Anti - Semitism反犹太主义

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The term was introduced in 1879 by Wilhelm Marr, a German political agitator.这个词是在1879年推出由Wilhelm马尔,德国的政治鼓动者。At the time it designated anti Jewish campaigns in Europe.当时它指定的反犹太人运动在欧洲。Soon, however, it came to be applied to the hostility and hatred directed toward Jews since before the Christian era.不久,但是,它后来被应用到对犹太人的敌意和仇恨,因为之前导演的基督教时代。

Long and painful best describes the history of anti Semitism.漫长而痛苦的最好的描述了反犹太人的历史。 Among Jews, the tragic facts about anti Semitism are well known, for it occupies a major portion of Jewish history.其中犹太人,有关反犹太人的悲惨事实是众所周知的,因为它占了主要部分犹太人的历史。Today, after more than two millennia, this seemingly ubiquitous evil continues to exist.今天,在超过两千年来,这个看似无处不在邪恶继续存在。Hence, sensitivity to the wiles of the would be anti Semite is never far from the collective conscience of world Jewry.因此,敏感性的诡计的反闪米特人将永远不会远离世界犹太人的集体良知。In Christian circles, however, the story of anti Semitism, often sordid and self indicting, remains generally untold.在基督教界,然而,反犹太人的故事,往往肮脏和自我起诉,仍然普遍数不清。This is the case, it would seem, because the history of the church is about as long as the history of anti Semitism, if not in the overt acts of Christians, certainly in their guilty silence.这样的话,看来,由于历史的教堂大约是一样历史悠久的反犹太人主义,如果不是在基督徒的公开肯定在他们的犯罪行为保持沉默。

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In the ancient world the first major example of anti Semitism occured during the reign of Antiochus IV Epiphanes (175 - 163 BC).在古代世界上第一个主要的例子反犹太人主义的过程中发生安提阿哥四伊皮法尼斯统治时期(175 - 163年)。 This Seleucid ruler's attempt to hellenize Jews of his day met with stiff opposition.这塞琉统治者企图希腊化的犹太人,他每天会见了强烈反对。Jews were monotheists and thus, for the most part, aloof from their Gentile neighbors.犹太人一神论,因此,在大多数情况下,从他们的詹蒂莱邻居冷淡。Gentiles viewed Sabbath rest as congenital idleness and adherence to dietary laws as gross superstition.外邦人看作是先天性懒散和遵守法律的总膳食迷信安息日休息。Antiochus's attack on Jewish religion resulted in the desecration of the temple.安提阿哥的犹太宗教袭击造成寺庙的亵渎。 A swine was sacrificed on the altar and its blood sprinkled upon Jewish scrolls.猪是在祭坛上牺牲的血撒在犹太卷轴。Jews were regarded by the Syrian rulers as nomadic wanderers, a homeless people worthy of destruction.犹太人被视为作为游牧流浪者,一个无家可归的人值得破坏叙利亚的统治者。Jews found the idolatry of the Greek world abhorrent and later, under the Romans, rejected emperor worship.犹太人发现了希腊世界可恶,后来在罗马人崇拜,拒绝皇帝崇拜。Thus, Jews were viewed as the great dissenters of the Mediterranean world.因此,犹太人被视为世界上最伟大的地中海持不同政见者。 To pagans they became personae non gratae, victims of discrimination and contempt.为异教徒他们成为不受欢迎人物,歧视和蔑视的受害者。

The destruction of the temple in 70 AD marked a widespread dispersion of the Jews.该庙在公元70破坏标志着广泛分散的犹太人。In the second century the Roman emperor Hadrian 117 - 38) issued edicts forbidding the practice of Judaism.在第二个世纪的罗马皇帝哈德良117 - 38)发布法令禁止犹太教的做法。About this time the great Rabbi Akiba was tortured to death by the Romans by having his flesh stripped from his body with iron combs.关于这个时代最伟大的拉比秋叶被折磨致死的罗马人有他的肉用铁梳子从他身上剥离。

In 321 Constantine made Christianity the official religion of the Roman state.在321君士坦丁作出的罗马基督教国家的官方宗教。Jews were forbidden to make converts, serve in the military, and hold any high office.犹太人被禁止做转换,服务于军事,持有任何崇高职务。Several centuries later, under Justinian, Jews were barred from celebrating Passover until after Easter.几个世纪后,查士丁尼下,犹太人被禁止庆祝逾越节复活节之后才。

The roots of theological anti Semitism derive from certain teachings which arose from the early Christian centuries.从中,从早期基督教百年产生一定的神学教义的根源反犹太人主义派生。The Jewish revolt of 66 - 70 AD resulted in the death, exile, or slavey of thousands of Jews.犹太人起义的66 - 公元70年导致死亡,流放,或成千上万的犹太人slavey。Such hardship was thought by the rapidly expanding Gentile church to be chastisement, proof of divine rejection.这种困难是思想的迅速扩大詹蒂莱教堂被责罚,证明神的拒绝。Gradually the church saw itself as superseding Judaism, a "dead" and "legalistic" faith.渐渐地,教会视为取代犹太教,“死”和“墨守成规”的信念本身。Triumphantly, the church now stood over the synagogue as the new Israel of God, heir to the covenant promises.胜利,现在在教会作为上帝的新以色列的犹太教堂站着,继承人公约的承诺。But Jews, as a people, still chafed under the Roman yoke.但是,犹太人,作为一个人,仍然在罗马枷锁感到恼火。They failed to understand messianic redemption in terms of a suffering servant; they refused to believe that God had forever cast away his chosen.他们无法理解一个痛苦的仆人救世主赎回条款,他们拒绝相信上帝永远抛弃他的选择。

The writings of several church fathers reflect a theological invective directed toward Jews.几个教会教父们的作品反映了对犹太人的神学谩骂。John Chrysostom, the "golden mouthe," is a noted example.约翰金口,“金mouthe”,是一位著名的例子。He taught that "the synagogue is a brothel and a theater,. . . a den for unclean animals. . . Never has a Jew prayer to God. . . They are all possessed by the devil."他教导说:“犹太教堂是一家妓院和剧院。。。一种不洁的动物巢穴。。。从来没有一个犹太人向上帝祈祷。。。他们都走火入魔。”

In the Middle Ages, Jews were largely excluded from medieval Christian culture.在中世纪,犹太人基本上排除从中世纪基督教文化。They sought to avoid social, economic, and ecclesiastical pressures by living behind ghetto walls.他们试图避免贫民窟墙背后生活的社会,经济,和教会的压力。They were, however, permitted to practice usury.他们成功了,但是,获准放高利贷。This led Christians to accuse them of being a pariah people.这导致基督教徒指责他们是一个被遗弃的人。Jews were required to wear a distinctive hat or patch sewn on their clothing.犹太人必须佩戴一个独特的帽子或衣服上的补丁缝制。They were accused of having a peculiar smell, in contrast to the "odor of sanctity."他们被指控与此相反的一种特殊的气味,“神圣的气味。”Jews were also maligned as "Christ - killers," desecraters of the host, murderers of Christian infants, spreaders of the black plague, poisoners of wells and sucklers of sows.犹太人也被诬蔑为“基督 - 杀手”的主持人desecraters,基督教儿凶手,传播者的黑色瘟疫,水井和母猪sucklers poisoners。The First Crusade (1096) resulted in numerous mass suicides as Jews sought to avoid forced baptism.第一次十字军东征(1096)造成无数犹太人集体自杀作为寻求避免被迫洗礼。Toward the close of the Middle Ages many Jews became homeless wanderers.朝中世纪许多犹太人成为无家可归的流浪者密切。They were expelled from England in 1290, from France in 1306, and from cities in Spain, Germany, and Austria in the following years.他们被驱逐出英国在1290年,由法国于1306年,从西班牙,德国和奥地利的城市在以后的几年。

The Spanish Inquisition and expulsion of 1492 resulted in thousands of torturings, burnings at the stake, and forced conversions.西班牙宗教裁判所和1492年驱逐造成了torturings,在焚烧数以千计的股份,并强迫转换。In Germany, one generation later, Luther issued a series of vitriolic pamphlets attacking Jews.在德国,一个世代后,路德发表了攻击犹太人硫酸系列小册子。Of Jews he wrote, "Let us drive them out of the country for all time."犹太人,他写道:“让我们推动他们离开该国的所有时间。”

Toward the start of the modern ages a bloody revolt against the Cossacks occurred in Poland (1648 - 58).走向现代中世纪就开始对血腥反抗哥萨克发生在波兰(1648 - 58)。Caught in the middle, about half a million Jews were killed.夹在中间,大约50万犹太人惨遭杀害。In other European countries at the time Jews continued to be persecuted or, at best, viewed with suspicion or contempt.在其他欧洲国家在当时的犹太人继续受到迫害,或者在最好,怀疑或蔑视观看。

In the latter part of the nineteenth century the largest Jewish population in the world (6 million) was in czarist Russia.在十九世纪后半期世界上最大的犹太人人口(600万)是在沙皇俄国。 There Jews experienced a series of vicious pogroms which left thousands dead.有犹太人经历了数千人死亡的恶性留下一连串的大屠杀。Others, joining Jews from different European lands, fled to America.其他人,从不同的欧洲土地上加入犹太人逃往美国。In this country they hoped to find a place earlier described by George Washington as offering "to bigotry no sanction, to persecution no assistance."在这个国家,他们希望找到先前所描述的乔治华盛顿提供一个地方“的偏见没有制裁,迫害任何援助。”Between 1880 and 1910 more than two million Jews immigrated to America through New York City. 1880年至1910年两年多万犹太人移民到美国通过纽约市。During this time the celebrated Dreyfus Affair in France (1894) drew the problem of aniti Semitism to world attention.在此期间,著名的德雷福斯事件在法国(1894年)提请aniti反犹太主义为世界关注的问题。

Rooted in the soil of Germany, the Holocaust of the 20th century stand as a unparalleled event.植根于德国,作为一个无与伦比的大屠杀事件的立场20世纪的土壤。Nazi propaganda stated that the human race must be "purified" by ridding it of Jews.纳粹宣传指出,人类必须“净化”的消除它的犹太人。The "final solution" to the Jewish "problem" was camps, gas chambers, and crematoria. “最后解决”犹太人“问题”是营地,毒气室和火葬场。Between 1933, when Hitler came to power, and the end of World War II some 6 million Jewish lives were destroyed.至1933年,希特勒上台后,和二战结束大约600万犹太人的生命被摧毁。Today in Jerusalem the Yad Vashem (the name is taken from Isa. 56:5) stands as a memorial to Holocaust victims and as an institution for research and documentation.在耶路撒冷的大屠杀纪念馆(名称取自伊萨。56:5)今天代表作为纪念大屠杀受害者和作为研究和文献机构。

At present anti Semitism persists wherever Jews are found.目前的反犹太人的反犹太主义仍然存在的地方被发现。 Jews of Russia and France have been especially oppressed.俄罗斯和法国的犹太人,特别是已受压迫。In European countries and in the United States recent anti Semitic incidents have included synagogue smearings and bombings, desecration of gravestones, vicious graffiti, Nazi pamphlets, and grotesque Jewish sterotypes in the press.在欧洲国家和美国最近的反犹太人事件包括犹太教堂smearings和爆炸事件,墓碑,恶毒涂鸦,纳粹亵渎小册子,并在报刊上怪诞的犹太角色类型。 At other times the so called polite variety of anti Semitism is found, namely discrimination and / or antipathy displayed toward Jews in the social, educational, and economic realms.在其他时候所谓的犹太人被发现,即各种歧视和反礼貌/或对犹太人显示在社会,教育和经济领域的反感。The Anti Defamation League and other Jewish agencies continue to make slow but steady progress in seeking to promote understanding among peoples of different races and religions.反诽谤联盟和其他犹太机构继续在寻求促进不同种族和宗教的人民的了解缓慢但稳步的进展。

MR Wilson威尔逊先生
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography: 参考书目:
AT Davies, ed., Anti Semitism and the Foundations of Christianity; EJ, III; EH Flannery, The Anguish of the Jews; RE Gade, A Historical Survey of Anti Semitism; C Klein, Anti Judism in Christian Theology; R Ruether, Faith and Fratricide; S Sandmel, Anti Semitism in the NT.戴维斯的AT版,反犹太主义和反基督教的基础;。对EJ,三;高血压弗兰纳里,犹太人的痛苦;稀土盖德,一个反犹太人主义的历史考察; ç克莱因,反基督教神学Judism与r Ruether,信仰和自相残杀中,S Sandmel,反犹太人主义在新台币。



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