Relativism相对主义

Advanced Information先进的信息

Totalistic relativism is (1) an epistemological theory denying any objective, universally valid human knowledge and affirming that meaning and truth vary from person to person, culture to culture, and time to time; (2) a metaphysical theory denying any changeless realities such as energy, space, time, natural laws, persons, or God and affirming that all conceivable meaning rests on activities, happenings, events, processes, or relationships, in which observers are changing participants; and (3) an ethical theory denying any changeless moral principles normative for all people in every situation and so of limited validity.极权相对主义 (1)认识论的理论否定任何客观的,普遍有效的人类知识和肯定的意义和真理因人而异的人,文化,文化,不时(2)形而上学理论的否定,如任何不变的现实能源,空间,时间,自然的规律,人,或神并申明所有可能的意义在于在活动中,发生的事情,事件,流程,或关系,在这种变化的观察员参加;及(3)伦理道德理论否认不变规范性原则在任何情况下为所有人民和有效性,使有限。 From these three fields relativism pervades every field of meaningful human experience and knowledge.来自这三个领域的相对渗透每一个有意义的人类经验和知识领域。

Limited relativism considers totalistic relativism self-contradictory and wrong in its absolute denials of any absolute truth, and yet accurate in its assertion that much human knowledge is conditioned and slanted by innumerable variables.相对有限的相对主义认为极权自相矛盾和错误的任何绝对真理的绝对否认,然而在很多人的说法,即知识是由无数的变量的条件和倾斜准确。 However, general divine revelation makes clearly known to all people the changeless truths about God's nature and particularly God's changeless plans for changing people in changing cultures in history.但是,一般清楚知道神的启示让所有的人对神的性质,特别是神的改变,改变在历史文化背景的人不变的计划不变的真理。 Although finite, fallen people may not be able to invent changeless truths, they can discover and receive them through divine revelation and enablement.虽然有限,堕落的人未必能发明不变的真理,他们能够发现和接收通过神圣的启示和启用他们。In this way they can know not only changeless principles, plans, and purposes but also the meaning of unique, once-for-all events with objective validity.这样,他们可以知道,不仅不变的原则,计划和目的,但也是唯一的,一旦换所有的客观有效性事件的意义。

BELIEVE Religious Information Source web-site相信宗教信息来源
BELIEVE Religious Information Source相信宗教信息来源
Our List of 2,300 Religious Subjects

我们2300 宗教科目名单
E-mail电子邮件
Human cognition does take place in the midst of countless cultural variables: subjectively (Kierkegaard), economically (Marx), politically (Reinhold Niebuhr), historically (H. Richard Niebuhr, W. Dilthey), educationally (Dewey), religiously (Cobb, Starcke, Watts), anthropologically (Kraft), and stylistically (Ricoeur).人类认知并参与了无数文化变量中间的地方:主观(克尔凯郭尔),经济(马克思),政治(莱因霍尔德尼布尔),历史(H.理查德尼布尔,W.狄尔泰),从教育(杜威),宗教(科布, Starcke,瓦),人类学(卡夫),和文体(利科)。As a result of the kaleidoscopic impact of these and other influential variables, totalistic relativists have denied any invariable, absolute truth about things in themselves.由于这些和其他有影响的变量千变万化的影响的结果,极权相对主义否认任何不变,约在自己的事情绝对真理。

Increased consciousness of these cultural variables has generally been of significant value to the fields of interpretation and communication.增加这些文化变量的意识已普遍有重要价值的解释和通信领域。To grasp the meaning of people from other cultures interpreters now realize how crucial it is to seek sympathetic identification with them in terms of their own presuppositions and historical roots.要把握从口译其他文化背景的人的意思现在认识到它是多么重要,寻求与他们在自己的前提条件和历史根源同情鉴定。Such cross-cultural understanding is equally indispensable if one seeks to communicate to those of other cultures in terms of their own categories of thought and verbal expressions.这种跨文化的理解也同样必不可少如果一个旨在交流对在思想和语言表达自己的品种看其他文化的人。Improved ways of grasping and communicating meaning, however, do not settles issues of objective validity.抓改进方式和沟通的含义,然而,不沉淀的客观有效性问题。

Agreement has not been reached in regard to the degree of influence the cultural variables bring to bear upon human knowers.协议尚未达成关于文化变量的影响程度将承担对人类认知者。According to determinists, given a specific set of conditions present to a person's brain, nothing else could happen.根据决定论,鉴于目前的条件,以一个人的大脑的特定设置,没有别的可能发生。All knowledge is relative to and determined by these situations (Skinner).所有的知识是相对的和由这些情况(斯金纳)确定。 For others, although all of human knowledge and behavior is predisposed to habitual responses by given sets of stimuli, this conditioning "falls somewhat short of total determination."对于其他人,虽然人类的知识和行为都是倾向于通过特定的刺激套惯常的反应,这种空调“瀑布总有点短的决心。” All propositional assertions are nevertheless held to be time- and culture-bound (Kraft).所有命题断言但认为是时间和文化的局限(卡夫)。

Others view persons not only as physical organisms but also as minds, souls, or spirits, with the powers of self-determination and self-transcendence.其他人认为不仅是物理生物,但也头脑,灵魂,或烈酒的人,与自决和自我超越的权力。Hence their knowledge is not all time-bound and they are agents responsible for their own actions (Thomas Reid, J. Oliver Buswell, Jr.).因此,他们的知识是不是所有的时间限制,他们为他们的代理人(托马斯里德,J.奥利弗巴斯韦尔,小)自己的行为负责。Existentialists affirm that mankind is free from both external determination and internal self-determination by a self with a given, unchangeable nature.存在主义肯定,人类是从外部和内部的决心与一个给定的,不可改变的本质自我自决的自由。To be authentically free a person must, in fact, exercise an arbitrary freedom independent of cultural predispositions and past habitual choices.为了真实自由的人必须在事实上,任意行使自由的文化倾向和过去习惯性的选择无关。 It seems more likely that some knowledge is predisposed by one's cultural influences and creative knowledge simply occasioned by one's situation.它似乎更可能是一些知识是由人的文化影响和创造性的知识简单地由一个人的情况所引致易感。

Totalistic Relativism极权相对论

Wheter the cultural and psychological variables determine, predispose, or occasion certain metaphysical beliefs, totalistic relativists know little about the nature of persons or things as terms or entities in themselves, and much about relationships, functions, and processes. Wheter的文化和心理变量确定,易患,或场合某些形而上学的信仰,极权相对主义认识的人士或实体上还是在自己的小事物的本质,和很多关于关系,函数和过程。 Things and persons are what they do.事物和人是他们做什么。Distinct, unique persons are reduced to influences, relations, events, or happenings (Arthur F. Bentley).鲜明,独特的人减少到影响,关系,事件,或发生的事情(亚瑟F.宾利)。Relational theology also intends to free people from the tyranny of absolutes, but may diminish the value of a person as such.关系神学还打算使人们摆脱了绝对的专制,但可能削弱了作为人的价值等。

In Eastern monistic relativism persons are not real, but mere maya insofar as they are distingishable from the One.在东部一元论相对人是不是真实的,但仅仅是玛雅因为它们是从一个distingishable。Differentiations of distinct persons with whom to have relationships are said to be made, not by nature, but by human conceptual assertions distinguishing subjects from predicates.与之不同的分化有关系的人说成是做不自然的,而是由人类区别于学科概念的谓词断言。Hence all propositions are illusory and relative to the viewpoints of those who assert them.因此,所有命题都是虚幻的,相对的那些谁主张他们的观点。In "reality" persons, like dew drops, slip into the shining sea, the part never again to be differentiated from the whole.在“现实”的人,像露珠,闪耀着滑入大海,部分永远不会再从整体上有所区别。Since all that can be conceived is relative, no permanent objective remains for which to strive and nihilism results.由于所有可以设想是相对的,没有永久的目标仍然为其争取和虚无主义的结果​​。No self-nature can stand by itself, and no lasting distinction can be made between right and wrong.无自性经得起本身,而没有持久的差别,可以作出正确与错误。Moral conflicts are a sickness of the mind which should have cultivated a bland indifference.道德冲突是心灵的疾病,应该养成一种平淡冷漠。Decisions are to be made without having the faintest understanding of how one decides (Alan Watts).的决定,而不必在怎样的决定(阿兰瓦)微弱的理解了。

Totalistic relativism, relationalism, or contextualization ends in amorality, "Asiatic fatalism," meaninglessness, and nihilism.极权相对主义,关系主义,或在非道德语境结束后,“亚洲宿命论,”无意义,和虚无主义。Furthermore radical relativism is self-contradictory.此外激进的相对论​​是自相矛盾的。Every human assertion is said to be time-bound and culture-bound, but the assertion that "all is relative" is taken to be universal and necessary.每个人的说法,据说是有时限的和文化的约束,但断言“一切都是相对的”被视为普遍的和必要的。Total relativism absolutely denies any absolutes, and it absolutizes relativity.共有相对绝对否认自己有任何绝对的,它absolutizes相对论。

Limited Relativism有限的相对主义

Less reductive and more open approaches to meaningful human existence acknowledge not only differences among cultures but also similarities.减还原和更加开放的办法,不承认人类的生存有意义的文化之间的相似之处,但也只有差异。 Kraft alludes to over seventy-three constants in human societies in a chapter on human commonality, but concludes the chapter with only one criterion for evaluating cultural systems: their efficiency or adequacy in meeting people's personal, social, and spiritual needs.卡夫暗示过,在对人类共性章人类社会73常量,但最后只有一个文化系统评估准则的章节:其效率或满足人的个人,社会和精神需求的充分性。 The forms of a culture, including the Christian missionary's culture, are judged solely in terms of their pragmatic usefulness.一种文化形式,包括基督教传教士的文化,是判断完全在他们的务实有用的条款。Usefulness for what?有用的是什么?It sounds good to say, "for properly relating human beings to God."这听起来不错的说,“为人类正确与神。”But having held that a hundred percent of human conceptual thought is time-bound, Kraft has no changeless criteria by which to distinguish counterfeit religious experience from authentic conversion to Christ.但有认为是人类思想观念百分之百是有时间限制,卡夫没有不变的标准,其中以区别于真正转化为基督宗教经验假冒。 Apparently dynamically equivalent experiences may be of Satan, who changes himself into an angel of light.显然,动态等值的经验可能是撒旦,谁变成了自己光明的天使。

The tests of authentic Christian experience, according to Scripture, include conceptually equivalent assertions about the nature of Christ, the eternal Word who became flesh (John 1:1-18; 20:31; I John 4:1-3; II John 9).正宗的基督教经验的测试,根据圣经,包括有关的基督,永恒的字谁成了肉身(约翰1:1-18性概念相当于断言,20时31分,我约翰4:1-3; II约翰9 )。Relational and functional theologians, succumbing to relativism, undermine the changeless conceptual validity of God's universal revelation in nature and special revelation in the teaching of the incarnate Christ and inspired prophetic and apostolic spokesmen.关系和功能的神学家,屈服于相对主义,破坏了神的性质,在基督的化身和启发先知和使徒的代言人教学特殊启示的普遍启示不变的概念的有效性。

What transcultural truths, then, are known through general revelation?什么跨文化的真理,那么,通过已知的一般启示?(1) People are human. (1)人是人之常情。Persons everywhere in all cultures have been, are, and will be human.在所有文化中的人到处有,现在是,将来是人类。Dehumanizing and depersonalizing tendencies to the contrary, persons are subjects, not mere objects, and as agents responsibly participate in communities to achieve common, objective goals.非人性化和depersonalizing倾向,相反,人是主体,而不是单纯的对象,而作为代理商负责在社区参与,以实现共同的,客观的目标。 (2) People have inalienable human rights and responsibilities.(2)人民有不可剥夺的人权和责任。However different physically, economically, educationally, politically, socially, or religiously, people have a right to equal concern and respect.然而不同的物理,经济,从教育,政治,社会,或宗教,让人有一种平等的关注和尊重的​​权利。(3) People deserve justice. (3)人们需要正义。Whatever the situation, and whenever people are treated unjustly, they cry out against injustice.不管是什么情况,只要是被冤枉的人,他们哭出来抱不平。(4) Unjust people need a just amnesty and forgiving, holy love.(4)失道寡助的人需要一个公正的特赦和宽恕,圣洁的爱。(5) People ought to be intellectually honest and faithful to the given data of reality. (5)人们应该理智诚实,忠实于现实给定的数据。They ought not bear false witness against others.他们不应该承担对他人作假见证。(6) If human society, mutual trust, and communication is to be meaningful, people ought to be logically noncontradictory in their thought, speech, and writing. (6)如果人类社会,相互信任,沟通是有意义,人应该在他们的思想,言论和写作逻辑noncontradictory。Human knowledge and experience are related not only to cultural variables but also to these invariables of mortality, fact, and logic.人类的知识和经验,不仅涉及到文化因素,而且也包括死亡率,事实上,这些不变量和逻辑。

To argue for but one absolute, love, as did Joseph Fletcher, is to ignore the breadth of the Creator's intelligence and wisdom.但为了争取一个绝对,爱,就像约瑟夫弗莱彻,就是忽视了造物主的聪明和智慧的广度。To argue for the absoluteness of factual data alone, as with scientism and positivism in their varied forms, overlooks the faithful words of the Logos regarding morality, sin, and salvation, and his own integrity as one who cannot deny himself or contradict himself.争辩的事实数据的绝对独立,与科学主义和实证主义的各种形式,忽视了有关道德,罪恶和救赎,而他作为一个谁也不能否认自己或违背自己的诚信标识自己的忠实话。 But to argue for logical absolutes alone, as rationalists may, blinds one to the given data of experience, the danger of autism, injustice, and irresponsibility in a day of nuclear proliferation.但是,为了争取独立的逻辑绝对的,因为理性主义可一到百叶窗的经验,自闭症,不公正,并在当天的核扩散危险的不负责任给定的数据。

The Need for Absolutes对于绝对极品

Claims to truth, as distinct from mere uninformed opinion, must be justified on the basis of something more than subjective or community feelings of certitude.真理,从单纯无知的看法不同的债权,必须在合理的,确定性的东西比感情更主观或社会基础。As Gordon Kaufman has argued, any claim to truth involves the claim to objective validity.正如戈登考夫曼所指出的,任何真理声称涉及到客观有效性要求。Although hesitating to affirm belief in absolutes, Kaufman admits the objectively valid knowledge transcends actual thinking and feeling in three directions, givenness, universality, and logical interconnectedness.虽然不惜在绝对肯定的信念,考夫曼承认客观有效的知识超越的思想实际,在三个方向,给予性,普遍性和逻辑之间的相互联系的感觉。 These he calls "functioning absolutes."这些他所谓的“功能绝对。”Since they function as absolutes along with justice and love, intellectual honesty, and human worth to make life possible and meaningful, why not call them absolutes?由于他们的绝对功能以及正义和爱心,智慧诚信,和人的价值,使生活可能和有意义的,为什么不叫他们绝对?

To acknowledge changeless truths in the midst of changing human experiences, as Augustine realized, is to acknowledge their changeless source and referent, ontologically.承认在改变人类的经验,如奥古斯丁实现中间不变的真理,就是要承认他们不变的来源和指涉,本体论。Paul Tillich also saw that all such absolutes point beyond themselves to an all-inclusive Absolute.保罗蒂利希还看到,所有这些绝对超越自己指向一个包容一切的绝对。Unfortunately, Tillich's concept of Being itself depersonalized the living and dynamic Logos of Scripture.不幸的是,蒂利希的存在本身的概念非人性化的生活圣经和动态标志。

The most coherent account of both the variables and the invariables in meaningful human experience, Christians may argue, is the personal, living, moral, just, loving, faithful, and true God revealed not only in the world, history, and human nature, but even more significantly in the Jesus of history and the teachings of Scripture.两者的变量和有意义的人类经验的不变量最连贯的帐户,基督徒会说,是个人,生活,道德,正义,爱,忠诚,和真神透露,不仅在世界上,历史和人性,但更重要的是在历史耶稣和圣经的教导。 Although finite, fallen people may not discover objectively valid, normative truths for themselves, as divine image bearers they may be enabled by common or special grace to receive them.虽然有限,倒下的人可能不会发现自己客观有效,规范的真理,作为神圣的形象携带者,他们可能是由共同的或特殊的恩典使接收他们。 Through general revelation from the absolute God, people find out about God's moral principles for justice in society and, through special revelation, about God's loving plans and purposes for unjust people.通过从绝对的神一般的启示,人们了解在社会公义的神的道德原​​则,并通过特殊的启示,对上帝的爱计划和不公正的人的目的。 The living God is not determined by the relative processes of time, space, energy, and humanity.活着的上帝不是由时间,空间,能源和人类的相对进程。People and nature are relative to, dependent upon, and conditioned by God.人与自然是相对于,依赖的,由上帝条件。

It is commonplace for radical religious relativists to affirm that people can experience God even though no conceptual or propositional truth about God is possible.它是激进的宗教相对主义肯定,人们可以体验上帝,即使没有关于上帝的概念或命题的真理是可能的家常便饭。Even the words of Jesus and the Bible, they hold, are time-bound and culture-bound.即使是耶稣和圣经的话,他们持有,是有时限的和文化的约束。They can be taken only noncognitively, as pointers.他们可以采取只noncognitively,为指针。Such religious relativism, however pious, misses the mark because it fails to take adequate account of mankind's creation in the image of God and renewal in the divine image to know God conceptually (Col. 3:10).这种宗教相对主义,但虔诚的,错过了标记,因为它没有考虑到人类在上帝和神圣的图像重建图像创建充分考虑到概念上认识神(西3:10)。 Because they are created to know and commune with the Creator and Redeemer who is changeless in essence, attributes, and plans for space and time, humans in a sea of relativism can receive some effable absolutes by divine revelation and illumination.因为他们知道创建与造物主和救赎谁是不变的本质,属性,以及空间和时间计划的公社,在一个相对海平面人类可以接收神的启示和光照一些effable绝对。

Denials of propositional revelation may also result from a failure to grasp the relatedness of everything in changing and changeless experience to the Logos of God (John 1:1-3).命题的启示否认也可能源于未能把握一切都在改变和不变的经验,以神的标志(约1:1-3)的相关性。The divine Logos is eternal and distinct from the universe but not limited to an intellectually other eternity as in Eastern mysticism.神圣的标志是永恒的,从宇宙不同但不限于东方神秘主义作为智力等永恒。The divine Logos is immanent, governing nature and people, but not limited to natural processes as in liberalism.神圣的标志是内在的,执政的本质和人,但不限于在自由主义的自然过程。The divine Logos became incarnate as a truly human person but is not limited to noncognitive personal encounters as in neo-orthodoxy.神圣的标志成为一个真正的人的化身,但不限于在新的正统非认知的个人接触。The divine Logos was inscripturated, but is not limited to a mere biblicism as in some extreme fundamentalism.神圣的标志是inscripturated,但不限于在一些极端的原教旨主义只是biblicism。 In sum, the Logos of God is transcendent and immanent, incarnate, and inscripturated as in classical orthodox theology.总之,神的标志,是超越性和内在的,体现,并在古典正统神学inscripturated。

A verificational apologetic for the absolutes of the divine Logos, general revelation, incarnate revelation, and inscripturated revelation is not itself another absolute.一个神圣的标志,一般启示,体现启示,启示和inscripturated绝对verificational歉疚本身并不是一个绝对的。 It is not necessary to be divine or an inerrant spokesman for God to verify God's wisdom, power, and morality in the world, divine sinlessness in Christ, or divine revelation in Scripture.这是没有必要为神或上帝无误的发言人确认上帝的智慧,力量和道德的世界,在基督神圣的清白,或在圣经中神的启示。 The Israelites did not make themselves autonomous by distinguishing between true and false prophets.以色列人并没有使自己的真假先知区分自治。To check the credentials of one's surgeon is not to presume oneself more wise and capable in practicing surgery than the specialist.要检查一个人的外科医生的证书是不相信自己的智慧和实践能力比专科手术。Acquainted with the countless variables every human knower faces, we are not surprised that Christian apologists frankly claim no more than an overwhelming probability beyond reasonable doubt.与每个人的认识者无数的变量熟悉的面孔,我们并不感到惊讶,坦率地声称基督教护教只不过是无可置疑的概率更热烈。

Similarly, Christians claim only degrees of probability for their interpretations and applications of divinely revealed propositional truths.同样,基督徒声称他们的解释和神透露命题的真理应用概率只有度。To affirm the absoluteness of God's understanding in eternity is not to affirm the absoluteness of any believer's understanding of revelation at any given time in his growth in knowledge and grace.肯定了神在永恒的理解绝对不是肯定在任何他在知识和优雅的增长给定时间,任何信徒的启示理解绝对化。Precisely the opposite result follows.恰恰是相反的结果如下。To assert the absoluteness of divine revelation in terms of its intended purpose and the standards of accuracy when written for that end is to deny absoluteness to the pronouncements of governments, public schools, the United Nations, and religious institutions.要断言在其预期目的条款和准确性的标准时,为此编写的神圣启示的绝对绝对是否定的政府,公立学校,联合国和宗教机构的声明。 Divine illumination does not result in inerrancy.神圣的照明不会导致无误。

Although no interpretation of the Scriptures as given can be regarded as absolute, some interpretations are better informed than others by relevant data, valid hermeneutical principles, and sound criteria of truth.虽然没有作为给定的经文解释可视为绝对,有些解释是比其他人更了解了相关数据,有效的诠释学原则,标准和真理的声音。 The most reliable checks and balances upon varied interpretive hypotheses are criteria drawn from the invariables found in general revelation: its grammar, literary context, author's purpose, historical and cultural setting, and broader theological context.最可靠的检查,并根据不同的解释假说结余从一般的启示发现不变量绘制标准:其文法,文学方面,作者的目的,历史和文化背景,以及更广泛的神学背景。 Furthermore, one must be able to live by that interpretation with integrity while treating people as persons, not things, respecting their rights, treating them justly, and forgiving their injustices.此外,必须能够生活与完整性的这种解释,而当作人,没有东西的人,尊重他们的权利,公正地对待他们,并宽恕他们的不公平现象。

Untold harm has been done in the name of Christianity by people who have absolutized their relative interpretations of life or of Scripture.无尽的伤害已经做了基督教的谁的生命或有绝对化的经文解释其相对人的名字。Presumptuous prophets who claimed to speak God's word to people, without divine authorization, in the OT administration were subject to the most severe penalities.谁声称讲神的话的人,没有神在旧约的授权管理,放肆先知受到最严重的处以重罚。May God deliver evangelicals today from prophetic ministries not validly drawn from divine revelation.愿上帝从没有有效地传递来自神的启示部委制定的预言今天福音派。This case for revealed absolutes must not be taken to justify absolutizing merely human ideas, however good.这对于发现的情况下绝对不能采取绝对化的理由仅仅是人的思想,但良好。

Similarly, inestimable damage has been done the cause of Christ and Scripture by those who relativize divinely revealed absolutes, which have objective validity for all people of all cultures.同样的,不可估量的损害已经造成了那些谁绝对的相对化神透露,这对所有文化的所有人的客观有效性,基督和圣经的原因。 Either Christianity is true for all people, or it is true for no one.无论是基督教,是适用于所有的人,或者是适用于任何人。We can be assured of our view of the major doctrines of Christianity and the realities to which they refer when our interpretations are based on numerous relevant and extensive passages of Scripture, supported by interpreters throughout the history of the church, and attested to us personally by the internal witness of the Holy Spirit to the teaching of the Word.我们可以放心,我们对基督教和现实,他们的解释是指当我们在许多相关的和广泛的段落圣经的整个教会历史口译支持,主要理论观点的基础上,并证明了我们亲自在圣灵内部见证的Word教学。 Then we can confidently relate to the realities designated and preach the great doctrines of the faith with joy.然后,我们可以自信地涉及到现实指定宣讲的​​信心与喜悦​​的伟大学说。

In a day when radical relativism reigns, disciples of the Lord, who is the same yesterday, today, and forever, stand guard against attacks upon the cognitive faith once for all entrusted to the saints (Jude 3) with gentleness, respect, and a clear conscience (I Pet. 3:15-16).在一个相对激进的一天统治,主,谁是一样的昨天,今天和永远,弟子抵挡攻击时的认知信念守护圣徒所有的委托(犹3)一旦与温柔,尊重,和问心无愧(我宠物。3:15-16)。

GR Lewis GR刘易斯

Bibliography 参考书目
AF Bentley, Relativity in Man and Society; GW Bromiley, "The Limits of Theological Relativism," CT, May 24, 1968, 6-7; JB Cobb, Jr., Christ in a Pluralistic Age; RJ Coleman, Issues in Theological Conflict; BA Demarest, General Revelation; JW Dixon, Jr., The Physiology of Faith: A Theory of Theological Relativity; CFH Henry, Christian Personal Ethics; G. Kaufman, Relativism, Knowledge and Faith; CH Kraft, Christianity in Culture; M. Kransz and JW Meiland, eds., Relativism Cognitive and Moral; GR Lewis, "Categories in Collision?"自动对焦,在人与社会的相对论宾利;毛重罗米立,“相对主义的神学的限制,”CT,1968年5月24日,6-7; JB科布,小,在一个多元时代的基督; RJ科​​尔曼,在神学的冲突问题; BA德马雷斯特,一般启示; JW迪克森,小,信仰的生理学:一个神学相对论; CFH亨利,基督教个人操守; G.考夫曼,相对主义,知识和信仰; CH卡夫,在基督教文化的M. Kransz和JW Meil​​and,EDS,相对主义和道德认知; GR刘易斯,“在碰撞类别?”in Perspectives on Evangelical Theology, and Testing Christianity's Truth-Claims; F. Schaeffer, How Should We Then Live?在对福音派神学和测试基督教的真理 - 申索的观点; F.谢弗,那么我们应该怎样活?BF Skinner, Back to Freedom and Dignity; JS Spong, "Evangelism When Certainty Is an Illusion," CCen, Jan. 6-13, 1982, 11-16; W. Starcke, The Gospel of Relativity; P. Tillich, My Search for Absolutes; D. Turner, The Autonomous Man.BF斯金纳,回到自由和尊严; JS司朋,“布道时,可以肯定的是一种假象,”CCen,1月6-13 1982年,11-16; W. Starcke,相对论福音; P.蒂利希,我的搜索为绝对; D.特纳,自治区的人。


Relativism相对主义

Catholic Information天主教信息

Any doctrine which denies, universally or in regard to some restricted sphere of being, the existence of absolute values, may be termed Relativism.任何学说否认,普遍或在某些方面受到限制的领域,绝对价值的存在,可能被称为相对主义。

Thus one form of Relativism asserts that we are conscious only of difference or change (Hobbes, Bain, Höffding, Wundt. Cf. Maher, "Psychology", 6th ed., p. 91).因此,人们对相对论的形式宣称,我们只是差或改变(霍布斯,贝恩,Höffding,冯特。参看马赫,“心理学”,第6版,第91页)意识。

Another asserts that truth is relative, either (a) because judgments are held (i) to have no meaning in isolation and (ii) to be subject to indefinite modification before they can become embodied in the one coherent system of ideal truth (Joachim and Hegelians generally), or else (b) because truth is conceived as a peculiar property of ideas whereby they enable us to deal with our environment more or less successfully (Pragmatists).另一个断言,真理​​是相对的,是(a),因为判断是举行(一)有没有孤立的意义和(二)受到无限期的修改,才可以成为一个连贯的系统的理想的真理(约阿希姆和体现黑格尔一般),否则(B),因为真理被看作一个想法,让他们使我们能够处理我们的环境或多或少成功(实用主义者)特殊属性。

A third affirms moral worth to be essentially relative and to emerge only when motives are in conflict (Martineau).第三个值得肯定的道德本质上是相对的,只有在出现冲突的动机(蒂诺)的。(See ETHICS, PRAGMATISM, TRUTH.) The term Relativism, however, is more commonly applied to theories which treat of the nature of knowledge and reality, and it is in this sense that we shall discuss it here. (见道德,务实性,真实性。)一词相对主义,然而,更普遍适用于其中的理论知识和现实性治疗,并在这个意义上,我们将在这里讨论。

The Relativity of Knowledge知识的相对性

Whatever may be the real and primary significance of Protagoras's famous dictum, "Man is the measure of all things" (anthropos metron panton kai ton syton kai ton me onton, Plato, "Theæt.", 152 A; in "Mind", XIX, 473, Mr. Gillespie maintains that the dictum has an ethical significance), it has ordinarily been understood in an epistemological sense, and a statement of the relativity of all human knowledge, of the impossibility of penetrating beyond the appearances of things.无论可能是普罗泰戈拉的名言真正和主要的意义,“人是万物的尺度”(anthropos美唐潘启吨syton偕吨我onton,柏拉图,152 A“Theæt”;在“心灵”,第十九,473先生的名言吉莱斯皮认为有道德意义),它通常被理解为一个认识论意义,以及对所有人类知识的相对性声明,超越事物的出现不可能穿透。 And this interpretation is in conformity with the general tendency of the age in which Protagoras lived.而这种解释是与年龄的生活中,普罗泰戈拉的总趋势相一致。Heraclitus's doctrine of a perpetual and universal flux, Parmedides's view that plurality and change are but the semblance of reality, futile attempts to explain the nature of sense-perception and to account for illusion and false judgment, together with a dawning consciousness (evident in Democritus) of a subjective factor in the perceptual process - all this tended to make philosophers distrust the deliverances of their senses and rely solely upon reason or intelligence.赫拉克利特的学说的一个永久的和普遍的通量,Parmedides认为,多元化和变化,但对现实的假象,徒劳的试图解释意识知觉的性质,并为幻觉和虚假的判断帐户连同曙光意识,(在德谟克利特明显)中的一个感知过程的主观因素 - 这一切都倾向于让哲学家不信任他们的感官deliverances和依靠单纯的理由或情报。Reflection, however, soon made it clear that rational theories were no more consistent than the data of perceptional experience, and the inevitable result of this was that the Relativism of Protagoras and his followers eventually passed into the Scepticism of the Middle Academy (see Scepticism).反思,然而,很快明确表示,没有合理的理论比知觉经验的数据相一致,而这必然结果是,普罗塔哥拉的相对主义和他的追随者最终进入中东学院怀疑论通过(见怀疑论) 。

Modern Relativism, on the other hand, though it too tends to pass into Scepticism, was in its origin a reaction against Scepticism.现代相对主义,另一方面,虽然它也往往会传递到怀疑主义,是在其原产地对怀疑主义的反应。To dispel the doubt which Hume had cast on the validity of universal judgments of a synthetic character, Kant proposed that we should regard them as arising not from any apprehension of the nature of real things, but from the constitution of our won minds.为了消除这休谟曾经就普遍的一种人工合成的性格判断的有效性产生怀疑,康德提出,要视所产生的任何事物的本质的真正顾虑不是他们,而是从我们的心中赢得了宪法。 He maintained that the mental factor in experience, hitherto neglected, is really of paramount importance: to it are due space, time, the categories, and every form of synthesis.他认为,在经历心理因素,迄今被忽视的,真的是非常重要:它是由于空间,时间,类别,每合成形式。It is the formal element arising from the structure of the mind itself that constitutes knowledge and makes it what it is.它是正式的元素,从心灵的本身构成的知识结构,使之产生的是什么。Hume erred in supposing that knowledge is an attempt to copy reality.休谟错误地假定知识是一种尝试复制的现实。It is nothing of the kind.它是一种什么。The world as we know it, the world of experience, is essentially relative to the human mind, whence it derives all that it has of unity, order and form.这个世界,因为我们知道,经验的世界,本质上是相对于人的心灵,它源于何处,它所有的团结,秩序和形式。The obvious objection to a Relativism of this kind is the outstanding thing-in-itself, which is not, and can never become, and object of knowledge.最明显的反对的这种相对主义是突出物自体本身,这是不是,也永远不会成为和知识的对象。We are thus shut up with a world of appearances, the nature of which is constituted by our minds.因此,我们关闭了一个表象的世界,其性质是由我们的头脑构成。What reality is in itself we can never know.什么现实本身就是我们永远无法知道。Yet this is, as Kant admitted, precisely what we wish to know.然而,这是因为康德承认,正是我们想知道的。The fascination of Kant's philosophy lay in the fact that it gave full value to the activity, as opposed to the passivity or receptivity of mind; but the unknowable Ding-an-sich was an abomination, fatal alike to its consistency and to its power to solve the problem of human cognition.对康德哲学的魅力在于在于它给予了充分的价值的活动,相对于被动或心灵的接受,但不可知的丁AN - SICH是一个可憎的,致命的一致好评,以它的一致性,其权力解决了人类认知的问题。It must be got rid of at all costs; and the simplest plan was to abolish it altogether, thus leaving us with a reality knowable because knowledge and reality are one, and in the making of it mind, human or absolute, plays an overwhelmingly important part.它必须得到摆脱不惜一切代价,以及简单的计划是完全取消,从而留下了现实可知我们,因为知识和现实是一体的,在它的决策精神,人或绝对的,绝大多数起着重要一部分。

The Relativity of Reality对现实的相对论

The relativity of reality, which thus took the place of the relativity of knowledge, has been variously conceived.在现实的相关性,因而才采取了对知识的相对位置,已经不同地构思。Sometimes, as with Fichte and Hegel, Nature is opposed to Mind or Spirit as a twofold aspect of one and the same ground - of Intelligence, of Will, or even of unconscious Mind.有时,与费希特和黑格尔,自然是反对心灵或精神作为一个双重方面,同样的理由 - 智力,意志,甚至是无意识的心灵。Sometimes, as with Green and Bradley, Reality is conceived as one organic whole that somehow manifests itself in finite centers of experience, which strive to reproduce in themselves Reality as it is, but fail so utterly that what they assert, even when contradictory, must be held somehow to be true - true like other truths in that they attempt to express Reality, but are subject to indefinite reinterpretation before they can become identical with the real to which they refer.有时,与格林和布拉德利,现实设想为一个有机整体,不知怎的,体现在经验,力求再现现实本身,因为它是有限的中心本身,而是完全的失败使他们断言,即使有矛盾,必须要举行某种真实 - 就像他们试图表达现实,但受到无限期释法等真理的真实,才可以成为真正以他们参照相同。Still more modern Absolutists (eg, Mackenzie and Taylor), appreciating to some extent the inadequacy of this view, have restored some sort of independence to the physical order, which, says Taylor (Elem. of Metaph., 198), "does not depend for its existence upon the fact of my actually perceiving it," but "does depend upon my perception for all the qualities and relations which I find in it".但更现代Absolutists(如麦肯齐和泰勒),在一定程度上升值的这一观点的不足,已经恢复了一些独立的物理顺序进行排序,其中,说泰勒(Elem.的Metaph。,198),“不依靠其在我的实际感知它的存在事实“,但”不依赖于我的感觉所有的素质和关系,我在里面找到“。 In other words, the "what" of the real world is relative to our perceiving organs (ibid.); or, as a recent writer (Murray in "Mind", new series, XIX, 232) puts it, Reality, anterior to being known, is mere hyle (raw material), while what we call the "thing" or the object of knowledge is this hyle as transformed by an appropriate mental process, and thus endowed with the attributes of spatiality and the like.换句话说,“是什么”现实世界是相对于我们(同上)感知器官,或放在为最近作家(穆雷在“心”,新系列,十九,2​​32)它,现实,前向被称为是单纯的hyle(原料),而我们所说的“事”或知识的对象是本作由一个适当的心理转变过程,从而与空间性的属性赋之类hyle。 Knowing is, therefore, "superinducing form upon the matter of knowledge" (J. Grote, "Explor. Phil.", I, 13).知道,因此,“superinducing形成后,对知识的问题”(J.格罗特,“勘探。菲尔 ”,我,13)。 Riehl, though usually classed as a Realist, holds a similar view.Riehl先生,虽然平时以写实归类,持有类似的观点。He distinguishes the being of an object (das Sein der Objekte) from its being as an object (Objektsein).他区分了从它作为一个对象(Objektsein)被对象(DAS盛DER Objekte)之中。The former is the real being of the object and is independent of consciousness; the latter is its being or nature as conceived by us, and is something wholly relative to our faculties (cf. Rickert, "Der Gegenstand der Erkenntnis", 2nd ed., pp. 17 sq., where the inconsistency of this view is clearly indicated).前者是真实存在的对象,是独立的意识,后者是其正在或性质,我们设想,是相对于我们的东西全系(参见李凯尔特,“明镜Gegenstand DER Erkenntnis”,第二版。 ,第17平方公里,其中,这种观点显然是不一致的表示)。

The relativity of Reality as thus conceived really involves a return to the position of Kant, except that for the thing-in-itself with its unknowable character and properties is substituted a kind of materia prima, without qualities, attributes, or determinations, and therefore as unknowable as the thing-in-itself, but unknowable now because there is nothing to be known.作为对现实的相对论因此设想真正涉及的只是回归到康德的位置,物自体不可知其本身的性格和属性将被替换的本草一种表面,没有素质,属性或裁定的,因此因为不可知的物自体本身,而是不可知的现在因为没有什么是已知的。 On this point modern Idealism is at one with Pragmatism or Humanism, which also insist that reality must be regarded epistemologically as raw material, wholly propertyless and wholly indeterminate.在这一点上是现代理想主义与实用主义或在人文,也坚持这一现实必须被视为原料,完全没有财产和完全不确定的认识论之一。 The difference between the two views lies in this, that for the Idealist, form is imposed upon matter by the very act by which we know it, while for the Pragmatist, it is imposed only after a long process of postulation and experiment.两种观点之间的区别在于,在此,对于理想主义者,形式强加于事项的非常行动,使我们知道它,而对于实用主义者,它只是经过了漫长的过程和实验postulation罚款。

Criticism批评

M. Fonsegrive in his "Essais sur la connaissance" has discussed the question of Relativism at considerable length, and is opinion that we must in some sense grant that knowledge is relative to our faculties.M.在他的“Essais SUR LA connaissance”Fonsegrive讨论了在相当长相对主义的问题,并认为,我们必须在某种意义上授予知识是相对于我们的学院。But, while in principle he grants this universally, as a matter of fact in his own theory it is only our knowledge of corporeal objects that is regarded as strictly relative.但是,尽管在原则上他授予这个普遍认为,事实上,在他自己的理论,只是我们是为严格把有形物体的相对知识。We can know other minds as they really are, because we ourselves are thinking beings, and the external manifestation of our mentality and theirs is similar in character.我们可以知道其他的头脑,因为他们真的是,因为我们自己都在思考人生,和我们的心态和他们的外在表现形式是在性质上类似。 But "we do not know the essence of things, but the essence of our relations with things; of the laws of nature in themselves we know much less than we do of our dealings with nature" (pp. 85, 86).但是,“我们不知道事物的本质,但我们的关系,事物的本质,对自己的自然规律,我们知道要少得多,比我们做的与自然的交往”(第85,86)。 "Whatever we know, is known in terms of the self" (p. 125; cf. pp. 184 sq.). “无论我们知道,是著名的自我条款”(第125页;比照第184平方米)。The principal argument upon which this Relativism rests, is fundamentally the same as that used by Berkeley in his famous "Dialogue between Hylas and Philonus".主要论点在于在此相对主义,根本上是由伯克利使用在其著名的“之间Hylas和Philonus对话”相同。 As stated by Fonsegrive, it si as follows: "the concept of an object which should be at the same time in-itself and an object of knowledge is clearly contradictory. . . For 'object of knowledge' means 'known', . . . but it is quite evident that the known, qua known, is not in-itself, since it is qua known" (p. 186).正如Fonsegrive说明外,市如下:“对一个对象,它应在在同一时间和本身的知识对象的概念显然是自相矛盾的”知识对象“是指”知“, 。 但它是相当明显的是已知的,之四,是一种没有在本身,因为它是已知之四“(第186页)。Hence what we know is never the object as it is in itself, but only as it is in our knowledge of it.因此,我们所知道的是从来没有的对象,因为它本身就是,只是因为它是在我们对它的知识。Of course, if the notions "being in itself" and "being as known" are mutually exclusive, the above argument is valid; but as conceived by the Realist or the anti-Relativist, this is not so.当然,如果概念“本身是”与“被称为”是相互排斥的,上面的参数是有效的,但由现实主义或反相对主义的设想,事实并非如此。 Being in-itself merely means being as it exists, whether it be known or not.在仅仅意味着本身是因为它的存在,无论是已知或没有。 It implies therefore that the nature and existence of being is prior to our knowledge of it (a fact which, by the way, Fonsegrive stoutly maintains); but it does not imply that being as it exists cannot be known.因此,它暗示的性质和所存在先于我们对它的(这一事实,顺便说一句,坚决维护Fonsegrive)的知识,但它并不意味着它的存在可以被当作不知道。 Forsegrive's argument proves nothing against the view that the real nature of objects is knowable; for, though in the abstract the thing qua existent is not the thing qua known, in the concrete there is no reason why its really existing nature cannot become known, or, in other words, why it cannot be known as it is. Forsegrive的论点证明反对观点,即对象的真正本质是可知什么,因为,尽管在抽象的东西之四存在的不是之四已知的东西,在混凝土没有任何理由为什么它的真实存在性不能成为已知或换句话说,为什么它不能被称为是。

The argument by which absolutists seek to prove the relativity of Reality is precisely similar to the above.这个论点,其中absolutists寻求证明相对论的现实恰恰是类似上面。We cannot thing of real things, says Taylor ("elem. of Metaph.", 23, 69, 70; cf. Bradley, "Appearance and Reality", 144-45), except as objects of experience; hence it is in connection with mind that their reality lies.我们不能真实的东西的事,说泰勒(“ELEM的Metaph ”,23,69,70;比照布拉德利,“外观和现实”,144-45),除了作为经验对象,因此它在连接记住,现实与他们的谎言。Surely this argument is fallacious.当然这种说法是错误的。All that it proves is that things must either be or else become objects of experience in order to be thought of by mind, not that they must be of their very essence objects of experience.所有这一切它证明的是,事情必须是或者成为经验的对象,以被认为是由心态,而不是他们必须是他们的经验非常本质的对象。 Unless reality is intelligible and can enter into experience, it cannot become the object of thought; but in no other sense does the possibility of knowing it suppose its "connection with mind".除非现实情况是可理解和可进入的经验,它不能成为思想的对象,但在没有其他的意义不知道它想它的“与心灵的连接”的可能性。 True, to conceive anything is "eo ipso to bring it into consciousness", but from this it follows merely that to be conceivable things must be capable of becoming objects of consciousness.的确,受孕什么是“EO IPSO它带入意识”,但仅仅从这个它遵循的是可以想象的事情必须是能够成为意识的对象。Psychological considerations force us to admit that Reality, when it enters experience, becomes, or better is reproduced as psychical fact; but we cannot conclude from this that Reality itself, the reality which is the object of experience and to which our experience refers as to something other than itself, is of necessity psychical fact.心理因素迫使我们不得不承认这一现实,当它进入的经验,成为,或更好的是心灵的事实再现,但我们不能由此得出结论认为现实本身,现实这是经验的对象,并以其中的经验,是指以除它本身以外的东西,是需要心灵的事实。 Experience or perception is doubtless a condition without which we could not think of things at all, still less think of them as existing, but it is not a condition without which things could not exist.经验或看法,无疑是一个条件,没有这些,我们不能认为所有的事情,更认为它们存在,但它不是一个条件,没有这些事情可能不存在的。 Nor again, when we think, do we ordinarily think of things as objects of experience; we think of them simply as "things", real or imaginary, and the properties which we predicate of them we think of as belonging to them, not as "superinduced by our minds".也同样,当我们认为,我们通常所认为的经验对象的事情,我们觉得他们仅仅作为“物”,真实的或虚构的,和属性这其中我们谓词我们对属于他们觉得,还不如“我们的头脑superinduced”。

Our natural way of thinking may, however, conceivably be wrong.我们的思维方式自然可以,但是,可以想象是错误的。Granted that what "appears" is reality, appearances may none the less be fallacious.想当然地认为什么是“似乎”是现实,外观可能没有少是错误的。It is possible that they are due wholly or in part to our minds, and so do not reveal to us the nature of reality, but rather its relation to our perceiving selves, our faculties and our organs.这可能是由于它们全部或部分我们的头脑,所以不要向我们揭示了现实性,而是它关系到我们的自我感知,我们的学院和我们的器官。 Most of the arguments advanced in support of this view are based on psychology, and though the psychology is good enough, the arguments are hardly conclusive.在支持这一观点的论据大多是基于心理学,虽然心理是不够好,参数是难以定论。It is urged, for instance, that abstraction and generalization are subjective processes which enter into every act of knowledge, and essentially modify its content.这是要求,例如,这是抽象和概括的认识到每一个进入主观行为过程,实质上修改其内容。Yet abstraction is not falsification, unless we assume that what we are considering in the abstract exists as such in the concrete - that is, exists not in connection with and in mutual dependence upon other things, but in isolation and independence just as we conceive it.然而,抽象不是伪造的,除非我们认为我们是在抽象的存在,因此考虑在混凝土 - 也就是说,存在于连接的和其他的东西后,相互依存,而是孤立和独立,就像我们设想它。Nor is generalization fallacious, unless we assume, without proof, that the particulars to which our concept potentially applies actually exist.概括也不是荒谬的,除非我们假设,如果没有证据,认为其中的详情,我们的概念可能适用于实际存在。In a word, neither these nor any other of the subjective processes and forms of thought destroy the validity of knowledge, provided what is purely formal and subjective be distinguished, as it should be, from what pertains to objective content and refers to the real order of causes and purposes.总之,无论这些也没有任何主观的过程和思想表格其他破坏知识的有效性,提供什么是纯形式的主观加以区分,因为它应该是,从什么涉及到客观内容,指的是真正的秩序的原因和目的。

A further argument is derived from the alleged relativity of sensation, whence in the Scholastic theory all knowledge is derived.另一个说法是从所谓的相对论得出的感觉,在学术理论推导所有的知识何处。The quality of sensation, it is said, is determined largely by the character of our nervous system, and in particular by the end-organs of the different senses.质量的感觉,这是说,在很大程度上取决于我们的神经系统的特点,并在由不同的感官最终机关尤其如此。It is at least equally probable, however, that the quality of sensation is determined by the stimulus; and in any case the objection is beside the point, for we do not in judgment refer our sensation as such to the object, but rather as qualities, the nature of which we do not know, though we do know that they differ from one another in varying degrees.这至少是同样可能的,但是,认为感觉是由刺激的质量决定,并反对在任何情况下,旁边的一点是,因为我们做这样的判断并不是指作为我们的感觉的对象,但由于品质相当,自然的,我们不知道,虽然我们知道他们在不同程度上从一个另一个不同。 Even granted then that sensation is relative to our specialized organs of sense, it by no means follows that the knowledge which comes through sensation in any way involves subjective determination.即使当时的感觉是获得相对于我们的意义专门机关,绝不意味着它遵循的知识,通过感觉来以任何方式涉及主观的决心。 Secondly, sense-data do not give us merely qualitative differences, but also spatial forms and magnitudes, distance, motion, velocity, direction; and upon these data are based not only mathematics but also physical science, in so far as the latter is concerned with quantitative, in distinction from qualitative, variations.其次,检测数据不给我们仅仅是质的差异,但也空间形式和大小,距离,运动,速度,方向,根据这些数据,不仅是基于数学,而且物理科学,到目前为止,因为后者而言与定量,从定性,变化的区别。

Thirdly, sense-data, even if they be in part subjective, suppose as their condition an objective cause.第三,检测数据,即使他们在主观的,假设条件作为其客观原因。Hence, a theory which explains sense-data satisfactorily assigns to them conditions which are no less real than the effects to which in part at least they give rise.因此,一个理论,解释了感觉材料圆满分配给他们的条件是不低于效果,这部分至少他们带来实实在在的。Lastly, if knowledge really is relative in the sense above explained, though it may satisfy our practical, it can never satisfy our speculative strivings.最后,如​​果知识确实是在上述解释的感觉相对的,尽管它可能满足我们的实际,它永远不能满足我们的投机奋斗。 The aim of speculative research is to know Reality as it is.投机性研究的目的是要知道现实就是如此。But knowledge, if it be of appearances only, is without real meaning and significance, and as conceived in an Idealism of the a priori type, also it would seem without purpose.但知识,如果它的外观只能是没有真正的内涵和意义,并作为在一个类型的先验唯心论的设想,这似乎也无目的。

Experience as a System of Relations体验作为一种关系体系

It is commonly taught by neo-Kantians that relation is the Category of categories (cf. Renouvier, "Le perdisguise (Caird, "The Phil. of Kant", 329; Green, "Prolegom.", 20). Matter and motion "consist of" relations (Prolegom., 9). In fact Reality, as we know it, is nothing but a system of relations, for "the nature of mind is such that no knowledge can be acquired or expressed, and consequently no real existence conceived, except by means of relation and as a system of relations" (Renouvier, "Les dilemmes de la metaph.", 11). This form of Relativism may be called objective to distinguish it from the Relativism which we have been discussing above, and with which, as a matter of fact, it is generally combined. Primarily it is a theory of the nature of knowledge, but with Green and others (eg, Abel Rey, "La théorie de la physique", VI, 2), who identify knowledge and reality, it is also a metaphysic. Such a view supposes a theory of the nature of relation very different from that of the Scholastics. For the latter relation is essentially a pros ti schesis, an ordo ad, which implies (1) a subject to which it belongs, (23) a special something in that subject on account of which it is predicated, and (3) a term, other than itself, to which it refers. A relation, in other words, as the moderns would put it, presupposes its "terms". It is not a mysterious and invisible link which somehow joins up two aspects of a thing and makes them one. A relation may be mutual; but if so, there are really two relations (eg, paternity and sonship) belonging to different subjects, or, if to the same subject, arising from different fundamentals. True, in science as in other matters, we may know a relation without being able to discover the nature of the entities it relates. We may know, for instance, that pressure and temperature vary proportionately in a given mass of gas and which the volume is kept constant, without knowing precisely and for certain the ultimate nature of either pressure or temperature. Nevertheless we do know something about them. We know that they exist, that they each have a certain nature, and that it is on account of this nature that the relation between them arises. We cannot know a relation, therefore, without knowing something of the things which it relates, for a relation presupposes its "terms". Hence the universe cannot consist of relations only, but must be composed of things in relation.它通常由教授新康德主义的关系是类别的分类(参见Renouvier,“乐perdisguise(凯尔德,他说:”菲尔康德“,329,绿:” “,20)物质和运动”Prolegom由“关系(Prolegom.,9),事实上现实,因为我们知道,只不过是一个关系系统”的心性就是这样,没有知识可以收购或表达,因此没有真正的存在构思,除了通过关系作为一种手段和关系系统“(Renouvier,”莱斯dilemmes德拉metaph “,11),这种相对主义的形式可能是所谓客观的,以区别于相对主义,我们一直在讨论它上面,与其中,作为一个事实问题,这是一般相结合。主要是对理论知识的性质,但与格林和其他(如阿贝尔雷伊,“拉théorie德拉体质”,六,2),谁查明知识和现实,它也是一种形而上学。这种看法设一个很大的关系的经院哲学家的不同性质的理论。对于后者的关系本​​质上是一种利弊TI schesis,一个奥广告,这意味着(1 )的主题,以它所属,(23)在该主题的特别帐户上的东西它的前提是,和(3)项,除它本身以外,它是指对一个关系,换句话说,被誉为现代人会说的那样,它的前提“条件”这不是一个神秘的和无形的链接,莫名其妙地加入了两个方面的事情,使其中一人是可以相互关系;,但即便如此,实际上有两个关系(如,陪产假和sonship)属于不同的学科,或者,如果以同一主题,从不同的基本面产生。诚然,在科学中的其他问题上,我们可以知道,而不能发现的实体它与自然的关系。我们知道,例如,这种压力和温度变化的气体比例在给定的质量和它的体积保持恒定不知道准确和一定的压力或温度的任何终极性,但我们知道他们的东西。我们知道它们的存在,他们都有一定的先进性,而且它的这种性质,他们之间的关系出现的帐户,我们无法知道一个关系,因此,不知道的东西它涉及的东西了,有关先决条件的“条款”,因此宇宙不能只包含关系,但必须是在有关的东西组成。

Publication information Written by Leslie J. Walker.出版信息由Leslie J.沃克写。Transcribed by Jim McCann.转录由吉姆麦肯。The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XII.天主教百科全书,卷十二。Published 1911.发布1911年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, June 1, 1911. Nihil Obstat 6月1日,1911。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰farley枢机主教,大主教纽约

Bibliography参考书目

Epistemological and Metaphysical - Caird, The Critical Philosophy of Kant (Glasgow, 1889); Fonsegrive, Essais sur la connaissance (Paris, 1909); Green, Prolegomena to Ethics (3rd ed., Oxford, 1890); Grote, Exploratio philosophica (Cambridge, 1900); Hamilton, Discussions (London, 1854); Idem, Metaphysics (London, 1871); Herbart, Metaphysics (Leipzig, 1850); Hobhouse, The Theory of Knowledge (London, 1896); Mill, Examination of Hamilton (4th ed., London, 1872); Prichard, Kant's Theory of Knowledge (Oxford, 1910); Renouvier, Les dilemmes de la metaph.认识论和形而上学 - ,康德批判哲学(格拉斯哥,1889年)凯尔德; Fonsegrive,Essais SUR LA connaissance(巴黎,1909年);绿色,绪论伦理(第3版,牛津大学,1890年);格罗特,Exploratio philosophica(剑桥,1900);汉密尔顿,讨论(伦敦,1854);同上,形而上学(伦敦,1871年);赫尔巴特,形​​而上学(莱比锡,1850);霍布豪斯,理论知识(伦敦,1896年);厂,汉密尔顿考试(第4 。教育署,伦敦,1872年);普里查德,康德的知识论(牛津,1910); Renouvier,莱斯dilemmes德拉metaph。pure (Paris, 1891); Idem, Le personnalisme (1903); Ray, La Théorie de la physique (Paris, 1907); Rickert Der Gegenstand der Erkenntnis (2nd ed., Tübingen, and Leipzig 1904); Riehl, Der philosoph.纯(巴黎,1891年),同上,乐personnalisme(1903年);雷,拉Théorie德拉体质(巴黎,1907年);李凯尔特明镜Gegenstand DER Erkenntnis(第二版,蒂宾根大学,莱比锡和1904年); Riehl先生,德philosoph。Kriticismus (Leipzig, 1887); Schiller, Humanism (London, 1903); Idem, Studies in Humanism (1907); Seth, Scottish Philosophy (London, 1885); Simmel, Philosophie des Geldes (Leipzig, 1890); Spencer, First Principles (6th ed., London, 1900); Veitch, Knowing and Being (Edinburgh, 1889); Walker, Theories of Knowledge (London, 1910). Kriticismus(莱比锡,1887年),席勒,人文(伦敦,1903年);同上,在人文研究(1907年);赛斯,苏格兰哲学(伦敦,1885年),齐美尔,哲学的DES Geldes(莱比锡,1890年),斯宾塞,第一原则(第6版,伦敦,1900年);维奇,了解和作为(爱丁堡,1889年),沃克,知识理论(伦敦,1910年)。 Psychological - Bain, Mental and Moral Science (3rd ed., London, 1884); Höffding, Outlines of Psychology (London, 1891); Maher, Psychology (6th ed., London, 1905); Wundt, Human and Animal Psychology, tr.心理 - 贝恩,精神和道德的科学(第3版,伦敦,1884年); Höffding,心理学纲要(伦敦,1891年);马希尔,心理学(第6版,伦敦,1905年);冯特,人类和动物心理学,TR 。(London, 1894); Idem, Grundzüge d.(伦敦,1894年),同上,Grundzüge D.physiologischen Psychologie (5th ed., Leipzig, 1903).physiologischen Psychologie(第5版,莱比锡,1903年)。



This subject presentation in the original English language这在原来的主题演讲, 英语



Send an e-mail question or comment to us:发送电子邮件的问题或意见给我们:E-mail电子邮件

The main BELIEVE web-page (and the index to subjects) is at:的, 主要相信网页(和索引科目),是在:
BELIEVE Religious Information Source相信宗教信息来源
http://mb-soft.com/believe/beliecha.html