Secularism, Secular Humanism世俗主义

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A way of life and thought that is pursued without reference to God or religion.的生活和思想方式,是没有提及上帝或宗教追求。The Latin root saeculum referred to a generation or an age.拉丁根saeculum提到了一代人的时代。"Secular" came to mean "belonging to this age, worldly."“世俗”来指“属于这个时代,世俗的。”In general terms, secularism involves an affirmation of immanent, this-wordly realities, along with a denial or exclusion of transcendent, other-wordly realities.总体而言,政教分离涉及的内在的,这个- wordly现实的肯定,以及拒绝或超越,他人wordly现实排斥。It is a world view and life style oriented to the profane rather than the sacred, the natural rather than the supernatural.它是一种世界观和生活方式,而不是面向神圣的亵渎,而不是超自然的自然。Secularism is a nonreligious approach to individual and social life.世俗主义是一个非宗教的方式对个人和社会生活。

Historically, "secularization" first referred to the process of transferring property from ecclesiastical jurisdiction to that of the state or other nonecclesiastical authority.历史上,“世俗化”首先提到了来自教会的管辖权移交给国家的财产或其他nonecclesiastical机关处理。 In this institutional sense, "secularization" still means the reduction of formal religious authority (eg, in education).在这种体制意义上,“世俗化”仍然是指正式宗教权威的减少(如教育)。Institutional secularization has been fueled by the breakdown of a unified Christendom since the Reformation, on the one hand, and by the increasing rationalization of society and culture from the Enlightenment to modern technological society, on the other.世俗化体制已经带动了一个统一的基督教宗教改革以来击穿,一方面,由社会和文化从启蒙运动到现代科技社会日益合理化,另一方面。 Some analysts prefer the term "laicization" to describe this institutional secularization of society, that is, the replacement of official religious control by nonecclesiastical authority.一些分析人士更喜欢这个词“laicization”来形容这样的社会制度世俗化,也就是说,官方的宗教控制nonecclesiastical权威的替代品。

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A second sense in which secularization is to be understood has to do with a shift in ways of thinking and living, away from God and toward this world.第二个意义上的世俗化是理解,是因为有一个思维方式和生活方式的转变,远离上帝和对这个世界。Renaissance humanism, Enlightenment rationalism, the rising power and influence of science, the breakdown of traditional structures (eg, the family, the church, the neighborhood), the technicization of society, and the competition offered by nationalism, evolutionism, and Marxism have all contributed to what Max Weber termed the "disenchantment" of the modern world.文艺复兴时期的人文主义,启蒙运动的理性主义的崛起和科学的影响,传统结构崩溃(例如,家庭,教会,居委会),社会technicization,以及民族主义,进化论,马克思主义所带来的竞争,都是什么促成了马克斯韦伯称为“祛魅”的现代世界。

While institutional secularization and ideological secularization have proceeded simultaneously over the past few centuries, the relationship between the two is not causally exact or necessary.而机构的世俗化和意识形态的世俗化已经着手在过去几个世纪同时,两者之间的关系是不准确的或必要的因果关系。 Thus, even in a medieval, Constantinian setting, formally religious in character, men and women were not immune from having their life, thought, and work shaped by secular, this-worldly considerations.因此,即使在中世纪,Constantinian设置,正式宗教性质的,男人和女人没有免疫力,避免他们的生活,思想,工作和世俗的,现世的考虑形。 Likewise, in an institutionally secular (laicized) society it is possible for individuals and groups to live, think, and work in ways that are motivated and guided by God and religious considerations.同样,在制度上世俗(laicized)社会有可能为个人和团体生活,思考,在这的动机和上帝和宗教指导的工作方式。

Secularization, then, is itself a fact of history and a mixed blessing.世俗化,那么,本身就是一种历史和喜忧参半的事实。Secularism, however, as a comprehensive philosophy of life expresses an unqualified enthusiasm for the process of secularization in all spheres of life.世俗主义,但是,表达作为一个综合性的生活哲学是主要的在生活的各个领域的世俗化过程不合格的积极性。Secularism is fatally flawed by its reductionist view of reality, denying and excluding God and the supernatural in a myopic fixation on the immanent and the natural.世俗主义是致命的缺陷通过对现实的还原其观点,否认和排除在上帝和对自然的内在和近视固定超自然。In contemporary discussion, secularism and humanism are often seen in tandem as secular humanism, an approach to life and thought, individual and society, which glorifies the creature and rejects the Creator.在当代的讨论中,世俗主义和人文主义往往被视为串联世俗人文主义,一种生活和思维方式,个人与社会的联系,美化了生物和拒绝的创造者。 As such, secularism constitutes a rival to Christianity.因此,政教分离构成了基督教的竞争对手。

Christian theologians and philosophers have grappled in various ways with the meaning and impact of secularization.基督教神学家和哲学家都在努力解决与世俗化的意义和影响的各种方式。Friedrich Schleiermacher was the first theologian to attempt a radical restatement of Christianity in terms of the Renaissance and Enlightenment humanist and rationalist motifs.弗里德里希施莱尔马赫是第一个神学家试图在文艺复兴和启蒙运动的人文主义和理性主义的主题方面的基督教激进的重述。 While his efforts were brilliant and extremely influential in the development of theology, critics charged that rather than salvaging Christianity, Schleiermacher betrayed crucial aspects of the faith in his redefinition of religion in terms of the human feeling of dependence.虽然他的努力和极其辉煌的神学发展有影响,批评指责,而不是拯救基督教,施莱尔马赫出卖他的宗教的重新定义中的依赖人情方面的信心的重要方面。

No contemporary discussion of Christianity and secularism can escape dealing with the provocative Letters and Papers from Prison penned by Dietrich Bonhoeffer.没有基督教的当代讨论和世俗主义可以逃脱的挑衅信件及由迪特里希朋霍费尔论文写作监狱处理。Primarily because the work is fragmentary and incomplete, Bonhoeffer's concepts such as "Christian worldliness," "man-come-of-age," the world's arrival at "adulthood," and the need for a "non-religious interpretation of Biblical terminology" have been subject to heated debate about their meaning and implication.主要是因为工作是零碎和不完整的,如“基督教世俗”,“人来的成年,成年”世界在到达“,”和一个需要“非宗教的圣经术语解释潘霍华的概念”都受到了他们的含义和意义激烈的辩论。 Friedrich Gogarten (The Reality of Faith, 1959), Paul van Buren (The Secular Meaning of the Gospel, 1963), Harvey Cox (The Secular City, 1965), Ronald Gregor Smith (Secular Christianity, 1966), and the "death-of-God" theologians are examples of those who have pursued one possible course by restating Christianity in terms of a secular world.弗里德里希Gogarten(信仰的现实,1959年),保罗范布伦(福音的,1963年世俗的意思),哈维考克斯(世俗市,1965年),罗纳德格里史密斯(世俗的基督教,1966年)和“死亡在为上帝“的神学家是那些谁也追求重申在一个世俗的世界上基督教的一个可能的过程的例子。 Kenneth Hamilton (Life in One's Stride, 1968) denies that this is the best way to interpret Bonhoeffer and argues that the German theologian never wavered in his basic, orthodox stance.肯尼斯汉密尔顿(在一个人的跨越,1968年生活)否认这是最好的方式来解释潘霍华律师认为,德国神学家从来没有在他的基本的,正统的立场没有动摇过。

While discussions among theologians during the 1950s and 1960s tended to focus on adapting Christian theology to secularization, the 1970s and 1980s saw a vigorous new resistance to secularism in many quarters.虽然神学家之间的讨论,在20世纪50年代和60年代倾向于把重点放在适应基督教神学的世俗化,20世纪70年代和80年代看到了一场轰轰烈烈的新的抵抗世俗主义​​在许多方面。 Jacques Ellul (The New Demons, 1975) was among several voices arguing that secularism was itself a form of religion and was antagonistic both to Christianity and to a true Christian humanism.雅克埃吕尔(新的恶魔,1975年)是其中一些声音,主张政教分离,本身就是一种宗教形式,是既对立基督教和真正的基督教人文主义。 Francis A. Schaeffer (How Should We Then Live? 1976) and other fundamentalists and conservative evangelicals attacked secular humanism as the great contemporary enemy of Christian faith.弗朗西斯A.谢弗(那么我们应该怎样活?1976年)和其他原教旨主义者和保守的福音派攻击作为当代伟大的基督教信仰的敌人世俗人文主义。

From the perspective of biblical Christian theology, secularism is guilty for having "exchanged the truth of God for a lie, and worshiped and served the creature rather than the Creator" (Rom. 1:25).从圣经的基督教神学的角度来看,世俗主义是因“交换了上帝的谎言真理,崇拜和服务,而不是造物主生物”(罗1:25)罪。 Having excluded the transcendent God as the absolute and the object of worship, the secularist inexorably makes the world of man and nature absolute and the object of worship.经排除作为绝对超越的神,崇拜的对象,世俗无情地使得人与自然的绝对崇拜的对象世界。In biblical terms, the supernatural God has created the world and sustains its existence.在圣经上,超自然的上帝创造了世界和维持它的存在。This world (the saeculum) has value because God has created it, continues to preserve it, and has acted to redeem it.这个世界(saeculum)具有价值,因为上帝创造了它,继续保持它,并已采取行动,赎回它。While God is Lord of history and the universe, he is not identifiable with either (pantheism).虽然上帝是宇宙的历史和主,他不与任何(泛神论)识别。Men and women exist in freedom and responsibility before God and for the world.男性和女性存在的自由和上帝面前,为世界的责任。Stewardship and partnership define man's relationship to God and the world.管理和伙伴关系的定义人的关系,上帝和世界。

The sacral, theocratic character of ancient Israel is modified with the coming of Christ.骶,古代以色列政教合一的字符修改与基督的来临。With the work of Christ, the city and the nation are secularized (desacralized), and the church as the temple of the Holy Spirit is what is now sacralized.随着基督的工作,城市和国家的世俗化(desacralized),以及作为圣灵的殿教堂是什么现在sacralized。 The relationship of the church to the society around it is not defined in terms of a mission to resacralize it by imposing ecclesiastical rule upon it.而到教堂周围的社会关系中没有定义的使命resacralize由教会统治强加给它它的条款。The relationship is one of loving service and witness, proclamation and healing.爱的关系是服务和见证,宣讲和治疗之一。 In this sense, then, secularization of society is a Christian calling.从这个意义上讲,那么,社会世俗化是一个基督教调用。That is, society must not be divinized or absolutized, but viewed as something historical and relative.这就是说,社会不能神化或绝对化,而是历史的和相对的东西看。Only God is finally sacred and absolute.只有上帝终于神圣和绝对的。Reestablishing the sacredness of God will, however, imply the proper, relative valuation of this world.重新建立对上帝的神圣意志,但是,暗示适当的,这个世界的相对估值。

In no sense, of course, is the distinction between the sacred and the secular an unbridgeable gap.在任何意义上说,当然是之间的神圣和世俗的一条不可逾越的鸿沟的区别。In the same way that God speaks and acts in the saeculum, Christians must speak and act creatively and redemptively.在同样的方式,神说,在saeculum行为,基督徒必须说话办事创造性和救赎。This means that the secular world must not be abandoned to secularism.这意味着世俗世界不能放弃对世俗主义。In all cases, Christian life in the secular world is to be carried out under the Lordship of Jesus Christ and in obedience to the will of God rather than the will of the world.在所有情况下,在世俗世界基督徒的生活是要下进行了耶稣基督的主权和服从,而不是世界将神的意志。And in situations, such as the United States, where the general populace is enfranchised and invited to have a voice in public policy, public education, social services, and so on, Christians may work to ensure that the Word of God is heard and is given room among the many other voices which will constitute the heterogenous whole.而在诸如美国,一般民众是赢得了选举权,并邀请有一个声音在公共政策,公共教育,社会服务等情况,基督徒可以工作,确保神的话语是听取和是鉴于在众多其他的声音,将构成异质整个房间。 To insist that the Word of God be imposed on all without exception is to fall once again into an unbiblical authoritarianism.要坚持神的话语加诸于全体无一例外是陷于不符合圣经的权威再次。To fail to articulate the Word of God in the saeculum, however, is to acquiesce in a secularism which, by excluding the Creator, can lead only to death.失败阐明了上帝在saeculum字,然而,就是在一个世俗主义的默许,通过排除造物主,只会导致死亡。

DW Gill DW吉尔
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary)(Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 参考书目
PL Berger, The Sacred Canopy; K. Hamilton, DCE, 609-10.PL,神圣的天篷伯杰; K.汉密尔顿,DCE,609-10。


Secularism世俗主义

Catholic Information天主教信息

A term used for the first time about 1846 by George Jacob Holyoake to denote "a form of opinion which concerns itself only with questions, the issues of which can be tested by the experience of this life" (English Secularism, 60).乔治雅各布Holyoake使用的约1846年第一次来表示一个术语“的舆论形式,只涉及与问题本身,其中的问题可以测试由这种生活经验”(英文世俗主义,60)。 More explicitly, "Secularism is that which seeks the development of the physical, moral, and intellectual nature of man to the highest possible point, as the immediate duty of life - which inculcates the practical sufficiency of natural morality apart from Atheism, Theism or the Bible - which selects as its methods of procedure the promotion of human improvement by material means, and proposes these positive agreements as the common bond of union, to all who would regulate life by reason and ennoble it by service" (Principles of Secularism, 17).更明确,“世俗主义是旨在为生活的直接责任人的身体,精神和智力的性质可能的最高点的发展, - 这是自然的道德灌输实用自给自足除了无神论,有神论或圣经 - 它选择的程序是由物质手段促进其人性化的改进方法,并提出作为联盟的共同纽带这些积极的协议,将规管所有谁的原因生活和高尚的服务它“(世俗主义原则,17 )。And again, "Secularism is a code of duty pertaining to this life founded on considerations purely human, and intended mainly for those who find theology indefinite or inadequate, unreliable or unbelievable. Its essential principles are three:再次,“世俗主义是一种纯粹的考虑有关的人,并打算为那些谁找到神学无限期或不充分,不可靠或令人难以置信的主要创立这辈子责任守则的基本原则有三个:

The improvement of this life by material means.通过物质手段改善这种生活。

That science is the available Providence of man.认为科学是人类可用的普罗维登斯。

That it is good to do good.这是好做的好。"Whether there be other good or not, the good of the present life is good, and it is good to seek that good" (English Secularism, 35).“无论有其他好不好,对现在的生活好是好的,这是好事,寻求好”(英文世俗主义,35)。

I. HISTORY一,历史

The origin of Secularism is associated especially with the names of Holyoake and Bradlaugh.世俗主义的起源有关,特别是与Holyoake和Bradlaugh的名称。George Jacob Holyoake (born at Birmingham, 13 April, 1817; died at Brighton, 22 January, 1906) met Robert Owen in 1837, became his friend, and began to lecture and write articles advocating socialism or co-operation.乔治雅各布Holyoake(伯明翰,1817年4月13日出生,死在布莱顿,1906年1月22日)会见了罗伯特欧文于1837年,成为他的朋友,并开始演讲和撰写文章鼓吹社​​会主义或合作。 In 1841, with Southwell, Ryall, and Chilton, he founded a magazine called "The Oracle of which was succeeded by "The Movement" (1843), and by "The Reasoner" (1846). In 1861 the publication of the latter was discontinued, and Holyoake founded "The Counsellor" which later on, was merged with Bradlaugh's "National Reformer". Owing to differences between Bradlaugh and Holyoake, the latter withdrew from "The National Reformer," started the publication of "The Secular World and Social Economist" (1862-64), and in 1883 of "The Present Day". Among the political and economical agitations in which Holyoake took a leading part may be mentioned those for the repeal of the law prohibiting the use of unstamped paper for periodical publications, for the abolition of all oaths required by law, for the secularization of education in the public schools, for the disestablishment of the Church, for the promotion of the co-operative movement among the working classes, etc. 1841年,与萨斯维尔,Ryall和奇尔顿,他创办所谓的运动“(1843年),由和”推理“(1846)说:”这是甲骨文成功“杂志在1861年出版,后者是停产了,Holyoake创办“的顾问”,这以后,是与Bradlaugh的“全国改革者”。由于之间Bradlaugh和Holyoake差异,后者从退出合并后的“全国改革者”,启动了“世俗世界的出版物和社会经济学人“(1862年至1864年),并在1883年”现今“,其中的政治和经济的鼓动,其中Holyoake采取了领先的部分可能会提到的法律禁止为无印纸废除那些定期刊物,对于根据法律规定,对于教育的公立学校世俗化的教会的政教分离,所有的誓言,为在劳动课等合作化运动的推广取消

Charles Bradlaugh (born at Hoxton, London, 26 September, 1833; died 30 January, 1891) was a zealous Sunday school teacher in the Church of England, when Rev. Mr. Packer, the incumbent of St. Peter's, Hackney Road, asked him to prepare for confirmation which was to be administered by the Bishop of London.查尔斯Bradlaugh(在Hoxton,伦敦,1833年9月26日出生,死于1891年1月30日)是一位热心的主日学校教师在英国的教会,当牧师帕克先生,圣彼得的责任,​​哈克尼路,问他准备确认这是由伦敦主教管理。 "I studied a little", writes Bradlaugh, "the Thirty-nine Articles of the Church of England, and the four Gospels, and came to the conclusion that they differed" (Autobiography, 6). “我研究了一点”,写Bradlaugh“的英国教会,与四福音三十九条,并得出不同的结论是,他们”(自传,6)。He wrote this to Rev. Mr. Packer, who hastily denounced him as an atheist.他写了这牧师帕克先生,谁贸然指责他为无神论者。His views, which at this time were deistical later on reached extreme Atheism.他的观点,这在这个时候被deistical以后达到极端无神论。From 1853 till 1868 he wrote a great number of articles under the pseudonym of "Iconoclast", gave many lectures, and held many public debates.从1853年直到1868年他写在“孤星叛逆者”化名大量的文章,给了许多讲座,并举行公开辩论很多。In 1858 he edited "The Investigator", and in 1859 founded "The National Reformer". 1858年他主编的“调查员”,并于1859年成立了“全国改革者”。Elected by Northampton as a member of the House of Commons in 1880, he refused to take the required oath, and was not allowed to sit in the House.由作为下议院成员北安普顿在1880年当选,他拒绝采取必要的誓言,并不准坐在家。Re-elected the following year, he consented to take the oath, but this was refused on account of his Atheism.再次当选的次年,他同意采取的誓言,但是这是对他的无神论帐户拒绝。Finally, in 1886, the new Speaker allowed him to take the oath and sit in Parliament.最后,在1886年,新议长让他走在议会宣誓而坐。In 1858 Bradlaugh succeeded Holyoake as president of the London Secular Society, and in 1866 enlarged the scope of this association by founding the National Secular Society, over which he presided until 1890, when he was succeeded by Mr. GW Foote, the actual president. 1858年Bradlaugh继任总统Holyoake伦敦世俗社会,并于1866年成立的全国扩大了世俗社会,在他主持直到1890年,当他由GW富特先生,实际总统成功地对这个协会的范围。 The following words from Bradlaugh's farewell speech are significant: "One element of danger in Europe is the approach of the Roman Catholic Church towards meddling in political life. . . . Beware when that great Church, whose power none can deny, the capacity of whose leading men is marked, tries to use the democracy as its weapon. There is danger to freedom of thought, to freedom of speech, to freedom of action. The great struggle in this country will not be between Freethought and the Church of England, not between Freethought and Dissent, but - as I have long taught, and now repeat - between Freethought and Rome" (Charles Bradlaugh, II, 412).从Bradlaugh的告别演说下面的话​​是重要的:“一个在欧洲的危险因素是罗马天主教会的方式对政治生活的干预小心时,伟大的教会,他的权力都不能否认,在他们的能力。。领先的男子被标记,试图以此作为其武器的民主 有危险的思想自由,言论自由,对行动自由,在这个国家的伟大斗争中之间不会Freethought和英国教会,而不是之间Freethought和不同意见,但 - 我早就告诉了,现在重复 - 在Freethought和罗马“(查尔斯Bradlaugh,II,412)。

In the United States, the American Secular Union and Freethought Federation, presided over by Mr. EP Peacock, with many affiliated local societies, has for its object the separation of Church and State, and for its platform the nine demands of Liberalism, namely:在美国,美国世俗联盟和Freethought联合会,EP先生主持孔雀,许多挂靠当地社会,为它的对象是教会与国家分离,并为其平台自由主义的九个要求,即有:

that churches and other ecclesiastical property shall be no longer exempt from taxation;该教堂和其他宗教财产应不再免税;

that the employment of chaplains in Congress, in state legislatures, in the army and navy, and in prisons, asylums, and all institutions supported by public money, shall be discontinued, and that all religious services maintained by national, state, or municipal governments shall be abolished; that all public appropriations for educational and charitable institutions of a sectarian character shall cease;在国会的牧师,在州议会中的陆军和海军,并在监狱,精神病院,以及由公帑支持的所有机构,就业,应当停止,而由国家,州或市政府维护的所有宗教服务废止;,对于一个宗派性质的教育和慈善机构应停止所有公共经费;

that, while advocating the loftiest instruction in morals and the inculcation of the strictest uprightness of conduct, religious teaching and the use of the Bible for religious purposes in public schools shall be prohibited; that the appointment by the President of the United States and the governors of the various states of religious festivals, fasts, and days of prayer and thanksgiving shall be discontinued; ,虽然主张在道德崇高的指令和行为,宗教教学和圣经在公立学校的宗教目的,应严格禁止灌输正直,是由美国总统和州长的任命的宗教节日,斋戒和祈祷和感恩天应停止各种状态;

that the theological oath in the courts and in other departments of government shall be abolished, and simple affirmation under the pains and penalties of perjury, established in its stead; ,在法院和其他政府部门的神学宣誓废止,并在痛苦和伪证处罚简单的肯定,在其代替成立;

that all laws directly or indirectly enforcing in any degree the religious and theological dogma of Sunday or Sabbath observance shall be repealed;所有的法律,直接或间接在任何程度的星期日或遵守安息日的宗教和神学教条执行废止;

that all laws looking to the enforcement of Christian morality as such shall be abrogated, and that all laws shall be conformed to the requirements of natural morality, equal rights and impartial justice;所有法律着眼于为这样的基督教道德的执行应废止,所有的法律,应顺应自然道德,平等权利和公正司法的要求;

that, in harmony with the Constitution of the United States and the constitutions of the several states, no special privileges or advantages shall be conceded to Christianity or any other religion; that our entire political system shall be conducted and administered on a purely secular basis; and that whatever changes are necessary to this end shall be consistently, unflinchingly, and promptly made. ,在与美国及几个州的宪法宪法的和谐,没有特别的特权或优势,应顺应基督教或任何其他宗教;我们的整个政治制度应进行和纯粹世俗的基础管理;并且,无论变化是必要的,为此应一致,不留情面,并及时作出。

Although the name Secularism is of recent origin, its various doctrines have been taught by free-thinkers of all ages, and, in fact, Secularism claims to be only an extension of free-thought.虽然名称政教分离最近的起源,它的各种学说都被教导,所有年龄段的自由思想家,而且,事实上,世俗主义声称是唯一一个自由思维的延伸。 "The term Secularism was chosen to express the extension of freethought to ethics" (English Secularism, 34). “世俗主义一词被选为表达freethought扩展到道德”(英文世俗主义,34)。With regard to the question of the existence of God, Bradlaugh was an atheist, Holyoake an agnostic.关于神的存在的问题,Bradlaugh是一个无神论者,Holyoake一个不可知论者。The latter held that Secularism is based simply on the study of nature and has nothing to do with religion, while Bradlaugh claimed that Secularism should start with the disproof of religion.后者认为,世俗主义是基于对自然的研究,并简单地与宗教无关,而Bradlaugh声称世俗主义应先从宗教反证。 In a public debate held in 1870 between these two secularists, Bradlaugh said: "Although at present it may be perfectly true that all men who are Secularists are not Atheists, I put it that in my opinion the logical consequence of the acceptance of Secularism must be that the man gets to Atheism if he has brains enough to comprehend.在1870年举行的这两个世俗主义者的公开辩论,Bradlaugh说:“尽管目前它可能是完全正确的,所有的人谁是世俗派不是无神论者,我把它在我看来对世俗主义的逻辑结果必须接受被该男子到达无神论如果他有足够的头脑去领悟。

"You cannot have a scheme of morality without Atheism. The Utilitarian scheme is a defiance of the doctrine of Providence and a protest against God". “你不能有道德没有无神论的计划。功利的计划是对上帝的学说蔑视,是对上帝抗议”。

On the other hand, Holyoake affirmed that "Secularism is not an argument against Christianity, it is one independent of it. It does not question the pretensions of Christianity; it advances others. Secularism does not say there is no light or guidance elsewhere, but maintains that there is light and guidance in secular truth, whose conditions and sanctions exist independently, and act forever. Secular knowledge is manifestly that kind of knowledge which is founded in this life, which relates to the conduct of this life, conduces to the welfare of this life, and is capable of being tested by the experience of this life" (Charles Bradlaugh, I, 334, 336).另一方面,Holyoake确认,“世俗主义不是一个反对基督教的说法,这是它的一个独立的问题,它不会对基督教的伪装;。它推动别人世俗主义并没有说有没有光或指导其他地方,但认为有就是光,在世俗真理的指导下,其独立存在的条件和制裁,并采取行动永远世俗知识是明显的一种知识是在此生活,这涉及到这种生活行为成立,conduces的福利这种生活,并且是由这种生活经验“(查尔斯Bradlaugh,我,334,336)测试能力。 But in many passages of his writings, Holyoake goes much further and seeks to disprove Christian truths.但在他的著作中许多段落,Holyoake去的更远,旨在否定基督教的真理。To the criticism of theology, Secularism adds a great concern for culture, social progress, and the improvement of the material conditions of life, especially for the working classes.到了神学的批判,世俗主义增添了文化,社会进步,以及对生活的物质条件的改善极大的关注,特别是对工人阶级。In ethics it is utilitarian, and seeks only the greatest good of the present life, since the existence of a future life, as well as the existence of God, "belong to the debatable ground of speculation" (English Secularism, 37).在道德是功利的,目的只有现在的生活最大的善,因为未来的生命的存在,以及上帝的存在,“属于炒作有争议地”(英文世俗主义,37)。 It tends to substitute "the piety of useful men for the usefulness of piety" (ibid., 8).它往往以“为虔诚的用处的有用的人虔诚”(同上,8)。

II. II。CRITICISM的批评

The fundamental principle of Secularism is that, in his whole conduct, man should be guided exclusively by considerations derived from the present life itself.世俗主义的基本原则是,在他的整个行为,男人应该遵循从现在的生活只考虑自身派生。Anything that is above or beyond the present life should be entirely overlooked.凡是高于或超出了目前的生活是应完全忽视。 Whether God exists or not, whether the soul is immortal or not, are questions which at best cannot be answered, and on which consequently no motives of action can be based.上帝是否存在与否,是否有灵魂不灭与否,它充其量是不能回答,因此其上没有行动的动机可依据的问题。A fortiori all motives derived from the Christian religion are worthless.更何况从基督教衍生的所有动机是毫无价值的。"Things Secular are as separate from the Church as land from the ocean" (English Secularism, 1). “事情是从世俗的教会独立出来,因为来自海洋的土地”(英文世俗主义,1)。This principle is in strict opposition to essential Catholic doctrines.这一原则是在严格的反对天主教的基本教义。The Church is as intent as Secularism on the improvement of this life, as respectful of scientific achievements, as eager for the fulfilment of all duties pertaining to the present life.教会一样对这一生活的改善,为科技成果,为所有有关履行职责现在的生活渴望尊重政教分离的意图。But the present life cannot be looked upon as an end in itself, and independent of the future life.但现在的生活,不能看作是目的本身,和对未来的生活无关。The knowledge of the material world leads to the knowledge of the spiritual world, and among the duties of the present life must be reckoned those which arise from the existence and nature of God, the fact of a Divine Revelation, and the necessity of preparing, for the future life.对物质世界的认识导致了精神世界的知识,对现在的生活之间的职责必须从那些不可忽视的存在和性质的上帝,一个神的启示的事实,必然出现的准备,对未来的生活。 If God exists, how can Secularism inculcate the practical sufficiency of natural morality?" If "Secularism does not say there is no light or guidance elsewhere" how can it command us to follow exclusively the light and guidance of secular truth? Only the Atheist can be a consistent Secularist.如果上帝存在,怎么能政教分离灌输自然道德实践充分吗?“如果”世俗主义不说有没有光或指导其他地方“怎么能命令我们完全遵循世俗的光与真理的指导?只有无神论者可以世俗主义是一致的。

According as man makes present happiness the only criterion of the value of life, or on the contrary admits the existence of God and the fact of a Divine Revelation and of a future life, the whole aspect of the present life changes.根据目前的男子让幸福的人生价值的唯一标准,或相反承认上帝的存在和一个神圣的启示和未来的生活,现在的生活变化全方面的事实。 These questions cannot be ignored, for on them depends the right conduct of life and "the development of the moral and intellectual nature of man to the highest possible point".这些问题不容忽视,因为他们依赖的生命权的行为和“发展人的道德和智力本质的最高点”。If anything can be known about God and a future life, duties to be fulfilled in the present life are thereby imposed on "all who would regulate life by reason and ennoble it by service".如果什么都可以对上帝和未来的生活众所周知,要在现在的生活,从而履行职责强加给“所有谁将会规管原因生活和高尚的服务它”。 "Considerations purely human" become inadequate, and the "light and guidance" found in secular truth must be referred to and judged from a higher point of view. “注意事项纯人”变成不足,而“光与指导”在世俗的真理发现必须交由并从更高的角度来判断。Hence the present life in itself cannot be looked upon as the only standard of man's worth.因此,现在的生活本身不能看作是人的价值的唯一标准。The Church would fail in her Divine mission if she did not insist on the insufficiency of a life conducted exclusively along secular lines, and therefore on the falsity of the main assumption of Secularism教会将无法在她的神圣使命,如果她没有坚持世俗线沿线进行的完全是一个生活的不足,因此对世俗主义的主要假设是虚假的

Again, the Catholic Church does not admit that religion is simply a private affair.同样,天主教不承认宗教是一个简单的私事。God is the author and ruler not only of individuals, but also of societies.上帝是作者不仅对个人,也是社会的统治者。Hence the State should not be indifferent to religious matters (see ETHICS).因此,国家不应该漠视宗教事务(见伦理)。 How far in practice Church and State should go together depends on a number of circumstances and cannot be determined by any general rule, but the principle remains true that religion is a social as well as an individual duty.如何在实践中教会与国家目前应该一起取决于数量的情况下,不能被任何一般规则确定,但原则仍然是真正的宗教是一种社会和个人的责任。 In practice again, owing to special circumstances, a secular education in the public schools may be the only possible one.在实践中再次,由于特殊情况,在公立学校的世俗教育可能是唯一的可能之一。At the same time, this is a serious defect which must be supplied otherwise.与此同时,这是一个严重的缺陷,否则必须提供。 It is not enough for the child to be taught the various human sciences, he must also be given the knowledge of the necessary means of salvation.这不是对孩子足够的学习各种人文科学,他还必须考虑到救恩的必要手段的知识。 The Church cannot renounce her mission to teach the truths she has received from her Divine Founder.教会不能放弃她的使命,教她从她的神圣方正收到的真理。Not only as individuals, but also as citizens, all men have the right to perform the religious duties which their conscience dictates.不仅作为个人,而且作为公民,所有的人都有权执行,他们的良知宗教义务。The complete secularization of all public institutions in a Christian nation is therefore inadmissible.对所有公共机构在一个基督教国家的世俗化,因此完整的不予受理。Man must not only be learned in human science; his whole life must be directed to the higher and nobler pursuits of morality and religion, to God Himself.人不仅要学会在人文科学,他的一生应该直接向道德和宗教的更高,更崇高的追求,对神自己。While fully recognizing the value of the present life, the Church cannot look upon it as an end in itself, but only as a movement toward a future life for which preparation must be made by compliance with the laws of nature and the laws of God.在充分认识到目前的人生价值,教会不能小看它本身作为目的,而只是作为对未来生活的准备,必须通过与自然规律和上帝的法律的规定进行的运动。 Hence there is no possible compromise between the Church and Secularism, since Secularism would stifle in man that which, for the Church, constitutes the highest and truest motives of action, and the noblest human aspirations.因此,没有教会和世俗主义之间可能的妥协,因为世俗主义的人会扼杀这其中,教会,构成行动的最高和最真实的动机,最高贵的人的愿望。

Publication information Written by CA Dubray.出版信息由CA Dubray写。Transcribed by Douglas J. Potter.转录由道格拉斯J.波特。Dedicated to the Sacred Heart of Jesus Christ The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XIII.献给耶稣基督的圣心天主教百科全书,卷十三。Published 1912.1912年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, February 1, 1912. Nihil Obstat,1912年2月1日。Remy Lafort, DD, Censor.人头马lafort,DD,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰farley枢机主教,大主教纽约

Bibliography参考书目

HOLYOAKE, The Principles of Secularism (London, 1860); IDEM, Sixty Years of an Agitator's Life (London, 1892), autobiography; IDEM, The Origin and Nature of Secularism (London, 1896); published simultaneously in America under the title English Secularism, A Confession of Belief (Chicago, 1896); McCABE, Life and Letters of George Jacob Holyoake (London, 1908); GOSS, A Descriptive Bibliography of the Writings of George Jacob Holyoake, with a Brief Sketch of his Life (London, 1908); The Autobiography of Mr. Bradlaugh (London, sd); BONNER, Charles Bradlaugh (7th ed., London, 1908); FLINT, Anti-Theistic Theories (5th ed., Edinburgh, 1894).HOLYOAKE,政教分离原则(伦敦,1860年),同上,第六的搅拌器的生活(伦敦,1892年),自传年; IDEM的起源和世俗主义的性质(伦敦,1896年),发表在美国同时在标题之下英语世俗主义,一种信仰(芝加哥,1896年)供认;麦凯布,生活和乔治雅各布Holyoake(伦敦,1908年)书; GOSS,A的乔治雅各布Holyoake的著作书目描述与他的生活简素描,(伦敦, 1908年);先生的Bradlaugh自传(伦敦,SD);邦纳,查尔斯Bradlaugh(第7版,伦敦,1908年);燧石,反有神论理论(第5版,爱丁堡,1894年)。



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