that the records of the Bible have no more than a local and temporary character, thus attempting to safeguard the deeper revelation, while sacrificing to the critics its superficial vehicle.伟大的圣经批评家塞姆勒(1725年至1791年),谁是学校的主要代表之一,后者是一个强劲的对手,在与泰勒(1734年至1804年)和其他公司,他努力表明,该记录圣经有没有比局部的,暂时性格比较,从而试图维护更深的启示,而牺牲的批评它的肤浅的车辆。 He makes the distinction between theology and religion (by which he signifies ethics).他使​​神学和宗教之间(其中他表示伦理)的区别。

The distinction made between natural and revealed religion necessitated a closer definition of the latter.揭示自然和宗教之间所作的区别必须对后者更紧密的定义。For Supernaturalists and Rationalists alike religion was held to be "a way of knowing and worshipping the Deity", but consisting chiefly, for the Rationalists, in the observance of God's law.对于超自然的宗教和理性主义者都被认为是“一个认识和崇拜的神路”,但主要包括,为理性主义在神的遵守法律。This identification of religion with morals, which at the time was utilitarian in character (see UTILITARIANISM), led to further developments in the conceptions of the nature of religion, the meaning of revelation, and the value of the Bible as a collection of inspired writings.这与道德,这在当时是功利性质(见功利主义)LED作为一种启发著作集,以进一步发展,对宗教性质的概念,意义的启示和圣经的价值,宗教鉴定。 The earlier orthodox Protestant view of religion as a body of truths published and taught by God to man in revelation was in process of disintegration.早期的正统宗教新教徒认为是出版和上帝传授给在启示真理的尸体被人在解体的过程。In Semler's distinction between religion (ethics) on the one hand and theology on the other, with Herder's similar separation of religion from theological opinions and religious usages, the cause of the Christian religion, as they conceived it, seemed to be put beyond the reach of the shock of criticism, which, by destroying the foundations upon which it claimed to rest, had gone so far to discredit the older form of Lutheranism.在塞姆勒的与宗教(道德)的区分,一方面和神学上的其他与赫尔德的从神学的观点和宗教惯例宗教类似的分离,对基督教的原因,因为他们设想它,似乎是鞭长莫及放休克的批评,其中,摧毁它的基础后,声称休息,已经走了这么远抹黑的路德教旧的形式。 Kant's (1724-1804) criticism of the reason, however, formed a turning-point in the development of Rationalism.康德(1724-1804)的原因批评,但是,形成了理性发展的转折点。For a full understanding of his attitude, the reader must be acquainted with the nature of his pietistic upbringing and later scientific and philosophical formation in the Leibniz-Wolff school of thought (see KANT, PHILOSOPHY OF).对于他的态度充分认识,读者必须熟悉他的虔信派的成长性和更高的科学和哲学思想在莱布尼茨 - 沃尔夫学派的形成(见康德哲学)。 As far as concerns the point that occupies us at present, Kant was a Rationalist.至于涉及到一点,目前我们占有,康德是一个理性主义者。For him religion was coextensive, with natural, though not utilitarian, morals.对他来说宗教是coextensive,与自然,虽然没有功利,道德。When he met with the criticisms of Hume and undertook his famous "Kritik", his preoccupation was to safeguard his religious opinions, his rigorous morality, from the danger of criticism.当他会见了休谟的批评,并承诺他的著名的“Kritik”,他的当务之急是要维护从危险的批评他的宗教观点,他严谨的道德。 This he did, not by means of the old Rationalism, but by throwing discredit upon metaphysics.这个他,而不是由旧理性的手段,而是通过投掷抹黑后形而上学。The accepted proofs of the existence of God, immortality, and liberty were thus, in his opinion, overthrown, and the well-known set of postulates of the "categoric imperative" put forward in their place.神,不死,和自由的存在证明了这样的接受,在他看来,推翻和知名设置的“范畴的必要”把自己的位置提出的准则。This, obviously, was the end of Rationalism in its earlier form, in which the fundamental truths of religion were set out as demonstrable by reason.显然,这是理性结束在它的早期形式,在这种宗教的基本真理是由设置明显的理由。But, despite the shifting of the burden of religion from the pure to the practical reason, Kant himself never seems to have reached the view --; to which all his work pointed --; that religion is not mere ethics, "conceiving moral laws as divine commands", no matter how far removed from Utilitarianism --; not an affair of the mind, but of the heart and will; and that revelation does not reach man by way of an exterior promulgation, but consists in a personal adaptation towards God.但是,尽管正在从纯宗教的负担,实践理性,康德自己似乎从来没有达到的观点 - ;这是所有他的工作指出 - ;宗教是不是单纯的道德,“道德法律构思作为神的命令“,无论怎样远离功利主义删除的问题 - ,不是心灵的事,但心和意志,而没有达到的启示通过一个外部颁布方式的人,但在个人适应包括对神。This conception was reached gradually with the advance of the theory that man possesses a religious sense, or faculty, distinct from the rational (Fries, 1773-1843; Jacobi, 1743-1819; Herder, 1744-1803; -- all opposed to the Intellectualism of Kant), and ultimately found expression with Schleiermacher (1768-1834), for whom religion is to be found neither in knowledge nor in action, but in a peculiar attitude of mind which consists in the consciousness of absolute dependence upon God.这个概念逐渐达成了与该理论认为,人具有宗教意义上的进步,还是教师,从理性(薯条,1773年至1843年不同,雅可比,1743年至1819年,赫尔德,1744年至1803年; - 反对所有智主义的康德),并最终发现施莱尔马赫(1768年至1834年)的表达,对他们来说既不是宗教的知识,也不在行动,但在特殊的心理态度,这在神的绝对依赖于意识包括发现。 Here the older distinction between natural and revealed religion disappears.这里的自然和启示宗教之间的区别消失了旧。 All that can be called religion -- the consciousness of dependence -- is at the same time revelational, and all religion is of the same character.所有可以称为宗教 - 的依赖意识 - 是在同一时间revelational,所有宗教相同的性质。There is no special revelation in the older Protestant (the Catholic) sense, but merely this attitude of dependence brought into being in the individual by the teaching of various great personalities who, from time to time, have manifested an extraordinary sense of the religious.有没有旧基督教(天主教)的意义,而仅仅依赖这种态度将在个人被所带来的各种谁,不时,都表现了非凡的意义重大的宗教人物教学特别的启示。 Schleiermacher was a contemporary of Fichte, Schelling, and Hegel, whose philoasophical speculations had influence, with his own, in ultimately subverting Rationalism as here dealt with.施莱尔马赫是费希特,谢林当代,和黑格尔,他们已经影响philoasophical揣测,与他自己在这里最终颠覆理性的处理。 The movement may be said to have ended with him -- in the opinion of Teller "the greatest theologian that the Protestant Church has had since the period of the Reformation".该运动可以说是与他结束了 - 在取款意见“最大的神学家认为新教教会自宗教改革时期就有”。The majority of modern Protestant theologians accept his views, not, however, to the exclusion of knowledge as a basis of religion.现代基督教神学家多数接受他的意见,没有,知识作为一种宗教的排斥不过。Parallel with the development of the philosophical and theological views as to the nature of religion and the worth of revelation, which provided it with its critical principles, took place an exegetical evolution.随着以宗教的性质和价值的启示,其中的关键原则提供了它的哲学和神学的意见开发的同时,采取了放置一​​个训诂演变。 The first phase consisted in replacing the orthodox Protestant doctrine (ie that the Sacred Scriptures are the Word of God) by a distinction between the Word of God contained in the Bible and the Bible itself (Töllner, Herder), though the Rationalists still held that the purer source of revelation lies rather in the written than in the traditional word.第一阶段包括在取代之间的上帝在圣经和圣经本身(Töllner,赫尔德)中字区分正统基督教教义(即是神圣的圣经是神的话语),虽然仍认为,理性主义素净的启示,而根源就在于在比传统的字写的。 This distinction led inevitably to the destruction, of the rigid view of inspiration, and prepared the ground for the second phase.这种区别导致不可避免地破坏,僵化观点的灵感,并准备在第二阶段的地面。The principle of accommodation was now employed to explain the difficulties raised by the Scripture records of miraculous events and demoniacal manifestations (Senf, Vogel), and arbitrary methods of exegesis were also used to the same end (Paulus, Eichhorn).而现在的住宿原则是用来解释的神奇事件和demoniacal表现(Senf,沃格尔),以及任意方法的圣经注释记录提出的困难也用于同样的目的(保卢斯,艾希霍恩)。 In the third phase Rationalists had reached the point of allowing the possibility of mistakes having been made by Christ and the Apostles, at any rate with regard to non-essential parts of religion.在第三阶段的理性主义已经达到了允许犯错误的可能性已被由基督和使徒在任何关于宗教的非必要部件率点。All the devices of exegesis were employed vainly; and, in the end, Rationalists found themselves forced to admit that the authors of the New Testament must have written from a point of view different from that which a modern theologian would adopt (Henke, Wegseheider).注释所有的设备都采用妄想和,最后,理性主义者发现自己不得不承认,新约的作者必须从不同的角度,从现代神学家认为它会采取书面(亨克,Wegseheider) 。This principle, which is sufficiently elastic to admit of usage by nearly every variety of opinion, was admitted by several of the Supernaturalists (Reinhard, Storr), and is very generally accepted by modern Protestant divines, in the rejection of verbal inspiration.这一原则,这是充分弹性的使用承认几乎每个品种的意见,住进由超自然数(莱因哈德,Storr),并且是非常普遍接受的现代基督教神学中的口头灵感的排异反应。 Herder is very clear on the distinction -- the truly inspired must be discerned from that which is not; and de Wette lays down as the canon of interpretation "the religious perception of the divine operation, or of the Holy Spirit, in the sacred writers as regards their belief and inspiration, but not respecting their faculty of forming ideas. . ."赫尔德上的区别非常明确 - 真正的启发,必须从那不是看出端倪;和去Wette规定了作为佳能的解释“的神圣操作宗教的看法,或圣灵,在神圣的作家至于自己的信仰和灵感,但他们不尊重教师的思想形成。“ In an extreme form it may be seen employed in such works as Strauss's "Leben Jesu", where the hypothesis of the mythical nature of miracles is developed to a greater extent than by Schleiermacher or de Wette.在极端的形式可以看出,在作为施特劳斯的“别人的生活Jesu”,其中的奇迹神话性质的假设是开发比施莱尔马赫或取消Wette在更大程度上这些工程就业。

(2) Rationalism, in the broader, popular meaning of the term, is used to designate any mode of thought in which human reason holds the place of supreme criterion of truth; in this sense, it is especially applied to such modes of thought as contrasted with faith. (2)理性主义,在更广泛的,长期流行的含义,是用来指定任何的思考模式,其中包含了人类理性的最高真理标准问题的地方,在这个意义上说,它特别适用于这种模式的思想对比与信仰。 Thus Atheism, Materialism, Naturalism, Pantheism, Scepticism, etc., fall under the head of rationalistic systems.因此,无神论,唯物主义,自然主义,泛神论,怀疑主义等系统下的理性头下降。As such, the rationalistic tendency has always existed in philosophy, and has generally shown itself powerful in all the critical schools.因此,理性主义的倾向一直存在于哲学,并已普遍表现出自己在学校的所有关键功能强大。As has been noted in the preceding paragraph, German Rationalism had strong affinities with English Deism and French Materialism, two historic forms in which the tendency has manifested itself.由于一直在前款所述,德国理性主义曾与英国自然神论和法国唯物主义,这两个趋势已经显现历史性的形式强烈的亲和力。 But with the vulgarization of the ideas contained in the various systems that composed these movements, Rationalism has degenerated.但随着在这些运动所组成的各种系统中的思想庸俗化,理性已经堕落。It has become connected in the popular mind with the shallow and misleading philosophy frequently put forward in the name of science, so that a double confusion has arisen, in which;它已成为流行的心灵连接频繁,因此在科学的名义提出的浅薄和误导性的理念,使双混乱出现了,其中;

questionable philosophical speculations are taken for scientific facts, and science is falsely supposed to be in opposition to religion.哲学问题的猜测都是采取的科学事实,科学是错误地认为是在反对宗教。

This Rationalism is now rather a spirit, or attitude, ready to seize upon any arguments, from any source and of any or no value, to urge against the doctrines and practices of faith.这是现在比较理性的精神,或态度,随时准备抓住任何参数,从任何来源和任何或没有价值,督促对教义和信仰的做法。Beside this crude and popular form it has taken, for which the publication of cheap reprints and a vigorous propaganda are mainly responsible, there runs the deeper and more thoughtful current of critical-philosophical Rationalism, which either rejects religion and revelation altogether or treats them in much the same manner as did the Germans.除了本原油和流行的形式采取​​了,为此,廉价重印和大力宣传刊物,主要负责,还有运行的关键哲学理性,它要么完全拒绝宗教和启示或对待他们更深入,更周到的电流大致相同的方式做了德国人。 Its various manifestations have little in common in method or content, save the general appeal to reason as supreme.它的各种表现在共同的方法或内容很少,一般保存为最高上诉理由。No better description of the position can be given than the statements of the objects of the Rationalist Press Association.没有更好的位置的描述可以得到比的理性主义新闻协会对象的语句。Among these are: "To stimulate the habits of reflection and inquiry and the free exercise of individual intellect . . . and generally to assert the supremacy of reason as the natural and necessary means to all such knowledge and wisdom as man can achieve".其中包括:“刺激的反思和探究的习惯和个人智力自由行,一般断言作为自然和必要的手段,所有这些知识和智慧为人类的理性至上可以实现。” A perusal of the publications of the same will show in what sense this representative body interprets the above statement.一个相同的刊物阅览将显示在何种意义上理解这个代表机构的上述声明。It may be said finally, that Rationalism is the direct and logical outcome of the principles of Protestantism; and that the intermediary form, in which assent is given to revealed truth as possessing the imprimatur of reason, is only a phase in the evolution of ideas towards general disbelief.终于可以说,这是理性主义的新教原则直接和合乎逻辑的结果,并认为中介的形式,其中同意给予作为具有理性的出版许可,以揭示的真理,只是在思想演变阶段对一般的怀疑。 Official condemnations of the various forms of Rationalism, absolute and mitigated, are to be found in the Syllabus of Pius IX.对理性主义的各种形式的官方谴责,绝对和缓解,都将在课程中找到了庇护九世。

(3) The term Rationalism is perhaps not usually applied to the theological method of the Catholic Church.(3)长期理性也许不是通常适用于天主教神学的方法。All forms of theological statement, however, and pre-eminently the dialectical form of Catholic theology, are rationalistic in the truest sense.所有的神学陈述形式,但是,前突出的天主教神学的辩证形式,在真正意义上的理性。Indeed, the claim of such Rationalism as is dealt with above is directly met by the counter claim of the Church: that it is at best but a mutilated and unreasonable Rationalism, not worthy of the name, while that of the Church is rationally complete, and integrated, moreover, with super-rational truth.事实上,这种理性的与上面的处理要求是直接满足教会的反索赔:这是在最好的,而是肢解和不合理的理性,而不是徒有虚名,而教会是合理的完整,和集成,而且,随着超理性的真理。 In this sense Catholic theology presupposes the certain truths of natural reason as the preambula fidei, philosophy (the ancilla theologiæ) is employed in the defence of revealed truth (see APOLOGETICS), and the content of Divine revelation is treated and systematized in the categories of natural thought.在这个意义上天主教神学前提作为preambula fidei,哲学(即附属物theologiæ)自然原因是受雇于某些真理的揭示真理(见护)国防和神圣启示的内容是处理和系统化的分类自然的思想。 This systematization is carried out both in dogmatic and moral theology.这是进行系统化无论是在教条和道德神学。It is a process contemporaneous with the first attempt at a scientific statement of religious truth, comes to perfection of method in the works of such writers as St. Thomas Aquinas and St. Alphonsus, and is consistently employed and developed in the Schools.它是一个过程与在一个宗教真理的科学声明第一次尝试同期,涉及到在为多瑪斯和圣阿方等作家的作品完美的方法,并一直在学校就业和发展。

Publication information Written by Francis Aveling.出版信息写弗朗西斯Aveling。Transcribed by Douglas J. Potter.转录由道格拉斯J.波特。Dedicated to the Sacred Heart of Jesus Christ The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XII.献给耶稣基督的圣心天主教百科全书,卷十二。 Published 1911.发布1911年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, June 1, 1911. Nihil Obstat 6月1日,1911。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰farley枢机主教,大主教纽约


HAGENBACH, Kirchengesch.哈根巴赫,Kirchengesch。des 18.DES 18。Jahrhunderts in Vorlesungen über Wesen u.在Vorlesungen Jahrhunderts黚Wesen美国Gesch.Gesch。der Reformation in Deutschland etc., V-VI (Leipzig, 1834-43); IDEM (tr. BUCH), Compendium of the History of Doctrines (Edinburgh, 1846); HASE, Kirchengesch.DER在德国宗教改革等,V - VI(莱比锡,1834年至1843年);同上(编辑部B​​UCH)的教义史简编(爱丁堡,1846),恒生银行,Kirchengesch。 (Leipzig, 1886); HENKE, Rationalismus u.(莱比锡,1886年);亨克,Rationalismus U.Traditionalismus im 19. Traditionalismus IM 19。Jahrh.Jahrh。(Halle, 1864); HURST, History of Rationalism (New York, 1882); LERMINIER, De l'influence de la philosophie du XVIIIe siècle (Paris, 1833); SAINTES, Hist.(哈雷,1864年); HURST,理性主义历史(纽约,1882年); LERMINIER,DE L'德拉哲学的影响杜XVIIIe SIECLE(巴黎,1833);桑特,组织胺。critique du rationalisme en Allemagne (Paris, 1841); SCHLEIERMACHER, Der christl.批判杜rationalisme EN Allemagne(巴黎,1841年);施莱尔马赫,DER christl。Glaube nach der Grundsätzen der evangelischen Kirche (Berlin, 1821-22): SEMLER, Von freier Untersuchung des Kanons (Halle, 1771-75); IDEM, Institutio ad doctrinam christianam liberaliter discendam (Halle, 1774); IDEM, Versuch einer freier theologischen Lehrart (Halle, 1777); STAÜDLIN, Gesch.Glaube nach DER Grundsätzen DER evangelischen Kirche(柏林,1821年至1822年):塞姆勒,冯freier Untersuchung DES Kanons(哈雷,1771年至1775年),同上,Institutio广告doctrinam christianam liberaliter discendam(哈雷,1774);同上,Versuch einer freier theologischen Lehrart(哈雷,1777); STAÜDLIN,Gesch。des Rationalismus u.DES Rationalismus U.Supranaturalismus (Göttingen, 1826); THOLUCK, Vorgesch.Supranaturalismus(哥廷根,1826); THOLUCK,Vorgesch。 des Rationalismus (Halle, 1853-62); BENN, History of Rationalism in the Nineteenth Century (London, 1906). DES Rationalismus(哈雷,1853年至1862年);本恩,历史在19世纪理性主义(伦敦,1906年)。

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