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The term theology is a compound of the Greek words theos ("god") and logos ("word," "discourse," "thought," "reason").神学一词是希腊字THEOS(“神”)和标志(“字”,“话语”,“思想”,“理”)的化合物。 Theology may therefore be defined as reasoned discourse about God.神学可能因此被定义为理由对神的话语。In a strict sense theology considers only the existence and nature of divine being.在严格意义上的神学认为只有神的存在和正在性质。In its wider and more usual sense, however, it may encompass the full range of the divine's relationships to the world and to humanity as well as the full variety of human responses to the divine.在其更广泛和更通常意义上的,但是,它可能包含了神圣的关系,全方位向世界和人类,以及对神的人的反应完全不同。Although used more commonly of Western religions, the term may be applied to the systematic study and presentation of any religion.虽然使用较为普遍的西方宗教,术语可能被应用到系统的研究和展示任何宗教。

The first to use the term was apparently the Greek philosopher Plato, for whom theology meant a rational conception of the divine as opposed to poetic myths about the gods.第一次使用这个词显然是希腊哲学家柏拉图,对他们来说意味着神学的神圣理性概念,而不是对神充满诗意的神话。The subsequent Greek tradition of rational theology survived well into Christian times, and aspects of it have been influential in shaping various Jewish, Christian, and Islamic theologies.随后希腊传统理性神学生存早已进入基督教时代,而在这方面已经形成的各种犹太教,基督教和伊斯兰神学的影响力。

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In early Christianity, theology had a number of meanings.在早期基督教神学有一个数字的含义。It referred, for instance, to the whole mystery of God, to particular teachings about God (for example, the doctrine of the Trinity), or to a stage in the mystical knowledge of God.它提到,例如,对整个神的奥秘,约神(例如,三位一体的教义)特别教诲,或在上帝的神秘知识的阶段。In general, however, theology implied an understanding of God over and above simple belief in God.一般情况下,然而,神学暗示超出简单上帝的信仰的神的认识。Only in the medieval period did theology become an academic field, or "science," in somewhat the modern sense.只有在中世纪的神学也成为学术领域,或“科学”,在有些现代意识。With the rise of medieval universities, theological faculties began to emerge, and theology itself came to be defined as a science like other sciences in the medieval curriculum.随着中世纪大学的兴起,神学系开始出现,和神学本身来作为像在中世纪的其他科学课程科学定义。It proceeded from its own first principles, followed accepted canons of rational inquiry, and produced an organized body of knowledge in its own right.它首先从自身出发的原则,遵循公认的合理查询大炮,和生产本身的知识组织严密的团体。Since the Middle Ages theology has included both academic and nonacademic forms of religious inquiry, often in tension with each other.由于中世纪的神学已列入学术和非学术形式的宗教调查经常与对方紧张。

In the course of its history theology has been subdivided according to various patterns.在其历史神学课程已根据不同的细分模式。One typical pattern distinguishes between historical, systematic, and philosophical theology.一个典型的模式区分历史,系统化,神学和哲学。The first studies the content of a religious tradition; the second attempts comprehensive explanations and expositions of its doctrines; and the third investigates the philosophical presuppositions and implications of religious belief.全面的解释和论述,其理论第二企图;;的一个宗教传统内容的第一和第三调查研究的哲学前提的宗教信仰和影响。Also important are moral theology, or ethics, which explores the moral dimensions of the religious life, and practical theology, which interprets the forms of worship, styles of organization, and modes of interpersonal relationship within religious communities.同样重要的是道德神学,或道德,它探讨了宗教生活的道德层面,实用神学,这解释了崇拜的形式,组织样式和宗教社区内人与人的关系模式。

Although different questions have preoccupied theologians at different times, certain topics have established themselves as basic to theological study.虽然不同的问题都忙于在不同时期的神学家,某些议题已经建立了自己的基本神学研究。These include the basis for humans' knowledge of God, the being and attributes of God, the relation of God to the world and of the world to God, the modes of divine governance of human affairs, the source and character of human alienation from the divine, the manner of humanity's restoration to God, and the ultimate destiny of humankind.这些措施包括为人类所知的神,神的福祉和属性,神的关系对世界和世界对上帝的基础上,神圣的治理人类事务,其来源和性质的人的异化的模式神圣的,人类的恢复上帝的方式,和人类的最终命运。 Such themes have been central throughout theology's history and continue to dominate theological reflection today.这样的主题一直贯穿中央神学的历史和神学反省继续主宰今天。

William S Babcock威廉S巴布科克

Bibliography 参考书目
Ferre, Frederick, Language, Logic, and God (1961; repr. 1977); Harvey, Van, A Handbook of Theological Terms (1964); Schleiermacher, Friedrich, Brief Outline on the Study of Theology, trans.费雷,冯检基,语言,逻辑,神(1961年再版1977);哈维,一个神学条款手册(1964)范;施莱尔马赫,弗里德里希,对神学,跨研究概要大纲。 by Terrence N. Tice (1966); Smart, Ninian, Reasons and Faiths (1958).由泰伦斯N.泰斯(1966年);灵动,尼尼安,原因和信仰(1958年)。

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