Summa Theologiae大全Theologiae

Saint Thomas Aquinas圣托马斯阿奎那

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In his Summa Theologiae (1267-73) Saint Thomas Aquinas presented a synthesis of Aristotelian logic and Christian theology that was to become the basis of Roman Catholic doctrine on a wide variety of subjects.在他大全Theologiae(1267年至1273年)圣托马斯阿奎那提出了亚里士多德的逻辑和基督教神学,后来成为罗马天主教教义上的各种基础综合科目。 Thomas divided his work into three parts, the first dealing with the existence and nature of God and the universe he created, the second with human activity and ethics, and the third with Christ and the sacraments.托马斯分为三个部分,与神的存在和性质,并先处理他所创造的宇宙,与人类活动和道德第二,与基督和圣礼第三他的工作。 Each part is made up of a series of open questions, in answer to which he presents his opponents' arguments as well as his own before refuting the former.每个部分是由一个开放的一系列问题,在回答他提出了他的对手作为自己的论据,以及前批驳了前者。Demonstrated throughout is Thomas's conviction that there can be no contradiction between the truths of faith, based on divine revelation, and those of human reason.整个展示是托马斯的信念,就不可能有信仰的真理之间的矛盾的基础上,神圣的启示,人类理性的。

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Saint Thomas Aquinas is sometimes called the Angelic Doctor and the Prince of Scholastics (1225-1274).圣托马斯阿奎那有时也被称为天使的医生和院哲学家王子(1225年至1274年)。He was an Italian philosopher and theologian, whose works have made him the most important figure in Scholastic philosophy and one of the leading Roman Catholic theologians.他是意大利哲学家和​​神学家,他们都使他在学术理念和领先的罗马天主教神学家,一个最重要的人物的作品。

Aquinas was born of a noble family in Roccasecca, near Aquino, and was educated at the Benedictine monastery of Monte Cassino and at the University of Naples.阿奎那生于一个在罗卡塞卡近阿基诺,贵族家庭,并在蒙特卡西诺本笃会修道院,并在那不勒斯大学接受教育。He joined the Dominican order while still an undergraduate in 1243, the year of his father's death.他加入了多米尼加秩序,并同时在1243年仍然是一个本科生,他的父亲去世的一年。His mother, opposed to Thomas's affiliation with a mendicant order, confined him to the family castle for more than a year in a vain attempt to make him abandon his chosen course.他的母亲,反对以乞讨为托马斯的从属关系,限制了他的,妄图使他放弃他所选择的课程超过一年以上的家庭城堡。She released him in 1245, and Aquinas then journeyed to Paris to continue his studies.她在1245年发表了他,阿奎那然后远航到巴黎,继续他的学业。He studied under the German Scholastic philosopher Albertus Magnus, following him to Cologne in 1248.师从德国学术哲学家阿尔伯图斯马格努斯,继1248他科隆。Because Aquinas was heavyset and taciturn, his fellow novices called him Dumb Ox, but Albertus Magnus is said to have predicted that "this ox will one day fill the world with his bellowing."因为阿奎那是体格魁伟,比较沉默寡言, 他的同胞生手叫他哑巴牛年,但阿尔伯图斯马格努斯说有预言:“这牛总有一天会填满他的吼叫世界。”

Early Years民国初年

Aquinas was ordained a priest about 1250, and he began to teach at the University of Paris in 1252.阿奎那被祝圣约1250牧师,他开始教于巴黎大学于1252。His first writings, primarily summaries and amplifications of his lectures, appeared two years later.他的第一部著作,主要是总结和他的演讲扩增,两年后出现。His first major work was Scripta Super Libros Sententiarum (Writings on the Books of the Sentences, 1256?), which consisted of commentaries on an influential work concerning the sacraments of the church, known as the Sententiarum Libri Quatuor (Four Books of Sentences), by the Italian theologian Peter Lombard.他的第一个主要工作是Scripta超级Libros Sententiarum(对句,1256书籍著作?),其中包括对一个有影响力的评论有关教会的圣礼,为Sententiarum Libri Quatuor(四句子书籍)已知的工作,由意大利伦巴第神学家彼得。

In 1256 Aquinas was awarded a doctorate in theology and appointed professor of philosophy at the University of Paris.在1256阿奎那被授予神学博士学位,任哲学教授,巴黎大学。Pope Alexander IV (reigned 1254-1261) summoned him to Rome in 1259, where he acted as adviser and lecturer to the papal court.教皇亚历山大四世(1254年至1261年在位)传唤他到罗马在1259年,他担任顾问和讲师采取行动,教皇法庭。 Returning to Paris in 1268, Aquinas immediately became involved in a controversy with the French philosopher Siger de Brabant and other followers of the Islamic philosopher Averroës.在1268年返回巴黎,阿奎那立即成为与法国哲学家Siger DE布拉邦和伊斯兰哲学家阿威罗伊其他追随者加以干涉。

Study of Aristotle and the Averroists研究亚里士多德和Averroists

To understand the crucial importance of this controversy for Western thought, it is necessary to consider the context in which it occurred.要理解这个西方思想的争论至关重要,有必要考虑它的背景发生。Before the time of Aquinas, Western thought had been dominated by the philosophy of St. Augustine, the Western church's great Father and Doctor of the 4th and 5th centuries, who taught that in the search for truth people must depend upon sense experience.之前,阿奎那,西方思想一直占主导地位的圣奥古斯丁的哲学,西方教会的伟大的父亲和第4和第5个世纪,谁教,在寻求真理的人必须依赖于感觉经验博士学位。 Early in the 13th century the major works of Aristotle were made available in a Latin translation, accompanied by the commentaries of Averroës and other Islamic scholars.早在13世纪的亚里士多德的主要著作是在拉丁译本由阿威罗伊和其他伊斯兰学者的评注的陪同下,可用。The vigor, clarity, and authority of Aristotle's teachings restored confidence in empirical knowledge and gave rise to a school of philosophers known as Averroists.的活力,清晰度和亚里士多德的教诲权威恢复了信心和经验知识产生了一个著名的哲学家作为Averroists学校。 Under the leadership of Siger de Brabant, the Averroists asserted that philosophy was independent of revelation.在布拉班特的Siger德的领导下,Averroists断言,哲学是独立的启示。

Averroism threatened the integrity and supremacy of Roman Catholic doctrine and filled orthodox thinkers with alarm. Averroism威胁到罗马天主教教义的完整性和优势,并充满了报警正统思想家。To ignore Aristotle, as interpreted by the Averroists, was impossible; to condemn his teachings was ineffectual.要忽略亚里士多德,由Averroists解释,是不可能的;谴责他的教诲是无效的。He had to be reckoned with.他有不可忽视的力量。Albertus Magnus and other scholars had attempted to deal with Averroism, but with little success.阿尔伯图斯Magnus和其他学者曾试图处理Averroism,但收效甚微。Aquinas succeeded brilliantly.阿奎那成功出色。

Reconciling the Augustinian emphasis upon the human spiritual principle with the Averroist claim of autonomy for knowledge derived from the senses, Aquinas insisted that the truths of faith and those of sense experience, as presented by Aristotle, are fully compatible and complementary.调和后,人类与从感官获得知识的自主性Averroist索赔的精神原则奥古斯丁强调,阿奎那坚持真理和信仰的意识经验,亚里士多德提出的,这些都是完全兼容的,相辅相成的。 Some truths, such as that of the mystery of the incarnation, can be known only through revelation, and others, such as that of the composition of material things, only through experience; still others, such as that of the existence of God, are known through both equally.如神秘的化身,一些真理,可以被称为只有通过启示,如对他人构成物质的东西,只有通过经验,还有一些如神的存在的,是通过两个同样著名。 All knowledge, Aquinas held, originates in sensation, but sense data can be made intelligible only by the action of the intellect, which elevates thought toward the apprehension of such immaterial realities as the human soul, the angels, and God.所有的知识,阿奎那认为,起源于感觉,但检测数据,可只能由理智,这对提升等非物质现实的人的灵魂,天使,上帝思想顾虑行动理解。 To reach understanding of the highest truths, those with which religion is concerned, the aid of revelation is needed.为了达到最高的真理的理解,那些与宗教而言,启示援助是必要的。Aquinas's moderate realism placed the universals firmly in the mind, in opposition to extreme realism, which posited their independence of human thought.阿奎那的温和现实主义牢牢地放在心灵的普遍性,在反对极端现实主义,其中提出的人类思想的独立性。He admitted a foundation for universals in existing things, however, in opposition to nominalism and conceptualism.他承认了在现有的基础共性的东西,但是,在反对唯名论和概念论。

Later Years晚年

Aquinas first suggested his mature position in the treatise De Unitate Intellectus Contra Averroistas (1270; trans. The Trinity and the Unicity of the Intellect,1946).阿奎那首先提出他的论文德Unitate智洋魂斗罗Averroistas(1270;反三位一体的智力和唯一性,1946年)成熟的立场。 This work turned the tide against his opponents, who were condemned by the church.这项工作开始反对他的对手,谁是由教会谴责浪潮。

Aquinas left Paris in 1272 and proceeded to Naples, where he organized a new Dominican school.阿奎那在1272年离开巴黎,前往那不勒斯,他在那里举办了一个新的多米尼加学校。In March 1274, while traveling to the Council of Lyon, to which he had been commissioned by Pope Gregory X, Aquinas fell ill.在1274年3月,而前往里昂会议,对此他已委托由罗马教皇格雷戈里X,阿奎那病倒。He died on March 7 at the Cistercian monastery of Fossanova.他死了3月7日在Fossanova修道院修道院。

Aquinas was canonized by Pope John XXII in 1323 and proclaimed a Doctor of the Church by Pope Pius V in 1567.阿奎那被册封由教皇约翰XXII宣布在1323和1567年的教会由教宗比约V博士学位。


More successfully than any other theologian or philosopher, Aquinas organized the knowledge of his time in the service of his faith.更多的成功比任何其他神学家或哲学家,阿奎那组织为他的信仰,他的服务时间的知识。In his effort to reconcile faith with intellect, he created a philosophical synthesis of the works and teachings of Aristotle and other classic sages; of Augustine and other church fathers; of Averroës, Avicenna, and other Islamic scholars; of Jewish thinkers such as Maimonides and Solomon ben Yehuda ibn Gabirol; and of his predecessors in the Scholastic tradition.在他的努力调和信仰与理智,他创建了一个工程和亚里士多德等经典圣贤教诲哲学合成;奥古斯丁等教父;的阿威罗伊,阿维森纳,和其他伊斯兰学者,如犹太思想家迈蒙尼德和所罗门本耶胡达伊本盖比鲁勒和学术传统,在他的前任。 This synthesis he brought into line with the Bible and Roman Catholic doctrine.这合成他带进符合圣经和天主教教义。

Aquinas's accomplishment was immense; his work marks one of the few great culminations in the history of philosophy.阿奎那的成就是巨大的,他的工作标志着在哲学史上几大culminations之一。 After Aquinas, Western philosophers could choose only between humbly following him and striking off in some altogether different direction.阿奎那后,可以选择西方哲学家之间只有谦虚地跟着他,并在一些醒目的完全不同的方向走。In the centuries immediately following his death, the dominant tendency, even among Roman Catholic thinkers, was to adopt the second alternative.在他去世后立即世纪的主导倾向,即使在罗马天主教思想家,是采用第二种选择。 Interest in Thomist philosophy began to revive, however, toward the end of the 19th century.在托马斯主义哲学的兴趣开始复苏,然而,对19世纪末。In the encyclical Aeterni Patris (Of the Eternal Father, 1879), Pope Leo XIII recommended that St. Thomas's philosophy be made the basis of instruction in all Roman Catholic schools.在通谕Aeterni Patris(永恒之父,1879年),教皇利奥十三世建议圣托马斯的哲学作出的所有天主教学校的教学基础。Pope Pius XII, in the encyclical Humani Generis (Of the Human Race, 1950), affirmed that the Thomist philosophy is the surest guide to Roman Catholic doctrine and discouraged all departures from it.教皇庇护十二世在通谕Humani Generis(人类种族,1950年),明确表示,托马斯主义哲学是最可靠的指南,罗马天主教教义和气馁都从它出发。Thomism remains a leading school of contemporary thought.托马斯主义仍然是当代思想领先的学校。

Among the thinkers, Roman Catholic and non-Roman Catholic alike, who have operated within the Thomist framework have been the French philosophers Jacques Maritain and Étienne Gilson.其中的思想家,罗马天主教和非天主教徒一样,谁的托马斯主义的框架内运作一直是法国哲学家雅克马里旦和Etienne吉尔森。

St. Thomas was an extremely prolific author, and about 80 works are ascribed to him.圣托马斯是一个非常多产的作家,作品约80归咎于他。The two most important are Summa Contra Gentiles (1261-64; trans. On the Truth of the Catholic Faith,1956), a closely reasoned treatise intended to persuade intellectual Muslims of the truth of Christianity; and Summa Theologica (Summary Treatise of Theology, 1265-73), in three parts (on God, the moral life of man, and Christ), of which the last was left unfinished. Summa Theologica has been republished frequently in Latin and vernacular editions.两个最重要的是大全魂斗罗外邦人(1261年至1264年;跨在天主教信仰的真理,1956年),是一个紧密合理的论文旨在说服穆斯林基督教真理的智力;和神学大全(摘要神学论, 1265年至1273年),分为 ​​三个部分(在神,人的道德生活,和基督),其中最后被留下未完成的。神学大全已再版在拉美和白话版频繁。

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