Apostolic Succession使徒继承

General Information一般资料

In its strict sense, apostolic succession refers to the doctrine by which the validity and authority of the Christian ministry is derived from the Apostles.在其严格意义上说,使徒的继承是指其中的有效性和权威性的基督教事工是由使徒派生原则。Churches of the Catholic tradition hold that bishops form the necessary link in an unbroken chain of successors to the office of the apostles.教会传统的天主教主教认为,在形成完整链条的接班人需要链接到的使徒办公室。The outward sign by which this connection is both symbolized and effected is the laying on of hands by the Bishop at ordination.向外签署此连接既象征和影响,是铺设在主教双手协调。

In its broader sense, apostolic succession refers to the relationship between the Christian church today and the apostolic church of New Testament times.在更广泛的意义上说,使徒的继承指的是今天的基督教教堂和新约时代使徒教会的关系。Thus, apostolic succession refers to the whole church insofar as it is faithful to the word, the witness, and the service of the apostolic communities.因此,使徒的继承是指整个教堂,因为它是忠实于这个词,证人,以及使徒的社区服务。Understood in this way, the church is not simply a collectivity of individual churches; instead, it is a communion of churches whose validity is derived from the apostolic message that it professes and from the apostolic witness that it lives.这样的理解方式,教会是不是一个简单的个别教会集体,相反,它是一个教堂,其有效期为使徒的消息,它声称,从使徒的见证,它的生活产生的共融。

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Bibliography 参考书目
Ehrhardt, Arnold, The Apostolic Succession in the First Two Centuries of the Church (1953); Kung, Hans, Papal Ministry in the Church (1971) and ed., Apostolic Succession (1968).埃尔哈特,阿诺德,在第一两个世纪的教会(1953年)使徒继承;西贡,汉斯,教皇部在教会(1971年)和教育署,使徒继承(1968年)。。


Apostolic Succession使徒继承

Advanced Information先进的信息

This theory of ministry in the church did not arise before AD 170-200.这在教会事工理论没有出现在公元170-200。The Gnostics claimed to possess a secret tradition handed down to them form the apostles.该Gnostics声称拥有一个秘密的传统传给他们形成使徒。As a counterclaim the Catholic church pointed to each bishop as a true successor to the apostle who had founded the see and therefore to the truth the apostles taught.作为一个反天主教会主教指出,每一个作为一个真正的继承者谁看到过,因此成立了了解真相的使徒教会使徒。The bishop, as an authoritative teacher, preserved the apostolic tradition.主教,作为一个权威的教师,保留了使徒的传统。 He was also a guardian of the apostolic Scriptures and the creed.他也是使徒圣经和信仰的守护者。In a generation when the last links with the apostles were fast dying out this emphasis on apostolic teaching and practice was natural.在一代,与使徒,快死了这个使徒的教学和实践为重点,最后的联系是很自然的。In the third century the emphasis changed from the open successors of the apostles.在第三个世纪的重点改为开放式的使徒的继承人。This development owed much to the advocacy of Cyprian, Bishop of Carthage (248-58).很大程度上要归功于对塞浦路斯,迦太基主教(248-58)宣传这方面的发展。Harnack regards this as a perversion rather than a development.哈纳克认为这是一个变态,而不是发展的。

The terminology is not found in the NT.这一术语是没有发现新台币。Diadoche ("succession") is absent from the NT and the LXX.Diadoche(“继承”)是从NT和LXX的缺席。There is little evidence for the idea in the NT (cf. II Tim. 2:2).很少有证据表明在NT(参见二添。2:2)的想法。All early succession lists were compiled late in the second century.所有早期演替名单是编制晚了第二个世纪。

There is also a difference between the Roman-and Anglo-Catholic viewpoint.之间也有罗马和盎格鲁天主教观点的差异。The former is a centralized autocracy with a papal succession traced back to Peter.前者是一个集中的专制与教皇的继承追溯到彼得。The Tractarian teaches that all bishops alike, however insignificant the see, have equal power in a corporation. Tractarian教导我们,所有的主教一样,但微不足道的看到,在一家公司平等的权力。Thus an apostle transmitted to a bishop, through "the laying on of hands" and prayer, the authority which Christ had conferred on him.因此,一个使徒传输到主教,通过“按手”和祈祷,基督的权威,对他赋予的。This theory of sacramental grace is a barrier to reunion in the Reformed churches, since the nonepiscopal bodies are regarded as defective in their ministry.这种理论是一种圣礼宽限期归正教会在团聚的障碍,因为nonepiscopal机构如认为其部缺陷。

The weakness of the argument of The Apostolic Ministry (ed. KE Kirk) was its failure to explain the absence of the idea in the first two centuries of the Christian era.该部的使徒(编辑柯柯克)参数的弱点是它未能解释的前两个世纪的基督教时代的念头缺席。Ehrhardt does not supply the defect by postulating a priestly succession derived from the Judaizing church of Jerusalem as it laid stress on the new Isreal and the continuity of its priesthood.埃哈特不提供通过假定一个牧师继承耶路​​撒冷犹太化的教会的产生,因为它奠定了在新的以色列和它的祭司连续性应力的缺陷。 The idea was in the air in the second century.这个想法是在空气中的第二个世纪。

Bishop Drury affirms that the apostles left behind them three things: their writings; the churches which they founded, instructed, and regulated; and the various orders of ministers for the ordering of these churches.主教德鲁里申明使徒背后有三样东西离开:他们的著作;他们成立的各教会,指示,规范,以及为这些教会订购部长的各种订单。 There could be no more apostles in the original sense of that word.有可能在这个词的原来意义上没有更多的使徒。The real successor to the apostolate is the NT itself, since it continues their ministry within the church of God.真正的继承者使徒是NT本身,因为它继续在上帝教会的事工。Their office was incommunicable.他们的办公室静默。Three kinds of succession are possible: ecclesiastical, a church which has continued from the beginning; doctrinal, the same teaching has continued throughout; episcopal, a line of bishops can be traced unbroken from early times.三是继承种可能:教会,而这从一开始就继续教会的教义,同样的教学却继续进行,主教,主教线的完整可追溯到早期倍。This does not necessarily mean that the episcopal office is the same as the apostolic.这并不一定意味着主教办公室是与使徒一样。

(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary)(Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 参考书目
A Erhardt, The Apostolic Succession in the First Two Centuries of the Church; CH Turner, "Apostolic Succession," in Essays on the Early History of the Church, ed.一哈特,在头两个世纪教会的使徒继承;甲烷特纳,“使徒继承”,在散文上的教会的早期历史,教育署。HB Swete; C. Gore, The Ministry of the Christian Church; H. Bettenson, Documents of the Christian Church.正面Swete;三戈尔的基督教教会部;阁下Bettenson,基督教教会文件。


Apostolic Succession使徒继承

Catholic Information天主教新闻

Apostolicity as a note of the true Church being dealt with elsewhere, the object of the present article is to show:作为真正的教会注意Apostolicity正在与其他地方处理,本文章的目的是显示:

That Apostolic succession is found in the Catholic Church.这使徒继承中发现的天主教教会。

That none of the separate Churches have any valid claim to it.另外,该教会都没有它的任何有效索赔。

That the Anglican Church, in particular, has broken away from Apostolic unity.这圣公会教堂,特别是摆脱了使徒的团结。

ROMAN CLAIM罗马索赔

The principle underlying the Roman claim is contained in the idea of succession.罗马的原则要求是包含在继承的想法。"To succeed" is to be the successor of, especially to be the heir of, or to occupy an official position just after, as Victoria succeeded William IV. “成功”是要对继任者,尤其是对继承人,或占据了刚刚结束的官方立场,维多利亚成功威廉四世。Now the Roman Pontiffs come immediately after, occupy the position, and perform the functions of St. Peter; they are, therefore, his successors.现在,罗马教宗后立即来,占领阵地,并执行圣彼得的职能;他们,因此,他的继任者。 We must prove我们必须证明

that St. Peter came to Rome, and ended there his pontificate;,圣彼得来到罗马,结束那里他任职;

that the Bishops of Rome who came after him held his official position in the Church.罗马的主教是谁后,他来到他在教会举行的官方立场。

As soon as the problem of St. Peter's coming to Rome passed from theologians writing pro domo suâ into the hands of unprejudiced historians, ie within the last half century, it received a solution which no scholar now dares to contradict; the researches of German professors like A. Harnack and Weizsaecker, of the Anglican Bishop Lightfoot, and those of archaeologists like De Rossi and Lanciani, of Duchesne and Barnes, have all come to the same conclusion: St. Peter did reside and die in Rome.当圣彼得问题的来罗马历史学家写入的偏见,即手过去半个世纪内的亲多莫苏阿神学家获得通过,它收到一个解决办法,现在没有学者敢反驳,德国教授的研究就好哈纳克和魏茨泽克,英国圣公会主教lightfoot,以及像德罗西和Lanciani,巴恩斯的德雷珀和考古学家的人,都得出同样的结论:圣彼得并居住和死在罗马。 Beginning with the middle of the second century, there exists a universal consensus as to Peter's martyrdom in Rome;与第二个世纪中叶开始,存在一个以彼得在罗马殉教的普遍共识;

Dionysius of Corinth speaks for Greece,狄奥尼修斯的科林斯说,希腊,

Irenaeus for Gaul,爱任纽的高卢,

Clement and Origen for Alexandria,克莱门特和亚历山大奥利,

Tertullian for Africa.德尔图良的非洲。

In the third century the popes claim authority from the fact that they are St. Peter's successors, and no one objects to this claim, no one raises a counter-claim.在第三个世纪的教皇索赔的事实,他们是圣彼得的继承人,也没有人反对这种说法的权威,没有人提出反诉。

No city boasts the tomb of the Apostle but Rome.没有哪座城市拥有的使徒但罗马墓。

There he died, there he left his inheritance; the fact is never questioned in the controversies between East and West.在那里,他死了,在那里,他离开了他的继承;事实是从来没有在东方与西方之间的争议,质疑。 This argument, however, has a weak point: it leaves about one hundred years for the formation of historical legends, of which Peter's presence in Rome may be one just as much as his conflict with Simon Magus.这样的说法,但是,有一个薄弱点:它的叶子约百年的历史传说的形成,其中彼得在罗马的存在可能是个刚刚就像他和西蒙空气冲突了。 We have then to go farther back into antiquity.然后我们去更远回到古代。

About 150 the Roman presbyter Caius offers to show to the heretic Procius the trophies of the Apostles: "If you will got the Vatican, and to the Via Ostiensis, you will find the monuments of those who have founded this Church."大约150名的罗马长老凯厄斯提供以示邪教Procius的使徒奖杯:“。如果你得到了梵蒂冈,并以通过Ostiensis,你会发现那些谁也创办了这家教堂的纪念碑” Can Caius and the Romans for whom he speaks have been in error on a point so vital to their Church?可以凯斯和罗马人的人,他说有错误一直在如此重要的一点他们的教会?

Next we come to Papias (c. 138-150).接下来,我们来帕皮亚(约138-150)。From him we only get a faint indication that he places Peter's preaching in Rome, for he states that Mark wrote down what Peter preached, and he makes him write in Rome.我们只能从他淡淡地表示,他在罗马彼得的说教,他指出,马克写下来彼得讲道,他让他写在罗马举行。Weizsaecker himself holds that this inference from Papias has some weight in the cumulative argument we are constructing.魏茨泽克本人认为,这从帕皮亚推断有一定的争论,我们正在建设累计重量。

Earlier than Papias is Ignatius Martyr (before 117), who, on his way to martyrdom, writes to the Romans: "I do not command you as did Peter and Paul; they were Apostles, I am a disciple", words which according to Lightfoot have no sense if Ignatius did not believe Peter and Paul to have been preaching in Rome.早于帕皮亚是伊格烈士(前117),谁,途中殉难,罗马人写:“我不命令你,彼得和保罗,他们是使徒,我是一个信徒”,而根据字莱特富特已经没有任何意义,如果不相信伊格彼得和保罗已在罗马传教。

Earlier still is Clement of Rome writing to the Corinthians, probably in 96, certainly before the end of the first century.此前仍是克莱门特的罗马书面形式向科林蒂安,当然可能是在96前的第一个世纪结束。 He cites Peter's and Paul's martyrdom as an example of the sad fruits of fanaticism and envy.他援引一个狂热和羡慕的悲惨水果例如彼得和保罗的殉道。They have suffered "amongst us" he says, and Weizsaecker rightly sees here another proof for our thesis.他们所遭遇的“在我们中间”,他说,正确地看到和魏茨泽克为我们的论文在这里再一次证明。

The Gospel of St. John, written about the same time as the letter Clement to the Corinthians, also contains a clear allusion to the martyrdom by crucifixion of St. Peter, without, however, locating it (John 21:18, 19).福音的圣约翰,大约为字母克莱门特的科林蒂安同时写的,也包含对受难的圣彼得殉教明确暗示,如果没有,不过,查找它(约翰21:18,19)。 The very oldest evidence comes from St. Peter himself, if he be the author of the First Epistle of Peter, of if not, from a writer nearly of his own time: "The Church that is in Babylon saluteth you, and so doth my son Mark" (1 Peter 5:13).很古老的证据来自圣彼得自己,如果他成为第一的彼得书信从自己的时间几乎作家,如果没有,:“教会在巴比伦问你们,我也问你们儿子马克“(1彼得5:13)。 That Babylon stands for Rome, as usual amongst pious Jews, and not for the real Babylon, then without Christians, is admitted by common consent (cf. FJA Hort, "Judaistic Christianity", London, 1895, 155).巴比伦代表罗马,像往常一样虔诚的犹太人中间,而不是真正的巴比伦,当时没有基督徒,因为共同的同意(见FJA园艺,“Judaistic基督教”,伦敦,1895年,155)承认。

This chain of documentary evidence, having its first link in Scripture itself, and broken nowhere, puts the sojourn of St. Peter in Rome among the best-ascertained facts in history.这种书面证据链,有自己的第一个环节在经文本身,以及破损无处,放入罗马名列前茅,确定历史事实的圣彼得小住。 It is further strengthened by a similar chain of monumental evidence, which Lanciani, the prince of Roman topographers, sums up as follows: "For the archaeologist the presence and execution of Sts. Peter and Paul in Rome are facts established beyond a shadow of doubt, by purely monumental evidence!"这是一个巨大的进一步证据,这Lanciani,罗马王子地志,总结了类似链加强作为如下:“对于考古学家的存在和在罗马伯多禄和保执行超出怀疑阴影确立的事实。由纯粹的不朽的证据!“ (Pagan and Christian Rome, 123). (异教徒和基督教的罗马,123)。

ST.意法半导体。PETER'S SUCCESSORS IN OFFICE彼得的继任者在办公

St. Peter's successors carried on his office, the importance of which grew with the growth of the Church.圣彼得的继承人,他的办公室进行,其重要性长大的教会增长。In 97 serious dissensions troubled the Church of Corinth.在97严重的纠纷困扰科林斯教会。The Roman Bishop, Clement, unbidden, wrote an authoritative letter to restore peace.罗马主教,克莱门特,不速之客,写了一封信给权威性恢复和平。St. John was still living at Ephesus, yet neither he nor his interfered with Corinth.圣约翰仍住在以弗所,但无论他还是他与科林斯干扰。Before 117 St. Ignatius of Antioch addresses the Roman Church as the one which "presides over charity . . . which has never deceived any one, which has taught others."前117圣依纳爵的安提阿地址作为一所罗马教会“在慈善机构主持。。。它从来没有欺骗过任何人,这给了别人。”St. Irenæus (180-200) states the theory and practice of doctrinal unity as follows:圣爱任纽(180-200)的国家的理论和实践的统一理论如下:

With this Church [of Rome] because of its more powerful principality, every Church must agree, that is the faithful everywhere, in this [ie in communion with the Roman Church] the tradition of the Apostles has ever been preserved by those on every side.有了这个[罗马],因为它更强大的公教会,每一个教会必须同意,这是忠实无处不在此,[即在与罗马教会的共融]的使徒传统,历来被四围的保存。 (Adv. Haereses, III) (2002上海高考Haereses,三)

The heretic Marcion, the Montanists from Phrygia, Praxeas from Asia, come to Rome to gain the countenance of its bishops; St. Victor, Bishop of Rome, threatens to excommunicate the Asian Churches; St. Stephen refuses to receive St. Cyprian's deputation, and separates himself from various Churches of the East; Fortunatus and Felix, deposed by Cyprian, have recourse to Rome; Basilides, deposed in Spain, betakes himself to Rome; the presbyters of Dionysius, Bishop of Alexandria, complain of his doctrine to Dionysius, Bishop of Rome; the latter expostulates with him, and he explains.邪教马吉安,从弗里吉亚,Praxeas来自亚洲Montanists,来到罗马主教获得其面容;圣维克多,罗马的主教,威胁要破门亚洲教会;圣士提反拒绝接受圣塞浦路斯的代表,和分离从东方各教会自己;福图纳图斯和费利克斯,由塞浦路斯废黜,诉诸罗马,巴西里德,在西班牙被废黜,betakes自己罗马,对修斯,亚历山大主教,长老,他的学说修斯抱怨,罗马的主教,后者expostulates与他,他解释说。 The fact is indisputable: the Bishops of Rome took over Peter's Chair and Peter's office of continuing the work of Christ [Duchesne, "The Roman Church before Constantine", Catholic Univ.事实是不容争辩的:罗马的主教在彼得的椅子彼得对继续基督[德雷珀工作办公室了,“前君士坦丁罗马教会”,天主教大学。 Bulletin (October, 1904) X, 429-450].公告(十月,1904年)十,429-450]。To be in continuity with the Church founded by Christ affiliation to the See of Peter is necessary, for, as a matter of history, there is no other Church linked to any other Apostle by an unbroken chain of successors.要在与教会的基督隶属关系的连续性,在对伯多禄见成立是必要的,因为,作为一个历史问题,也没有其他教会联系在一起的一个完整链条的接班人任何其他使徒。 Antioch, once the see and centre of St. Peter's labours, fell into the hands of Monophysite patriarchs under the Emperors Zeno and Anastasius at the end of the fifth century.安提阿,一旦看到,中心的圣彼得大教堂的劳作,落入下皇帝芝诺和斯达西始祖的基督一双手的第五世纪末。The Church of Alexandria in Egypt was founded by St. Mark the Evangelist, the mandatory of St. Peter.在埃及的亚历山大教会是由圣马可的传播者,圣彼得强制性的。It flourished exceedingly until the Arian and Monophysite heresies took root among its people and gradually led to its extinction.它长得非常茂盛,直到阿里安和monophysite异端了其人民的根,并逐渐导致其灭绝。The shortest-lived Apostolic Church is that of Jerusalem.最短寿命使徒教会是耶路撒冷的。In 130 the Holy City was destroyed by Hadrian, and a new town, Ælia Capitolina, erected on its site.在130个圣城哈德良被摧毁,新镇,Ælia Capitolina,在其网站上架设。The new Church of Ælia Capitolina was subjected to Caesarea; the very name of Jerusalem fell out of use till after the Council of Nice (325).新的Ælia Capitolina教会遭到撒利亚,耶路撒冷这个名字的使用时间至下跌后,尼斯会(325)。The Greek Schism now claims its allegiance.希腊分裂现在声称效忠。Whatever of Apostolicity remains in these Churches founded by the Apostles is owing to the fact that Rome picked up the broken succession and linked anew to the See of Peter.无论对Apostolicity仍然在这些教会的使徒成立是由于这一事实,即罗马拿起破碎的继承和链接再次向彼得看到的。 The Greek Church, embracing all the Eastern Churches involved in the schism of Photius and Michael Caerularius, and the Russian Church can lay no claim to Apostolic succession either direct or indirect, ie through Rome, because they are, by their own fact and will, separated from the Roman Communion.希腊教会,包罗所有东欧教会中的photius和迈克尔Caerularius分裂参与,而俄罗斯教会才能奠定声称使徒没有直接或间接的继承,即通过罗马,因为他们,由他们自己的实况,并会脱离罗马共融。 During the four hundred and sixty-four between the accession of Constantine (323) and the Seventh General Council (787), the whole or part of the Eastern episcopate lived in schism for no less than two hundred and three years: namely from the Council of Sardica (343) to St. John Chrysostom (389), 55 years; owing to Chrysostom's condemnation (404-415), 11 years; owing to Acadius and the Henoticon edict (484-519), 35 years; total, 203 years (Duchesne).在四年的一百六十四间加入君士坦丁(323)和总理事会第​​七次(787),整个或居住于分裂不低于二百○三年东部主教部分:即从会对萨尔迪卡(343)圣约翰金口(389),55岁;由于金口的谴责(404-415),11岁,由于Acadius和Henoticon法令(484-519),35岁,共203年(德雷珀)。 They do, however, claim doctrinal connection with the Apostles, sufficient to their mind to stamp them with the mark of Apostolicity.他们这样做,不过,索赔理论联系与使徒,足以把他们的心灵上打上了他们的Apostolicity标志。

THE ANGLICAN CONTINUITY CLAIM圣公会连续性索赔

The continuity claim is brought forward by all sects, a fact showing how essential a note of the true Church Apostolicity is.连续性索赔带来的所有教派提出的,这一事实显示了多么重要的真正教会Apostolicity注意的是。The Anglican High-Church party asserts its continuity with the pre-Reformation Church in England, and through it with the Catholic Church of Christ.圣公会高教会党声称它与前英格兰教会改革的连续性,并通过与基督的天主教教会,它。"At the Reformation we but washed our face" is a favourite Anglican saying; we have to show that in reality they washed off their head, and have been a truncated Church ever since. “在我们的改革,但洗我们的脸”是一个最喜欢的英国圣公会说,我们必须表明,他们在现实中洗掉了头脑,并已被截断的教会至今。

Etymologically, "to continue" means "to hold together".词源,“继续”的意思是“维系”。Continuity, therefore, denotes a successive existence without constitutional change, an advance in time of a thing in itself steady.连续性,因此,是指不改变宪法连续存在,预先在一个自在之物稳定时间。Steady, not stationary, for the nature of a thing may be to grow, to develop on constitutional lines, thus constantly changing yet always the selfsame.各就各位,不固定,为一个事物的性质可能是成长,发展政制线,从而不断变化但总是完全相同的。This applies to all organisms starting from a germ, to all organizations starting from a few constitutional principles; it also applies to religious belief, which as Newman says, changes in order to remain the same.这适用于所有的生物开始从细菌,对所有组织从一开始的几个宪法原则,它也适用于宗教的信仰,作为纽曼说,为了改变保持不变。 On the other hand, we speak of a "breach of continuity" whenever a constitutional change takes place.另一方面,我们讲的是“违反连续性”每当一个宪法上的改变发生。A Church enjoys continuity when it develops along the lines of its original constitution; it changes when it alters its constitution either social or doctrinal.一个教会的连续性时,享有其原章程沿着线的发展,它的变化时它改变其宪法或社会或教义。But what is the constitution of the Church of Christ?但是,什么是基督的教会宪法?The answer is as varied as the sects calling themselves Christian.答案是多种多样的,他们自称为基督教教派。Being persuaded that continuity with Christ is essential to their legitimate status, they have devised theories of the essentials of Christianity, and of a Christian Church, exactly suiting their own denomination.被说服,与基督的连续性至关重要,其合法地位,他们设计了基督教的本质理论,一个基督教教堂,正是适合他们自己的教派。 Most of the repudiatae Apostolic succession as a mark of the true Church; they glory in their separation.大多数repudiatae作为真正的教会使徒继承标志,他们在分离的荣耀。Our present controversy is not with such, but with the Anglicans who do pretend to continuity.我们目前没有这样的争论,但与英国圣公会教徒假装谁做的连续性。We have points of contact only with the High-Churchmen, whose leanings toward antiquity and Catholicism place them midway between the Catholic and the Protestant pure and simple.我们有联络点只与高牧师,他对古代与天主教和新教单纯天主教把它们中间倾向。

ENGLAND AND ROME英格兰和罗马

Of all the Churches now separated from Rome, none has a more distinctly Roman origin than the Church of England.现在所有从罗马教会分离,没有一个比英国更明显的罗马教会的起​​源。It has often been claimed that St. Paul, or some other Apostle, evangelized the Britons.人们常常声称,圣保罗,或其他使徒,福音的英国人。It is certain, however, that whenever Welsh annals mention the introduction of Christianity into the island, invariably they conduct the reader to Rome.这是肯定的,但是,每当提及威尔士史册基督教入岛的介绍,他们的行为总是读者罗马。

In the "Liber Pontificalis" (ed. Duchesne, I, 136) we read that "Pope Eleutherius received a letter from Lucius, King of Britain, that he might be made a Christian by his orders."在“书Pontificalis”(编辑杜申,我,136),我们读到,“教皇Eleutherius收到卢修斯,英国国王,他可能是由他的订单,基督教的信。” The incident is told again and again by the Venerable Bede; it is found in the Book of Llandaff, as well as in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle; it is accepted by French, Swiss, German chroniclers, together with the home authorities Fabius, Henry of Huntingdon, William of Malmesbury, and Giraldus Cambrensis.这起事件是一次又一次告诉了老贝代,它是发现在兰达夫书,以及在盎格鲁撒克逊编年史,它是接受法国,瑞士,德国的编年史家,再加上家里当局法比尤斯,亨利亨廷顿,马姆斯伯里的威廉和吉拉德斯卡Cambrensis。

The Saxon invasion swept the British Church out of existence wherever it penetrated, and drove the British Christians to the western borders of the island, or across the sea into Armorica, now French Brittany.撒克逊人的入侵席卷了它存在的地方侵入英国驱逐出教会,并迫使英国基督徒岛上的西部边界,或隔海相望到Armorica,现在法国的布列塔尼。 No attempt at converting their conquerors was ever made by the conquered.没有他们的征服者在转换尝试做过的征服。 Rome once more stepped in. The missionaries sent by Gregory the Great converted and baptized King Ethelbert of Kent, with thousands of his subjects.罗马再次加强英寸格雷戈里发送的大转换和洗礼埃塞尔伯特传教士肯特国王,与他的臣民数千人。In 597 Augustine was made Primate over all England, and his successors, down to the Reformation, have ever received from Rome the pallium, the symbol of super-episcopal authority.在597奥古斯丁写了英格兰的所有灵长类动物,和他的继任者,下降到改革,曾经收到来自罗马的大脑皮层,对超主教的权力象征。 The Anglo-Saxon hierarchy was thoroughly Roman in its origin, in its faith and practice, in its obedience and affection; witness every page in Bede's "Ecclesiastical History".盎格鲁撒克逊层次结构进行了彻底的罗马在其原产地,在其信仰和实践,其服从和爱戴;见证每一个比德的“教会史”页面。 A like Roman spirit animated the nation.像罗马的精神鼓舞了全国。Among the saints recognized by the Church are twenty-three kings and sixty queens, princes, or princesses of the different Anglo-Saxon dynasties, reckoned from the seventh to the eleventh century.经由教会承认的圣徒是二三国王和王后第六,王子,或不同的盎格鲁撒克逊从第七至十一世纪的计算朝代,公主。Ten of the Saxon kings made the journey to the tomb of St. Peter, and his successor, in Rome.萨克森国王的十大所作的旅程的圣彼得墓,他的继任者在罗马。Anglo-Saxon pilgrims formed quite a colony in proximity to the Vatican, where the local topography (Borgo, Sassia, Vicus Saxonum) still recalls their memory.盎格鲁撒克逊人形成了相当的朝圣者在接近一个殖民地到梵蒂冈,当地的地形(博尔戈,Sassia,Vicus Saxonum)还记得他们的记忆。There was an English school in Rome, founded by King Ine of Wessex and Pope Gregory II (715-731), and supported by the Romescot, or Peter's-pence, paid yearly by every Wessex family.有一个成立于韦塞克斯国王和教皇格雷戈里二(715-731),伊根,由Romescot,或Peter's -便士支持罗马,英国学校,支付每个家庭每年威塞克斯。The Romescot was made obligatory by Edward the Confessor, on every monastery and household in possession of land or cattle to the yearly value of thirty pence.The Romescot是强制规定由爱德华忏悔,对每一个寺院,并在土地或牲畜占有,将该年度的三十便士价值的家庭。

The Norman Conquest (1066) wrought no change in the religion of England.诺曼征服(1066)锻没有在英国改变宗教信仰。St. Anselm of Canterbury (1093-1109) testified to the supremacy of the Roman Pontiff in his writings (in Matthew 16) and by his acts.圣坎特伯雷安瑟伦(1093年至1109年)证明了的罗马教皇在他的著作至上(马太16)和他的行为。 When pressed to surrender his right of appeal to Rome, he answered the king in court:当按下交出上诉的权利,罗马,他在法庭上回答国王:

You wish me to swear never, on any account, to appeal in England to Blessed Peter or his Vicar; this, I say, ought not to be commanded by you, who are a Christian, for to swear this is to abjure Blessed Peter; he who abjures Blessed Peter undoubtedly abjures Christ, who made him Prince over his Church.你要我发誓以后再也不,在任何帐户,呼吁在英格兰或他的祝福彼得牧师,这,我说,不应该指挥你,谁是一个基督徒,想要发誓这是公开放弃祝福彼得;他谁abjures祝福彼得无疑abjures基督,谁取得了他的教会他王子。

St. Thomas Becket shed his blood in defence of the liberties of the Church against the encroachments of the Norman king (1170).圣托马斯贝克特对大棚的诺曼国王(1170年)的侵害教会的自由防守他的血。Grosseteste, in the thirteenth century, writes more forcibly on the Pope's authority over the whole Church than any other ancient English bishop, although he resisted an ill-advised appointment to a canonry made by the Pope. Grosseteste,在13世纪,更强行写就教宗比任何其他在古英语整个教会主教的权力,但他拒绝了不明智的由教宗任命了一个牧师会会员。In the fourteen century Duns Scotus teaches at Oxford "that they are excommunicated as heretics who teach or hold anything different from what the Roman Church holds or teaches."在14世纪的邓司各脱任教于牛津大学“,他们为异端谁教或持有任何东西,从罗马教会什么不同驱逐持有或教导。” In 1411 the English bishops at the Synod of London condemn Wycliffe's proposition "that it is not of necessity to salvation to hold that the Roman Church is supreme among the Churches."于1411年在英国伦敦主教主教谴责威克里夫的主张“,这是必然得救不认为罗马教会是教会中最高。”In 1535 Blessed John Fisher, Bishop of Rochester, is put to death for upholding against Henry VIII the Pope's supremacy over the English Church.费舍尔在1535年约翰有福罗切斯特主教,是亨利八世提出的反对坚持教皇对英国教会至上死刑。The most striking piece of evidence is the working of the oath taken by archbishops before entering into office: "I, Robert, Archbishop of Canterbury, from this hour forward, will be faithful and obedient to St. Peter, to the Holy Apostolic Roman Church, to my Lord Pope Celestine, and his successors canonically succeeding. I will, saving my order, give aid to defend and to maintain against every man the primacy of the Roman Church and the royalty of St. Peter. I will visit the threshold of the Apostles every three years, either in person or by my deputy, unless I be absolved by apostolic dispensation. So help me God and these holy Gospels."最引人注目的证据一部分是由大主教所进入前宣誓就职的工作:“我,罗伯特,坎特伯雷大主教,从这个时间向前,将忠实和服从圣彼得大教堂,圣使徒的罗马教会,对我主教宗天青石,和他的继任canonically成功 我会的,救了我的秩序,扶持和保护对每个人保持的罗马教会的首要地位和圣彼得的版税。我将参观阈值的使徒每三年可亲身或由我的副手,除非我被免除开脱 所以使徒帮助我的上帝和这些神圣的福音。“ (Wilkins, Concilia Angliae, II, 199).(威尔金斯,Concilia Angliae,二,199)。

Chief Justice Bracton (1260) lays down the civil law of this country thus: "It is to be noted concerning the jurisdiction of superior and inferior courts, that in the first place as the Lord Pope has ordinary jurisdiction over all in spirituals, so the king has, in the realm, in temporals."终审法院首席法官布拉克顿(1260)规定了这个国家因此民法:“这是值得注意的有关上级和下级法院的管辖权,即首先作为主教宗对所有普通管辖权在灵,所以国王已经在境界temporals。“ The line of demarcation between things spiritual and temporal is in many cases blurred and uncertain; the two powers often overlap, and conflicts are unavoidable.事物之间的划界线的精神和时间在许多情况下是模糊和不确定,两个大国往往重叠,冲突是不可避免的。During five hundred years such conflicts were frequent.在五百年这种冲突频繁。Their very recurrence, however, proves that England acknowledged the papal supremacy, for it requires two to make a quarrel.他们非常复发,然而,证明英国承认教皇至高无上的,因为它需要两个人争吵。The complaint of one side was always that the other encroached upon its rights.投诉的一方总是认为其他侵犯其权利时。Henry VIII himself, in 1533, still pleaded in the Roman Courts for a divorce.亨利八世本人在1533年,仍然承认,在罗马法院申请离婚。Had he succeeded, the supremacy of the Pope would not have found a more strenuous defender.如果他成功了,在教皇至高无上不会找到一个更艰苦的后卫。It was only after his failure that he questioned the authority of the tribunal to which he had himself appealed.只是在他的失败,他质疑该法庭的权力,这是他自己提出上诉。In 1534 he was, by Act of Parliament, made the Supreme Head of the English Church. 1534年他是,通过议会法案,使英国教会最高元首。The bishops, instead of swearing allegiance to the Pope, now swore allegiance to the King, without any saving clause.而不是宣誓效忠教宗的主教,现在向国王宣誓效忠,没有任何保留条款。Blessed John Fisher was the only bishop who refused to take the new oath; his martyrdom is the first witness to the breach of continuity between the old English and the new Anglican Church.有福约恩费希尔是唯一主教谁拒绝采取新的誓言,他的牺牲是第一个见证了新旧之间的英国圣公会教堂和新的连续性的行为。 Heresy stepped in to widen the breach.异端介入,扩大违约行为。

The Thirty-nine Articles teach the Lutheran doctrine of justification by faith alone, deny purgatory, reduce the seven sacraments to two, insist on the fallibility of the Church, establish the king's supremacy, and deny the pope's jurisdiction in England.第三十九条教的信仰,仅路德教义的理由,否定炼狱,减少七个圣礼二,坚持对教会的易错性,建立国王的至高无上的地位,并否认教皇在英国的管辖范围。 Mass was abolished, and the Real Presence; the form of ordination was so altered to suit the new views on the priesthood that it became ineffective, and the succession of priests failed as well as the succession of bishops.群众被废除,真正的存在;协调形式的改变,以适应这样的神职人员,它成为无效的新看法,和祭司继承失败,因为继承的主教,以及。 (See ANGLICAN ORDERS.) Is it possible to imagine that the framers of such vital alternations thought of "continuing" the existing Church?(见圣公会订单。)是否可以想像,这种交替的重要制定者的“继续”现有的教会的念头? When the hierarchical framework is destroyed, when the doctrinal foundation is removed, when every stone of the edifice is freely rearranged to suit individual tastes, then there is no continuity, but collapse.当分级框架被破坏,当理论基础被删除,当每一个建筑石材是免费重新安排,以适应个人的口味,那么就没有连续性,但倒塌。 The old façade of Battle Abbey still stands, also parts of the outer wall, and one faces a stately, newish, comfortable mansion; green lawns and shrubs hide old foundations of church and cloisters; the monks' scriptorium and storerooms still stand to sadden the visitor's mood.过战争的老修道院外观仍然有效,也是外墙部分,一面临着一个庄严,稍新的,舒适的豪宅,绿色的草坪和灌木隐藏的教堂和修道院的根基;僧人的写字间和储藏室仍然立场夺走游客的情绪。 Of the abbey of 1538, the abbey of 1906 only keeps the mask, the diminished sculptures and the stones--a fitting image of the old Church and the new.1538年的修道院,修道院的1906只保持了面具,减少雕塑和石头 - 一个老教堂和新装修的形象。

PRESENT STAGE现阶段

Dr. James Gairdner, whose "History of the English Church in the 16th Century" lays bare the essentially Protestant spirit of the English Reformation, in a letter on "Continuity" (reproduced in the Tablet, 20 January, 1906), shifts the controversy from historical to doctrinal ground.詹姆斯盖尔德纳博士,其“历史的英国教会在16世纪”戳穿了英语改革基本上是新教精神,在一个关于“连续性”的信(在Tablet转载1月20日,1906年),转移的争论从历史到理论基础。 "If the country," he says, "still contained a community of Christians--that is to say, of real believers in the great gospel of salvation, men who still accepted the old creeds, and had no doubt Christ died to save them--then the Church of England remained the same as before. The old system was preserved, in fact all that was really essential to it, and as regards doctrine nothing was taken away except some doubtful scholastic propositions."“如果国家,”他说,“仍然包含了基督教团体 - 在拯救的伟大的福音,更不要说是真正的信徒,男人谁仍接受了旧的信仰,并没有任何怀疑基督的死救他们 - 那么英国教会仍然像以前一样保留旧的制度,其实,这一切真的是必不可少的,至于什么学说采取了一些可疑的学术命题,除了离开“。。

Publication information Written by J. Wilhelm.出版信息写了J.威廉。Transcribed by Donald J. Boon.转录的唐纳德J福音。Dedicated to the True Believers of Sandia Pueblo, New Mexico, USA The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume I. Published 1907.竭诚为桑迪亚普韦布洛,新墨西哥,美国的天主教百科全书,体积一发布1907年真正的信徒。New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, March 1, 1907. Nihil Obstat,1907年3月1日。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰法利枢机主教,大主教纽约



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