Scholasticism烦琐哲学

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The term scholasticism (from the Latin schola, "school") refers properly both to the doctrine and method of teaching in the medieval European schools and to their successive revivals to the present day.经院哲学术语(来自拉丁文schola,“学校”)是指既要妥善主义和中世纪欧洲的学校的教学方法和他们连续复兴到今天。 As a method, scholasticism involves (1) the close, detailed reading (lectio) of a particular book recognized as a great or authoritative work of human or divine origin--for example, Aristotle in logic, Euclid in geometry, Cicero in rhetoric, Avicenna and Galen in medicine, the Bible in theology-- and (2) the open discussion (disputatio) in strict logical form of a relevant question (quaestio) arising from the text.作为一种方法,士林包括:(1)收盘时,作为一个伟大的人或神源或权威认可的工作特别是书中详细阅读(lectio) - 例如,在亚里士多德逻辑,欧几里德几何,修辞西塞罗,阿维森纳和盖伦,在神学圣经中医药 - 和(2)严格的公开讨论的有关问题从文本产生(quaestio)逻辑形式(disputatio)。As a doctrine, scholasticism refers to the kind of philosophy, theology, medicine, and law (canon and civil) taught by the faculties responsible for these disciplines.作为一种学说,是指经院哲学,神学,医学,法律(佳能和民间)由学院负责教授这些学科的一种。These four faculties constituted the medieval universities that began to be organized in the 12th century, beginning in Bologna, Paris, and Oxford.这四个学院构成的开始是在12世纪的组织,在博洛尼亚,巴黎和牛津大学中世纪开始。

The most important faculties, however, were arts (philosophy) and theology, and the term scholasticism is usually understood in the context of those disciplines.最重要的院系,但是,是艺术(哲学)和神学和经院哲学一词通常是在这些学科的背景下理解。

The basic philosophy of the faculty of arts was Aristotelian because the greatest and most authoritative books in philosophy were believed to be Aristotle's.该艺术学院的基本理念是亚里士多德,因为在哲学上最伟大,最权威的书籍被认为是亚里士多德的。Aristotle, however, was interpreted differently by different professors depending on the commentaries used, notably those of "the Commentator," Averroes; the Christian Neoplatonist, Saint Augustine; or the pagan Neoplatonist, Avicenna.亚里士多德,然而,不同的解释不同,具体取决于所使用的评注,特别是对“的评论员,”阿威罗伊的教授,基督教的柏拉图,圣奥古斯丁,或异教徒的柏拉​​图,阿维森纳。

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Similarly in theology, the Bible was variously interpreted depending on the kind of philosophy used to understand the Christian faith systematically.同样,在神学,圣经上是不同的解释,哲学用来了解基督教信仰的系统种类而定。Among the numerous ways of systematizing the faith, certain schools of theology stand out as particularly notable and viable throughout the Middle Ages and to the present day.在信仰的系统化的多种方式,某些学校的神学立场,特别是显着的和可行的出整个中世纪到今天。The most important of these scholastic theologies were Thomism, developed from the teaching of Saint Thomas Aquinas; Augustinism, developed from Saint Augustine; Scotism, from John Duns Scotus; Nominalism, from William of Occam; and Suarazianism, formulated by Francisco Suarez, a 16th-century Jesuit who tried to synthesize various schools.其中最重要的是托马斯主义学术神学,从圣托马斯阿奎那教学发展; Augustinism,从圣奥古斯丁发展; Scotism,从约翰邓司各脱,唯名,从奥卡姆威廉和Suarazianism,弗朗西斯科苏亚雷斯制定的,一个16世纪耶稣会谁试图综合各学校。 The basic principle underlying all forms of scholasticism was rational consistency with the Christian faith as taught in the Bible and as understood by the living Church of Rome through the writings of the ancient Greek and Latin Fathers, the rulings of the ecumenical councils, the liturgy, and the continuing teaching and practice of the church.的基本原则是所有形式的经院哲学理性的一致性与基督教信仰的教导,在圣经和由罗马教会生活的理解,通过对古希腊和拉丁教父的合一议会,礼仪的裁决的著作,并继续教学和教会的做法。

Scholasticism is generally divided into three periods: medieval scholasticism, extending from Boethius (5th-6th century) to the 16th century, with its Golden Age in the 13th century; "second scholasticism," beginning in the 16th century with Thomas de Vio Cajetan, Conrad Koellin, Peter Crokert, Francesco de Vittoria, and Francisco Suarez; and neoscholasticism, beginning in the early 19th century, given impetus by the encyclical Aeterni Patris (1879) of Pope Leo XIII, and continuing at least until the Second Vatican Council (1962-65).士林一般分为三个时期:中世纪经院哲学的延伸,从波爱修斯(第5〜6世纪)到16世纪,其在13世纪黄金时代;“第二院哲学”与托马斯DE比奥Cajetan在16世纪初,康拉德Koellin,彼得Crokert,弗朗切斯科德维多利亚,和弗朗西斯科苏亚雷斯和neoscholasticism,开始在19世纪初,由于受谕Aeterni Patris(1879年),教皇利奥十三世动力,至少要等到第二次梵蒂冈会议(1962年继续-65)。

Medieval Scholasticism中世纪经院哲学

Boethius is generally called "the first scholastic" because he provided the first Latin translations of Aristotle's logic and other basic works used in the schools of the early Middle Ages as a prerequisite to understanding the Bible and the Latin Church Fathers and to becoming an educated person.波爱修斯通常被称为“第一院”,因为他提供了亚里士多德的逻辑和作为一个了解圣经和拉丁教父的前提中世纪早期的学校所使用的其他基本工程的第一拉丁文翻译,并成为一个受过教育的人。 In this early period, however, the dominant philosophical influence was Platonism or NeoPlatonism, particularly as it was reflected in the work of Saint Augustine.在这个早期阶段,但是,占主导地位的哲学的影响是柏拉图或柏拉图,特别是因为它是在圣奥古斯丁的工作体现出来。 Augustine formulated the maxim "Understand so that you may believe, believe so that you may understand"--an approach that lay at the heart of scholasticism--and urged the use of dialectics in examining Christian doctrine.奥古斯丁制定的格言:“这样理解,你可以相信,认为这样就可以理解” - 这种方式,在经院哲学的核心所在 - 并敦促在研究基督教教义的辩证法使用。His principles were applied with rigor by such early scholastics as John Scotus Erigena, Saint Anselm, Peter Abelard, Alan of Lille, and numerous teachers in the cathedral schools of Laon, Chartres, Paris, Poitiers, and the abbey school of Saint- Victor in Paris.他的原则是适用于严谨等早在约翰司各脱Erigena,圣安塞姆,彼得阿贝拉尔,里尔的阿兰,以及众多的教师经院哲学家在拉昂,沙特尔,巴黎,普瓦捷,和圣维克多修道院学校在大教堂学校巴黎。

In a stricter sense, scholasticism began with the Sentences (c.1150) of Peter Lombard, the Decretum (c.1150) of Gratian, and the flood of new Latin translations of classical philosophers, including all of Aristotle, made from Greek and Arabic throughout the second half of the 12th century.在严格意义上说,经院哲学开始与彼得伦巴第,在Gratian Decretum(c.1150),以及新的拉丁文翻译古典哲学家,包括亚里士多德的所有洪水句子(c.1150)制成,希腊语和阿拉伯语在整个12世纪下半叶。 Assimilation of this new learning took place in the universities of the 13th century through the genius of the Dominicans Saint Albertus Magnus and his great pupil Thomas Aquinas, whose Summa Theologicae is widely regarded as the pinnacle of scholastic theology; and of the Franciscans Saint Bonaventure, John Duns Scotus, and William of Occam (early 14th century), who challenged the Dominican school.这种新的学习吸收发生在13世纪的大学里通过多米尼加圣阿尔伯图斯Magnus和他的伟大的学生托马斯阿奎那,其大全Theologicae被广泛作为学术神学的顶峰视为天才,以及圣方济文德,约翰邓司各脱和奥卡姆的威廉(14世纪初),谁挑战多米尼加学校。

With the multiplication of universities between the 14th and 16th centuries came a decline in the standard of teaching and the caliber of teachers, and a "logicism" or formalism of thought that aroused the animosity of a new humanism that arose mainly outside university circles.随着之间的第14和16世纪大学的乘法来了在教学和教师的素质水准下降,而“逻辑主义”或形式主义的思想引起了一个新的人文主义的大学圈子外面出现的主要敌意。 The term scholasticism then began to be used in a derogatory sense.术语士林然后开始在一个贬义意义上使用。

Second Scholasticism第二士林

The Protestant Reformation in the 16th century stimulated a revival of theology by a return to the language of the Bible, the Fathers of the Church, and the great scholastics of the 13th century.在16世纪的新教改革刺激到圣经的语言回报,教会的神父,和13世纪最伟大的经院哲​​学家的神学复兴。This second scholasticism was aided by the founding (1540) of the Society of Jesus (the Jesuits) by Saint Ignatius Loyola with the approval of Pope Paul III.这第二个经院哲学是由计算机辅助的耶稣会成立(1540)圣依纳爵罗耀拉的(耶稣会)与教皇保罗三批准。Foremost among the Jesuit scholastics of this period were Saint Robert Bellarmine, Francisco Suarez, and Gabriel Vazquez.其中最重要的是这一时期的耶稣会院哲学家圣罗伯特贝拉明,弗朗西斯科苏亚雷斯,和加布里埃尔巴斯克斯。Due largely to the scientific revolution of the 17th century (beginning with Galileo), the quest for philosophic originality (beginning with Rene Descartes), the rise of nationalism and colonization, and the splintering of Protestant religions, second scholasticism declined.主要由于17世纪科学革命(与伽利略开始),追求原创性的哲学(与笛卡尔开始),民族主义和殖民主义的兴起,和新教的宗教分裂,第二士林下降。 Some forms of schoolbook scholasticism, however, remained for a time in Catholic countries, particularly Spain and Latin America.某些形式的教科书经院哲学,但是,仍然是一个天主教国家的时间,特别是西班牙和拉丁美洲。By the 18th century, scholasticism had again become a derogatory term, especially in non-Catholic countries.到了18世纪,士林已再次成为一个贬义词,特别是在非天主教国家。

Neoscholasticism Neoscholasticism

Early in the 19th century in Italy certain Catholic professors of philosophy began to see in Aquinas's teaching basic principles that might resolve the problems associated with Kantian and Hegelian Idealism, British Empiricism, current Rationalism, Skepticism, and Liberalism.早在19世纪在意大利的某些天主教哲学教授开始在阿奎那的教学的基本原则可以看出,康德和黑格尔的解决与理想主义,英国经验主义,当前理性,怀疑主义,与自由主义有关的问题。 By 1850, neo-Thomism or neoscholasticism began to be heard through the writings of Gaetano Sanseverino in Naples, Matteo Liberatore in Rome, and the Jesuit periodical Civilita Cattolica founded in Naples in 1850.到1850年,新托马斯主义或neoscholasticism开始通过在那不勒斯的著作加埃塔诺Sanseverino听到,利玛窦Liberatore在罗马,和耶稣会定期Civilita卡托利卡成立于1850年在那不勒斯。 These efforts were brought to a head by Josef Kleutgen in Germany, Henri LaCordaire in France, Zeferino Gonzales in the Philippines and Spain, and Tommaso Zigliara and Pope Leo XIII in Italy.这些努力被带到头由约瑟夫Kleutgen在德国,亨利在法国拉科代尔,Zeferino在菲律宾和西班牙的冈萨雷斯和托马索Zigliara和教皇利奥十三世在意大利。 The charter of this neo-Thomism was Leo's Aeterni Patris (1879).这个新托马斯主义宪章狮子座的Aeterni Patris(1879年)。 Through subsequent encyclicals, Leo exemplified the applicability of Thomistic ideas to contemporary problems.通过随后的通谕,利奥体现了当代问题Thomistic思想的适用性。All subsequent popes, including John Paul II, reiterated the need for a Christian philosophy based on Thomistic principles.所有后续教皇,包括约翰保禄二世,重申了关于Thomistic原则为基础的基督教哲学的需要。

The rise of Modernism in the Roman Catholic church after 1900, however, resulted in a multiplicity of ecclesiastical condemnations, a legislated Thomism, and a failure to realize the hopes of Leo XIII.在罗马天主教教堂1900年以后现代主义的兴起,然而,导​​致了教会谴责的多重性,一个法定托马斯主义,以及未能实现利奥十三世的希望。 Despite this and two world wars, much fruitful work was accomplished by outstanding scholars, numerous periodicals, and editors of historical texts, including the critical edition of the works of Aquinas (the Leonine Edition).尽管这和两次世界大战,大量卓有成效的工作是完成了杰出的学者,许多期刊和历史文本,包括对阿奎那(即Leonine版)工程关键版的编辑。 Among the great number of modern scholars who called themselves Thomists (but not neo-Thomists or neoscholastics) were Jacques Maritain, Etienne Gilson, Martin Grabmann, and Yves Congar.其中的谁的人称自己是Thomists(但不是新Thomists或neoscholastics)现代学者大一些雅克马里坦,艾蒂安吉尔森,马丁Grabmann,和Yves Congar。

For reasons still not fully understood, a decided reaction against Aquinas and neoscholasticism occurred in the 1960s.对于原因还没有完全理解,对阿奎那和neoscholasticism决定反应发生在20世纪60年代。Some have erroneously associated this with the Second Vatican Council, which turned people's minds toward social rather than doctrinal issues.有些人错误地与梵蒂冈第二次会议,其中转向,而不是理论问题的社会人心的。 Aquinas was, however, the only scholastic doctor mentioned by name in all the conciliar documents.阿奎那是,然而,只有院医生的名字提到的所有conciliar的文件。The real reasons for the decline of neoscholasticism must be sought in the wider sociological and psychological concerns of contemporary society.为neoscholasticism下降的真正原因,必须寻求在当代社会更广泛的社会和心理问题。

James A. Weisheipl詹姆斯A Weisheipl

Bibliography 参考书目
Cassidy, Frank P., Molders of the Medieval Mind (1944; repr., 1966); Congar, Yves, A History of Theology (1968); Gilson, Etienne, The Christian Philosophy of Saint Thomas Aquinas (1957) and History of Christian Philosophy in the Middle Ages (1955); McInerny, RM, ed., New Themes in Christian Philosophy (1968); Pieper, Josef, Scholasticism: Personalities and Problems of Medieval Philosophy, trans.卡西迪,弗兰克P.,中世纪的心灵(1944年;再版,1966年);模塑Congar,伊夫,一个神学(1968年)历史;吉尔森,艾蒂安,在圣托马斯阿奎那(1957年)基督教哲学与基督教的历史哲学在中世纪(1955年); McInerny,RM,ED,在基督教哲学(1968年)新主题;皮佩尔,约瑟夫,士林:性格和中世纪哲学,反问题。by Richard and Clara Winston (1960); Smalley, Beryl, The Becket Conflict and the Schools: A Study of Intellectuals in Politics (1973); Weinberg, JR, A Short History of Medieval Philosophy (1964).由理查德和克拉拉温斯顿(1960年);斯莫利,贝克特冲突和学校绿柱石:一个知识分子在政治上(1973)研究;温伯格,JR,一个中世纪哲学(1964)简史。



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